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(C) At what interval of depths will the temperature be

between 200C and 300C, inclusive?

71. Celsius/Fahrenheit. A formula for converting Celsius degrees to Fahrenheit degrees is given by the linear function

9

F C 32

5

Determine to the nearest degree the Celsius range in temperature that corresponds to the Fahrenheit range of 60F

to 80F.

72. Celsius/Fahrenheit. A formula for converting Fahrenheit

degrees to Celsius degrees is given by the linear function

5

C (F 32)

9

(A) Let

Vs Takeoff ground speed at sea level for a particular

plane (in miles per hour)

A Altitude above sea level (in thousands of feet)

temperature that corresponds to a Celsius range of 20C to

30C.

planes require a higher ground speed to become airborne.

A rule of thumb is 3% more ground speed per 1,000 feet of

elevation, assuming no wind and no change in air temperature. (Compute numerical answers to 3 significant digits.)

drilling the deepest hole in the Earths crustmore than

12 kilometers deep. They found that below 3 kilometers

the temperature T increased 2.5C for each additional 100

meters of depth.

(A) If the temperature at 3 kilometers is 30C and x is the

depth of the hole in kilometers, write an equation

using x that will give the temperature T in the hole at

any depth beyond 3 kilometers.

(B) What would the temperature be at 15 kilometers?

[The temperature limit for their drilling equipment

was about 300C.]

plane (in miles per hour)

Write a formula relating these three quantities.

(B) What takeoff ground speed would be required at Lake

Tahoe airport (6,400 feet), if takeoff ground speed at

San Francisco airport (sea level) is 120 miles per

hour?

(C) If a landing strip at a Colorado Rockies hunting lodge

(8,500 feet) requires a takeoff ground speed of 125

miles per hour, what would be the takeoff ground

speed in Los Angeles (sea level)?

(D) If the takeoff ground speed at sea level is 135 miles

per hour and the takeoff ground speed at a mountain

resort is 155 miles per hour, what is the altitude of the

mountain resort in thousands of feet?

Quadratic Functions

Completing the Square

Properties of Quadratic Functions and Their Graphs

Applications

Quadratic Functions

The graph of the square function, h(x) x2, is shown in Figure 1. Notice that the

graph is symmetric with respect to the y axis and that (0, 0) is the lowest point

on the graph. Lets explore the effect of applying a sequence of basic transformations to the graph of h. (A brief review of Section 1-5 might prove helpful at

this point.)

FIGURE 1

Square function h(x) x2.

h(x)

Explore/Discuss

119

h(x) x2. Discuss the symmetry of the graphs and find the highest or

lowest point, whichever exists, on each graph.

(A) f(x) (x 3)2 7 x2 6x 2

(B) g(x) 0.5(x 2)2 3 0.5x2 2x 5

(C) m(x) (x 4)2 8 x2 8x 8

(D) n(x) 3(x 1)2 1 3x2 6x 4

to the graph of the square function in Figure 1. These figures are called parabolas. The functions that produced these parabolas are examples of the important

class of quadratic functions, which we now define.

QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

If a, b, and c are real numbers with a 0, then the function

f(x) ax2 bx c

is a quadratic function and its graph is a parabola.*

Since the expression ax2 bx c represents a real number for all real number replacements of x,

the domain of a quadratic function is the set of all real numbers.

We will discuss methods for determining the range of a quadratic function later

in this section. Typical graphs of quadratic functions are illustrated in Figure 2.

FIGURE 2

10

10

10

Graphs of quadratic

functions.

10

10

10

(a) f(x) x2 9

10

10

10

10

10

10

In Explore/Discuss 1 we wrote each function as two different, but equivalent,

expressions. For example,

f(x) (x 3)2 7 x2 6x 2

*A more general definition of a parabola that is independent of any coordinate system is given in

Section 7-1.

120

It is easy to verify that these two expressions are equivalent by expanding the

first expression. The first expression is more useful than the second for analyzing

the graph of f. If we are given only the second expression, how can we determine

the first? It turns out that this is a routine process, called completing the square,

that is another useful tool to be added to our mathematical toolbox.

