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UNIVERSITY OF

NAIROBI
This is a report written to discuss the impacts of Civil
Engineering to the development of Narok County, Kenya,
and the challenges thereof

Group1:Engineering Management
Year 2014/2015
Civil Engineering

FCE 571

In Engineering, that only is great which achieves.


It matters not what the intention is,
he who in the day of battle is not victorious is not saved by his intention.

[Henry Ward Beecher]

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Narok County Offices

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Narok: A Promising County In Need of Development

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GROUP 1 ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT RESEARCH


List of Members

1. Tanui C. Carolyne ..F16/1336/2010


2. Rukunyi K Muchogo .F16/36606/2010
3. Mwiti Joan Karimi..F16/36367/2010
4. Ndungu Chris Kimanga..F16/36480/2010
5. Otieno Richard OdhiamboF16/38202/2010
6. Mwai Isaac Wachira.F16/1302/2010
7. Njuthi Wyclif Kamau.F16/36555/2010
8. Meso David Yasam.F16/1339/2010
9. Opuch Winnie AtienoF16/36016/2010
10. Mambo Edwin Kimani....F16/36416/2010
11. Onditi Calvince..F16/1301/2010
12. Wainaina Pauline muthoniF16/36669/2010
13. Njoroge kagwi Maurice..F16/1334/2010
Group Leader
Njoroge Kagwi Maurice F16/1334/2010

RECORDS
No of Meetings held = 5 meetings
Main event: Field trip to Narok
All 13 members participated satisfactorily delivering within the timelines agreed during the
meetings.

PROBLEM
Write a report indicating how the civil engineering industry is likely to impact
the development of Narok County and the challenges thereof

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design,
construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works
like roads, bridges, canals, dams and buildings.
This report seeks to discuss how Civil Engineering can impact on the development of Narok
County and the challenges thereof.
Narok County is situated in the heart of Maasai-land, about one-and-half hours south west of
Nairobi. It is made up of Narok North, Narok South and Kilgoris. It has a total area of 17,944 km
and a population size of 850,920 people with the Maasai as predominant population.
The County enjoys rich volcanic and black loam soils. It grows cereals and cash crops. With tea
grown in tea belt around Maasai Mau forest and wheat is the main cash crop. The Maasai with
their livestock keeping practice also provides livestock as economic products. The county is also
a washed by the ample availability of minerals like sand and quarries. The Maasai Mara game
Reserve is a major tourist attraction in the county and a major foreign exchange earner.
Despite all these, the county is blighted by enormous infrastructural underdevelopments and
acute water shortage as the supply is still based on the old design supply of 20,000 people that
supplies water at 2300 m per day. With a population growth rate of 3.3%, the water supply is
overstressed even though there are natural water resources from Mara River, River Narok, and
River Ewaso Nyiro. The cost of water is very high and the pumping cost is around 3 million Ksh
paid by Narok Water Supply Company. Without omission, the county sewer system is below par
and the waste management is still poor. The county also has vast of lowlands and suffers
colossal floods. Civil Engineering can help address these problems from conducting
reconnaissance of the county and establish its actual needs in terms of water, sewer treatment
and solid waste management. With the devolution of the governance, more resources can be
pumped into water investments to meet the demand of the population and project the demand
in 25 years. With the growth of the population, the effluent is amounting and the need to
capture all the effluent requires a good network of sewer system to manage and treat the
sewage for safe discharge into the rivers hence alleviating potential water borne diseases.
Construction of dams like along Ewaso Nyiro River can help improve water resources and
manage the flood menace in the area and improve the irrigation system. The county also needs
well-constructed drainage system to curb the recurring floods so as to improve tourism. All
these can see the county be on the track to enormous economic development.
The county roads also need improvements. The county has a total of 2700 km of roads, of
which 260 km are tarmacked road, 1698 km earth roads. The county has major cash crops that
need good road network. The county is visited by tourist all over the world. The farmers need
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to move their goods to the market effectively. Civil Engineering can carry out the best
transportation planning in the county and design the best road networks to boost tourism,
movement of people to work, school and agricultural produce to the market with minimal
delay. Civil Engineering can also help alleviate deaths on the road at the NTULELE BLACKSPOT
by coming up with best traffic signage and traffic managements on the roads. The roads sector
lacks Civil Engineers hence efforts must be concerted towards improving this number of
engineers to design and oversee the road constructions within the county. Improving the
airstrips that move around the tourist in the Mara Game Reserve can be a good civil work
investment that can augment the amount of foreign exchange earned by the county.
Narok County also lacks ample bed spaces for medical services with the total bed capacities in
the hospitals serving the total population being 187 beds. There is need for expansion of the
hospitals and building of more ultra-modern hospitals to bolster the health and medical wellbeing of the residents. Civil Engineering will assist with the designs and construction of
hospitals to cater for the sick, build more schools to cater for education within the county.
It is clear that Civil Engineering has a big role to play in this young and fast growing county.
There is a lot to be offered in terms of jobs for the youths in the construction industry and with
the availability of the sand and quarry in the county, construction process can be made easier
and cheaper within the county.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction
1.1 General introduction
1.2 Background of County
2. Literature Review
2.1 Objectives
2.2 Scope of Study
3. Methodology
3.1 Interview
3.2 Observation
3.3 Photography
3.4 Field Notes
3.5 Literature review
3.6 E-learning
4. Findings
4.1 General information about the county
4.2 Transportation Study
4.3 Water supply study
4.4 Waste water management
4.5 Drainage
4.6 Civil eng and employment
5. Discussion
5.1 Transportation study
5.2 Water supply and drainage
5.3 Solid waste and wastewater management
5.4 Construction and materials
5.5 Civil engineering and employment
6. Conclusion

