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2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS


(C) At what interval of depths will the temperature be
between 200C and 300C, inclusive?

71. Celsius/Fahrenheit. A formula for converting Celsius degrees to Fahrenheit degrees is given by the linear function
9
F C 32
5

Determine to the nearest degree the Celsius range in temperature that corresponds to the Fahrenheit range of 60F
to 80F.
72. Celsius/Fahrenheit. A formula for converting Fahrenheit
degrees to Celsius degrees is given by the linear function
5
C (F 32)
9

(A) Let
Vs Takeoff ground speed at sea level for a particular
plane (in miles per hour)
A Altitude above sea level (in thousands of feet)

Determine to the nearest degree the Fahrenheit range in


temperature that corresponds to a Celsius range of 20C to
30C.

74. Aeronautics. Because air is not as dense at high altitudes,


planes require a higher ground speed to become airborne.
A rule of thumb is 3% more ground speed per 1,000 feet of
elevation, assuming no wind and no change in air temperature. (Compute numerical answers to 3 significant digits.)

73. Earth Science. In 1984, the Soviets led the world in


drilling the deepest hole in the Earths crustmore than
12 kilometers deep. They found that below 3 kilometers
the temperature T increased 2.5C for each additional 100
meters of depth.
(A) If the temperature at 3 kilometers is 30C and x is the
depth of the hole in kilometers, write an equation
using x that will give the temperature T in the hole at
any depth beyond 3 kilometers.
(B) What would the temperature be at 15 kilometers?
[The temperature limit for their drilling equipment
was about 300C.]

V Takeoff ground speed at altitude A for the same


plane (in miles per hour)
Write a formula relating these three quantities.
(B) What takeoff ground speed would be required at Lake
Tahoe airport (6,400 feet), if takeoff ground speed at
San Francisco airport (sea level) is 120 miles per
hour?
(C) If a landing strip at a Colorado Rockies hunting lodge
(8,500 feet) requires a takeoff ground speed of 125
miles per hour, what would be the takeoff ground
speed in Los Angeles (sea level)?
(D) If the takeoff ground speed at sea level is 135 miles
per hour and the takeoff ground speed at a mountain
resort is 155 miles per hour, what is the altitude of the
mountain resort in thousands of feet?

Section 2-3 Quadratic Functions


Quadratic Functions
Completing the Square
Properties of Quadratic Functions and Their Graphs
Applications

Quadratic Functions
The graph of the square function, h(x) x2, is shown in Figure 1. Notice that the
graph is symmetric with respect to the y axis and that (0, 0) is the lowest point
on the graph. Lets explore the effect of applying a sequence of basic transformations to the graph of h. (A brief review of Section 1-5 might prove helpful at
this point.)

FIGURE 1
Square function h(x) x2.
h(x)

2-3 Quadratic Functions

Explore/Discuss

119

Indicate how the graph of each function is related to the graph of


h(x) x2. Discuss the symmetry of the graphs and find the highest or
lowest point, whichever exists, on each graph.
(A) f(x) (x 3)2 7 x2 6x 2
(B) g(x) 0.5(x 2)2 3 0.5x2 2x 5
(C) m(x) (x 4)2 8 x2 8x 8
(D) n(x) 3(x 1)2 1 3x2 6x 4

Graphing the functions in Explore/Discuss 1 produces figures similar in shape


to the graph of the square function in Figure 1. These figures are called parabolas. The functions that produced these parabolas are examples of the important
class of quadratic functions, which we now define.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
If a, b, and c are real numbers with a 0, then the function
f(x) ax2 bx c
is a quadratic function and its graph is a parabola.*

Since the expression ax2 bx c represents a real number for all real number replacements of x,
the domain of a quadratic function is the set of all real numbers.