Explore/Discuss

equation valid.

(B) (x 2)2 x2 4x ?

(A) (x 1)2 x2 2x ?

2

2

(D) (x 4)2 x2 8x ?

(C) (x 3) x 6x ?

Replace ? in each of the following with a number that makes the expression a perfect square of the form (x h)2.

(F) x2 12x ?

(G) x2 bx ?

(E) x2 10x ?

x2 bx

what must be added to this expression to make it a perfect square? To find out,

consider the square of the following expression:

(x m)2 x2 2mx m2

coefficient of x.

We see that the third term on the right side of the equation is the square of onehalf the coefficient of x in the second term on the right; that is, m2 is the square

of 12(2m). This observation leads to the following rule:

To complete the square of the quadratic expression

x2 bx

add the square of one-half the coefficient of x; that is, add

b

2

or

b2

4

x2 bx

b

2

b

2

EXAMPLE

1

Solutions

Complete the square for each of the following:

(B) x2 6bx

(A) x2 3x

(A) x2 3x

x2 3x

(B) x2 6bx

9

3

x

4

2

Add

Add

; that is, 9b .

6b

2

MATCHED PROBLEM

121

(A) x2 5x

(B) x2 4mx

It is important to note that the rule for completing the square applies to only

quadratic expressions in which the coefficient of x2 is 1. This causes little trouble, however, as you will see.

We now use the process of completing the square to transform the quadratic function

f(x) ax2 bx c

into the standard form

f(x) a(x h)2 k

Many important features of the graph of a quadratic function can be determined

by examining the standard form. We begin with a specific example and then generalize the results.

Consider the quadratic function given by

f(x) 2x2 8x 4

(1)

We use completing the square to transform this function into standard form:

f(x) 2x2 8x 4

2(x2 4x) 4

2(x2 4x ?) 4

the first two terms.

2(x2 4x 4) 4 8

inside the parentheses. But because

of the 2 outside the parentheses,

we have actually added 8, so we

must subtract 8.

2(x 2)2 4

can be checked by expanding.

122

f(x) 2(x 2)2 4

(2)

If x 2, then 2(x 2)2 0 and f(2) 4. For any other value of x, the

positive number 2(x 2)2 is added to 4, making f(x) larger. Therefore,

f(2) 4

is the minimum value of f(x) for all xa very important result! Furthermore, if

we choose any two values of x that are equidistant from x 2, we will obtain

the same value for the function. For example, x 1 and x 3 are each one unit

from x 2 and their functional values are

f(1) 2(1)2 4 2

f(3) 2(1)2 4 2

Thus, the vertical line x 2 is a line of symmetryif the graph of equation (1)

is drawn on a piece of paper and the paper folded along the line x 2, then the

two sides of the parabola will match exactly.

The above results are illustrated by graphing equation (1) or (2) and the line

x 2 in a suitable viewing window (Fig. 3).

FIGURE 3

f (x) 2x2 8x 4

2(x 2)2 4

10

10

Minimum:

f (2) 4

Axis of symmetry:

x2

From the analysis of equation (2), illustrated by the graph in Figure 3, we conclude that f(x) is decreasing on (, 2] and increasing on [2, ). Furthermore,

f(x) can assume any value greater than or equal to 4, but no values less than

4. Thus,

Range of f: y 4

or

[4, )

In general, the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola with line of symmetry parallel to the vertical axis. The lowest or highest point on the parabola,

whichever exists, is called the vertex. The maximum or minimum value of

a quadratic function always occurs at the vertex of the graph. The vertical

line of symmetry through the vertex is called the axis of the parabola. Thus,

for f(x) 2x2 8x 4, the vertical line x 2 is the axis of the parabola and

(2, 4) is its vertex.

123

From equation (2), we can see that the graph of f is simply the graph of

g(x) 2x2 translated to the right 2 units and down 4 units, as shown in Figure 4.

FIGURE 4

g (x) 2x2

translated.

