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CUPRINS

Iulian Cacenschi

Tristeea lui Homo ludens n societatea contemporan

Experiment privind educarea / dezvoltrea psihomotricitatii


generale la copiii prescolari i colarii mici prin mijloace
Teodora Iconomescu
adaptate din judo
Adriana Neofit

Experiment on education / development general psychomotricity


preschool and primary children by means adapted from judo
Gabriel Gheorghiu

Dezvoltarea calitii motrice vitez la clasele gimnaziale


Quality development (driving speed) in secondary school

Gheorghe Mihalache Instruirea studenilor din mediul academic militar prin


mijloacele aikido-ului

Ioan One

Lazr Tipa

Liliana Nanu

Liliana Nanu
Mioara-Tana
Drgan

3
5

8
12
15
18

Training of the students from the military academic environment


through aikido means

26

Eficientizarea dezvoltrii rezistenei la clasele gimnaziale de la


coala general greci, jud. Tulcea

36

Streamline the development of resistance to secondary school


from elementary school greeks county. Tulcea

38

Minilupta-criteriul de baz al seleciei i drumul spre marea


performana n sporturile de lupte

41

Minifight- the base criterion of selection and the path for a big
performance in fighting sports

44

Determinarea inteligenei emoionale prin aplicarea testului


Friedmann

48

Emotional intelligence with the test Friedmann

51

Rolul pregtirii psihologice n creterea performanelor sportive


a gimnastelor de 10 -12 ani

55

The psyhological preparation to increase sporting performances


of gymnasts 10-12 years

59

Prezentarea cadrelor. F.E.F.S Galai: NANU LILIANA

65

TRISTEEA LUI HOMO LUDENS N SOCIETATEA CONTEMPORAN


Prof. Iulian Cacenschi
Liceul de Art D. Cuclin Galai
Am rmas foarte dezamgit deunzi cnd am intuit n cuvintele unui om pe care l iubesc mult, c
domeniul sportiv i este indiferent (aproape) pn la ur. i ca n orice iubire, suferinele celuilalt
mi le-am interiorizat i de aceast dat cu o mai veche i personal dorin de analiz care s
dezintegreze orice incompatibilitate a prerilor fa de subiectul abordat.
Poate c intuiia mea este fals. i n acest caz ar trebui s fiu linitit. Dar chiar i aa,
linitea mea se las greu cucerit.
Ci oameni ascuni sau nu, descoperii sau nu, cu mapa la subsuoar sau nu, mai pot spera
c undeva n lumea aceasta fenomenul sport mai e n stare s destind copilresc i s cultive
sntatea (fizic, mental i social), iar nu s invite la mncat semine, fumat, but alcool i njurat
de toate cele sfinte?
Chiar i n faa cuvntului joc oamenii se opresc dilematic, cu o reticen calculat, ajungnd
abia ntr-un trziu s surprind numai acel sens al joc-ului care mai poate bucura sfnt.
Trim vremurile unei decadene a jocului n toate formele lui de manifestare.
Viaa omului, i cu preponderen vrsta copilriei i a adolescenei, este plin de gesturi i
atitudini care prin sensul lor ludic se subneleg ca fiind coordonate ale bucuriei.
tiina Educaiei fizice i sportului este sau ar trebui s mai fie cea care transform faptul
subneles al jocului, al ludicului, ntr-o atitudine neleas, explicitat, care este n msur s
organizeze i s repete, neplictisitor, multitudinea de activiti motrice nsoite de o verificat
compoziie de triri ca: bucuria, destinderea, vioiciunea, entuziasmul.
Caracterul dezinteresat, gratuitatea jocului, nu nseamn totui anularea oricrui punct de interes al
juctorului n timpul jocului. i totui, care este acest punct de interes?! Ce l intereseaz pe juctor
atunci?! Jocul ori rolul jucat n timpul i spaiul jocului? Evadarea din realitate ori identificarea cu
forma matur de personalitate pe care realitatea i-o (va) cere? Nevoia omului de relaionare cu obiecte
sau persoane, reale sau imaginare, n virtutea structurii sale de fiin raional, comunicabil i
mprtibil ori beneficiile materiale, sociale i cele n planul sntii ?
Ceva din toate acestea, simultan sau alternativ, contient sau incontient, simulat sau asumat,
spontan sau reglementat, se regsesc n sfera punctelor de interes ale juctorului n momentul
desfurrii jocului. Toate fcnd parte din magia jocului.
i animalele sunt cuprinse de o zburdalnic exprimare a bucuriei jocului i de o facil
ncierare a unor potenialiti biologice pe care codul genetic le are nscrise n legile sale
fiziologice. Dar pentru ca jocul s nu fie o simpl desctuare de energii biologice acumulate sau o
descrcare de tensiuni psihice, adic un simplu impuls animalic, el trebuie s-i dezvolte funcia
creatoare de cultur; iar aceasta se poate realiza numai n zona sau cel puin n vecintatea privilegiat
a sacrului.
Canalizarea energiilor spirituale i culturale ale unei comuniti antice se nscria n efortul
zilnic de pregtire i ateptare, n vederea valorificrii lor prin organizarea i desfurarea marilor
jocuri i manifestri cu caracter sportiv, cultural i spiritual n acelai timp (ex. Jocurilor Olimpice).
n perioadele de aur ale civilizaiilor antice capacitile creatoare ale oamenilor nu erau
unilateralizate, ci armonios mbinate n cadrul unei singure manifestri, n care i aveau locul bine
preuit att sportivul, ct i sculptorul, poetul, artistul, filozoful.
i toate acestea datorit concepiei generale despre via, n care ludicul era, dac nu creator
prin el nsui, cel puin plmad n compoziia culturii, iar homo ludens sporea i transforma
cantitatea de spirit din el primit n dar de la zei n fapt de cultur.
Jocul, n civilizaiile primare, se prezenta ca spectacol sacru i competiie festiv genernd i
plus-produs spiritual. i n zilele noastre jocul, prin manifestrile lui cele mai perfecionate de tipul
campionatelor mondiale se ridic deasupra lumii obinuite, dar printr-o exacerbare i supremaie a
plus-produsului material (financiar).
3

