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# IB Physics Formula Sheet (from the Physics Data Booklet)

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Topic 1: Measurement and uncertainties
1.1. Measurements in physics

AV
1.3.Vectors and scalars
AH = A cos
AV = A sin

## 1.2. Uncertainties and errors

If y = a b then y = a + b
A
If y = ab/c then y/y = a/a + b/b + c/c
H
If y = an then y/y = |n a/a|
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Topic 2: Mechanics
2.1. Motion
2.2. Forces 2.3. Work, energy and power
2.4. Momentum
and impulse
v = u + at
F = ma
W = Fs cos
p = mv
2
2
s = ut + (1/2)at
Ff sR
EK = (1/2)mv
F = p/t
v2 = u2 + 2as
F f d R
EP = (1/2)kx2
EK = p2/2m
s = (1/2)(v + u)/t
EP = mgh
power = Fv
Efficiency = Wout/Win = Pout/Pin
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Topic 3: Thermal concepts
3.1. Thermal concepts
Q = mct
Q = mL

## 3.2. Modelling a gas

p = F/A
n = N/NA
pV = nRT
EK = (3/2)kBT = (3/2)RT/NA
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Topic 4: Waves
4.1. Oscillations
T = 1/f

c = f

## 4.3. Wave characteristics

IA
I x-2
4.4. Wave behaviour
4.5. Standing waves
I = I0 cos
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Topic 5: Electricity and magnetism
2

## 5.1. Electric fields 5.2. Electric currents

5.3. Electric cells 5.4. Magnetic
effects
I = q/t
V = 0 (loop)
= I(R + r)
F = qvB sin
2
F = kq1q2/r
I= 0 (junction)
F = BIL sin
k= 1/(40)
R = V/I
V = W/q
P = VI = I2R = V2/R
E = F/q
Rtotal = R1 + R2 +
I = nAvq
1/Rtotal = 1/R1 + 1/R2 +
= RA/L

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Topic 6: Circular motion and gravitation
6.1. Circular motion
6.2. Newtons law of gravitation
v = r
F = GMm/r2
a = v2/r = 42r/T2
g = F/m
F = mv2/r = m2r
g = GM/r2
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Topic 7: Atomic, nuclear and particle physics
E = hf
= hc/E
7.3. The structure of matter
Charge
Quarks

E= m c2

(2/3)e

Baryon
number
1/3

-(1/3)e

1/3

## All quarks have a strangeness number of 0

except the strange quark that has a
strangeness number of -1
Charge
Leptons
-1e
e

0
e

## All leptons have a lepton

number of 1 and antileptons
have a lepton number of -1
Gravitatio
nal
All

Weak

Electromagn
etic
Charged

Strong

Particles
Quarks,
Quarks,
experiencing
leptons
gluons
Particles
Graviton
W+, W-, Z0
Gluons

mediating
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Topic 8: Energy production
8.1. Energy sources
Power = energy/time
Power = (1/2) Av3
power

## 8.2. Thermal energy transfer

P = eAT4
max = 2.9010-3/T
I = power/A
albedo = total scattered power / total incident

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Topic 9: Simple harmonic motion
9.1. SHM
9.2. Single-slit
9.3. Interference
= 2/T
= /b
n = d sin
a = -2x
Constructive interference: 2dn = (m +
)
x = x0 sin t; x = x0 cos t;
Destructive interference: 2dn = m
v = x0 cos t; v = -x0 sin t;
v = sqrt (x02 x2)
9.4. Resolution
9.5. Doppler effect
2
2
2
EK = (1/2)m (x0 x )
= 1.22 /b
Moving source: f = fv/(v
us)
ET = (1/2)m 2x02
R = (/) = mN
Moving observer: f = f(v
uo)/v
Pendulum: T = 2 sqrt (l/g)
f/f = / v/c
Mass-spring: T = 2 sqrt (m/k)
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Topic 10: Fields
10.1. Describing fields
W = qVe
W = mVg