10

10

f (x) 2x 2 8x 4

2(x 2)2 4

Notice the important results we have obtained from the standard form of the

quadratic function f:

The vertex of the parabola

The axis of the parabola

The minimum value of f(x)

The range of f

A relationship between the graph of f and the graph of g

Explore/Discuss

f(x) a(x h)2 k.

(A) Let a 1 and h 5. Graph function f for k 4, 0, and 3

simultaneously in the same viewing window. Explain the effect of

changing k on the graph of f.

(B) Let a 1 and k 2. Graph function f for h 4, 0, and 5

simultaneously in the same viewing window. Explain the effect of

changing h on the graph of f.

(C) Let h 5 and k 2. Graph function f for a 0.25, 1, and 3

simultaneously in the same viewing window. Graph function f for a

1, 1, and 0.25 simultaneously in the same viewing window.

Explain the effect of changing a on the graph of f.

(D) Can all quadratic functions of the form y ax2 bx c be

rewritten as a(x h)2 k?

124

Given a quadratic function and the standard form obtained by completing

the square

f(x) ax2 bx c a(x h)2 k

a0

1. The graph of f is a parabola:

f (x)

f (x)

Axis

xh

Axis

xh

Vertex (h, k)

k

Max f(x)

Vertex (h, k)

k

Min f (x)

h

a0

Opens upward

a0

Opens downward

decreases on the other).

3. Axis (of symmetry): x h (parallel to y axis).

4. f(h) k is the minimum if a 0 and the maximum if a 0.

5. Domain: all real numbers; range: (, k] if a 0 or [k, ) if

a 0.

6. The graph of f is the graph of g(x) ax2 translated horizontally h

units and vertically k units.

EXAMPLE

Find the standard form for the following quadratic function, analyze the graph,

and check your results with a graphing utility:

f(x) 0.5x2 x 5

Solution

f(x) 0.5x2 x 5

0.5(x2 2x ?) 5

0.5(x2 2x 1) 5 0.5

0.5(x 1)2 5.5

FIGURE 5

6

125

From the standard form we see that h 1 and k 5.5. Thus, the vertex is

(1, 5.5), the axis of symmetry is x 1, the maximum value is f(1) 5.5,

and the range is (, 5.5]. The function f is increasing on (, 1] and decreasing on [1, ). The graph of f is the graph of g(x) 0.5x2 shifted to the left

1 unit and upward 5.5 units. To check these results, we graph f and g simultaneously in the same viewing window, use the built-in maximum routine to locate

the vertex, and add the graph of the axis of symmetry (Fig. 5).

MATCHED PROBLEM

Find the standard form for the following quadratic function, analyze the graph,

and check your results with a graphing utility:

f(x) x2 3x 1

EXAMPLE

5

FIGURE 6

Solution

(a)

(b)

Figure 6(a) shows that the vertex of the parabola is (h, k) (3, 2). Thus, the

standard equation must have the form

f(x) a(x 3)2 2

(3)

Figure 6(b) shows that f(4) 0. Substituting in equation (3) and solving for a,

we have

f(4) a(4 3)2 2 0

a2

Thus, the equation for the parabola is

f(x) 2(x 3)2 2 2x2 12x 16

MATCHED PROBLEM

Find the equation of the parabola with vertex (2, 4) and y intercept (0, 2).

126

Applications

We now look at several applications that can be modeled using quadratic functions.

EXAMPLE

Maximum Area

A dairy farm has a barn that is 150 feet long and 75 feet wide. The owner has

240 ft of fencing and wishes to use all of it in the construction of two identical adjacent outdoor pens with the long side of the barn as one side of the

pens and a common fence between the two (Fig. 7). The owner wants the pens

to be as large as possible.

FIGURE 7

150 feet

x

x

y

75 feet

x

(A) Construct a mathematical model for the combined area of both pens in

the form of a function A(x) (see Fig. 7) and state the domain of A.

(B) Find the value of x that produces the maximum combined area.

(C) Find the dimensions and the area of each pen.

(A) Since y 240 3x,

Solutions

The distances x and y must be nonnegative. Since y 240 3x, it follows

that x cannot exceed 80. Thus, a model for this problem is

A(x) 240x 3x2, 0 x 80

FIGURE 8

A(x) 240x 3x2.