We will discuss methods for determining the range of a quadratic function later
in this section. Typical graphs of quadratic functions are illustrated in Figure 2.
FIGURE 2

10

10

10

Graphs of quadratic
functions.
10

10

10

(a) f(x) x2 9

10

10

10

(b) g(x) 2x2 15x 30

10

10

10

(c) h(x) 0.3x2 x 4

Completing the Square


In Explore/Discuss 1 we wrote each function as two different, but equivalent,
expressions. For example,
f(x) (x 3)2 7 x2 6x 2
*A more general definition of a parabola that is independent of any coordinate system is given in
Section 7-1.

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2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

It is easy to verify that these two expressions are equivalent by expanding the
first expression. The first expression is more useful than the second for analyzing
the graph of f. If we are given only the second expression, how can we determine
the first? It turns out that this is a routine process, called completing the square,
that is another useful tool to be added to our mathematical toolbox.

Explore/Discuss

Replace ? in each of the following with a number that makes the


equation valid.
(B) (x 2)2 x2 4x ?
(A) (x 1)2 x2 2x ?
2
2
(D) (x 4)2 x2 8x ?
(C) (x 3) x 6x ?
Replace ? in each of the following with a number that makes the expression a perfect square of the form (x h)2.
(F) x2 12x ?
(G) x2 bx ?
(E) x2 10x ?

Given the quadratic expression


x2 bx
what must be added to this expression to make it a perfect square? To find out,
consider the square of the following expression:
(x m)2 x2 2mx m2

m2 is the square of one-half the


coefficient of x.

We see that the third term on the right side of the equation is the square of onehalf the coefficient of x in the second term on the right; that is, m2 is the square
of 12(2m). This observation leads to the following rule:

COMPLETING THE SQUARE


To complete the square of the quadratic expression
x2 bx
add the square of one-half the coefficient of x; that is, add

b
2

or

b2
4

The resulting expression can be factored as a perfect square:


x2 bx


b
2

b
2

2-3 Quadratic Functions

EXAMPLE

1
Solutions

Completing the Square


Complete the square for each of the following:
(B) x2 6bx
(A) x2 3x
(A) x2 3x
x2 3x
(B) x2 6bx

9
3
x
4
2

Add

32 ; that is, 94.

Add

; that is, 9b .
6b
2

x2 6bx 9b2 (x 3b)2

MATCHED PROBLEM

121

Complete the square for each of the following:


(A) x2 5x
(B) x2 4mx
It is important to note that the rule for completing the square applies to only
quadratic expressions in which the coefficient of x2 is 1. This causes little trouble, however, as you will see.

Properties of Quadratic Functions and Their Graphs


We now use the process of completing the square to transform the quadratic function
f(x) ax2 bx c
into the standard form
f(x) a(x h)2 k
Many important features of the graph of a quadratic function can be determined
by examining the standard form. We begin with a specific example and then generalize the results.
Consider the quadratic function given by
f(x) 2x2 8x 4

(1)

We use completing the square to transform this function into standard form:
f(x) 2x2 8x 4
2(x2 4x) 4
2(x2 4x ?) 4

Factor the coefficient of x2 out of


the first two terms.

2(x2 4x 4) 4 8

We add 4 to complete the square


inside the parentheses. But because
of the 2 outside the parentheses,
we have actually added 8, so we
must subtract 8.

2(x 2)2 4

The transformation is complete and


can be checked by expanding.

122

2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

Thus, the standard form is


f(x) 2(x 2)2 4

(2)

If x 2, then 2(x 2)2 0 and f(2) 4. For any other value of x, the
positive number 2(x 2)2 is added to 4, making f(x) larger. Therefore,
f(2) 4
is the minimum value of f(x) for all xa very important result! Furthermore, if
we choose any two values of x that are equidistant from x 2, we will obtain
the same value for the function. For example, x 1 and x 3 are each one unit
from x 2 and their functional values are
f(1) 2(1)2 4 2
f(3) 2(1)2 4 2
Thus, the vertical line x 2 is a line of symmetryif the graph of equation (1)
is drawn on a piece of paper and the paper folded along the line x 2, then the
two sides of the parabola will match exactly.
The above results are illustrated by graphing equation (1) or (2) and the line
x 2 in a suitable viewing window (Fig. 3).
FIGURE 3

f (x) 2x2 8x 4
2(x 2)2 4

Graph of a quadratic function.