De la Roger Caillois (Les jeux et les hommes) vorbim i de ludicul profan, golit de
sacralitatea jocului cultural. Astfel, ludicul profan i lrgete sfera fenomenelor de gratuitate joas pe
care sociologia de astzi le nregistreaz la rubrica loisir.
De-a lungul istoriei civilizaiilor s-a observat chiar i n natura jocurilor c acordarea unei ponderi
crescute a rolului social n defavoarea rolului sacramental, a dus la alienarea societii, respectiv a
jocurilor.
Astzi tranzitm folosesc acest cuvnt n sperana c nu o s stagnm ntr-o perioad n
care noul homo ludens ncearc s-i gseasc coordonatele ntre omul specializat al jocului
tehnicizat i afacerizat i omul simplu deczut la nivelul jocului de divertisment care nu se mai
joac n duhul colectivitii din care face parte, ci este jucat de propria condiie izolat ntr-o
societate acultural.
ntr-o astfel de societate omul sufer trei procese:
1. omul care super-muncete sau n care factorul locomotor i cel ludic sunt unilateral folosite ori
deloc utilizate, i care simte nevoia, la terminarea programului, a unei destinderi ce apeleaz la
senzaii tari;
2. omul care muncete cu pasiune, dar a crui pasiune este transformat de societate n munc (i n
acest fel robotizat, monitorizat i normatizat), i care obligat fiind s-i transforme
spontaneitatea spiritului n manifestare etapizat, calendarizat cedeaz neputincios n faa aceleiai
nevoi de senzaional, de divertisment acultural.
3. omul care refuz munca i care, n final, nu va ti s preuiasc nici jocul. Acest tip de om,
indiferent de bogia resurselor de subzisten, nu va supravieui nici fizic, nici psihic.
n toate cele trei ipostaze, natura jocului aflat ntr-un raport de reciprocitate cu starea
spiritual a societii sufer o decaden care alimenteaz la rndul ei disocierea sufleteasc a
omului.
Omul tiinei (homo sapiens), care a trmbiat supremaia progresului n creterea nivelului
calitii vieii, supunndu-i acea component de homo faber unui efort supraomenesc, dar neglijnd
ajutorul suprauman al Divinitii (i deci condiia sa de homo religiosus) i apelul la bucuria sfnt a
jocului ca homo ludens a ajuns iari (iari?!) s conteste i s refuze realitatea pe care propria lui
dorin de progres a creat-o. Sau mai bine spus a contestat i refuzat realitatea creat de
consecinele i efectele secundare ale unei dorine de progres nelegitimate de spaiul cultural al
sacrului.
Depozitarul esenei umane este homo religiosus. n contactul cu lumea creat acesta sufer
trei stri purttoare a trei chipuri: starea necesitii (nevoii) de elementele i produsele lumii create
cu chipul homo faber, starea de cunoatere a sensului lumii create cu chipul homo sapiens, i starea
de bucurie a contactului cu lumea creat cu chipul homo ludens.
Un om deplin exponent al lumii libertii spirituale este cel n care se constat prezena
i interdependena simultan a tuturor acestor chipuri. Cu att mai mult cu ct formula trecerii din
regnul necesitii n cel al libertii are n fond un iz ludic n care jocul copilului nu este dect o
promisiune de libertate, i nu libertatea nsi, (Gabriel Liiceanu).
i cum vom cunoate aceast libertate altfel dect rugndu-ne, muncind, jucndu-ne,
cercetnd, crend i trind n armonie comunicabil cu toi oamenii ?!
ns astzi constatm c homo ludens este trist. i asta o spune un (alt) homo ludens cu
licen n educaie fizic i sport !