5,000

0

80

Thus, the maximum combined area of 4,800 ft2 occurs at x 40. This result

is confirmed in Figure 8.

(C) Each pen is x by y/2 or 40 ft by 60 ft. The area of each pen is 40 ft

60 ft 2,400 ft2.

MATCHED PROBLEM

127

Repeat Example 4 with the owner constructing three identical adjacent pens

instead of two.

can use this new tool in conjunction with another tool discussed previously

regression analysis. In the next example, we use both of these tools to investigate

the effect of recycling efforts on solid waste disposal.

EXAMPLE

Franklin Associates Ltd. of Prairie Village, Kansas, reported the data in Table

1 to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

T A B L E

Per Person Per Day

(pounds)

Year

(millions of tons)

1970

1980

1985

1987

1990

1993

1995

88.2

123.3

136.4

140.0

131.6

127.6

118.4

2.37

2.97

3.13

3.15

2.90

2.70

2.50

(A) Let x represent time in years with x 0 corresponding to 1960, and let

y represent the corresponding annual landfill disposal. Use regression

analysis on a graphing utility to find a quadratic function of the form

y ax2 bx c that models this data. (Round the constants a, b, and

c to three significant digits* when reporting your results.)

(B) If landfill disposal continues to follow the trend exhibited in Table 1,

when (to the nearest year) would the annual landfill disposal return to the

1970 level?

(C) Is it reasonable to expect the annual landfill disposal to follow this trend

indefinitely? Explain.

Solutions

(A) Since the values of y increase from 1970 to 1987 and then begin to decrease,

a quadratic model seems a better choice than a linear one. Figure 9 shows

the details of constructing the model on a graphing utility.

*For those not familiar with the meaning of significant digits, see Appendix C for a brief discussion of

this concept.

128

150

60

(a) Data

FIGURE 9

transferred to equation

editor

regression equation

equation for this data is

y1 0.187x2 9.77x 7.99

The graph in Figure 9(d) indicates that this is a reasonable model for this

data. It is, in fact, the best quadratic equation for this data.

(B) To determine when the annual landfill disposal returns to the 1970 level, we

add the graph of y2 88.2 to the graph [Fig. 10(a)]. The graphs of y1 and

y2 intersect twice, once at x 10 (1970), and again at a later date. Using a

built-in intersection routine [Fig. 10(b)] shows that the x coordinate of the

second intersection point (to the nearest integer) is 42. Thus, the annual landfill disposal returns to the 1970 level of 88.2 million tons in 2002. [Note:

You will obtain slightly different results if you round the constants a, b, and

c before finding the intersection point. As we stated before, we will always

use the unrounded constants in calculations and only round the final answer.]

FIGURE 10

150

y 2 88.2

150

60

60

(a)

(b)

2110 and 2115. It is highly unlikely that the annual landfill disposal will ever

reach 0. As time goes by and more data becomes available, new models will

have to be constructed to better predict future trends.

MATCHED PROBLEM

Refer to Table 1.

(A) Let x represent time in years with x 0 corresponding to 1960, and let y

represent the corresponding landfill disposal per person per day. Use regression analysis on a graphing utility to find a quadratic function of the form

y ax2 bx c that models this data. (Round the constants a, b, and c

to three significant digits when reporting your results.)

129

(B) If landfill disposal per person per day continues to follow the trend exhibited in Table 1, when (to the nearest year) would it fall below 1.5 pounds

per person per day?

(C) Is it reasonable to expect the landfill disposal per person per day to follow

this trend indefinitely? Explain.

2.

3.

4.

5.

25

5 2

(B) x2 4mx 4m2 (x 2m)2

x

4

2

Standard form: f(x) (x 1.5)2 1.25. The vertex is (1.5, 1.25), the axis of symmetry is x 1.5, the maximum value

of f(x) is 1.25, and the range of f is (, 1.25]. The function f is increasing on (, 1.5] and decreasing on [1.5, ). The

graph of f is the graph of g(x) x2 shifted 1.5 units to the right and 1.25 units upward.

f(x) 0.5(x 2)2 4 0.5x2 2x 2

(A) A(x) (240 4x)x, 0 x 60

(B) The maximum combined area of 3,600 ft2 occurs at x 30 ft.