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 General introduction
Engineering is the field or discipline, practice, profession and art that relates to the development,
acquisition and application of technical, scientific and mathematical knowledge about the
understanding, design, development, invention, innovation and use of materials, machines,
structures, systems and processes for specific purposes.
Advances in engineering have been central to human progress ever since the invention of the
wheel. In the past one hundred and fifty years in particular, engineering has transformed the
world we live in contributing to significantly longer life expectancy and enhanced quality of life
for large numbers of the worlds population.
Yet, improved healthcare, housing, nutrition, transport, communications, and the many other
benefits engineering brings are distributed unevenly throughout the world. Millions of people do
not have clean drinking water and proper sanitation, they do not have access to a medical centres,
they may travel many miles on foot along unmade tracks every day to get to work or school.
The goal of primary education for all will require that new schools and roads be built, just as
improving maternal healthcare will require better and more accessible facilities. Environmental
sustainability will require better pollution control, clean technology, and improvements in
farming practices.
This is why engineering deserves our attention, and why its contribution to development must be
acknowledged fully.
Civil engineering has been and in recent years contributed massively to improving the Kenyan
economy. For many years, the Civil engineering industry has impacted positively and continues
to be a critical pillar of the Kenyan economy. The ways in which civil engineering has
contributed positively to the Kenyan economy include:
1. Employment creation: through this discipline of Civil engineering in Kenya, numerous
multi-sectoral employment opportunities have been created. These include:

Consultancy In the Civil engineering discipline many qualified and certified engineers
have been able to open consultancy firms which offer professional civil engineering
consulting services and generate revenue for these individuals and their organizations.
This has enabled them contribute to economical well-being of the nation particularly the
many more people they have employed in these consultancy firms.

Contractors A majority of Kenyan contracting firms are of the Civil Engineering


discipline. And through establishing and running professional civil engineering firms,

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many civil engineers in Kenya have been able to generate massive revenue both for the
government and for the individuals themselves and the people employed in these firms.

Engineers Engineers form a core and critical part of the civil engineering discipline and
are the ones mostly in charge of civil engineering projects across the civil engineering
spectrum. Every year, massive and vast construction projects are initiated and completed
in Kenya and civil engineers are behind all these. Through these projects, the
government, private sector and the citizenry of Kenya have been able to make millions of
shilling from revenues, taxes and fees charged in buying, renting, leasing and more.

Suppliers suppliers of different materials, products and services needed in the


civil engineering projects have been able to benefit and make large sums of profits form
civil engineering projects. By supplying such kind of necessary goods and services
to civil engineering projects, suppliers have been able to make profits for their companies
and in turn benefitted the many people employed by them. This has indeed impacted the
Kenyan economic positively in a large scale.

2. Massive investment into Kenya International companies have come to Kenya to carry
out massive civil engineering projects which have in turn led to massive investments in
form of:

Investment to buy capital resources such as land over which the projects will be
established
Investment injected to purchase material needed for civilengineering projects such as
sand, cement, concrete and more
Investment injected to buy ,lease or hire heavy and light civil engineering equipment
Investment injected to obtain licenses, permits and different forms of certification which
in turn raise money for the countries revenue collecting authorities

3. Infrastructure: Through civil engineering, varied and numerous forms of infrastructure


have been put up in Kenya and have in turn helped open up business opportunities both
for the Government, the private sector and the Kenyan citizenry in general.

Bridges The design and construction of bridges in different parts of the country has lead
to linkages between different places being built and this connection by bridges has
opened up new business opportunities, allowed transfer of goods and services
and generally improved the economy of different parts of the country.

Roads Since 2002 there has been a sharp and massive increase in road building projects
that has led to numerous roads being designed and constructed in different parts of the

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country. This has in turn led to increased business transactions, transfer of goods,
services, knowledge and improvement of the economy of the different places that have
been connected by the roads designed through Civil engineering

Railways Although the railway network in Kenya is poorly developed and still running on
the ancient design, on it massive loads of goods are moved each and every day from the coast to
the inner parts of Kenya and across the country to the neighboring countries like Uganda
on the Kenya railway system. Through such endeavors business opportunities have been
created and have helped build the economy of the country at different parts , scales
and levels of the economy.

Seaports and airports through the civil engineering discipline, the Kenyan seaports and
airports have been designed and constructed leading to a robust and active import and
export industry for Kenya.