10

10

Minimum:
f (2) 4

Axis of symmetry:
x2

From the analysis of equation (2), illustrated by the graph in Figure 3, we conclude that f(x) is decreasing on (, 2] and increasing on [2, ). Furthermore,
f(x) can assume any value greater than or equal to 4, but no values less than
4. Thus,
Range of f: y 4

or

[4, )

In general, the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola with line of symmetry parallel to the vertical axis. The lowest or highest point on the parabola,
whichever exists, is called the vertex. The maximum or minimum value of
a quadratic function always occurs at the vertex of the graph. The vertical
line of symmetry through the vertex is called the axis of the parabola. Thus,
for f(x) 2x2 8x 4, the vertical line x 2 is the axis of the parabola and
(2, 4) is its vertex.

2-3 Quadratic Functions

123

From equation (2), we can see that the graph of f is simply the graph of
g(x) 2x2 translated to the right 2 units and down 4 units, as shown in Figure 4.
FIGURE 4

g (x) 2x2

Graph of f is the graph of g


translated.

10

10

f (x) 2x 2 8x 4
2(x 2)2 4

Notice the important results we have obtained from the standard form of the
quadratic function f:
The vertex of the parabola
The axis of the parabola
The minimum value of f(x)
The range of f
A relationship between the graph of f and the graph of g

Explore/Discuss

Explore the effect of changing the constants a, h, and k on the graph of


f(x) a(x h)2 k.
(A) Let a 1 and h 5. Graph function f for k 4, 0, and 3
simultaneously in the same viewing window. Explain the effect of
changing k on the graph of f.
(B) Let a 1 and k 2. Graph function f for h 4, 0, and 5
simultaneously in the same viewing window. Explain the effect of
changing h on the graph of f.
(C) Let h 5 and k 2. Graph function f for a 0.25, 1, and 3
simultaneously in the same viewing window. Graph function f for a
1, 1, and 0.25 simultaneously in the same viewing window.
Explain the effect of changing a on the graph of f.
(D) Can all quadratic functions of the form y ax2 bx c be
rewritten as a(x h)2 k?

We generalize the above discussion in the following box:

124

2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

PROPERTIES OF A QUADRATIC FUNCTION AND ITS GRAPH


Given a quadratic function and the standard form obtained by completing
the square
f(x) ax2 bx c a(x h)2 k

a0

we summarize general properties as follows:


1. The graph of f is a parabola:
f (x)

f (x)

Axis
xh

Axis
xh
Vertex (h, k)

k
Max f(x)
Vertex (h, k)
k
Min f (x)
h

a0
Opens upward

a0
Opens downward

2. Vertex: (h, k) (parabola increases on one side of the vertex and


decreases on the other).
3. Axis (of symmetry): x h (parallel to y axis).
4. f(h) k is the minimum if a 0 and the maximum if a 0.
5. Domain: all real numbers; range: (, k] if a 0 or [k, ) if
a 0.
6. The graph of f is the graph of g(x) ax2 translated horizontally h
units and vertically k units.

EXAMPLE

Analyzing a Quadratic Function


Find the standard form for the following quadratic function, analyze the graph,
and check your results with a graphing utility:
f(x) 0.5x2 x 5

Solution

We complete the square to find the standard form:


f(x) 0.5x2 x 5
0.5(x2 2x ?) 5
0.5(x2 2x 1) 5 0.5
0.5(x 1)2 5.5

2-3 Quadratic Functions

FIGURE 5
6

125

From the standard form we see that h 1 and k 5.5. Thus, the vertex is
(1, 5.5), the axis of symmetry is x 1, the maximum value is f(1) 5.5,
and the range is (, 5.5]. The function f is increasing on (, 1] and decreasing on [1, ). The graph of f is the graph of g(x) 0.5x2 shifted to the left
1 unit and upward 5.5 units. To check these results, we graph f and g simultaneously in the same viewing window, use the built-in maximum routine to locate
the vertex, and add the graph of the axis of symmetry (Fig. 5).

