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Modal Verbs in the

and Gerund


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2. READING Self-Study


Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Grammar Vocabulary

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Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

CONTENTS-------- No.
Modal Auxiliaries




Must Have to






Reading Comprehension


English Through Songs



Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Modal Auxiliaries
modal periphrastic modal
to modal

Periphrastic Modals


be able to


be going to, be about


have to, have got to


be to, be supposed to

would (past habit)

used to

could, might

be allowed to


be allowed to

1. modals 1

Tom may can go by himself.
Susan will must see the doctor.
I ought to must follow his advice.
2. modal periphrastic modal modal periphrastic modal
Everybody in this room will have to pay for the ticket.
You should be able to read and write English.
She might be able to go with us tonight.
3. infinitive without to modal tense
a. I must go.
I must to go.


Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

b. We should accept the offer.

We should to accept the offer.
c. They can do it themselves.
They cans do it themselves.

d. He ought to keep the job.

He ought keep the job.

4. periphrastic modal
Lydia is going to have to improve her English.
She is supposed to be able to perform well in the test.
You are to have got to help him in this case.
I am about to be able to complete the task.
You are supposed to be able to help him in this case.
5. modal periphrastic modal

The children can be able to swim.
We should be to go.
Tom will be going to fly to Japan next week.
Everybody should be supposed to leave.
Jane must have to quit school.
Modal-Like Forms
had better (not)
would rather (not)
would (not) prefer to
would (not) like to
You had better stay home than go to work.
Id better not take the post.
Mr. Philip would rather have tea than (have) coffee.
Theyd rather not join the program.

She would prefer to go to school instead of working.

Marie would not prefer to go shopping, but she would like to stay home.
1. (request)
Will / Would / Can / Could you help me with the home work?

May / Might / Can / Could he leave the room?

present past form past form
present form
A: Can / Could / Will / Would you please do me a favor?
B: Yes, I can. Yes, I could.
Yes, I will. Yes, I would.
Shall we?
We could
Would you like to?
You should see a doctor.


Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

They might have to consult this problem with their parents.

She had better follow our instructions.
You must see a doctor.
We think that Joe should accept it.
Shall we go out for a meal tonight?
Would you like to come here tomorrow?
You can / cant / may / may not / must / mustnt
They can stay here if they want to.
She may borrow these books whenever she like.
We can go out, but we must be back by midnight.
Hes afraid Mr. Jimmy cant wait in this room.
You mustnt smoke too much to avoid lung cancer.

Each player may look at the cards once.
Candidates must not start writing until the examiner tells them to.
Can / Shall we / I ?
Would you like ?
Shall I?
May I? (more formal)
Can I help you?
Shall I carry that for you?
Would you like some tea?
Would you like me to help you?
Ill make you some breakfast, shall I?
May I take your coat?

Degree of certainty



certainty, certain


probably, probable


perhaps, quite possible

could, might

possibly, possible

Practice Self-Study
1. would rather / work / not / I / next Monday.
2. seen / have / would rather / I / the movie / than read the book.

3. have gone / might / to the library / last night / she.

4. they / warned / should / gave / us

5. wouldnt like to / his job / have/ I

1. I would rather not work next Monday.
2. I would rather have seen the movie than read the book.
3. She might have gone to the library last week.
4. They should have warned us.
5. I wouldnt like to have his job.



Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

B. modal
1. I promise to phone you next Friday.

2. At the age of nine, he still didnt know how to read.

3. It is essential that we leave on time this evening.

4. Are you able to come with them tonight?

5. He refuses to give me an answer.

6. Is it possible for me to sit here?

7. Its not a good idea for you to work so hard.

8. Why dont you go and see a film tonight?

9. Bob said that he intended to write to you soon.

10. It is possible that theyll be here soon.

1. I will call you next Friday.
2. At the age of nine, he still couldnt read.
3. We must / have to leave on time this evening.
4. Can you come with them tonight?
5. He will not give me an answer.



6. May / Can / Could I sit here?
7. You should / ought to not work so hard.
8. You should / ought to see a film tonight.
9. Bob will write to you soon.
10. They might / could be here soon.

1. I will can go to school next week.

2. She mays come to our party.

3. He should to pride himself.

4. In America, you must to speak English.

5. Kino cans help you with financial problems.

1. I will be able to go to school next week.
2. She may come to our party.
3. He should pride himself.
4. In America, you must speak English.
5. Kino can help you with financial problems.



Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Can, Could, (be) able to
can + infinitive ( ) can swim, can go
We can see the sea from our living room window.
Can she speak Chinese?
I can go to visit her tomorrow if she wants.
can cannot/ cant
I cant swim because I have a headache.
Mrs. Mary is afraid she cannot come to see Mr. Joe tomorrow.
(be) able to can can
Is she able to speak Chinese?
I am able to visit her tomorrow if she wants
can 2 can (present) could (past) (be) able to..

He cant sleep.
He hasnt been able to sleep. (can present perfect)
John can go tomorrow.
John might be able to go tomorrow. (can infinitive)
Could was able to
could can could

hear smell

taste feel



When they went into the house, they could smell the burning.
Susan spoke very loud, but I couldnt hear what she said.




My grandmother could speak four languages.
I could do everything I wanted because I were completely free. (

was/were able to ( could)
The fire spread through the building very quickly, but everyone was able to escape.

Tom was an excellent tennis player. He could beat every team.

(= )

Tom and Tim had a game of tennis last week. Tim played very well, but in the end Tom was able to
beat him.
(= )
Couldt (could not)
His brother couldnt speak Japanese.
They tried hard, but they couldnt persuade her to go with them.
Tim played very well, but he couldnt beat Tom.



Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Practice ONLINE
A. can (be) able to
1. Anne ___________ drive, but she hasnt got her own car.
2. My mother cant understand Jim. Shes never____________ understand him.
3. She used to ____________ stand on my head, but I cant do it now.
4. He cant see you on this Sunday, but I ____________ meet you on Monday afternoon.
5. Ask Anita about your problem, she might___________ help you.
1. can

2. been able to

3. be able to

4. can

5. be able to

B. can / cant / could / couldnt +






1. When Jeny was 15, she was a fast runner. She ____________ 100 metres in 11 seconds.
2. Are you in a hurry?
No, Ive got a plenty of time. I ____________.
3. I was feeling sick yesterday. I _____________ anything.
4. Can you speak louder? I _____________ you very well.
5. You look tired.
Yes, I ____________ last night.

1. could run

2. can wait

3. couldnt eat

4. cant hear

5. couldnt sleep



Must Have to
must have to 2
Oh, its later than I thought. I must go/ I have to go.
must have to

Must (= ) Have to (= ) have

She must do something= to

She have to do something

Hes a really nice person. You must meet him.

(= )

You cant turn right here. You have to

You havent phoned Ann for ages. You must turn left. ()
phone her tonight.

His eyesight isnt very good. I have to wear

glasses for reading.
Joe cant come out with them this morning.
He has to work.

I must get up early tomorrow. There are a lot

of things I want to do.

You have to get up early tomorrow. Youre

going away and your train leaves at 7.00.

must have to have to

You must go now.
You must go tomorrow. ( We must go yesterday)
Have to
They had to go to school. (past)



Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Have they ever had to go to school? (present perfect)

They might have to go to school. (infinitive after might)
have to do/does/did
Why did they have to go to hospital?
Jim doesnt have to work on Monday.
Mustnt dont have to
You mustnt do something = ( You dont have to do something =
) You must keep it a secret. You mustnt ( )
tell anyone. ( )

You can tell me if you want, but you dont

I promise I would be on time. I mustnt be have to tell me. ( )

late. ()

Im not working tomorrow, so I dont have to

get up early. ( )

have got to have to

I have got to work tomorrow. I have to work tomorrow.
When has Kim got to go? When does Kim have to go?



Practice ONLINE
A. must have to
1. In Britain, many children ____________ wear uniform when they go to school.
2. When you come to London again, you ____________ come and see us.
3. Because Tony became ill suddenly last night, we ____________ call a doctor.
4. We really ____________ work harder if we want to get a good score.
5. Shes afraid she cant come tomorrow. She ____________ work late.
6. Im sorry I couldnt come last week. I ____________ work late.
7. George doesnt like his new job. Sometimes, he ____________ work at weekends.
8. Jennifer may ____________ go away next week.
9. They couldnt repair the car themselves. They ____________ take it to a garage.
10. Alicia wears glasses. She ___________ wear glasses since she was very young.
1. have to

2. must / have to

3. had to

4. must / have to

5. has to

6. had to

7. has to

8. have to

9. had to

10. has had to

Conversation ONLINE
1. A: _________________, Jenny?
B: Fine, thanks.
A. Hi there!
B. Whats up
C. How are you
2. A: How old are you?
B: ____________.
A. Eight old.
B. Eight years.
C. Ive eight years.