1.2 A Look at Narok County : Background


Narok is situated in the southern region of the Great Rift Valley, bordering Tanzania to its south.
It is named after Enkare-Narok, a river flowing through Narok town. The county covers an area
of 17944 square Km and by the year 2009 had a population of 850920 (Kenya, census 2009).
Narok has a climate characterized by two rainy seasons, with an average rainfall range of 5001800mm per annum. The average temperature range is 12-28oC .
Majority of Naroks population are Maasai-a Nilotic ethnic group and semi-nomadic people.
Narok County has three constituencies namely:
1. Kilgoris constituency
2. Narok North constituency
3. Narok South constituency
The County capital is Narok town and it is also the center of commerce in the county.
The main economic activities in Narok County include:
1.2.1 Tourism
Tourism is the largest contributor to the countys economy as it hosts Maasai Mara National
Reserve famously known as the seventh wonder of the world for the annual wildebeest
migration. It also hosts a number of luxurious hotels, lodges, clubs and campsites. One can enjoy
activities such as game drives, bird watching, sightseeing and balloon rides.
1.2.2 Livestock farming
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Livestock farming is practiced for both local and adaptive exotic breeds. It is estimated that
livestock farming in Narok County contribute 10% of the countrys gross domestic product.
Whereas Maasai of the neighboring Kajiado County are primarily nomadic, the Maasai of Narok
also practice crop farming.
1.2.3 Crop farming
Crop farming is done in both commercial and subsistence scales of production.
The main crops grown are wheat, barley, maize, beans, irish potatoes and horticultural crops.
These crops are grown under natural rainfall with the seasons, micro-irrigation , sprinkle and drip
irrigation. Maize, wheat, barley and sugarcane are grown as cash crops.
1.4.4 Mining
Mining activities include gold mining in Lolgorian and Kilimapesa. There is also quarrying and
sand harvesting.
Some strengths of Narok county
Natural resources such as the Maasai Mara, the Mara River, Ewaso Nyiro, Fertile arable land and
Construction material deposits.
However, Narok county is yet to establish an elaborate water supply system and waste water
treatment facility. According to Narok LRA Report 2013, the current water sources for both
domestic and livestock use are rivers, water pans, shallow wells, boreholes and springs.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Civil engineering has had one of the greatest impacts on humanity as we know it. From medieval
times, the human race has continued to exist in a harmonious environment mainly because of
Civil Engineering. The impact of the profession has been felt for ages in every corner of the
world. Everywhere you turn your eyes, there is a Civil Engineering amenity you are using. From
roads, to structures, to water and wastewater management, civil engineering takes the front seat
in establishing these amenities. Many journals have been written on civil engineering projects
and their direct impact on the communities living around these projects and the whole society at
large. Some of the most famous and biggest civil engineering projects have well documented
journals and books on their construction and their effect on the society.
An example of the most famous civil engineering works is the Hoover Dam. In his book,
Colossus (2010), journalist Michael Hiltzik explains in detail the process of the construction of
the Hoover dam. He also gives the impact that the construction of the dam made on the
environment as well as economically and socially. The project, according to Hiltzik, was going
to produce so much hydroelectricity, that it had private electricity producers worried.
"The private utilities were very concerned that once a dam like the Hoover Dam was
built, because it would be producing so much hydroelectricity, that the power it produced
would become a benchmark for their pricing and their methods of distribution. And that's
really one thing they didn't want to happen," he explains. "But there was a very powerful
campaign for public power at the same time and over the years, the utilities and the
power advocates fought tooth and nail to gain advantage over each other."
From an environmental point of view, Hiltzik says:
"When you dam a river, basically you reduce the flow downstream. That's going to affect
wildlife habitats. In certain rivers, you're going to destroy the spawning grounds for fish
like salmon, you're going to destroy wetlands you're really interfering with a lot of the
ecological balance when you build a dam
These two examples show that civil engineering projects have both positive and negative effects
on society and humanity as a whole. The Hoover dam came with the promise of development of
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the American continent as a whole. It however affected the environment in a negative manner.
This basically is the case for all civil engineering works in the world. However, almost all the
times, the advantages overshadow the disadvantages and it is on this moral high ground that civil
engineering projects get accomplished.
Narok County is a major business hub not only for passes by but also for the locals. According to
the County Governments website:
As per the UN study/research for the Kenya Vision 2030, Narok County is marked as
one of the fundamental counties for the achieving economic pillar. Key contributions are
in the tourism sector through the Maasai Mara and the agricultural sector through
livestock farming.
With a population of over 850,000, a lot of civil engineering amenities are required not only in
the current situation but as well as the future.
The importance of civil engineering to Narok is not any less.
This is well manifested in the County Governments Draft County Integrated Development Plan,
(CIDeP). Lots of civil engineering works are in the offing. An excerpt from the countys CIDeP
shows the summary of the Transport and Infrastructure sector programmes and priorities.
Sector Summary
Sub-sector
Roads

Priorities
Improve regional
connectivity and
linkages

Improve Access to
Resource areas

Programmes
National Highways
development programme

Rural Roads
development programme

Enhance rural access

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Projects
Tarmacking of 250 km of
highways and Regional roads
Upgrading of 400Km of
regional roads
Tarmacking of 250Km of
selected roads rural
Gravelling of 186Km of
Park roads
Gravelling of 1566Km of
rural roads
Construction of 60 bridges
Construction of 3000m
culverts
Construction of 125Km of
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Air transport
facilities

Improve urban
access, circulation
and mobility
Relocate all the air
facilities from the
Maasai Mara

Air facilities relocation

stock routes
Construct bus terminus and
car parking in Narok and
Kilgoris
Construction of 3air facilities

Relocation of 8 airfacilities
from the Maasai mara
All these transport projects are sure to not only improve the state of the county, but to also
provide the people of the county with employment. It is therefore evident that the county is
heavily investing in civil engineering projects. This is a positive trend which indicates expected
investors into the county. This will lead to a surge in the countys economy.
There is however a need to improve the sanitation situation in the county. There is an inadequacy
of water and waste water management systems. This is a major hindrance to the development of
the county. An excerpt of the countys CIDeP indicates this.
Wate
r

Water
source
s
Conse
rvatio
n

Encroac
hment
upon
water
towers
and
sources
Inadequ
ate
knowled
ge of
catchme
nt areas
Lack of
data on
undergr
ound
water
reserves

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Secure
water
sources

Water
Sources
Conserva
tion
program
me

Delineation
of water
catchment
areas

As above Identificatio
n and
delineation
of water
catchment
areas
As above Undertake
study on
underground
water
sources

Inventorise
undergroun
d water
reserves

Undertake
study on
water
catchment
areas

year 2014/2015

To identify
and
inventorise
water
catchment
areas

1
stud
y

Coun
ty
wide

To provide
data to aid
protection of
water
catchment
areas
To
inventorise
the capacity
of
underground
water and
give
abstraction
permits

1
data
base

Coun
ty
wide

1
data
base

Coun
ty
wide

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Protec
tion of
water
chann
els
and
Ripari
an
areas

Encroac
hment
of
riparian
lands

Enforce
laws to
prevent
encroachme
nt

Pollutio
n of
water
sources

Institute
pollution
control
measures

Imprope
r
discharg
e of
househo
ld and
farm
liquid
waste
into
water
channel
s

Regulate
quality of
effluent
being
discharged
into water
channels

Riparian
areas
protectio
n and
regenerat
ion
program
me

Water
Channels
Conserva
tion
program
me
As above

Delineate
and delimit
riparian
corridors
and areas

To prevent
encroachme
nt

Plant trees
along
riparian
areas

To prevent
encroachme
nt and
beautify the
water
channels
To prevent
pollution of
surface
water and
channels

Enact and
enforce
antipollution
legislation

Effluent
clean up
campaign

As above As above

Indiscri
minate
dumpin
g of
solid
wastes

Prevent
waste from
being
washed
down the
rivers

As above Undertake
water
surface
clean-up
campaign

Lum
p
sum

Coun
ty
wide

Coun
ty
wide

Lum
p
sum

Coun
ty
wide

To discharge Lum
waste with
p
safe effluent sum
levels into
water
channels by
light
industries
and homes

Coun
ty
wide

To preserve
water
quality
To clean up
rivers and
riparian
areas

Coun
ty
wide
Coun
ty
wide

10
clea
n
ups

The sewer system is even more demanding than the water supply system, as is shown in the
excerpt below.
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Water
Supply