EXPERIMENT PRIVIND EDUCAREA / DEZVOLTREA


PSIHOMOTRICITATII GENERALE LA COPIII PRESCOLARI I
COLARII MICI PRIN MIJLOACE ADAPTATE DIN JUDO
Neofit Adriana, Iconomescu Teodora Mihaela
Cuvinte cheie: psihomotricitate, precolari, colari mici, teste,judo
Rezumat
n cadrul cercetrii noastre experimentul a vizat aplicarea unei programe de pregtire cu
caracter sportiv, ce a cuprins exclusiv mijloace de pregtire adaptate din teoria i practica judoului, prin care copiii cu vrsta de 4-7 ani i-au educat / dezvoltat psihomotricitatea general.
Introducere
Coninutul programei experimentale a fost alctuit pe baza observaiilor efectuate n studiul
preliminar al actualei cercetri, date confruntate cu cele existente n literatura de specialitate a
actualului moment, dar i pe baza concluziilor rezultate din anchetarea specialitilor din sfera judoului.
Experimentul pe care l-am efectuat a fost de tip constatativ - longitudinal, n cadrul cruia
am efectuat trei testri: iniial, intermediar i final, cu o durat total de 10 luni.
Concluziile cercetrii au fost stabilite pe baza evalurii realizate la testarea final, lund n
calcul dinamica, evoluia grupului testat pe parcursul ntregului experiment.
Metoda testrii
Metoda testrii am folosit-o n cadrul cercetrii experimentale n trei etape iniial,
intermediar i final pentru a stabilii evoluia potenialului psihomotric a grupelor supuse
cercetrii, precum i a orientrii interveniei ulterioare prin adaptarea programei experimentale.
Pentru aplicarea testelor am avut n vedere eliminarea factorilor disturbatori determinai de:
examinator dezorganizare n gestionarea materialelor necesare testrii, neasigurarea
unui climat psihic de destindere;
subiect stare de oboseal fizic i psihic;
condiiile ambientale iluminat, spaii neaerisite, zgomote perturbatoare.
De asemenea am recurs la efectuarea unor testri pilot pentru a elimina eventualele erori ale
testrii, alegerea optim a materialelor, sistematizarea testelor.
Teste de evaluare a psihomoticitii generale
1.
Ridicri trunchi (for abdominal n regim de vitez)
2.
Meninut atrnat la bar fix (For relativ brae, anduran psihic).
3.
Flotri (for musculatura exterioar a braelor)
4.
Sritura n lungime de pe loc (detenta membrelor inferioare)
5.
Complex n 4 timpi (koreene) (coordonare general, orientare n spaiu, echilibru, vitez
de execuie, for membre inferioare).
6.
Testare Flamingo piciorul stng
7.
Testare Flamingo piciorul drept
8.
Testare Romberg
Teste pentru dou eantioane perechi
Eantioanele perechi, numite i eantioane corelate sau eantioane dependente, provin n
urma cercetrilor cu msurri repetate, aa cum deja cunoatei. Literatura de specialitate
menioneaz, pentru eantioane perechi, doar testul t Student. Acest test statistic, verific aceeai
ipoteza nul conform creia nu exist nicio diferen semnificativ ntre mediile celor dou
5

populaii din care au fost extrase eantioanele, distincia realizndu-se doar la nivelul construciei
eantioanelor:
H0: m1=m2 - Nu exist nicio diferen ntre mediile celor dou populaii din care s-au extras
eantioanele perechi (ipoteza nul);
H1: m1m2 - Exist o diferen semnificativ ntre mediile celor dou populaii din care s-au
extras eantioanele perechi (ipotez alternativ bilateral);
H2: m1>m2 - Media primului eantion este semnificativ mai mare n comparaie cu media celui
de-al doilea eantion (ipotez alternativ unilateral).
H3: m1<m2 - Media primului eantion este semnificativ mai mic n comparaie cu media celui
de-al doilea eantion (ipotez alternativ unilateral).
Variabile
n cercetarea pe care am desfurat-o am utilizat urmtoarele categorii de variabile:
a) variabila independent:

program
educaional
de
educare/mbuntire/dezvoltare
a
motricitii/
psihomotricitii precolarilor de 4 - 7 ani;

strategii didactice specifice dezvoltrii motrice i psihomotric a copiilor de 4-7 ani.


b) variabila dependent:
nivelul motric i psihomotric a copiilor de 4-7 ani
Ipotezele cercetrii
H0: m1=m2 - Nu exist nicio diferen semnificativ intre programa cu mijloace adaptate din judo
si rezultatele performanelor (ipoteza nul);
H1: m1m2 - Exist o diferen semnificativ ntre intre programa cu mijloace adaptate din judo
aplicata copiilor intre 4-7 ani i rezultatele performantele obinute in cadrul testrilor specifice
(ipotez alternativ bilateral);
H2: m1>m2 - rezultatele performanelor obinute la prima testare este semnificativ mai mare n
comparaie cu cea de a doua testare (ipotez alternativ unilateral).
H3: m1<m2 - rezultatele performanelor obinute la prima testare este semnificativ mai mic n
comparaie cu cea de a doua testare (ipotez alternativ unilateral).
Rezultate
Tab.1
Nr.
subieci
21

Media

Abaterea standard

13,48

4,445

testare_intermediara

21

14,81

4,434

testare_iniiala

21

13,48

4,445

testare_finala

21

19,10

4,732

testare_intermediara

21

14,81

4,434

testare_finala

21

19,10

4,732

Testare Abdomene
testare_iniiala
Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

-8,367

,000

-17,176

,000

-17,131

,000

Testul de semnificaie statistic prezentat in tabelul de mai sus scoate n eviden faptul c
intre cele trei testri rezultatele obinute, la aceast prob, sunt puternic semnificative p<0,001,
acestea datorndu-se mijloacelor selecionate i aplicate ntre testri.
Analiza comparativ a indicatorii statistici al testului mentinut atarnat
Tab.2
Testare Meninut atrnat