MATCHED PROBLEM

Find the standard form for the following quadratic function, analyze the graph,
and check your results with a graphing utility:
f(x) x2 3x 1

EXAMPLE

Finding the Equation of a Parabola

Find an equation for the parabola whose graph is shown in Figure 6.


5

FIGURE 6

Solution

(a)

(b)

Figure 6(a) shows that the vertex of the parabola is (h, k) (3, 2). Thus, the
standard equation must have the form
f(x) a(x 3)2 2

(3)

Figure 6(b) shows that f(4) 0. Substituting in equation (3) and solving for a,
we have
f(4) a(4 3)2 2 0
a2
Thus, the equation for the parabola is
f(x) 2(x 3)2 2 2x2 12x 16
MATCHED PROBLEM

Find the equation of the parabola with vertex (2, 4) and y intercept (0, 2).

126

2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

Applications
We now look at several applications that can be modeled using quadratic functions.

EXAMPLE

Maximum Area

A dairy farm has a barn that is 150 feet long and 75 feet wide. The owner has
240 ft of fencing and wishes to use all of it in the construction of two identical adjacent outdoor pens with the long side of the barn as one side of the
pens and a common fence between the two (Fig. 7). The owner wants the pens
to be as large as possible.

FIGURE 7

150 feet

x
x
y

75 feet
x

(A) Construct a mathematical model for the combined area of both pens in
the form of a function A(x) (see Fig. 7) and state the domain of A.
(B) Find the value of x that produces the maximum combined area.
(C) Find the dimensions and the area of each pen.
(A) Since y 240 3x,

Solutions

A(x) (240 3x)x 240x 3x2


The distances x and y must be nonnegative. Since y 240 3x, it follows
that x cannot exceed 80. Thus, a model for this problem is
A(x) 240x 3x2, 0 x 80

FIGURE 8
A(x) 240x 3x2.

(B) Omitting the details, the standard form for A is

5,000

A(x) 3(x 40)2 4,800


0

80

Thus, the maximum combined area of 4,800 ft2 occurs at x 40. This result
is confirmed in Figure 8.
(C) Each pen is x by y/2 or 40 ft by 60 ft. The area of each pen is 40 ft
60 ft 2,400 ft2.

2-3 Quadratic Functions

MATCHED PROBLEM

127

Repeat Example 4 with the owner constructing three identical adjacent pens
instead of two.

Now that we have added quadratic functions to our mathematical toolbox, we


can use this new tool in conjunction with another tool discussed previously
regression analysis. In the next example, we use both of these tools to investigate
the effect of recycling efforts on solid waste disposal.

EXAMPLE

Solid Waste Disposal


Franklin Associates Ltd. of Prairie Village, Kansas, reported the data in Table
1 to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

T A B L E

1 Municipal Solid Waste Disposal



Per Person Per Day
(pounds)

Year

Annual Landfill Disposal


(millions of tons)

1970
1980
1985
1987
1990
1993
1995

88.2
123.3
136.4
140.0
131.6
127.6
118.4

2.37
2.97
3.13
3.15
2.90
2.70
2.50

(A) Let x represent time in years with x 0 corresponding to 1960, and let
y represent the corresponding annual landfill disposal. Use regression
analysis on a graphing utility to find a quadratic function of the form
y ax2 bx c that models this data. (Round the constants a, b, and
c to three significant digits* when reporting your results.)
(B) If landfill disposal continues to follow the trend exhibited in Table 1,
when (to the nearest year) would the annual landfill disposal return to the
1970 level?
(C) Is it reasonable to expect the annual landfill disposal to follow this trend
indefinitely? Explain.
Solutions

(A) Since the values of y increase from 1970 to 1987 and then begin to decrease,
a quadratic model seems a better choice than a linear one. Figure 9 shows
the details of constructing the model on a graphing utility.

*For those not familiar with the meaning of significant digits, see Appendix C for a brief discussion of
this concept.