Water
reservoi
rs

Inadequa
te
facilities

Water
treatme
nt plant

Inadequa
te
treatmen
t
facilities
Inadequa
te
reticulati
on in
urban
areas

Water
reticulat
ion

Provide
space
and
resource
s to
construct
water
reservoir
s
Plan for
water
treatmen
t plants
Provide
resource
s for
water
reticulati
on

Water
supply
program
me

Constructi
on of
water
reservoir

Provide 3
water
supply
to the
urban
and rural
populati
on

Narok,
Lolgori
an
Kilgori
s

Constructi
on of
water
treatment
plant
Water
reticulatio
n

Provisio
n of
clean
water

Improve
water
supply
in urban
areas

Narok,
Lolgori
an
Kilgori
s
Narok,
Lolgori
an
Kilgori
s

To
guide
water
reticulati
on
system
Water
Improve
bowsers
water
supply
in urban
areas
Drilling of Improve
bore holes water
provisio
n in
rural
areas
Constructi Improve
on of
water
water
supply
kiosks
Rehabilita Improve
tion of the water
water
supply
projects

Narok,
Lolgori
an
Kilgori
s

Narok,
Lolgori
an
Kilgori
s
County
wide

Design

Rural
water
supply

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Poor
rural
centres
water
supply

Enhance
access to
clean
water in
rural
areas

year 2014/2015

60

18

County
wide

18

County
wide

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Sewera
ge
service
s

Water
Lack of
storage water
facilities storage
facilities

Improve
water
storage
facilities

Sewerag
e
disposal
and
treatme
nt

Lack of
sewerage
treatmen
t plant

planning
and
construct
ion of
treatmen
t plant

Constructi
on of
masonry
water
tanks
Sewerag Constructi
e
on of
treatmen sewer
t
treatment
program plant
me

Lack of
sewer
reticulati
on in
urban
areas

Install
sewer
reticulati
on
systems

Sewerag Develop a
e
reticulatio
disposal n system
program
me

Use of
pit
latrines
in urban
areas

Encoura
ge use of
septic
tanks
and cess
pools

Sensitizati
on on the
use of
septic
tanks and
cess pools

Few
exhauste
rs

Encoura
ge use of
digesters

Sensitizati
on on the
use of
digesters

Reduce 5
the
volume
of waste
to be
exhauste
d

Poor
construct
ion of
septic
tanks
and cess
pools

Enforce
regulatio
ns and
standard
s

Capacity
building ,
control
and
regulation
of
constructi
on of
septic

Facilitat
e
collectio
n and
disposal
of
sewerag
e from
septic

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Provide
water
storage
facilities

100

County
wide

Treatme
nt of
liquid
waste
from
urban
areas
To
facilitate
conveya
nce of
liquid
waste
for
treatmen
t
Promote
proper
sewerag
e
disposal

Narok,
Kilgori
s

Narok,
Kilgori
s

5
campai
gns

Narok,
Kilgori
s,
Lolgori
an,
Suswa,
Ole
tipis
Narok,
Kilgori
s,
Lolgori
an,
Suswa,
Ole
tipis
County
wide

60

Page 17

tanks and
cess pools

tanks
and cess
pools

However, it is evident from the excerpts that there are sound and timely plans to remedy these
situations. Should these deadlines be achieved, then Narok County is in for major development
courtesy of civil engineering. Further findings outlined below will attempt to elaborate and
quantify the extent of the impact of civil engineering on development of Narok County.
2.1 Objectives of study
The objectives of this research are:
i.

To carry out a study on the existing status of the civil engineering industry in Narok
County

ii.

To carry out a study on the planned civil engineering projects in the county

iii.

To analyze the impacts of the civil engineering industry to the county and the challenges
thereof

2.2 Scope of Study


In this research, the group will be expected to
1. Review all available literature concerning development in the county
2. A field trip to the county to collect data
3. A study of current status of the civil engineering industry
4. A study of the county development plans majoring in engineering and construction
5. Analysis of benefits to the county as a result of civil engineering
6. An assessment of the challenges facing the civil engineering industry
7. Recommending on the best solutions

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3. METHODOLOGY

Any engineering study requires an organized and well-coordinated methodology to enable all
facts be collected and aid in the development of findings.
This topic of study would rely most on actual data collection on the existing status of Narok
county, an intensive study of its development plans and prediction of its transformation in future
with regard to civil engineering.
The group had to come up with the best strategy to get this data from any credible sources
available.
This would involve a field trip to the county and review of current literature.
3.1 Methods employed in Collection of Data

3.1.1 Interviewing-Use of Questionnaires


In the field, the most efficient way to obtain information is through interviews to respondents. In
this method, one can obtain first-hand information on subjects of concern, and when the
responses are analyzed will help derive the answers to the problem.
Questionnaires were formulated, with each area of concern and the requisite questions. the areas
of concern included:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

General information about the county


Transportation study in the county
Water supply study in the county
Waste management study
Construction and materials in the county
Drainage study of the county

The criteria followed during the formulation was meant to create a simple questionnaire, well
understood during the interviews yet comprehensive to cover all relevant areas for our study.
Questions were open ended and close ended; all applicable to the leaders of the county and some
applicable to the public.
This was to ensure no bias as views from both the leaders and the county residents would offer
an opportunity for assessment of varied opinions.

3.1.2 Observation
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As a method of data collection observation entails more than listening and looking. It calls for a
simultaneous overall assessment and synthesis of data gathered in the field. This is a firsthand
source of information which calls for actual presence of the researcher.
The observation technique took place during the field trip before, during and after the interview
process. The researchers
a)
b)
c)
d)

toured various parts of the county including the town, water points, quarries,
inspected waste and drainage facilities
Inspected the conditions of links, nodes and overall transport conditions in the county
Engaged the county leaders on the progress of the county and existence of county plans
majoring in civil engineering issues
e) Tried to find out any ongoing works related to civil engineering
f) Assessed the general satisfaction of the county residents with regard to these services.
g) Assessed the public demand for civil engineering services
These would help to establish short term, medium term and longterm impacts of the civil
engineering in the county.
Indirect observation would be assessed from interviews and reviews of the existing literature
3.1.3 Photography
Photographs were taken in the field as evidence of observation technique and for analysis of the
data. Photographs were preserved in soft copy format and the others printed as part of the report.
Photography is a good tool to communicate to other people who may not have taken part on the
field trip and also for presentations.
3.1.4 Field notes
This included important facts collected during the study, especially those not captured in the
questionnaires and important remarks.
3.1.5 Literature Review
In this method, an attempt was made to extract data from all available maerials in text, including
a study of the countys development plans.
This method is non-contact, cheap and efficient as it indirectly gives access to information .
Sources of this secondary data were gathered from the university library using a range of
information sources such as the OPAC system, academic and commercial abstracts,
bibliographic databases, and Internet search engines and an accessibility to the countys
development plans.