(C) Each pen is 30 ft by 40 ft with area 1,200 ft2.

(A) y 0.00434x2 0.202x 0.759

(B) 2003

1. (A) x2 5x

EXERCISE 2-3

14.

form of each quadratic function.

1. f(x) x2 4x 5

2. g(x) x2 2x 3

3. h(x) x2 2x 1

4. k(x) x2 4x 4

5. m(x) x2 4x 1

6. n(x) x2 2x 3

15.

relationship between the graph of the indicated function (from

Problems 16) and the graph of y x2.

7. f(x) x2 4x 5

9. h(x) x2 2x 1

11. m(x) x2 4x 1

8. g(x) x2 2x 3

16.

10. k(x) x2 4x 4

12. n(x) x2 2x 3

functions in Problems 16.

13.

17.

130

18.

32.

whose graph satisfies the given conditions.

For each quadratic function in Problems 1924, sketch a

graph of the function and label the axis and the vertex.

19. f(x) 2x2 24x 90

21. f(x) x2 6x 4

intervals where f is decreasing, and the range. Express

answers in interval notation.

25. f(x) 4x2 18x 25

26. f(x) 5x2 29x 17

27. f(x) 10x2 44x 12

28. f(x) 8x2 20x 16

In Problems 2932, use the graph of the parabola to find the

equation of the corresponding quadratic function.

29.

35. Vertex: (4, 12); y intercept: 4

36. Vertex: (5, 8); y intercept: 2

37. Vertex: (5, 25); additional point on graph: (2, 20)

38. Vertex: (6, 40); additional point on graph: (3, 50)

39. Graph the line y 0.5x 3. Choose any two distinct

points on this line and find the linear regression model for

the data set consisting of the two points you chose. Experiment with other lines of your choosing. Discuss the relationship between a linear regression model for two points

and the line that goes through the two points.

40. Graph the parabola y x2 5x. Choose any three distinct

points on this parabola and find the quadratic regression

model for the data set consisting of the three points you

chose. Experiment with other parabolas of your choice.

Discuss the relationship between a quadratic regression

model for three noncollinear points and the parabola that

goes through the three points.

41. Let f(x) (x 1)2 k. Discuss the relationship between

the values of k and the number of x intercepts for the

graph of f. Generalize your comments to any function of

the form

f(x) a(x h)2 k, a 0

30.

42. Let f(x) (x 2)2 k. Discuss the relationship between the values of k and the number of x intercepts for

the graph of f. Generalize your comments to any function

of the form

f(x) a(x h)2 k, a 0

C

31.

Recall that the standard equation of a circle with radius r and

center (h, k) is

(x h)2 (y k)2 r2

In Problems 4346, use completing the square twice to find the

center and radius of the circle with the given equation.

131

43. x2 y2 6x 4y 36

44. x2 y2 2x 10y 55

53. Find the minimum product of two numbers whose difference is 30. Is there a maximum product? Explain.

45. x2 y2 8x 2y 8

46. x2 y2 4x 12y 24

60. Is there a minimum product? Explain.

and f(h r) for any real number r. Interpret the results in

terms of the graph of f.

APPLICATIONS

48. Let f(x) ax2 bx c, a 0. Express each of the following in terms of a, b, and c:

(A) The axis of symmetry

(B) The vertex

(C) The maximum or minimum value of f, whichever

exists.

Problems 4952 are calculus-related. In geometry, a line

that intersects a circle in two distinct points is called a

secant line, as shown in figure (a). In calculus, the line

through the points (x1, f(x1)) and (x2, f(x2)) is called a

secant line for the graph of the function f, as shown in

figure (b).

next to a horse barn 50 feet long, using all of the barn as

one side of the corral (see the figure). He has 250 feet of

fencing available and wants to use all of it.

Horse barn

50 feet

x

Corral

y

f (x)

Q

and indicate its domain.