Nr.
subieci
21

Media

Abaterea standard

40,76

14,788

testare_intermediara

21

43,43

15,105

testare_iniiala

21

40,76

14,788

testare_finala

21

54,95

16,296

testare_intermediara

21

43,43

15,105

testare_finala

21

54,95

16,296

testare_iniiala
Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

-4,110

,000

-6,024

,000

-6,511

,000

Tab.3
Testare Flotri

Perechea1
Perechea 2

Nr.
subieci

Media

Abaterea standard

testare_iniiala

21

12,52

3,586

testare_intermediara

21

14,14

3,678

testare_iniiala

21

12,52

3,586

testare_finala
testare_intermediara

21
21

17,95
14,14

4,620
3,678

testare_finala

21

17,95

4,620

Perechea 3

-9,220

,000

-13,190

,000

-11,873

,000

Analiznd datele centralizate n tabelele 2 si 3, a calitii motrice principale a celor dou


teste i anume fora brae, n care putem observa c valorile rezultatelor consemnate ntre testrile
iniiale, intermediare i finale sunt din punct de vedere statistic semnificative p<0,05. Acest lucru
demonstreaz c prin aplicarea mijloacelor adaptate din judo putem dezvolta/educa/mbunti
calitatea motric fora calitate de baz n practicarea acestui sport.
Tab.4
Testare Sritura in lungime de pe loc

Nr.
subieci
21

Media

Abaterea standard

97,43

9,298

testare_intermediara

21

100,48

10,098

testare_iniiala

21

97,43

9,298

testare_finala

21

109,10

10,430

testare_intermediara

21

100,48

10,098

testare_finala

21

109,10

10,430

Nr.
subieci

Media

Abaterea standard

testare_iniiala

21

6,38

1,532

testare_intermediara

21

7,52

1,632

testare_iniiala

21

6,38

1,532

testare_finala

21

9,57

1,660

testare_intermediara

21

7,52

1,632

testare_finala

21

9,57

1,660

testare_iniiala
Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

-4,863

,000

-15,743

,000

-14,571

,000

-7,204

,001

-19,504

,000

-18,857

,000

Tab.5
Testare Koreene

Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

O alt calitate motric de baz n practicarea judou-lui este i fora picioare care a fost
testat prin probele Sritura n lungime de pe loc i Koreene. n cadrul testrilor realizate i conform
tabelelor prezentate putem observa c din punct de vedere statistic ntre cele tei testri pragul de
semnificaie este foarte mare p<0,001.
Tab.6
Nr.
subieci

Media

Abaterea standard

testare_iniiala

21

25,10

15,231

testare_intermediara

21

28,24

15,937

testare_iniiala

21

25,10

15,231

testare_finala

21

33,81

20,064

testare_intermediara

21

28,24

15,937

testare_finala

21

33,81

20,064

Testare Flamingo piciorul stng

Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

-8,883

,000

-5,836

,000

-4,324

,000

Tab.7
Nr.
subieci
21

Media

Abaterea standard

20,76

12,919

testare_intermediara

21

23,33

13,005

testare_iniiala

21

20,76

12,919

testare_finala

21

28,38

15,439

testare_intermediara

21

23,33

13,005

testare_finala

21

28,38

15,439

Nr.
subieci

Media

Abaterea standard

testare_iniiala

21

14,29

4,027

testare_intermediara

21

16,90

4,493

testare_iniiala

21

14,29

4,027

testare_finala

21

20,24

4,482

testare_intermediara

21

16,90

4,493

testare_finala

21

20,24

4,482

Testare Flamingo piciorul drept


testare_iniiala
Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

-6,632

,000

-7,539

,000

-6,556

,000

-10,339

,000

-17,803

,000

-15,027

,000

Tab.8
Testare Romberg

Perechea1
Perechea 2
Perechea 3

La aceast vrst echilibru este una din calitile motrice cel mai uor de dezvoltat deoarece
prin mijloacele adaptate din judo putem aciona spre realizarea unor rezultate ct mai bune. Acest
lucru este evideniat de cele dou probe testate prezentate n tabele 6,7i 8 care scot n eviden
analiza comparativ a rezultatelor care statistic sunt puternic semnificative p<0,001.
Concluzii
Analiznd calitile motrice testate prin probele specifice putem afirma c mijloacele
adaptate din judo selecionate i aplicate pe parcursul cercetrii scot n eviden rezultate statistice
puternic semnificative.

EXPERIMENT ON EDUCATION / DEVELOPMENT GENERAL


PSYCHOMOTRICITY PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY CHILDREN BY
MEANS ADAPTED FROM JUDO
Neofit Adriana, Iconomescu Teodora Mihaela
Abstract
In our research experiment aimed at applying a sports-training programs, which included the
exclusive means of training adapted from the theory and practice of judo, in which children aged 47 years have educated / developed general motor skills.
Introduction
Experimental program content was based on observations made in the preliminary study of
the current research, confronted with the existing data in the literature of the current moment, but
based on the conclusions of the investigation specialist in the field of judo.
The experiment I conducted was ascertaining type - longitudinal, in which we performed
three tests: initial, intermediate and final, with a total duration of 10 months.
Research findings were based on the assessment made in final testing, taking into account
the dynamic evolution of the group tested throughout the experiment.
Test method
Testing method we used in the original three-stage experimental research, to establish
interim and final progress psihomotric potential research subject groups and subsequent orientation
by adjusting experimental intervention.
8