D. What do you do
E. How do you do

D. Im eight old years.

E. Im eight years old.

Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

3. Jake is my sisters son, so he is my __________________.

A. uncle
D. nephew
B. niece
E. grandson
C. cousin
4. Rasa met Nick at the university and they _______________ friends now.
A. s
D. ll
B. d
E. ve
C. re
5. Peter _________________ up at 6 oclock every day.
A. wake
D. is waking
B. wakes
E. has waked
C. will wake
6. Arin takes her turn to_________________ the dishes.
A. do
D. dust
B. rub
E. sweep
C. rake
7. A: Are you the only child?
B: _________. I have a younger brother.
A. Of course.
D. I dont have a sister.
B. Yes, I do.
E. I dont have an elder brother.
8. A: ______________ did you buy this book?
B: At Ramkamhangs bookstore.
A. What
D. Which
B. When
E. Why
C. Where
9. A: I failed the vocabulary contest. ____________.
B: Cheer up! You can do it again next time.
A. I feel very happy
D. I feel excited
B. I feel bad
E. Im contented
C. Im happy



10. Arin ____________ tries to speak English with foreigners. She really wants to practice using English.
A. rarely
D. always
B. almost never
E. never
C. seldom
11. Which of the following statements is NOT a suggestion?
A. I think you should memorize vocabulary.
B. Maybe you should put the words in groups.
C. You should practice using the words in a new context.
D. Perhaps you can draw a picture when you want to learn a new word.
E. You want to be good at English.
12. I can ______________ activities but I cant _____________ literally
A. pronounce pronounce
D. pronounced pronounced
B. pronounces pronounces
E. be pronounced be pronounced
C. pronouncing pronouncing
13. Which parts of speech are the underlined words in the following sentence. I learn new words by
drawing pictures of those words.
A. verb verb
D. verb adjective
B. verb noun
E. noun adverb
C. noun adjective
14. A: ________________ arriving at my house a bit early to help me get the place ready for the party?
B: Not at all. What time should I get there then?
A. Can you
D. Would you mind
B. Would you like to
E. Is it possible for you
C. Could you please
15. A: _______________ to make some Italian food for the party.
B: That would be nice, thank you.
A. Can I
D. What can I do
B. Would you like
E. How about
C. If youd like, Ill be happy
1. C
6. A
11. E

2. E
7. D
12. A


3. D
8. C
13. B

4. C
9. B
14. D

5. B
10. D
15. C

Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Vocabulary ONLINE
Directions: Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with vocabulary items (A), (B), or
(C) according to the context of the sentences.
1. The black clouds of a gathering thunderstorm look quite _______.
(A) ominous
(B) negligible
(C) overcast
2. Pulitzer Prizes are awarded to ___ journalists, novelists, poets, and other writers.
(A) objective
(B) outstanding
(C) notorious
3. An ______ plant is cultivated chiefly for its beauty.
(A) opulent
(B) obscure

(C) ornamental

4. Franklin D. Roosevelt was able to ______ his physical handicaps; he didnt permit them to interfere
with his living a vigorous life.
(A) oversee
(B) overcome
(C) overtake
5. The poetry of Ezra Pound is sometimes difficult to understand because it contains so many ______
(A) notable
(B) obscure
(C) objective
6. The Bessemer process was once the most common method of making steel, but today this process
is considered ______.
(A) odd
(B) novel
(C) obsolete
7. Dolley Payne Madison, the wife of President James Madison, impressed the city of Washington with
her stylish clothes and warm, _____ manner.
(A) nimble
(B) ominous
(C) outgoing
8. The town planning commission said that their financial ______ for the next fiscal year was
optimistic; they expect increased tax revenues.
(A) overlook
(B) oversight
(C) notion
9. The new play was so successful that the demand for tickets was _______.
(A) odd
(B) overwhelming
(C) negligible
10. A books table of contents provides readers with an ______ idea of what the book is about.
(A) outgoing
(B) overt
(C) overall



11. Because ultraviolet light from the Sun can penetrate clouds, it is possible to get a sunburn on
an ______ day.
(A) obscure
(B) overcast
(C) overt
12. Although the accident appeared serious, only a _______ amount of damage was done.
(A) novel
(B) notable
(C) negligible

Directions: Complete the following sentences by filling in the blanks with vocabulary items (A), (B), or
(C) according to the context of the sentences.
1. Turquoise is not valuable enough to be classified as a ______ stone.
(A) perpetual
(B) pale
(C) precious
2. The invention of the lever was of______ importance.
(A) potent
(B) profound

(C) premier

3. Hospitals define urgent care as medical care given to somewhat less ______ medical problems
than emergency care.
(A) perplexing
(B) pressing
(C) prudent
4. Tool makers must have the ability to work very ______ in order to meet exact specifications.
(A) precisely
(B) profoundly
(C) plausibly
5. ______of dust in the air may trigger allergies in some people.
(A) Portions
(B) Pretexts

