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Africa de Sud - statistica si drapel Africa de Sud

Capitala: Pretoria;
Populatia: 44.344.000 locuitori;
Suprafata: 1.219.912 km2;
Moneda: rand-ul (100 centi);
Ziua nationala: 27 aprilie;
Limba oficiala: engleza, afrikaans;
Forma de guvernamant: republica prezidentiala;
(http://www.util21.ro/util21/harta-africa-de-sud-drapel-statistica.htm)
Africa de Sud este o ar aezat la extremitatea sudic a continentului Africa.

ASEZAREA GEOGRAFICA
Africa de Sud este o ar aezat la extremitatea sudic a continentului Africa.

Istoria
nainte de colonizarea european, teritoriul Africii de Sud a fost populat de triburi de
boimani, de hotentoi, iar apoi de populaia bantu. Colonizarea a fost nceput de
olandezi; n 1652 s-a ntemeiat Colonia Capului (din 1806 n stpnirea Angliei). Prin
rzboaie mpotriva cafrilor, purtate n secolele 18-19 de buri i de englezi, acetia i-au
lrgit considerabil posesiunile. n deceniul 4 al secolului 19 burii ntemeiaz republica
Natal (proclamat colonie engelez n 1843), iar din deceniul 6 al secolului 19 republicile
Transvaal i Orange, ocupate de Anglia n urma rzboiului anglo-bur (1899-1902). n
1910 se creeaz Uniunea Sud-African, ca dominion britanic, prin unirea Coloniei
Capului, republicilor Orange, Natal i Transvaal, care particip la primul rzboi mondial
de partea Angliei, iar la al doilea rzboi mondial de partea Aliailor. n 1949 guvernul
Uniunii Sud-Africane a anexat Africa de Sud-Vest, pe care o administrase pn atunci sub
un mandat instituit de Liga Naiunilor i mai trziu de O.N.U. n anii postbelici,
autoritile sud-africane au nsprit regimul de asuprire rasial, legifernd apartheid-ul.
La 31 mai 1961 Uniunea Sud-African s-a proclamat republic sub denumirea actual i
s-a retras din Commonwealth. Ca urmare a politicii de apartheid i a ignorrii rezoluiilor
O.N.U., Adunarea General a hotrt n noiembrie 1974 s suspende participarea
delegaiei autoritilor sud-africane la lucrrile sale. Izolarea Republicii Africa de Sud s-a
accentuat dup destrmarea sistemului colonial portughez (1975) i a proclamrii
independenei Republicii Zimbabwe (1980). Guvernul de la Pretoria a lansat atacuri
mpotriva republicilor Zimbabwe, Botswana i Zambia (1986), pe care le-a acuzat c
sprijin micarea SWAPO (Angola) i Congresul Naional African. Amploarea micrilor
de protest ale populaiei de culoare a determinat introducerea strii de urgen pe ntreg
teritoriul (12 iunie 1986). Sprijinul larg acordat de opinia public internaional luptei
mpotriva apartheid-ului a constrns guvernul s fac un ir de concesii, ntre care
eliberarea din nchisoare a lui Nelson Mandela, lider al Congresului Naional African. n
1991 s-a adoptat o legislaie prin care apartheid-ul a fost abandonat.

Relieful
Relieful Africii De Sud se mparte n dou zone. Prima este format din podiuri
predominante n roci bazaltice, cu altitudini medii de 550-1000 m. Cel mai extins dintre
acestea este Podiul Veld (alctuit din High Veld n est, cu altitudini medii de 1500-2000
m i Middle Veld n vest, cu altitudini medii de 500-700). A doua regiune a reliefului este
format dintr-o unitate montan alctuit din sistemul muntos Great Escarpment, care
mrginete podiurile spre litoral. El se termin cu Munii Scorpiei (Drakensberg) n est;
cele mai nsemnate sunt vf. Njesuthi cu 3408 m, i vf. Cathin Peak - cel mai nalt vrf
montan - cu 3657 m. La nord de fluviul Orange este un sector al deertului Kalahari - cu

cmpiile lui de dune i cu vegetaia srac - cu altitudini medii de 900-1100 m. n vestul


rii se afl o parte din sudul deertului Namib. Dup el se ntinde de-a lungul coastei (60
km) o cmpie litoral. Malurile - de la grania cu Mozambic din est, pn la fluviul
Orange din vest - sunt n majoritate nalte, stncoase i abrupte, presrate din cnd n
cnd cu golfuri (Sf. Elena) i cu peninsule (Capul Bunei Sperane, Capul Acelor).