To test the application we considered eliminating disturbing factors determined by:


Examiner - disorganization in the management of the necessary materials testing, failure of a
psychological climate of detente;
Child - physical and mental fatigue;
Ambient conditions - lighting, unventilated spaces, disturbing noises.
I also resorted to conducting pilot tests to eliminate possible errors of the test, the optimal
choice of materials, systematic tests.
General assessment tests psychomotricity.
1. Crunches (abdominal force under speed)
2. Maintained hanging on horizontal bar - (Relative Strength arms, mental endurance).
3. Pushups (force the outer muscles of the arms)
4. Long jump (detent legs)
5. Complex 4 stroke (Koreen) - (general coordination, orientation in space, balance, speed of
execution, force legs).
6. Testing Flamingo left leg
7. Testing Flamingo leg
8. Testing Romberg
Tests for two paired samples
Sample pairs, also called correlated samples or dependent samples come from research with
repeated measures, as you already know. The literature mentions sample pairs, only the Student t
test. This statistical test verifies the same null hypothesis that there is no significant difference
between the means of the two populations from which the samples were drawn, the distinction
being made only in the construction of samples:
H0: m1 = m2 - There is no difference between the means of the two populations from which
the samples were extracted pairs (null hypothesis);
H1: m1 m2 - There is a significant difference between the means of the two populations
from which the samples were extracted pairs (bilateral alternative hypothesis);
H2: m1> m2 - Average first sample is significantly higher than the average of the second
sample (one-sided alternative hypothesis).
H3: m1 <m2 - Average first sample is significantly lower than the average of the second
sample (one-sided alternative hypothesis).
Variables
In the research that we have undertaken, we used the following categories of variables:
a) The independent variable:
educational program to educate / improve / develop motor / psychomotricity preschool
children 4-7 years;
specific teaching strategies and motor development of children 4-7 years psihomotric.
b) Dependent variable:
psihomotric the motor and children 4-7 years.
Research hypotheses
H0: m1 = m2 - There is no significant difference between program means adapted from judo
and performance results (null hypothesis);
H1: m1 m2 - There is a significant difference between adjusted means of judo program of
children between 4-7 years and the results obtained in testing the performance of specific (bilateral
alternative hypothesis);
H2: m1> m2 - performance results obtained in the first test is significantly higher compared
to the second test (one-sided alternative hypothesis).
H3: m1 <m2 - performance results obtained in the first test is significantly lower compared
to the second test (one-sided alternative hypothesis).

Results

Table 1
No.
subjects
21

Average

Standard deviation

13,48

4,445

Intermediate testing

21

14,81

4,434

Initial testing

21

13,48

4,445

Final testing

21

19,10

4,732

Intermediate testing

21

14,81

4,434

Final testing

21

19,10

4,732

Testing Crunches
Initial testing
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3

-8,367

,000

-17,176

,000

-17,131

,000

The test of statistical significance presented in the table above highlights that among the
three test results on this sample are highly significant p <0.001, which due to the resources selected
and applied between tests.
Comparative analysis of the test statistic indicators remained hanging.
Table 2
Testing Maintained hanging

No.
subjects
21

Average

Standard deviation

40,76

14,788

Intermediate testing

21

43,43

15,105

Initial testing

21

40,76

14,788

Final testing

21

54,95

16,296

Intermediate testing

21

43,43

15,105

Final testing

21

54,95

16,296

No.
subjects

Average

Standard deviation

Initial testing

21

12,52

3,586

Intermediate testing

21

14,14

3,678

Initial testing

21

12,52

3,586

Final testing

21

17,95

4,620

Intermediate testing

21

14,14

3,678

Final testing

21

17,95

4,620

Initial testing
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3

-4,110

,000

-6,024

,000

-6,511

,000

-9,220

,000

-13,190

,000

-11,873

,000

Table 3
Testing Pushups

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

Analyzing the data summarized in Tables 2 and 3, the quality of the two main driving force
tests that is arms, we can observe that the values recorded between the initial test results, interim
and final are statistically significant p <0.05. This shows that by applying suitable means of judo
can develop / educate / improve the quality of basic motor force as this sport.
Table 4
No.
subjects