(C) Particles

6. When a tiger spots its prey, it crouches down and then_______

(A) pleads
(B) ponders
(C) pounces
7. X-rays cannot_______ lead.
(A) provoke

(B) penetrate

(C) pursue

8. Sherlock Holmes, a fictional detective, solved many _______ crimes.

(A) puzzling
(B) prevalent
(C) prompt
9. Mallows are plants that grow____ in prairies, woods, and marshes.
(A) profusely
(B) profoundly
(C) preciously



Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

10. Certain spices give foods a______ taste.

(A) painstaking
(B) pungent

(C) pale

11. Trade with Britain and the West Indies allowed colonial seaports such as Boston to_______.
(A) postpone
(B) provoke
(C) prosper
12. A______ investor never takes unnecessary financial risks.
(A) perplexing
(B) prudent

(C) premier

13. To make cement, limestone is first______, and the resulting powder is then mixed with clay and
water at high temperatures.
(A) probed
(B) pulverized
(C) pierced
14. Outbreaks of cholera and other diseases were________ in mining camps during the California gold
rush because of the crowded, unsanitary conditions.
(A) peculiar
(B) plausible
(C) prevalent
15. Only a small _______ of Carlsbad Cavern in New Mexico has been lighted and opened to visitors.
(A) peril
(B) portion
(C) pace
16. Acting teacher Stella Adler played a____ role in the development of the Method school of acting.
(A) pivotal
(B) precious
(C) plush



Reading Comprehension Self-Study(Questions 1-5)

Horatio Alger, Jr.
Horatio Alger, Jr. (1832-1899) was the author of more than 100 books for boys in the
second half of the nineteenth century that focused on the theme of success coming to those who work
hard to achieve it. The son of a minister, Alger came from a prominent Massachusetts family. He
graduated with honors from Harvard in 1852 and graduated from the Cambridge Divinity School eight
years later. He served as a minister for a short time before moving to New York City in 1866 to devote
his time to writing inspirational books for boys.
In many of his books, he wrote about the poor and homeless children of the slums of New York
City, seeing them as unfortunate pawns of society who, if only given the opportunity, could improve their
lot. A general plotline that he followed often was of a poor boy who managed to achieve a respectable
and successful life by working hard and taking advantage of opportunities presented. Though his writing
style was characterized by simplicity and repetition, it was well received by his target audience; his books
were enormously popular, selling millions of copies well into the first few decades of the twentieth
1. The word that in paragraph 1 refers to
A. author
B. books
C. boys
D. Half
2. The word it in paragraph 1 refers to
A. the second half
C. 100

B. the nineteenth century

D. success

3. The word them in paragraph 2 refers to

A. books
B. children

C. slums

D. pawns

4. The word who in paragraph 2 refers to

A. slums
B. society

C. pawns

D. opportunity

5. The word it in paragraph 2 refers to

A. style
B. simplicity

C. repetition

D. audience

1. B


2. D


3. B

4. C

5. A

Modal Verbs in the form of Infinitive and Gerund

Reading Comprehension (Questions 1-2)

Camouflage is one of the most effective ways for animals to avoid attack in the treeless Arctic.
However, the summer and winter landscapes there are so diverse that a single protective coloring scheme
would, of course, prove ineffective in one season or the other. Thus, many of the inhabitants of the Arctic
tundra change their camouflage twice a year. The arctic fox is a clear-cut example of this phenomenon
it sports a brownish gray coat in the summer which then turns white as cold weather sets in, and the
process reverses itself in the springtime. Its brownish-gray coat blends in with the barren tundra landscape in the months without snow, and the white coat naturally blends in with the landscape of the frozen
wintertime tundra.
1. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the first highlighted sentence
in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential
A. Opposite conditions in summer and in winter necessitate different protective coloration for
Arctic animals.
B. The coloration of the summer and winter landscapes in the Arctic fails to protect the Arctic
Fails to protect the Arctic tundra.
C. In a single season, protective coloring schemes are ineffective in the treeless Arctic.
D. For many animals, a single protective coloring scheme effectively protects them during
summer and winter months.
2. Which of the sentences below expresses the essential information in the second highlighted
sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out
essential information.
A. The arctic fox is unusual in that the color of its coat changes for no reason.
B. The arctic fox lives in an environment that is brownish gray in the summer and white in the
C. It is a phenomenon that the coat of the arctic fox turns white in the springtime and gray in
the fall.
D. The arctic fox demonstrates that protective coloration can change during different seasons.

1. A

2. D



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