Geografie
Cape Town este oraul de care te ndrgosteti la prima vedere. Plajele sale slbatice,
porturile, parcurile, cldirile i munii care strbat practic zona urban, fac din acest ora
destinaia numrul 1 a Africii de Sud. Frumuseea oraului este dat de vegetaia extrem
de bogat care se afl n deplin armonie cu arhitectura simplist dar cu un farmec aparte.

Clima
n interior este cald i umed vara, dar secetoas i blnd iarna.
Precipitaiile scad spre vest, iar podiul este semiarid n mare
parte din West Cape. De-a lungul coastei de vest se ntinde
zona foarte secetoas a deertului Namib. n zona Cape Town
verile sunt calde i secetoase, iar iernile calde i umede. Dei
situat, n cea mai mare parte, n zona climei tropicale, clima
Africii de Sud difer mult de cea a Saharei. Deertul propriu-zis
nu se ntlnete dect pe o fie ngust n lungul Oceanului
Atlantic (Namib), adpostit de podiuri nalte. Umiditatea
crete spre est si nord-est, datorit caracterului musonic pe
care l mbrc alizeul de sud-est, ce bate n timpul verii
australe dinspre Oceanul Indian. RHidrografie
Reeaua hidrografic este slab dezvoltat i are o scurgere periodic, cu excepia rurilor
care dreneaz regiunile estice i Cap. Cel mai important este fluviul Orange (1860 Km),
cu afluentul Vaal (1128 Km).

Vegetaie
Vegetaia tipic este reprezentat prin plante xerofile, de deert si semideert. Savanele se
prelungesc din podiurile estice, unde au ierburi nalte (veld) spre interiorul rii, unde se
transform n stepe cu ierburi rare i tufiuri. n vest apar fii de vegetaie dispuse
aproape paralel cu rmul: deert (Namib), stepe i asociaii de plante suculente (aloe).
Regiunea Cap are o vegetaie mediteranean bogat, cu numeroi arbuti venic verzi.

Industria
Mineritul i industria manufacturier sunt importante. Principalele produse sunt cele
alimentare, buturile, hrtia, produsele chimice i ngrmintele. Fier i oel se produc la

Pretoria i Newcastle. Finanele, asigurrile i turismul sunt de asemenea importante.


Africa de Sud ocup primul loc n lume ca producie de aur. Minele din Johannesburg
furnizeaz 30% din totalul mondial.

Produse importate: piese de maini, autovehicule, produse textile, produse


chimice, produse alimentare.
Produse de export: aur, diamante, metale, produse chimice, fructe, ln.
Produsul intern brut: 124.200.000.000 USD

Populaia
Africa de Sud are ntre statele africane cea mai numeroas populaie indian i populaie
alb de origine european. ara a devenit patria unor popoare numeroase din Africa, Asia
i Europa (buri) care provin din Olanda, Germania, Frana, Anglia.
Populaia de culoare provenit din alte regiuni sunt numii Khoisan fiind urmaii
sclavilor care au fost adui majoritatea din coloniile olandeze din India de est.
Acest stat stat african are o structur social complex, fiind compus pn n anul 1991
din patru clase sociale mai importante, (albi, negri africani, de alt culoare i asiatici) se
pot simi i n prezent urmele politicii de discriminare rasist (de Apartheid prin separarea
raselor) din trecut.[necesit citare]
Procentul cel mai mare din numrul populaiei l reprezint populaia neagr african
( 79,5 %) compus din Zulu, Xhosa, Basotho, Venda, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi i Ndebele,
procentul populaiei de culoare alb reprezint 9,2 % care sunt europeni venii prin
secolul XVII, populaia numit de culoare (8,9 %) sunt de provenien african foarte
diferit care au fost adui ca sclavi. Populaia de origine asiatic (2.5 %), mai ales indian
au fost adui pe plantaiile de trestie de zahr din Natal pe la mijlocul secolului XIX, ei
triesc mai ales n provincia KwaZulu-Natal.
73,52% din numrul populaiei sunt de religie cretin (catolici, protestani sau
anglicani). Cei care practic religii tradiional-etnice indigene sunt n numr de peste 6
milioane(aprox.15%). Musulmanii reprezint 1,45% din numrul populaiei, Hinduii
1,25%, adepii Credintei Bah' 0,5%, Evreii 0,17%, Buditii si cei care urmeaz una din
religiile tradiionale chinezeti reprezint la un loc 0,03 din totalul populaiei, iar 3,2
milioane(aprox. 8,08%) se declar nereligioi.