Average

Standard deviation

Initial testing

21

97,43

9,298

Intermediate testing

21

100,48

10,098

Initial testing

21

97,43

9,298

Final testing

21

109,10

10,430

Intermediate testing

21

100,48

10,098

Final testing

21

109,10

10,430

Testing Long jump

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

10

-4,863

,000

-15,743

,000

-14,571

,000

Table 5
No.
subjects

Average

Standard deviation

Initial testing

21

6,38

1,532

Intermediate testing

21

7,52

1,632

Initial testing

21

6,38

1,532

Final testing

21

9,57

1,660

Intermediate testing

21

7,52

1,632

Final testing

21

9,57

1,660

No.
subjects

Average

Standard deviation

Initial testing

21

25,10

15,231

Intermediate testing

21

28,24

15,937

Initial testing

21

25,10

15,231

Final testing

21

33,81

20,064

Intermediate testing

21

28,24

15,937

Final testing

21

33,81

20,064

No.
subjects

Average

Standard deviation

Initial testing

21

20,76

12,919

Intermediate testing

21

23,33

13,005

Initial testing

21

20,76

12,919

Final testing

21

28,38

15,439

Intermediate testing

21

23,33

13,005

Final testing

21

28,38

15,439

No.
subjects

Average

Standard deviation

Initial testing

21

14,29

4,027

Intermediate testing

21

16,90

4,493

Initial testing

21

14,29

4,027

Final testing

21

20,24

4,482

Intermediate testing

21

16,90

4,493

Final testing

21

20,24

4,482

Testing Koreene

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

-7,204

,001

-19,504

,000

-18,857

,000

-8,883

,000

-5,836

,000

-4,324

,000

-6,632

,000

-7,539

,000

-6,556

,000

-10,339

,000

-17,803

,000

-15,027

,000

Table 6
Testing Flamingo left leg

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

Table 7
Testing Flamingo right leg

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

Table 8
Testing Romberg

Pair 1

Pair 2

Pair 3

At this age, balance is one of motor qualities most easily developed because by means
adapted from judo can act to achieve best results. This is evidenced by the two samples tested in the
tables that highlight 6,7i eight comparative analysis of the results are highly statistically significant
p <.001.
Conclusion
Analyzing the specific samples tested by motor qualities we can say that means adapted
from judo selected and applied during the research reveal highly significant statistical results.
11

DEZVOLTAREA CALITII MOTRICE VITEZ LA CLASELE


GIMNAZIALE
Lect. dr. Gheorghiu Gabriel FEFS Galai
Cuvinte cheie: calitatea motric vitez, nvmnt gimnazial
Rezumat: n cadrul lucrrii s-a propus realizarea coninutului leciilor prin intermediul exerciiilor,
jocurilor de micare i tafetelor, n vederea dezvoltrii calitii motrice viteza. Prin experimentul
efectuat am vrut s constat dac apar diferene de eficien ntre cele dou moduri de a rezolva
sarcinile leciei privind dezvoltarea calitii motrice viteza, adic ntre metodele tradiionale (exerciii
structurate n programa colar) i folosirea exerciiilor jocurilor de micare i tafetelor.
Realizarea obiectivelor educaiei fizice colare este posibil numai dac se urmrete n mod
sistematic lecie de lecie, semestrial, anual i pe durata unui ntreg ciclu de colarizare a elevilor
desvrirea unor finaliti de prim importan pentru instruirea motric i educaia acestora cum ar
fi: dezvoltarea calitilor motrice, nsuirea unui sistem de cunotine, priceperi i deprinderi motrice,
valorificarea influenelor exerciiului fizic n sprijinul realizrii obiectivelor generale ale
nvmntului, contribuind astfel la dezvoltarea integral a personalitii elevului, la pregtirea sa
multilateral.
Dezvoltarea calitilor motrice duce la:
a) formarea i consolidarea deprinderilor motrice;
Practica sportiv atest c nivelul de dezvoltare a calitii motrice determin n mare msur,
ndeplinirea cerinelor prevzute n programele colare privind lrgirea i perfecionarea sistemului de
cunotine, priceperi i deprinderi motrice la elevi. Paralel cu condiionarea consolidrii deprinderilor
motrice, dezvoltarea calitilor motrice n mod corespunztor favorizeaz i punerea n eviden a
valorii acestora.
b) favorizeaz creterea capacitii de efort a organismului;
Unul din factorii de baz n desfurarea multor activiti pentru obinerea unor performane sportive
superioare l constituie capacitatea de efort. Aceasta se refer la posibilitatea organismului de a presta
o activitate fizic timp ct mai ndelungat. Capacitatea de efort se dobndete n cadrul unui proces de
instruire care urmrete dezvoltarea calitilor motrice.
c) o riguroas obiectivizare a procesului de pregtire fizic a elevilor.
Obiectivizarea procesului de dezvoltare a calitilor motrice determin o mai precis ordonare a
activitii, la cutri continue pentru a gsi cele mai eficiente mijloace i forme de organizare a
activitii.
Lucrarea de fa urmrete dezvoltarea vitezei n cadrul leciei de educaie fizic prin metoda
experimentului, metoda modelrii, prin jocuri i tafete. Pe lng aceasta, lucrarea urmrete s
realizeze un model intermediar specific clasei a VI-a pentru mbuntirea vitezei, folosind o gam
variat de structuri i exerciii, deci sisteme de acionare specifice vitezei, innd seama de nivelul de
pregtire a elevilor, de volumul activitii ce se poate realiza n diferite etape de colarizare.
Alegerea sistemelor de acionare cele mai eficiente pentru mbuntirea vitezei duce la obinerea unei
densiti optime a efortului elevilor n lecia de educaie fizic, care duce n final la mbuntirea
procesului instructiv-educativ, la realizarea modelului final al absolventului de ciclu gimnazial, la
pstrarea strii de sntate, pregtirea pentru activitatea social i sporirea capacitii de munc.
Factorii care condiioneaz valoarea vitezei
Valoarea vitezei, a formelor de manifestare a acesteia, este condiionat de mai muli factori:
fiziologici, biochimici, psihici i ntr-o anumit msur morfologici. Unii aparin pregnant de
structura ereditar a fiecrui individ i sunt mai puin perfectibili.
Cei mai importani factori care asigur suportul biologic i psihic al vitezei sunt:
mobilitatea proceselor nervoase corticale;
12