(x2, f (x2))

x

P

(x1, f (x1))

a circle

(a)

of a function

(b)

through the indicated points on the graph of f. Graph f and the

secant line on the same coordinate system.

49. f(x) x2 4; (1, 3), (3, 5)

50. f(x) 9 x2; (2, 5), (4, 7)

51. Let f(x) x2 3x 5. If h is a nonzero real number, then

(2, f(2)) and (2 h, f(2 h)) are two distinct points on

the graph of f.

(C) What are the dimensions of the corral with the

maximum area?

56. Construction. Repeat Problem 55 if the horse breeder has

only 140 feet of fencing available for the corral. Does the

maximum value of the area function still occur at the vertex? Explain.

57. Projectile Flight. An arrow shot vertically into the air

from a cross bow reaches a maximum height of 484 feet

after 5.5 seconds of flight. Let the quadratic function d(t)

represent the distance above ground (in feet) t seconds after the arrow is released. (If air resistance is neglected, a

quadratic model provides a good approximation for the

flight of a projectile.)

(A) Find d(t) and state its domain.

(B) At what times (to two decimal places) will the arrow

be 250 feet above the ground?

(A) Find the slope of the secant line through these two

points.

a maximum height of 324 feet after 4.5 seconds of flight.

h 0.1, h 0.01, and h 0.001. What value does

the slope seem to be approaching?

parabola 14 feet high at the center and 20 feet wide at the

base (see the figure).

132

(A) Find a quadratic regression model for the revenue

data using x as the independent variable.

h(x)

(B) Find a linear regression model for the cost data using

x as the independent variable.

14 ft

estimate the x coordinates (to the nearest integer) of

the break-even points.

x

20 ft

state its domain.

Problem 61 to estimate the indicated quantities.

(B) Can a truck that is 8 feet wide and 12 feet high pass

through the arch?

(A) How many lawn mowers (to the nearest integer) must

be produced and sold to realize a profit of $50,000?

through the arch?

(B) How many lawn mowers (to the nearest integer) must

be produced and sold to realize the maximum profit?

What is the maximum profit (to the nearest dollar)?

(D) What (to two decimal places) is the widest 12-foothigh truck that can pass through the arch?

60. Engineering. The roadbed of one section of a suspension

bridge is hanging from a large cable suspended between

two towers that are 200 feet apart (see the figure). The cable forms a parabola that is 60 feet above the roadbed at the

towers and 10 feet above the roadbed at the lowest point.

200 ft

T A B L E

d(x)

60 ft

x ft

(A) Express the vertical distance d(x) (in feet) from the

roadbed to the suspension cable in terms of x and state

the domain of d.

(B) The roadbed is supported by seven equally spaced

vertical cables (see the figure). Find the combined

total length of these supporting cables.

61. Break-Even Analysis. Table 1 contains revenue and cost

data for the production of lawn mowers where R is the total revenue (in dollars) from the sale of x lawn mowers

and C is the total cost (in dollars) of producing x lawn

mowers.

T A B L E

water consumption in the United States for selected years

from 1960 to 1990. This data is based on U.S. Geological

Survey, Estimated Use of Water in the United States in

1990, circular 1081, and previous quinquennial issues.

R ($)

C ($)

200

95,000

145,000

650

275,000

160,000

1,000

290,000

210,000

1,350

260,000

230,000

1,700

140,000

270,000

Year

Total

(billion gallons)

Irrigation

(billion gallons)

1960

61

52

1965

77

66

1970

87

73

1975

96

80

1980

100

83

1985

92

74

1990

94

76

1960. Find a quadratic regression model for the total

daily water consumption.

(B) If daily water consumption continues to follow the

trend exhibited in Table 2, when (to the nearest year)

would the total consumption return to the 1960 level?

64. Water Consumption. Refer to Problem 63.

(A) Let the independent variable x represent years since

1960. Find a quadratic regression model for the daily

water consumption for irrigation.

(B) If daily water consumption continues to follow the

trend exhibited in Table 2, when (to the nearest year)

would the consumption for irrigation return to the

1960 level?

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