Patrimoniul mondial UNESCO


Pe lista patrimoniului mondial UNESCO sunt incluse urmtoarele obiective din Africa de
Sud:

Parcul natural din zona umed Sainte-Lucie (1999)


Robben Island (1999)
Siturile fosilifere cu hominizi de la Sterkfontein, Swartkrank, Kromdraai i din
mprejurimile acestora (1999, 2005)
Parcul natural Drakensberg (Qathlamba) (2000)
Peisajul cultural din Mapungubwe (2003)

Arealul protejat din regiunea Cap Floral (2004)


Domul Vredefort (2005)
Peisajul cultural i botanic de la Richtersveld (2007)

Regiunea Cap are un climat mediteranean, cu ploi de iarn.


(http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa_de_Sud#ASEZAREA_GEOGRAFICA)

Economia Africii de Sud


Economia Africii de Sud
Moned

1 Rand = 100 ceni

An Fiscal

1 aprilie - 31 martie

Organizaii
comerciale

Organizaia Mondial a
Comerului, SADC, SACU
Statistici [1]

PIB poziia

24 (2005) [2]

PIB

534.6 miliarde dolari(2005)


[3]

creterea PIB 4.6% (2005)


PIB pe cap de 12.100 dolari (2005)
locuitor
PIB pe
sectoare

agricultur (3.4%), industrie


(31.6%), servicii (65.1%)
(2005)

Rezerve
Forex

20.16 miliarde dolari


(februarie 2006)

Inflaie

CPI - 1.4% (2004)


CPIX - 4.3% (2004)

Sub nivelul
de

50% (2000)

subzisten
Fora de
munc

15.23 milioane (2005)

Fora de
munc dup
ocupaie

servicii (45%), industrie


(25%), agricultur (30%)
(1999)

omaj

26.6% (2005)

Industriile
principale

miner (platin, aur, crom,


diamante), ansamblare de
maini, metalurgic,
energetic, testile,
siderurgic, chimic,
ngrminte, alimentar

Parteneri comerciali [4]


Exporturi

40.91 miliarde dolari(2005)

Parteneri
principali

Regatul Unit 12.6%, SUA


12.4%, Japonia 9.2%,
Germania 8.1%, China 4.7%,
Italia 4.4% (2003)

Importuri

52.97 miliarde dolari (2005)

Parteneri
principali

Germania 16.6%, Regatul


Unit 8.5%, SUA 8.2%,
Japonia 5.9%, China 5.9%,
Arabia Saudit 5.2%, Frana
5.0% (2003)
Finanele publice [5]

Datoria
public

44.33% din PIB (iunie 2005)

Venituri

47.43 miliarde dolari(2004)

Cheltuieli

52.54 miliarde dolari (2004)

Ajutor
economic
(primit)

487.5 milioane dolari (2000)