Labilitatea funcional a acestora condiioneaz alternana rapid a excitaiei i inhibiiei, fapt care
asigur sincronizarea contraciei i relaxrii grupelor musculare cu aciuni contradictorii rspunsurilor
corecte la excitaie.
alternarea rapid n centrii corticali ai excitaiei i inhibiiei;
viteza de transmisie a impulsurilor nervoase (timpul de reacie);
Este condiionat de timpul de recepionare a semnalelor (excitaie), de calitatea receptorilor, de
timpul de transmisie a impulsului ctre sistemul nervos central i de elaborare a rspunsului, de
timpul de transmitere a impulsului nervos ctre organele efectoare.
acuitatea, precizia organelor receptoare ale semnalelor;
ritmul optim de alternare a contraciilor i relaxrilor grupelor musculare;
calitatea fibrei musculare;
nivelul de dezvoltare a celorlaltor caliti motrice (ndemnare, for, rezisten);
capacitatea de concentare i de mobilizare.
Avnd n vedere suportul dominant psihologic al acestei caliti (viteza de reacie i de execuie, n
mod deosebit) rezult c aceast calitate este mai puin perfectibil ctigul calitativ obinut n
procesul de perfecionare a vitezei fiind puternic limitat de zestrea ereditar.
Analiznd problema vitezei din punct de vedere biochimic, remarcm condiionarea valorii acesteia
de coninutul n ATP i fosfocreatin a muchilor, principalele surse energetice care susin efortul de
vitez.
Organizarea i desfurarea studiului La clasa experimental VI A de la Liceul Teoretic Ion
Creanga-Tulcea, mi-am propus ca metod de investigaie experimentul n procesul de dezvoltare a
calitii motrice viteza. Numrul total al elevilor la grupele experimentale a fost de 22 dintre care 11
fete i 11 biei, iar grupa martor 22 dintre care 11 fete i 11 biei.
Teste motrice
a) alergare de vitez 50 m
S-a desfurat pe pista din incinta colii cu start liber din picioare, cte unul, nregistrarea fcndu-se
n secunde i zecimi de secund.
b) sritura n lungime de pe loc
S-a desfurat n curtea colii, s-au efectuat dou srituri i s-a nregistrat cel mai bun rezultat n cm.
c) alergare cu genunchii sus timp de 15 secunde
d) trecere de la sprijin culcat napoi la sprijin culcat nainte
Poziia de plecare: sprijin culcat napoi.
Proba const n: la semnalul sonor, ridicarea din sprijin culcat napoi i trecerea n sprijin culcat
nainte. Se nregistreaz n secunde i zecimi de secunde, timpul scurs de la semnalul dat i pn la
contactul minilor cu solul n sprijin culcat nainte a executantului.
e) fora de desprindere (detenta pe vertical prin sritura n nlime de pe loc)
Executantul i ud mai nti degetul mijlociu de la mna preferat n ap, dup care ia poziia uor
ghemuit la o lungime de talp deprtare de perete. Sare n sus, atingnd peretele cu degetul ud, ct
mai sus posibil.
Graficul 1. liniar cu evolutia testului de semnificatie t in functie de pragul de semnificatie pde
2,28 pentru cele doua clase de fete care au participat la acest experiment
Graficul 2. liniar cu evolutia testului de semnificatie t in functie de pragul de semnificatie pde
2,28 pentru cele doua clase de baieti care au participat la acest experiment

13

7
6,2

6
5
4,28

4
3,28

Gr.Exper
2,36

2,71

2,35
1,69

1,52

Gr.Martor

1,66
1,12

1
0
Vit 50m

Sl.p. loc

Detenta

Al.gen.sus

Cd\Cfac

Graficul 1 fete

4,5
4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0

4,21
3,23

3,23

2,68

2,75

2,87

2,62

2,33
Gr.Exper

1,5

Vit 50m

Sl.p. loc

1,4

Detenta

Al.gen.sus

Gr.Martor

Cd\Cfac

Graficul 2 Biei
Mijloacele cele mai eficiente s-au dovedit a fi exerciiile prezentate sub form de jocuri i tafete,
deoarece rezolv mult mai bine sarcinile urmrite prin respectarea caracteristicilor sistemului nervos
al copiilor de aceast vrst. Predarea atletismului la aceast vrst de 11-12 ani sub form de jocuri
i tafete duce mai uor la ndeplinirea scopului final, deoarece numai prin aceste forme copiii reuesc
s i ating limitele maxime ale valorilor motrice, s-i cunoasc aceste valori, s-i depeasc
propriile lor senzaii de vitez, s poat s susin eforturi crescute n condiiile luptei cu un adversar
concret.
BIBLIOGRAFIE
Badiu, T. Teorie i metodic, Editura EFS, Galai, 2004;
Bompa, T. Dezvoltarea calitilor biometrice. Periodizarea, CNEFPA, Bucureti, 2001;
Crstea, Ghe.- Didactica educaiei fizice, ANEFS, Bucureti, 2000;
Dragnea, A.- Educaie fizic i sport-teorie i didactic, Editura FEST, Bucureti 2006;
14