## 10.2. Fields at work

Vg = -GM/r;
Ve = kq/r
g = -Vg/r;
E = -Ve/r
EP = mVg = -GMm/r EP = qVe = kq1q2/r
FG = Gm1m2/r2
FE = kq1q2/r2
Vesc = sqrt (2GM/r)
Vorbit = sqrt (GM/r)
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Topic 11: Electromagnetic induction
11.1. Induction

= BA cos
= -N /t
= Bvl
q0e-t/
= BvlN

## 11.2. Power generation

11.3. Capacitance
Irms = I0/2
C = q/V
Vrms = V0/2
Cparallel = C1 + C2 + = RC
R = V0/I0 = Vrms/ Irms
1/Cseries = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + q =

Pmax = I0V0
C = 0A/d
I = I0e-t/
2
Pavg = (1/2) I0V0
E = (1/2)CV
V = V0e-t/
p/s = Np/Ns = Is/Ip
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Topic 12: Quantum and nuclear physics
12.1. Interaction of matter with radiation
12.2. Nuclear physics
E = hf
P(r) = ||2V
R = R0A1/3
Emax = hf -
xp h/4
N = N0e-t
2
E = -13.6/n eV
Et h/4
A = N0e-t
mvr = nh/2
sin = /d
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Option A: Relativity

A.1. Beginnings
of relativity A.2. Lorentz transformations
A.3.
Spacetime diagrams
x = x vt
= (1 v2/c2)-1/2
= tan-1(v/c)
u = u - v
x = (x vt); x = (x vt)
t = (t vx/c2); t = (t vx/c2)
u = (u v)/(1 uv/c2)
t = t0
L = L0/ (ct)2 (x)2 = (ct)2 (x)2
A.4. Relativistic mechanics (HL only)
A.5. General relativity (HL only)
E = m0c2
f/f =gh/c2
E0 = m0c2
Rs = 2GM/c2
2
EK = ( - 1)m0c
t = t0/sqrt(1 Rs/r)
p = m0v
E2 = p2c2 + m02c4
qV = EK
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Option B: Engineering physics
B.1. Rigid bodies and rotational dynamics
= Fr sin
= 2f
pV5/3 = const
I = mr2
f = I + t
= I
f2 = I2 + 2
= Wuseful/Einput
= It + (1/2)t2
Tcold/Thot
L = I
EKrot = (1/2)I2

B.2. Thermodynamics
Q = U + W
U = (3/2)nRT
S = Q/T

W = pV

pV5/3 = const

carnot

=1

W = pV

## B.3. Fluids and fluid dynamics (HL only)

B.4. Forced vibrations
and resonance (HL only)
B = fVfg
FD = 6rv
Q = 2(Estored/Edissipated/cycle)
P = P0 + fgd
R = vr/
Q = 2fres(Estored/Ploss)
Av = constant
(1/2) v2 + gz + p = const
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Option C: Imaging
C.1. Introduction to imaging
Fibre optics
1/f = 1/v + 1/u
1/sin c
P = 1/f
log (I/I0)
m = hi/ho = -v/u

## C.2. Imaging instrumentation

M = i/o
Mnear point = D/f + 1
Minfinity = D/f

M = fo/fe

C.3.
n=

attenuation = 10

M = i/o
C.4. Medical imaging (HL only)
Lf = 10 log (I1/I0)
I = I0 e-x
x1/2 = ln 2
Z=
pc
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Option D: Astrophysics
D.1. Stellar quantities
Cosmology
d(parsec) = 1/p(arc-second)
L = AT4
B = L/(4d2)

## D.2. Stellar evolution

max = 2.910-3 m K
L M3.5

D.3.

z = /0 v/c
z = R/R0 1
v = H 0d
T 1/H0
D.4. Stellar processes (HL only)
D.5. Further cosmology (HL only)
v = sqrt(4G/3) r
c = 3H2/(8G)
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