editeaz

Economia Africii de Sud este o economie de pia funcional. Africa de Sud este ara
cu economia cea mai dezvoltat din Africa, bazat pe exploatarea i prelucrarea unor
resurse minerale extrem de variate i bogate i dispunnd de o infrastructur modern
(inclusiv financiar-bancar).
n afar de faptul c deine cvasimonopolul unor rezerve minerale (peste 4/5 din rezervele
mondiale de mangan, 2/3 din cele de platin, peste 1/2 din cele de aur i crom) i al
produciei n domeniu, Republica Africa de Sud este unul dintre principalii productori
mondiali de diamante, uraniu, crbuni superiori, minereu de fier, metale rare (titan,
vanadiu, antimoniu .a.) etc.
Industria prelucrtoare, bine dezvoltat i variat, concentrat n 4 mari regiuni
industriale: Transvaal(minerit, metalurgie, construcia de maini .a.), Cape (rafinarea
petrolului, industria alimentar i uoar), Port Elizabeth (metalurgie, mijloace de
transport, textile .a.) i Pretoria (autovehicule, industrie chimic, alimentar etc).
Agricultura (5% din PIB, c. 30% din populaia activ, 1999), cu o mare varietate de
situaii (de la ferme ultramoderne, la agricultura de subzisten), prezint un echilibru
ntre cultura plantelor (cereale, trestie i sfecl de zahr, bumbac, tutun, citrice, vi de
vie) i creterea animalelor (ovine - locul 1 n Africa, ca efective i ca producie de ln -,
apoi caprine, bovine i porcine). Balana agricol este excedentar, Republica Africa de
Sud fiind unul dintre principalii exportatori mondiali de produse agricole.
Reea de transport bine dezvoltat (30% din reeaua feroviar i, respectiv, 45% din
parcul de autovehicule ale Africii), porturi active i aeroporturi internaionale ce asigur
legturi cu restul lumii. Balan comercial constant excedentar, principalii parteneri
fiind Marea Britanie, SUA, Italia, Germania, Japonia.
Turismul, legat prioritar de vizitarea numeroaselor zone naturale ocrotite, contribuie, de
regul, cu aproape 3 md. $/an la veniturile rii.
(http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economia_Africii_de_Sud)

South Africa
20 largest companies: SABMiller plc, Sasol, Sanlam Ltd., Metro Cash and Carry Ltd,
FirstRand Ltd, Smith CG, ABSA Group, Sappi, Standard Bank of South Africa, Barloworld Ltd.,
Telkom SA, Pepkor, Nedcor, Premier Group Ltd., Anglovaal Mining, DiData (Dimension Data Holdings
Ltd), Anglogold Ashanti Ltd, Iscor Ltd., Impala Platinum Holdings Ltd, Aerospace & defense: Denel,
Food: Brobon Finex Ltd, Capespan, Premier Group Ltd., SABMiller plc, Insurance: Discovery,
Sanlam Ltd., Banking: ABSA Group, Cape of Good Hope Bank, Elbim Bank, First National Bank of
South Africa, Nedbank, Nedcor, Rand Merchant Group, Standard Bank of South Africa, Wood &

paper products: Sappi, Construction: Barloworld Ltd., Basil Read, Concor, Group Five, Pretoria
Portland Cement Co, Retail: Massmart Holdings Ltd, Metro Cash and Carry Ltd, Pepkor, Pick 'n Pay
Stores Ltd, Conglomerate: Smith CG, Electronics: MIH Holdings Ltd., Energy & water: Drako,
Eskom, Sasol, Equipment: DiData (Dimension Data Holdings Ltd), Computer hardware: State:
Public institution, Holding: Remgro ex-Rembrandt Group, Media: Naspers Ltd, Metals & mining:
Afrikander Lease Ltd, Anglogold Ashanti Ltd, Anglovaal Mining, Aquarius Platinum, Assmang Ltd,
Aveng, Cape Gate Pty Ltd, Cape Town Iron Steel Works Pty Lyd, Coal of Africa Ltd, De Beers
Consolidated Mines Ltd, DRDGold, Durban Roodepoort Deep Ltd., Gold Fields Ltd., Guinea-Bissau
Phosphate Mining Co, Harmony Gold Mining Co. Ltd., Highveld Steel & Vanadium Corp, Impala
Platinum Holdings Ltd, Iscor Ltd., Kulungile Metals Group, Kumba Resources, Macsteel Holdings Pty
Ltd, Northam Platinum Ltd, Pro Roof Steel Merchants, Randgold Exploration Co. Ltd., Scaw Metals
Group, Sylvania Resources Ltd, Private Person: Oppenheimer, Nicky, Rupert (famille),
Telecommunications services: Cell C, MTN Group Ltd Mobile Telephone Networks, Telkom SA,
Thintana Communications, Transportation services: South African Airlines, Financial services:
FirstRand Ltd, Investec Group, Sport clubs: South African Airlines,