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Literature was read through, reviewed, analyzed and sorted to identify the essential attributes of
materials.
3.1.6 E-learning
Some aspects of our research were carried out using the online world wide web platforms. We
were able to visit the Narok county site to get posted information on the county.
The analysis and compilation of the report and presentation was done using digital methods.
Some of the literature material to aid in our research was taken from the worldwide web.

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4. FINDINGS
4.1 General information about the county
The main economic activities in Narok County were found to be tourism and agriculture, the
crops grown as cash crops are wheat, barley and potatoes. Livestock farming is practiced for
both local and adaptive exotic breeds. However, livestock by-products and meat processing is
limited due to limited production and lack of processing facilities. The county government has a
five year plan to increase income from animal products.
Narok County experiences a lot of challenges in infrastructure, water and floods during the rainy
seasons. There are few community facilities and amenities.
To address social livelihoods, the county government has a target of developing market places,
social halls, public convenience areas and a cemetery. There is also a plan to construct 500
houses for public servants and 500 houses for for medium density housing using available low
cost materials, with an objective to provide a conducive working environment. These house units
will be constructed in Narok, Ololunga , Kilgoris and Emurua Dikir. There is a plan to upgrade
slum through slum upgrading programme. The county will construct 10 stadia for recreation and
entertainment. Narok county has approximately 2600km of motorable roads;with tarmacked,
gravel, earthen roads being 260km, 480km and 1698km respectively.
Narok county experiences acute water shortages. The county has a water supply program to
construct water reservoirs, water treatment plant, water reticulation systems, drilling of 60
boreholes, construction of 100 masonry water tanks and rehabilitation of 18 water projects.
These facilities will be located in Lolgorian, Narok and Kilgoris.
The main causes of flooding in Narok were found to be:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Encroachment of drainage basins and riparian reserves


Diversion and closing of natural water ways
Deforestation and destruction of land cover
Blockage of storm water drains
Narok is a lowland and therefore is susceptible to flood from high catchment areas eg
Mau

Measures put in place to mitigate flooding are:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Construction of checkdams to minimize flooding and siltation in storm water drains


Regular maintainance of storm water drains
Reforestation and afforestation
Restoration of waterways
Reclamation of encroached reserves

The above measures will be implemented countywide so as to improve drainage of flood water.
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4.2 Transportation study


4.2.1 Land transport
The county utilizes two modes of transport, namely roads and air.
Road transport is the major mode of transport in Narok county .The major road linking Narok
county and adjacent counties is the MaimahuiKaplong road. The road has a capacity of 1800
vehicles per hour and motorized transportation of people and goods is majorly through Matatus .
Narok County has a total of 2700km of motorable roads among which 260km are bitumen
coated, 1698km earthen and the remaining gravel roads.
It was noted however that most of the bitumen coated roads are in poor condition and in dire
need of repair. Of major concern was the poor state of road leading to Maasai Mara game
reserve, which is a major tourist attraction site not only in the county but a country as a whole.
Narok County also hosts one of the famous black spots in the county NTULELE BLACKSPOT.
Gravel roads have greatly improved the accessibility of some specific areas. Trade centers
accessed by gravel roads show a remarkable improvement in terms of economic growth.
A large percentage of the roads are earthed this are roads that majorly lead to agricultural farms
and minor trading centers. Some of the roads were graded thus enabling transportation of the
farm produce to a market centers while most of the roads are impassible especially during the
rainy season.

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A road to Narok Campus in poor condition


Narok County has formulated a transportation plan in its county development plan which has a
timeline of five years .In this strategic plan, Narok county purposes upgrade 50% of the earthen
roads to gravel standards. The plan also indicates than maintenance of bitumen roads will also be
improved. There are also plans to open up new roads in the county
4.2.2 Air transport
Narok County has a number of airstrips located in the Maasai Mara national reserve. The
maintenance of these airstrips is solely the responsibility of the Narok county government. The
airstrips are majorly used to transport tourists in and out of Mara.

Challenges to the transportation Development


Funding: The main challenge to transportation development is due financial constraints since it
has to fit among other county priorities which are also demanding. Finance has proved to be a
hindrance to the construction and maintenance of roads in the county. In an exclusive interview
with one of the officials in the county government it was clear that obtaining funding from the
central government for various development projects was an uphill task. This has prompted some
of the projects to stall since the funding is allocated on a monthly basis and in some instances no
funding is allocated at all .Some road projects have yet to be approved after long period of time.
Skills: Narok county government has one engineer in charge of roads .the county budget
allocation limits the county in employing new engineers. Thus if a number of projects are being
carried out it is difficult to supervise all the projects at once.
Unscrupulous Contractors:The transport industry has seen a mirage of con men posing to be
contractors without the expertise. Some of the projects assigned to contractors end up being half
done or not kicking off at all. In addition some of the works completed end up being substandard
thus the lifetime of the road is not achieved .In most instances quack contractors obtain tenders
through corrupt means.
4.3 Water supply study

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Narok County New Water Offices: A new Focus on water resources


Being a county with a high population, Narok faces shortages in water supply.
Considering Narok town alone, its water supply system was initially designed to serve
approximately a population of 20,000 people with a water supply of 23003 in a day.
Today, during a normal day, the town has a population of about 80,000 people leading to an
acute strain in the existing water supply. This means water is not adequate or reliable.
It was also realized that most of the population in the county also has to walk kilometres to find
this resource which is not readily available in their surrounding areas. Sources of this water
include water pans, rivers and boreholes.
The main river sources include the Mara River, Narok River and the Ewaso Nyiro River having
their catchment areas from the Mau forest.