128

2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS


150

60

(a) Data

(b) Regression equation

FIGURE 9

(c) Regression equation


transferred to equation
editor

(d) Graph of data and


regression equation

Rounding the constants to three significant digits, a quadratic regression


equation for this data is
y1 0.187x2 9.77x 7.99
The graph in Figure 9(d) indicates that this is a reasonable model for this
data. It is, in fact, the best quadratic equation for this data.
(B) To determine when the annual landfill disposal returns to the 1970 level, we
add the graph of y2 88.2 to the graph [Fig. 10(a)]. The graphs of y1 and
y2 intersect twice, once at x 10 (1970), and again at a later date. Using a
built-in intersection routine [Fig. 10(b)] shows that the x coordinate of the
second intersection point (to the nearest integer) is 42. Thus, the annual landfill disposal returns to the 1970 level of 88.2 million tons in 2002. [Note:
You will obtain slightly different results if you round the constants a, b, and
c before finding the intersection point. As we stated before, we will always
use the unrounded constants in calculations and only round the final answer.]
FIGURE 10

150

y 2 88.2

150

60

60

(a)

(b)

(C) The graph of y1 continues to decrease and reaches 0 somewhere between


2110 and 2115. It is highly unlikely that the annual landfill disposal will ever
reach 0. As time goes by and more data becomes available, new models will
have to be constructed to better predict future trends.

MATCHED PROBLEM

Refer to Table 1.
(A) Let x represent time in years with x 0 corresponding to 1960, and let y
represent the corresponding landfill disposal per person per day. Use regression analysis on a graphing utility to find a quadratic function of the form
y ax2 bx c that models this data. (Round the constants a, b, and c
to three significant digits when reporting your results.)

2-3 Quadratic Functions

129

(B) If landfill disposal per person per day continues to follow the trend exhibited in Table 1, when (to the nearest year) would it fall below 1.5 pounds
per person per day?
(C) Is it reasonable to expect the landfill disposal per person per day to follow
this trend indefinitely? Explain.

Answers to Matched Problems

2.

3.
4.
5.

25
5 2
(B) x2 4mx 4m2 (x 2m)2
x
4
2
Standard form: f(x) (x 1.5)2 1.25. The vertex is (1.5, 1.25), the axis of symmetry is x 1.5, the maximum value
of f(x) is 1.25, and the range of f is (, 1.25]. The function f is increasing on (, 1.5] and decreasing on [1.5, ). The
graph of f is the graph of g(x) x2 shifted 1.5 units to the right and 1.25 units upward.
f(x) 0.5(x 2)2 4 0.5x2 2x 2
(A) A(x) (240 4x)x, 0 x 60
(B) The maximum combined area of 3,600 ft2 occurs at x 30 ft.
(C) Each pen is 30 ft by 40 ft with area 1,200 ft2.
(A) y 0.00434x2 0.202x 0.759
(B) 2003

1. (A) x2 5x

EXERCISE 2-3

14.

In Problems 16, complete the square and find the standard


form of each quadratic function.
1. f(x) x2 4x 5

2. g(x) x2 2x 3

3. h(x) x2 2x 1

4. k(x) x2 4x 4

5. m(x) x2 4x 1

6. n(x) x2 2x 3

15.

In Problems 712, write a brief verbal description of the


relationship between the graph of the indicated function (from
Problems 16) and the graph of y x2.
7. f(x) x2 4x 5
9. h(x) x2 2x 1
11. m(x) x2 4x 1

8. g(x) x2 2x 3

16.

10. k(x) x2 4x 4
12. n(x) x2 2x 3

In Problems 1318, match each graph with one of the


functions in Problems 16.
13.

17.

130

2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

18.

32.

In Problems 3338, find the equation of a quadratic function


whose graph satisfies the given conditions.