(http://www.transnationale.org/countries/zafs.php)

South Africa

General Information
Capital(s):

Pretoria
Population:
Area:
Currency:
Language(s):

Geography
Dialing Code:
South Africa is situated at the southern tip of Africa forming part of the Southern Africa
region and is bordered by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland.
Lesotho is situated within South Africas borders.
There are nine provinces Gauteng, Western Cape, Kwazulu Natal, Eastern Cape,
Northern Cape, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Free State and the North West. Pretoria is the
executive capital and Cape Town the legislative capital. Other major cities include

Johannesburg, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein and East London.


The countrys climate varies from region to region. The Western Cape experiences a
Mediterranean climate and the interior has a semi-desert climate with cold, dry winters
and summer rainfall. Kwazulu Natal has a subtropical climate with humid conditions.
Snow is uncommon and is limited to the highest lying regions of the country.

Politics
South Africa was first inhabited by the Khoisan, followed by Bantu tribes migrating from
the North. These were first exposed to Europeans when Portuguese explorer Bartholomeu
Dias rounded the Cape in 1488 and Vasco de Gama landed at the Cape en route to India
in 1497. The first European colony was established in 1652 by Jan van Riebeek on behalf
of the Dutch East India Company as a food station for ships on the trade routes.
The colony expanded as more settlers arrived and it became an important strategic point
on the trade route with the Netherlands, France and Britain competing for its control. The
British seized power in 1795 which they lost to the Dutch between 1803 and 1806.
The British colonial war was characterised by protracted scuffles with indigenous groups
and, later, with the Afrikaners during two Anglo Boer Wars. The scorched earth policy
adopted by the British in the Second Anglo Boer War left a large number of displaced
people, a depressed economy and a legacy of bitterness.
In 1910 South Africa became a self-governing union as a member of the Commonwealth.
Between 1910 and 1948 laws based on race were passed and protests (largely ineffective)
followed. Britain continued to be influential in the union until 1948 when the National
Party won the election.
The National Party implemented apartheid forced the separation of races with whites
having preferential access. This was done through legislation such as the Prohibition of
Mixed Marriage Act, the Population Registration Act (that introduced race classification)
and the Group Areas Act. Black organisations united against apartheid and staged mass
protests.
In 1961 South Africa became a republic and withdrew from the Commonwealth. The
United Nations refused to recognise the republic and South Africa effectively began a 30
year period of international isolation. The country was excluded from international
organisations and sporting events and also had economic and trade sanctions imposed
that served to slow down the economy to such an extent that it could no longer survive in
the isolation.
During these years of isolation, the government continued to intensify the implementation
of apartheid and the opposition movements increased their protests. Many analysts are of
the opinion that the events of June 16 1976, when Sowetos youth protested against

legislation making Afrikaans the language in which subjects were to be taught, were the
turning point in the struggle against apartheid.
Political reforms started in 1986 with the repeal of certain apartheid legislation. Nelson
Mandela was released in 1990 after 27 years in prison and the ANC began a process of
negotiation with the National Party government. The negotiation process culminated in
the drafting of a constitution and the countrys first democratic elections in 1994. In the
same year the country was accepted back into international organisations.
The second national and parliamentary elections were held on June 2, 1999. In the
national elections, the ANC narrowly missed a two-thirds majority. The ANC won the
majority of seats in the parliamentary elections securing 233 seats, the DP won 38, the
IFP 34, the NNP 28, the UDM 14, the ADP 6 and the final 14 were won by a smaller
parties.
Active political parties in South Africa include:
African National Congress (ANC)
African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP)
Democratic Alliance (DA)
United Democratic Movement (UDM)
Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP)
Pan-African Congress (PAC)
Freedom Front (FF)
In October 2002, the Constitutional Court ruled on the provisions of floor-crossing
legislation with regard to political parties and ruled that representatives of a political
party were not allowed to defect to another political party on the national and provincial
level, but this is allowed on the municipal level. The result has been shifts of power in
mainly from the DA to the NNP and the ANC who have formed a coalition.