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Section of river Ewaso nyiro Narok


The main water problems in Narok County are the frequent water shortages and outbreaks of
water borne diseases. Water is very expensive in the towns as people who do not have access to
water in towns especially the Kilgoris and Narok have to rely on water bowsers and water tanks
which are usually very expensive. A lorry costs around Ksh 5,000 for 103 .
There are also some private water companies that provide water to the residents and their
activities are regulated by the Narok Water and Sewerage Company in conjunction with Water
Resources and Management Authority.
The high cost of water in Narok town is also attributed to the two stage pumping of water from
the source where it is obtained. The Narok Water and Sewerage Company spends around Ksh
3,000,000 to pay electricity used in pumping hence the revenue from the water supply is very
little to accomplish other projects. The Company is under The Rift Valley Water Services Board
To help reduce the water shortage and the distance walked to water sources, the County
Government through its County Integrated Development Plan 2017 has plans to increases the
water supply in Narok Town. This is through addition of 4,0003 per day funded by JICA
.There water supply will see up to 80km of water piping in Narok town as is due for completion
in September 2015. The projects will cost around 1.5 billion Kenya Shillings.

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Water source will be the Narok River from the Mau Hills which will involve water intake 5km
upstream from the current water intake. This will help minimize the two stage water pumping.
Other water sources include boreholes and water pans that are spread within Narok County.
Suswa town is planning to get an extension of its water source from Lake Naivasha through
Naivasha water and Sewerage which is also managed by The Rift Valley Water Services Board.
Boreholes and water pans being water sources are faced with several problems. These include
drainable soils, that dont hold water for long. The water pans also suffer from siltation which
reduction in the volume/storage of water. There is also salinity and high levels of fluoride in
water which leads to fluorosis hence affecting the quality of water. Boreholes in Suswa town are
also under-utilized due the volcanicity of that area.
Narok county government is also encouraging water harvesting in the area. This is through
building of water harvesting structures such as tank and septic tanks and use of polythene roof in
areas there grass thatched roofs and cant afford iron sheets to harvest this water. This is a
common practice in the government institutions such as offices and schools were there large
number of students.
Theres also construction of check dams in the Narok River under National Water and Drainage
Board that is to help prevent flash floods on Narok town that is a low lying land and probably
use the water for future irrigations schemes. There are also plans to build a multipurpose dam
along the Ewaso Nyiro River which is still under conflict by neighboring pastoralist communities
who largely depend on this river to quench their animals.
4.4 Waste water management
Narok County also faces a waste management problem. There is no any existing waste treatment
plant or any conventional sewerage system in Narok town.
The town wholly relies on the pit latrines and septic tanks for waste disposal and storm water
drains that ultimately empty into the same rivers they use.
There are plans to construct sewerage system and wastewater treatment plant in the next 6
months. The design of the sewer is already available and the contract has been awarded to a
company.
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4.5 Drainage
The county faces a lot of flooding during the rainy season and this is attributed to the fact that
there are no measures put in place to control or harvest storm water.
Narok town is the most affected since it is situated in a valley. The land around the town itself
rises as you move further away from the city center. This causes all the runoff from surrounding
catchments to be directed towards the town. The County Government of Narok together with the
National Government and the World Bank have agreed to implement a project in Narok county
that will involve the construction of a storm water drainage facilities. National Water
Cooperation is also creating check dams on river Ewaso Nyiro before it reaches the town itself.
4.6 Civil Engineering and Employment in Narok County
Civil Engineering works in Narok County have led to the employment of many locals thus
helping them earn a living.
In the transport and infrastructure sectors, there are projects on tarmacking roads and upgrading
the existing ones. Many youths and women who are not necessarily skilled have been employed
as casual workers in the ongoing projects and more are likely to take up opportunities in the
upcoming projects. On the other hand, those who are skilled are employed in their respective
areas of specialization such as operation of machines, survey works and inspectorate works.
However, there is a shortage of qualified personnel and the county government has to outsource
this resource elsewhere. For instance they have outsourced a number of Engineers from Nairobi.
The county government has linked up with the Japan International Cooperation Agency in a
project for augmentation of water supply system in Narok town. The project is expected to be
complete by September 2015 with an estimated cost of Kshs 1.5 billion. The groundbreaking
ceremony of this flagship project was held in August 2014 and the local population especially
the energetic youths are hopeful that they will secure jobs in this venture. In addition, once the
project is completed there will definitely be an upsurge in investors wishing to set base in Narok
thus creating more job opportunities.
Flooding has been a perennial challenge in this county. To fix this peril, there are plans
underway to construct dams upstream and plant trees to check the speed of water, which is
responsible for major soil erosion. To implement these plans, Engineers, Contractors and
unskilled workers will be needed. Consequently, this will be a job creation opportunity.
In a bid to provide clean water, the county government has a strategy of constructing three water
treatment plants. Also, there is a proposed sewer system that is to be constructed so as to ensure
safe transportation of sewage from houses and commercial buildings to treatment or disposal. To
ensure that these projects become a reality, a labour force has to be employed.
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In the Narok County Integrated Development Plan (2013-2017), under the Housing subsector,
the county government plans to construct medium density housing units using available low cost
materials with a goal of increasing the number of middle class housing. These houses are to be
constructed in Narok, Ololulunga, Kilgoris and Emurua Dikir locations and the residents of these
locations will most likely be employed to do manual labour. Also, the county government has to
accept an offer from a contractor who will implement this plan and hire a consulting firm to do
supervision of the project up to completion thus creating jobs.

