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Force System I

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Force Vectors

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Problem 1
FR = 867 N
f = 108o

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force of F1, F2


and its direction measured counter clockwise from the positive axis
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Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia

EM 2008
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Graphical Representation of
a Vector A
Line of Action

Tail

20o

Head

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Operations by Scalars

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Vector Addition

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Addition of Collinear Vector

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IMPORTANT POINTS
A scalar is a positive or negative number.
A vector is a quantity that has magnitude,
direction, and sense.
Multiplication or division of a vector by a
scalar will change the magnitude of the vector.
The sense of the vector will change if the scalar
is negative.
As a special case, if the vectors are collinear,
the resultant is formed by an algebraic or scalar
addition.
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Vector Subtraction

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Resolution of a Vector

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Vector Addition of Forces

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Problem 1
FR = 867 N
f = 108o

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force of F1, F2


and its direction measured counter clockwise from the positive axis
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Faculty of Engineering University of Indonesia

EM 2008
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FR

105

FR F1 F2 2F1F2 cos 75
2

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FR

75

FR F1 F2 2F1F2 cos 75
2

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FR

75

FR F1 F2 2F1F2 cos 75
2

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FR F1 F2 2F1F2 cos 75
2

FR 600 2 800 2 2 600 800 cos 75


FR 360000 640000 960000 cos 75
FR 1000000 960000 0.259
FR 9751533
FR 867N
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FR
F2
F1

sin 75 sin sin


FR
F2
F1

sin 75 sin sin


800
sin
sin 75
867
sin ...

arcsin ...
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Problem 2

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force of F1, F2, F3


and its direction measured counter clockwise from the positive axis
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FR12
FR123

FR FR12 F3 2 FR1F3 cos 93


2

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FR 867 2 450 2 2 867 450 cos 93


FR 995026 997.51
FR 998N

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FR
FR12
F1

sin 93 sin sin


F3
FR
FR12

sin 93 sin sin


867
sin
sin 93
998

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Procedure of Analysis

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Parallelogram Law
Make a sketch showing the vector addition
using the parallelogram law.
Two component forces add according to
the parallelogram law, yielding a resultant
force that forms the diagonal of the
parallelogram.

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If a force is to be resolved into


components along two axes directed from
the tail of the force, then start at the head
of force and construct lines parallel to the
axes, thereby forming the parallelogram.
The sides of the parallelogram represent
the components.
Label all the known and unknown force
magnitudes and the angles on sketch and
identify the two unknowns.

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Trigonometry
Redraw a half portion of the parallelogram
to illustrate the triangular head-to-tail
addition of the components.
The magnitude of the resultant force can
be determined from the law of cosines,
and its direction is determined from the
law of sine.
The magnitude of two force components
are determined from the law of sine.
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Sine Law

A
B
C

sin a sin b sin c


Cosine Law

C A B 2 AB cos c
2

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Example 1

The screw eye in Figure is


subjected to two forces, F1 and
F2. Determine the magnitude
and direction of the resultant
force.

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Example 2

Resolve the 200-lb force on the


pipe in the Figure, into
components in the (a) x and y
directions, and (b) x and y
directions.

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Example 3

The force F acting on the frame shown in


Figure has a magnitude of 500 N and is to
be resolved into two components acting
along members AB and AC. Determine
the angle , measured below the
horizontal, so that the component FAC is
directed from A toward C and has a
magnitude of 400 N.

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Example 4
The ring shown in Figure is
subjected to two forces F1 and
F2. If it is required that the
resultant force have a magnitude
of 1 kN and be directed vertically
downward, determine:
(a) the magnitudes of F1 and F2
provided = 30o, and
(b) the magnitudes of F1 and F2 if F2
is to be a minimum.

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Forces
System

2D Problem

3D Problem

Co-Planar
Vectors

Scalar
Notation

Algebraic
Scalar

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Cartesian
Vectors
Cartesian
Vector
Notation

Cartesian
Unit
Vector
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Addition of a System of
Coplanar Forces

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Problem 2
F1y

F1x

Determine the magnitude of the resultant force of F1, F2, F3


and its direction measured counter clockwise from the positive axis
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F1 F 1x F1 y
F2 F2 x F2 y
F3 F3 x F3 y

F
F
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F1x F2 x F3 x

F1 y F2 y F3 y

F1 F 1x i F1 y j

F2 F2 x i F2 y j

F3 F3 x i F3 y j

Fx F1x F2 x F3x i

Fy F1y F2 y F3 y j

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Scalar Notation

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Cartesian Vector Notation

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Coplanar Force Resultants

FRx Fx

FRy Fy
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FR
FRy

FR

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FRx FRy
2

tan
FRx

FRy
FRx

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Cartesian Vectors

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Problem 3

F3 = 166 N
= o
= 63.7o
g = 27.5o

Three forces act on the hook. If the resultant force FR has a


magnitude and direction as shown, determine the magnitude
and the coordinate direction angles of F3.
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Forces
System

2D Problem

3D Problem

Co-Planar
Vectors

Scalar
Notation

Algebraic
Scalar

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Cartesian
Vectors
Cartesian
Vector
Notation

Cartesian
Unit
Vector
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z
Cartesian
Unit
Vectors

Cartesian
Vectors

Right-handed
Coordinate
System
z
Rectangular
Az
Components
of a Vector

Ay

Ax

A Ax i Ay j Az k
Cartesian Vector
Representation
Unit
Vector

A Au A
y

Unit vector have a magnitude


of 1 and same direction as A.

uA 0

x
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Rectangular Components of a Vector

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Representation

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Magnitude

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Direction

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Direction

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Addition and Subtraction of


Cartesian Vectors

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Position Vectors

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x, y, z coordinates

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Position Vector

r xi yj zk

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rA r rB

r rB - rA xB i yB j zBk xAi y A j z Ak
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Force Vector
Directed Along a Line

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Dot Product

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Problem 4

Proj. F
= 0.667 kN

Determine the projection of the force F along the pole


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Dot Product

A B AB cos
A B Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz
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Laws of Operating

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Applications
The angle formed
between two vectors
or intersecting lines.

The component of a
vector parallel and
perpendicular to a
line.
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AB
cos

AB
0 180
1

A A cos A.u
A A cos u A.u u

A A A
2

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The Angle

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The Components

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The scalar projection of A along a line is determined


from dot product of A and the unit vector u which
defines the direction of the line.

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Example 1

The frame shown in Figure is subjected to a horizontal force F =


{300j} N. Determine the magnitude of the components of this
force parallel and perpendicular to member AB.
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Example 2

The pipe in Figure is subjected to the force of F = 80 lb.


Determine the angle between F and the pipe segment BA, and the
magnitudes of the components of F, which are parallel and
perpendicular to BA.
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