Economy
South Africa has the most advanced economy on the African continent. Since1994,
particularly, the country's economy has grown rapidly. Its geographical position provides
an ideal gateway to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The most important contributors to the economy include the mining sector,manufacturing
and agriculture. Most economic activity takes place in Gauteng where most mining

occurs. The country's financial and industrial infrastructure is well-developed with


excellent growth potential.
The country is plagued with the problem of large socio-economic inequalitiesthat resulted
from the apartheid regime and continues to manifest itself in theform of high
unemployment rates, wide areas of poverty and increases in crime.An informal sector has
developed as a result of unemployment and this posesanother challenge to the country's
economic development.
In 2005 Moodys raised South Africa's sovereign rating one notch higher to Baa1.
Moody's cited the marked improvement in SA's foreign exchange reserves and faster
economic growth as justifying a higher grade.
South Africa's major trading partners are Germany, United States, United Kingdom,
Japan, the Netherlands and China.

Industry sectors
Mining is South Africas largest industry sector followed by manufacturing, oil and gas,
chemicals, agriculture and tourism. The clothing and textiles, financial services and
banking sectors have shown significant growth in recent years.
South Africa is globally recognised as being a leading supplier of a variety of minerals
and mineral products that are exported to as many as 87 countries. Each year,
approximately 55 different minerals are produced from more than 700 mining facilities,
with gold, platinum group elements (PGE's), coal and diamonds dominating exports and
revenue earnings.
The structure of the mining industry is set to change dramatically, following the
introduction of South Africa's new Mining Charter that cedes all mineral rights to the
State as well as introducing an empowerment component for all future mining
developments in the country.
Agriculture contributes 4% to the country's GDP and consists largely of cattle and sheep
farming with only 13% of land used for growing crops. Maize is most widely grown
followed by wheat, oats, sugar cane and sunflowers. The government is working to
develop small-scale farming in efforts to boost job creation. Citrus and decidious fruits
are exported, as are locally produced wines and flowers.
The clothing and textiles industry has showed significant growth as a result of the Africa
Growth and Opportunity Act. The industry earned R791 million in 2001 from exports to
the US alone, an increase of 51% from the year before.
The conference and exhibition industry earned South Africa R17.4 billion in 2001 and
created 246 000 new jobs. South Africa has a 2.5% share of the global market for this

industry. Johannesburg is the most popular event venue with over 37% of all events held
there and Cape Town is becoming more popular with the construction of the Cape Town
International Convention Centre to be completed in 2002.

Investment
Since 1994 the government of South Africa has taken steps to make the country more
open to foreign investment. In 1997 the Department of Trade and Industry launched a
national investment agency called Investment South Africa tasked with the promotion of
investment at a national and provincial level. The agency also provides investment
requirements and opportunities available in every province. There is no restriction on the
extent or type of foreign investment in South Africa.
The government has tried to encourage both foreign and domestic investment by the
introduction of <incentives>. These cover all industries and encourage investment in the
form of finance, technology, knowledge and skills.

Communications and Infrastructure


South Africas communication system is well-developed with 5.5 million installed
telephones and 4.3 million installed exchange lines. The network is almost entirely digital
with digital microwave and fibre optics serving as the main transmission media. Internet
access is widely available. State-controlled Telkom is responsible for the installation and
maintenance of these facilities.
A second fixed line operator was expected to be licensed in 2002, but this is expected to
happen in 2005. This is one of the reform measures being undertaken by the government
in order to promote empowerment in the industry. The Independent Communications
Authority of South Africa (ICASA) is the regulator of the communications industry while
the Department of Communication is the responsible government body. The
communications industry is undergoing reform through measures
South Africa is the worlds fourth fastest growing GSM market with a growth rate of 50%
per annum. There are three operators in the country namely; MTN, Cell C and Vodacom.
The countrys transport infrastructure is highly-developed with extensive road and rail
networks. The Department of Transport is responsible for the upkeep of roads. The
national road system links all major cities.
Spoornet controls the rail system though Metrorail provides public transport services. The
rail system links major centres and is used extensively by heavy industry for freight
transport.
Electricity and water services are available in all urban areas and most rural areas
although there are shortfalls in some rural areas.