33. Vertex: (4, 8); x intercept: 6


For each quadratic function in Problems 1924, sketch a
graph of the function and label the axis and the vertex.
19. f(x) 2x2 24x 90

20. f(x) 3x2 24x 30

21. f(x) x2 6x 4

22. f(x) x2 10x 30

23. f(x) 0.5x2 2x 7

24. f(x) 0.4x2 4x 4

In Problems 2528, find the intervals where f is increasing, the


intervals where f is decreasing, and the range. Express
answers in interval notation.
25. f(x) 4x2 18x 25
26. f(x) 5x2 29x 17
27. f(x) 10x2 44x 12
28. f(x) 8x2 20x 16
In Problems 2932, use the graph of the parabola to find the
equation of the corresponding quadratic function.
29.

34. Vertex: (2, 12); x intercept: 4


35. Vertex: (4, 12); y intercept: 4
36. Vertex: (5, 8); y intercept: 2
37. Vertex: (5, 25); additional point on graph: (2, 20)
38. Vertex: (6, 40); additional point on graph: (3, 50)
39. Graph the line y 0.5x 3. Choose any two distinct
points on this line and find the linear regression model for
the data set consisting of the two points you chose. Experiment with other lines of your choosing. Discuss the relationship between a linear regression model for two points
and the line that goes through the two points.
40. Graph the parabola y x2 5x. Choose any three distinct
points on this parabola and find the quadratic regression
model for the data set consisting of the three points you
chose. Experiment with other parabolas of your choice.
Discuss the relationship between a quadratic regression
model for three noncollinear points and the parabola that
goes through the three points.
41. Let f(x) (x 1)2 k. Discuss the relationship between
the values of k and the number of x intercepts for the
graph of f. Generalize your comments to any function of
the form
f(x) a(x h)2 k, a 0

30.

42. Let f(x) (x 2)2 k. Discuss the relationship between the values of k and the number of x intercepts for
the graph of f. Generalize your comments to any function
of the form
f(x) a(x h)2 k, a 0

C
31.
Recall that the standard equation of a circle with radius r and
center (h, k) is
(x h)2 (y k)2 r2
In Problems 4346, use completing the square twice to find the
center and radius of the circle with the given equation.

131

2-3 Quadratic Functions


43. x2 y2 6x 4y 36

52. Repeat Problem 51 for f(x) x2 2x 6.

44. x2 y2 2x 10y 55

53. Find the minimum product of two numbers whose difference is 30. Is there a maximum product? Explain.

45. x2 y2 8x 2y 8
46. x2 y2 4x 12y 24

54. Find the maximum product of two numbers whose sum is


60. Is there a minimum product? Explain.

47. Let f(x) a(x h)2 k. Compare the values of f(h r)


and f(h r) for any real number r. Interpret the results in
terms of the graph of f.

APPLICATIONS

48. Let f(x) ax2 bx c, a 0. Express each of the following in terms of a, b, and c:
(A) The axis of symmetry
(B) The vertex
(C) The maximum or minimum value of f, whichever
exists.
Problems 4952 are calculus-related. In geometry, a line
that intersects a circle in two distinct points is called a
secant line, as shown in figure (a). In calculus, the line
through the points (x1, f(x1)) and (x2, f(x2)) is called a
secant line for the graph of the function f, as shown in
figure (b).

55. Construction. A horse breeder wants to construct a corral


next to a horse barn 50 feet long, using all of the barn as
one side of the corral (see the figure). He has 250 feet of
fencing available and wants to use all of it.

Horse barn

50 feet
x
Corral

y
f (x)
Q

(A) Express the area A(x) of the corral as a function of x


and indicate its domain.
(x2, f (x2))
x

P
(x1, f (x1))

Secant line for


a circle
(a)

Secant line for the graph


of a function
(b)

In Problems 49 and 50, find the equation of the secant line


through the indicated points on the graph of f. Graph f and the
secant line on the same coordinate system.
49. f(x) x2 4; (1, 3), (3, 5)
50. f(x) 9 x2; (2, 5), (4, 7)
51. Let f(x) x2 3x 5. If h is a nonzero real number, then
(2, f(2)) and (2 h, f(2 h)) are two distinct points on
the graph of f.

(B) Find the value of x that produces the maximum area.