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5. DISCUSSION
5.1 Transport
Transportation, which is concerned with the movement of people, goods and services is a vital
component of any society, and indeed, essentially important to a countrys economic
development. The construction
of a high quality and efficient transportation network directly increases a regions economic
output by reducing journey times and costs, making a region more attractive economically. The
actual construction process will have the added effect of stimulating the construction market.
From the findings, it was noted that Narok County primarily utilizes two major modes of
transport namely;
1. Land transport
2. Air transport
5.1.1 Land transport
Generally, the road network in Narok is inadequate for efficient transport in the county and in a
poor condition of disrepair.
The county has realized the need to address this condition by having a transportation plan in
place, well stipulated in the County Intergrated Development plan (CIDeP) for Narok.
In this plan, they purpose to achieve the following in five years in the roads development:

Tarmacking of about 500 km of rural, regional and highway roads in the county

Upgrading of about 400km rural and regional roads to all weather roads

Gravelling of about 2000 km of road serving the majority parts of the county

Construction of 60 bridges

In general, these roads will enhance regional connectivity between Narok county, its neighbours
and beyond. These will in turn enhance access to markets and farms, opening up the county for
business. This will benefit the county given that it relies almost wholly in agriculture. Trade
centers accessed by gravel roads show a remarkable improvement in terms of economic growth

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One of the bridges to be upgraded


These roads will also help in opening up and reaching the rural areas of the county which for
many years have survived without any reliable road network.
This will in turn enhance the accessibility to key resource areas including unexploited quarries
and access to the famous maasai mara Game Resserve which has a very poor road network.
Construction of bridges will facilitate reliable transportation even during rainy seasons where it
is reported the some pupils, students and their teachers cannot make it to school due to risks of
drowning.
In general, this will have a great impact in reduction of journey times, increase in accessibility,
mobility and safety, lower the costs incurred in transports making the county attractive to
investors.
Non Motorised LandTransport
The county plans to construct stock routes which will facilitate the movement of livestock which
will improve road safety for motorized and non-motorized users. This is with regard to the fact
that the majority of the people in the county are pastoralists who traverse the whole county and
beyond rearing their cattle.

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Need for Non-motorised transport long overdue


5.2.2Air Transport Facilities
The county has a strategic plan for its air transport as follows:

Construct all-purpose air facilities in the strategic positions of the county

Link air facilities to existing and new roads

Relocate all the air facilities from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve

This will lead to improved air transport services and expand its purpose beyond tourism for
which it has always focused on.
Relocation of air facilities from Maasai Mara will enhance environmental and economic
sustainability in the county as well as safety in the park.
Air transport is especially important since its rapid and time saving especially where
commodities are perishable or within strict timelines.
Challenges to the transportation Development
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Transport calls for enormous investments in terms of capital, skill and manpower.
There is the problem of land acquisition on which these developments will be constructed, which
could have resulted from poor planning in the past regimes.
The relocation process for people and their property was also cited as a major challenge, calling
for heavy compensations.
There is also shortage of skilled manpower to guide through these processes, coupled with
political interests which work against this county transportation agenda.
In Narok, there are many rogue contractors due to poor control of the industry, leading to poor
workmanship
Problems in the industry can be managed as follows
a) Preparation of a Road Transport Plan with short-term and long-term goals by qualified
Civil Engineers and other professionals in the construction industry i.e. Physical
Planners, Quantity Surveyors etc. considering all road users, motorised and nonmotorised traffic.
b) Designing of the various roads outlined in the Road Transport Plan by the qualified
personnel.
c) Procuring the most suitable Contractors for the construction of the already designed and
approved roads.
d) Careful supervision of all the construction activities by the County Civil Engineer and his
team of qualified personnel i.e. Supervisors, Foremen, Clerk of Works etc. to ensure that
the construction is in line with the drawings and that the necessary quality standards are
met.
e) When the construction is done, there should be a period of testing and assessing the
Contractors works to ensure the job was carried out in an excellent way.
f) When the completed project is handed over to the County Government, there should be a
plan prepared for the appropriate maintenance and repair of all the roads in the County.
g) Risky areas for example the NTULELE BLACKSPOT should be investigated to identify
the major causes of the frequent accidents in the area.
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h) Mitigative measures should be carried out for example:


-

If speeding is the cause, bumps can be installed.

If it is a sharp junction, re-designing could be done

If it is poor marking and signage, the signs and markings can be put in place.

Incorporation of the Traffic Police to ensure that road users who break the law are
penalised harshly to discourage the continuing practice.

5.2 Water Supply and drainage Study


Water is life. Life revolves around its availability, and thrives where this resource is available in
adequate quality and quantity.

Currently, the county cannot supply the county residents with adequate amounts of water and at
required standards of quality. Majority of the county population has to cover long distances, an
average of 10 km or even longer to reach the few available water points.
During heavy rains, the county is faced by flooding problems which affect the safety of its
residents and their animals and crops.
The county has come with a plan to address this problems including:
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Constructing 3 water reservoirs

Constructing and commissioning three water reticulation and treatment plants

Drilling of 60 water boreholes

Providing water using water bowsers and water provision kiosks

Encouragement of rainwater harvesting, including addition of water pans

construction of efficient storm water drainage systems

The water reservoirs will help provide the urban population with water while boreholes are
meant to provide water in the rural areas.
The reservoirs will also go a long way in flood mitigation, which is a big problem in this county
especially during rainy seasons.
Rain water harvesting will help in water collection during heavy rains which will help plug the
water deficits faced in dry seasons. Water pans also provide water for livestock and wild animals
which are economical resources for the county.
The county has also planned to invest in efficient drainage systems in the county which will help
address the recurring problems of flooding in the county, poor roads and water shortages; which
are vitally tied to other economic activities of this county.
Narok county hosts the Maasai Mara National Reserve and is therefore one of Kenyas major
tourist attraction. Control of flooding in the town and other regions of the county will have a
positive impact with regards to tourism because it will make the town accessible throughout the
year whether in rainy or dry seasons. This will also boost the national economy as a whole since
Kenya mainly relies on tourism to get most of its income.

Challenges to water and drainage supply

Inadequate finances to roll out these projects, compensation for relocated people and their
property

Inadequate water sources in the county and unpredictable rain seasons

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Environmental challenges: to ensure environmental conservation of the Mara, choices


will have to be adequately made, and at some cases some other sources of water will have
to be sought.

Lack of skilled manpower to guide through these developments

5.3 Waste and wastewater Management


Currently, it is disturbing fact that Narok County has no existing sewerage disposal network and
treatment plant.
This has led to the use of pit latrines in the urban and rural areas which are environmental hazard
to the population and especially to underground water sources.
The county has the following plans to arrest this situation:

Design and construction of trunks wastewater network traversing major parts of the
county

Planning and construction of a waste water treatment plant

Encourage use of septic tanks and cess-pools in urban areas

Encourage use of digesters instead of exhausters

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Construction of sewerage systems will help improve the health status of the population in this
county and hence the quality of life.