Health
The Department of Health is the government body responsible for the countrys health
facilities which include well-equipped hospitals and primary healthcare clinics. The
government has placed much emphasis on the primary healthcare sector specifically in
rural and poorer areas. Treatment for TB available free of charge at all clinics. Malaria is
endemic in the low-altitude areas of the Northern Province, Mpumalanga and northeastern KwaZulu-Natal and the highest-risk area is a strip of about 100 km along the
Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland border.
Costs for admission to private and provincial hospitals vary and private hospitals usually
require proof of membership to a medical scheme/aid.
The Department of Health has initiated the Extended Expanded Programme on
Immunisation that aims to make immunisation facilities available to all children and
women of child-bearing age. Immunisations against TB, whooping cough, tetanus,
diphtheria, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B and measles are available free of charge to all
children up to the age of five years.

Business Travel
Visitors to South Africa are required to have a visa upon arrival and valid international
health certificates. Enquiries can be directed to South African diplomatic missions or to
the Department of Home Affairs in Pretoria.
Tourists must satisfy immigration officials that they have the means to support
themselves during their stay and are in possession of return or onwards tickets. Visitors
intending to travel to South Africas neighbours are advised to apply for multiple-entry
visas. Foreign tourists visiting South Africa can have their value-added tax (VAT)
refunded, provided the value of the items purchased exceeds R20. VAT is refunded on
departure at the point of exit.
Visas specifically for business purposes are available though nationals from Canada, the
EU and the United States are not required to have them. An application for a business
visa must include the application form, a valid passport and a letter on the parent
companys letterhead that undertakes financial responsibility for the applicant during
their stay in South Africa. It is also necessary to provide flight details and addresses of
businesses to be visited.

Business Assistance
The Department of Trade and Industry offers a variety of services to those interested in
establishing or conducting business in South Africa. These services include details of how
to conduct business in the country as well as the requirements for the establishment of a
business and the different forms that a business can take.

MBendi client Cliffe Dekker provides valuable information in this regard.

Risk
South Africa has been reviewed and rated by the worlds most accredited risk ratings
agencies including Fitch and Standard and Poors.
Standard and Poors (S&P) have South Africa a risk rating A-/Stable/A-2 BBB/Stable/A3. This is based on the fact that the government has implemented sensible fiscal policies
and has managed to bring spending under control. The country has also decreased deficits
and the external debt burden. S&P praised the South African Reserve Bank for its
independent nature and commitment to lowering inflation. The privatisation programme
is encouraging foreign direct investment with the future looking bright in this regard.
Fitch revised the countrys rating from stable to positive as a result of a sound
macroeconomic record that the company says has contributed well to public finances.
The fact that government debt is generally denominated in local currency means that it is
not vulnerable to volatile exchange rates. Fitch also referred to the significant decrease in
external debt.
The S&P and Fitch ratings for South Africa were constrained by the huge socio-economic
inequalities that exist, the structural economic weaknesses and low levels of external
liquidity. The threat of HIV/AIDS and the high levels of unemployment are problems that
serve to deter foreign investment. South Africa has only had modest growth rates in
recent years and this is put down to the populations low saving levels. The relaxation of
exchange controls makes the country increasingly vulnerable to erratic capital inflows.

Memberships (30)
African Development Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
International Finance Corporation, International Monetary Fund, Southern African
Development Community, African Union, The World Bank Group, United Nations,
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, World Trade Organisation ::[ View All ]

Exchanges (2)
Alternative Exchange, JSE

Event Venues (756)


Jacana, Kariega Conference Centre, ABSA Conference Centre, Been2Clarens,
Bushwillow Lodge, By Delight, Canefields Country House, Cape Town International
Convention Centre (CTICC), Carfind Conference Centre, Constantia Hotel Conference
Centre, Country Bumpkin Restaurant and Function Venue, CSIR International
Convention Centre, Cullinan Hotel Conference Centre, Dinoko Centre, Duck & Hound

Conference Venue :[ View All ]