(C) What are the dimensions of the corral with the
maximum area?
56. Construction. Repeat Problem 55 if the horse breeder has
only 140 feet of fencing available for the corral. Does the
maximum value of the area function still occur at the vertex? Explain.
57. Projectile Flight. An arrow shot vertically into the air
from a cross bow reaches a maximum height of 484 feet
after 5.5 seconds of flight. Let the quadratic function d(t)
represent the distance above ground (in feet) t seconds after the arrow is released. (If air resistance is neglected, a
quadratic model provides a good approximation for the
flight of a projectile.)
(A) Find d(t) and state its domain.
(B) At what times (to two decimal places) will the arrow
be 250 feet above the ground?

(A) Find the slope of the secant line through these two
points.

58. Projectile Flight. Repeat Problem 57 if the arrow reaches


a maximum height of 324 feet after 4.5 seconds of flight.

(B) Evaluate the slope of the secant line for h 1,


h 0.1, h 0.01, and h 0.001. What value does
the slope seem to be approaching?

59. Engineering. The arch of a bridge is in the shape of a


parabola 14 feet high at the center and 20 feet wide at the
base (see the figure).

132

2 LINEAR AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS


(A) Find a quadratic regression model for the revenue
data using x as the independent variable.
h(x)

(B) Find a linear regression model for the cost data using
x as the independent variable.

14 ft

(C) Use the regression models from parts A and B to


estimate the x coordinates (to the nearest integer) of
the break-even points.

x
20 ft

(A) Express the height of the arch h(x) in terms of x and


state its domain.

62. Profit Analysis. Use the regression models computed in


Problem 61 to estimate the indicated quantities.

(B) Can a truck that is 8 feet wide and 12 feet high pass
through the arch?

(A) How many lawn mowers (to the nearest integer) must
be produced and sold to realize a profit of $50,000?

(C) What is the tallest 8-foot-wide truck that can pass


through the arch?

(B) How many lawn mowers (to the nearest integer) must
be produced and sold to realize the maximum profit?
What is the maximum profit (to the nearest dollar)?

(D) What (to two decimal places) is the widest 12-foothigh truck that can pass through the arch?
60. Engineering. The roadbed of one section of a suspension
bridge is hanging from a large cable suspended between
two towers that are 200 feet apart (see the figure). The cable forms a parabola that is 60 feet above the roadbed at the
towers and 10 feet above the roadbed at the lowest point.
200 ft

T A B L E
d(x)

Daily Water Consumption

60 ft

x ft

(A) Express the vertical distance d(x) (in feet) from the
roadbed to the suspension cable in terms of x and state
the domain of d.
(B) The roadbed is supported by seven equally spaced
vertical cables (see the figure). Find the combined
total length of these supporting cables.
61. Break-Even Analysis. Table 1 contains revenue and cost
data for the production of lawn mowers where R is the total revenue (in dollars) from the sale of x lawn mowers
and C is the total cost (in dollars) of producing x lawn
mowers.

T A B L E

63. Water Consumption. Table 2 contains data related to the


water consumption in the United States for selected years
from 1960 to 1990. This data is based on U.S. Geological
Survey, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in
1990, circular 1081, and previous quinquennial issues.

R ($)

C ($)

200

95,000

145,000

650

275,000

160,000

1,000

290,000

210,000

1,350

260,000

230,000

1,700

140,000

270,000

Year

Total
(billion gallons)

Irrigation
(billion gallons)

1960

61

52

1965

77

66

1970

87

73

1975

96

80

1980

100

83

1985

92

74

1990

94

76

(A) Let the independent variable x represent years since


1960. Find a quadratic regression model for the total
daily water consumption.
(B) If daily water consumption continues to follow the
trend exhibited in Table 2, when (to the nearest year)
would the total consumption return to the 1960 level?
64. Water Consumption. Refer to Problem 63.
(A) Let the independent variable x represent years since
1960. Find a quadratic regression model for the daily
water consumption for irrigation.
(B) If daily water consumption continues to follow the
trend exhibited in Table 2, when (to the nearest year)
would the consumption for irrigation return to the
1960 level?