The poor sanitation of the county has often lowered the land rates in the county.
Use of digesters will reduce the volume of waste water exhausted increasing the design life of
the treatment works.
Underground water sources which should be protected will also be conserved.
Utilisation of sewer systems lowers the costs of waste management hence improving economy.
Solid Wastes
It was realized that the county has inadequate disposal sites, inadequate disposal bins, poor solid
waste collection services all brought about by lack of a solid waste management system
framework.
The county has undertaken the following steps to address this problem:

Acquisition of land fills and disposal sites

Improved solid waste collection services

Acquisition of dustbins

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Strengthening the county solid waste waste management system

This will lead to efficient management of solid wastes in the urban centres and general
improvement of the health and environmental status of the county.
Challenges to wastewater and solid waste management

With the already established buildings, it will be difficult to site efficient trunk sewerage
systems and treatment works

Acquisition of land especially for treatment works and landfills which are environmental
hazards

The challenges in county topographical location. Narok town is in a valley, and the other
regions are relatively flat. Establishing sewerage networks becomes complex and
expensive

Narok town view- located in a valley

Inadequate finances and skilled manpower

5.4 Construction and Materials

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The construction industry in Narok is still young but booming. As the prospects of the counties
grow, more and more people are investing in this county.

New Developments: this building houses Tuskeys Supermaket


The county government already has an integrated plan to build low cost and affordable housing
units for its residents, with the first phase involving 500 units low cost and medium cost
residential buildings. This means better living conditions for its people and higher revenues for
the county.
Also, there are major plans to invest in schools, stadiums and silos.
Schools will help in education and training of manpower in readiness for the future of the county
and nation at large. This will be by construction and expansion of learning institutions leading to
a well-informed society who can plan and execute their development agendas without need to
hire other qualified personnel to work for them.
. Stadiums will help in nurturing talent and physical fitness to the communities while silos will
be used for storage of local produce.
The construction of service amenities will lead to better and easier accessibility to services as
well job creation in all sectors of the industry.
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The civil engineering construction industry relies on the availability and supply of the materials.
The bulk of the capital invested in any project is incurred in material sourcing.
Narok county has un-exploited quarries capable of providing quality gravel, sand and stone
materials for road-works and building construction

Narok- Land of unexploited construction resources


Timber materials however are overexploited and hence expensive.
The main problems affecting exploitation of these materials are poor roads to where these
resources are found, a young and developing construction industry and high costs of the
available materials.
Full exploitation of these materials will lead immense reduction in costs for their civil works,
employment and revenue generation for the county.
5.5 Civil Engineering and Employment
Civil engineering contributes enormously to economic development of any place by its
employment creation function, on which it relies to be implemented, serviced and maintained;
and the operations it facilitates, directly or indirectly.
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With increased development in the world, comes the need for infrastructure facilities to house,
transport and feed the population. These facilities provide lots of employment opportunities, not
only in a professional capacity but also to non-skilled workers.
Narok County is one the fastest growing counties in Kenya, given its close proximity from the
capital city of the country, Nairobi. The effect of an upsurge in development in Nairobi has
therefore led to an upsurge of the economy of Narok County. By virtue of being a gateway with
the neighboring country of Tanzania, a lot of trade ties between Kenya and Tanzania have led to
an increase in the number of investors choosing to set up business in Narok County. Other than
that, Narok is a very prominent county in the lines of tourist attraction, thanks to its Maasai Mara
game reserve. These factors have led to a growth spout in the economy of the county and
consequently led to a requirement of civil engineering construction works. It is therefore very
clear that the civil engineering profession will only increase the number of jobs in the county.
The number of roads being opened up and rehabilitated has led to the provision of high numbers
of jobs to the people of Narok County. These include professional engineers as well as unskilled
members of the society. The upcoming JICA/Narok County water project is also meant to offer a
good number of locals employment. The proposed sewer system construction is bound to provide
lots of employment opportunities as well. From the feasibility studies to the design works as well
as the implementation of the project, civil engineering is sure to provide lots of employment
opportunities. The construction of the check dams to curb the menace of floods requires a great
work force. This will provide massive number of jobs. It can therefore be concluded that civil
engineering is very positively affecting the job creation sector in Narok County.
Skilled personnel including Project managers, engineers, architects, quantity serveyors, land
surveyors, environmentalists, sociologists, health workers among others have been directly and
indirectly employed in the industry. In fact, one challenge affecting the development of this
industry is shortage of professional and skilled workers.
The most beneficiaries however are the unskilled workers. These engineering works call for an
enormous pool of manpower and labour. These are jobs targeted to benefit the youth .

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In general, In Narok County, there are many projects now ongoing and others planned. They
spread through diverse specialties of the profession, from transportation, structures, water,
wastewater and drainage to environmental engineering.
These projects take the bulk of the county development investment. They involve most members
of the county, especially the youth as the sources of unskilled labour.
In Narok, the civil engineering industry has impacted largely on employment and promises even
more should the plans be fully implemented.
Challenges

Lack of adequate skilled labour in the county

Politics and nepotism: political interests have led to a preference of local community
employees instead of focusing on project delivery and training.

The civil engineering industry is not well regulated. No clear statistics on its contribution
to economy, but its appreciated that it contributes majorly to economic development.

Unregulated market has led to increase in registration of shoddy contractors and poor
workmanship

Funding of the projects: some projects are stalled due to finances and others shelved or
cancelled all together.

6. CONCLUSION
For any development to be realized, civil engineering industry plays a pivotal role and its
involvement for economic growth is inevitable.
From our extensive research on Narok County, we realized that funding for civil engineering
industry and lack of skilled manpower are the two major hindrances to the progress of the
county. This is because most projects require huge capital investments which the county cannot
afford. On the other hand, these projects more often than not end up in the wrong hands who
have no requisite capacity to see them through.
Nonetheless, the county has laid proper plans to improve this industry to spur economic growth.

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The study was important to the group members, giving them an opportunity to see the impacts
their career has in the social economic livelihoods of the people and hence the responsibilities
they will be expected to handle once out of school. It was also a great joint venture where
members were able to appreciate the need for team work in achievement of work goals.

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Some of the group members courageous enough to appear in our project photograph

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