Facilities (6,961)
Caltex Deneysville, 345 Nursery School, 4 Ways Filling Station, 45th Convenience
Centre, 45th Service Station, 7 Eleven Atlantis, 9 Dolphins 1 Stop, A & J Motors, A &s
Motors, A Club Service Station, A J Motors, A L Bradfield, A L S Chemex South Africa
(Pty) Ltd, A M Moola Spes Nova Elsen - Phoenix, A R K Christian School, A R Motors,
A Re Itireleng Pre - School, Aaron Motors Temba, Abaqulusi Service Station, Abbot's
College :[ View All ]

Travel Facilities
AccommodationFahrenheit Resorts B&B, Jacana Guest Farm,
(10,643):Africa Centre Airport Leisure Hotel and Travel Centre, Azure View,
Greenways Hotel, Watervale Lodge, Amakhala Safari Lodge,
Bayethe Lodge, Botlierskop Private Game Reserve, Bush Lodge,
Bushmans River Lodge, Camp Jabulani, Djuma Bush Lodge,
Djuma Galoga Camp, Djuma Vuyatela Lodge :[ View All ]
AttractionsJacana Farm, Kapama Private Game Reserve, Kariega Game Reserve,
(5,342):Mabula Private Game Reserve, Monate Game Reserve,
Motswari Private Game Reserve, Sanbona Wildlife Reserve,
Shamwari Private Game Reserve, Shibula Bush Spa,
Thornybush Private Game Reserve, Tswalu Kalahari Reserve,
Witwater Game Reserve, Witwater Safari Spa,
Zulu Nyala Game Reserve, 3 in 1 Just 4 Fun :[ View All ]
Restaurants95 Keerom, 96 Winery Road, African Juction, Afro Cafe,
(6,093):Al Fresco Restaurant, Arnolds on Kloof, Aubergine, Azure,
Beira Alta Restaurante Portugus, Betty Boop's Bistro on Main,
Bon Rouge Bistro, Bosman's, Bossa Nova, Bouillabaisse,
Bread & Wine :[ View All ]
Transport relatedBreede River House Boat Hire, Cruising South Africa,
(5,815):Engen Meadowridge, O.R. Tambo International Airport,
Pearl Travel and Tours, Sannaspos Museum,
Sun Land Transfers & Tours, TOTAL Witkoppen, Caltex Deneysville,
4 Ways Filling Station, 45th Convenience Centre,
45th Service Station, 7 Eleven Atlantis, 9 Dolphins 1 Stop,
A & J Motors :[ View All ]
Other Facilities:Witbank/Emalahleni Information and Tourism Office
Who Owns Whom supplies niche research on the leading growth sectors and most
economically active company groupings in South Africa, the bulk of which are private
companies.
Leading South African law firm Cliffe Dekker Hofmeyr provides an overview of
privatisation in South Africa which is updated on a regular basis so interested parties can

stay abreast of the process.


A number of chemical products are used to facilitate refinery operations. These include
catalysts, process chemicals, performance additives and specialised dyestuffs. CPI
Engineering South Africa is one of the key suppliers of these products in South Africa.
Project Facility International (PFI) is widely acknowledged as one of the foremost,
African based, independent certified corporate and project planning firm of consultants,
charged with the responsibility of providing a smorgasbord of specialist construction and
industrial development management and financial support services throughout the
African continent and beyond..
Sunspray is a South African Company, which makes and sells powdered foodstuffs and
food ingredients, dry-blended or spraydried.
MBT South Africa import plastics raw materials for the processing industry across the
southern African sub-continent. The company is small and focused, and prides itself on
its technical knowledge and responsiveness to customer needs.
The CEF (Pty) Ltd is the South African government's holding company in the petroleum
industry. CEF is mandated by the state to engage in the acquisition, exploitation,
generation, manufacture, marketing and distribution of energy from and to engage in
research relating to the energy sector.
Wildnet Africa Properties has the finest selection of wildlife and nature-orientated
investment opportunities available in Southern Africa. We specialise in game ranches
and eco-tourism real estate investments.
Business Presentation Skills partners their clients to achieve successful business
relationships through effective interpersonal communication skills.
Phillips Consulting is a world-class management consulting firm who specialise in
assisting foreign companies to do business in Africa.
The Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa is a self-financing, national
development finance institution focusing on contributing to economic growth, industrial
development and economic empowerment through its financing activities.
(http://www.mbendi.com/land/af/sa/p0005.htm#TFacs)