QUALITY DEVELOPMENT (DRIVING SPEED) IN SECONDARY SCHOOL


Lect,dr. Gheorghiu Gabriel FEFS Galai
Keywords: quality of motor speed, secondary education
Abstract: In this paper was proposed lesson content through exercises, movement games and
tafetelor, to develop quality driving - speed. The experiment carried out we wanted to see if there are
differences in effectiveness between the two ways to solve tasks lesson on driving quality development
speed, ie between traditional (structured exercises in the curriculum) and the use of motion exercises
and movement games.
Achieving school physical education is only possible if they are to systematically - lesson by lesson,
half yearly and during an entire school cycle students - completion of finality of prime importance to
training their motor skills and education such as: developing motor skills, learning a system of
knowledge, skills and motor skills, recovery exercise influence in support of the overall goals of
education, thus contributing to the full development of the personality of the student, preparing to
multilateral.
Develop motor skills leads to:
a) the formation and consolidation of motor skills;
Sport certify that the development of quality largely determines driving, meeting the requirements in
the curriculum on widening and improving the knowledge, skills and motor skills in students. Parallel
conditioning consolidation driving skills, develop motor skills properly favor and highlight their
value.
b) promote increased exercise capacity of the body;
One of the main factors in the development of the activities for achieving superior sports performance
is to exercise capacity. This refers to the possibility of the body to perform physical activity as long as
possible. Exercise capacity is acquired through a process of instruction aimed at the development of
motor skills.
c) a rigorous objectivity of the process of physical training of students. Objectification process of
developing motor skills results in a more accurate ordering activity to continue searching to find the
most effective means and forms of organization of work.
Factors that determine the speed
Speed value, the forms of its manifestation is conditioned by several factors: physiological,
biochemical, psychological and to some extent morphology. Some belong strongly hereditary
structure of each individual and are less perfect.
The most important factors ensuring biological and psychological support speed are:
- Mobility of cortical nerve processes;
Functional instability of their condition rapidly alternating excitation and inhibition, which provides
synchronization contraction and relaxation of muscle groups with contradictory actions correct
answers to excitation.
- Rapid alternation of excitation and inhibition of cortical centers;
- Nerve conduction velocity (reaction time);
Depends on the time of reception of signals (excitation) receptors quality of pulse transmission time
to the central nervous system and the development of response, time of transmission of nerve
impulses to effector organs.
- Acuity, precision signal receiving bodies;
- Optimal pace alternating contraction and relaxation of muscle groups;
- The quality of the muscle fiber;
15

- The development of other motor skills (agility, strength, endurance);


- The concentration of the capacity and outreach.
Given the dominant psychological support of this quality (speed of response and performance, in
particular) that this quality is less perfect - quality gains obtained during the processing speed is
heavily limited by hereditary dowry.
Analyzing the issue of speed in terms of biochemical conditioning notice its value in ATP and
phosphocreatine content of the muscles, the main energy source supporting spurt.
Organize and conduct experimental studies class VI A at "Ion Creanga" -Tulcea, I proposed as a
method of investigation experiment in developing quality driving speed. Total number of students in
the experimental groups was 22 including 11 girls and 11 boys and 22 control group including 11
girls and 11 boys.
Driving tests
a) Running speed - 50 m Was held on the track inside the school with free standing start, one,
recording being done in seconds and tenths of seconds.
b) the place long jump Was held in the school yard, there were two jumps and the best result was
recorded in cm.
c) running with knees up for 15 seconds
d) shift from support to support bed before lying back Starting position: lying back support.
The sample consists of: the buzzer, lifting the bed back support and support passage lay ahead.
Recorded in seconds and tenths of seconds, elapsed time gave signal to hand contact with the ground
lying before the contractor support.
e) detachment force (vertical expansion by jumping high off place) Executor their first wet the
middle finger of the preferred hand in the water, then take the "easy squat" on a chord length away
from the wall. Jumps up, touching the wall with wet finger, as high as possible.
Figure 1. linear evolution significance test "t" according to the significance threshold "p" 2.28 for the
two classes of girls who participated in this experiment
Figure 2. linear evolution significance test "t" according to the significance threshold "p" 2.28 for the
two classes of boys who participated in this experiment

7
6,2

6
5
4,28

4
3,28

Gr.Exper
2,36

2,71

2,35
1,69

1,52

Gr.Martor

1,66
1,12

1
0
Vit 50m

Sl.p. loc

Detenta

Al.gen.sus

Figure 1 girls
16

Cd\Cfac

4,5

4,21

4
3,5
3
2,5

3,23

3,23

2,68

2,75

2,33

1,5

1,5

2,87

2,62
Gr.Exper

1,4

Gr.Martor

1
0,5
0
Vit 50m

Sl.p. loc

Detenta

Al.gen.sus

Cd\Cfac

Figure 2.boys
The most effective proved to be exercises in the form of games and relay as much better solves tasks
pursued by observing the characteristics of the nervous system of children of this age. Teaching
athletes age 11-12 this form of games and relay easily lead to achieving the ultimate goal, because
only these forms children fail to reach their maximum values driving, to know these values to
overcome their own feelings of speed, to be able to support the increased efforts to fight an opponent
specific conditions.
REFERENCES
Badiu, T. Teorie i metodic, Editura EFS, Galai, 2004;
Bompa, T. Dezvoltarea calitilor biometrice. Periodizarea, CNEFPA, Bucureti, 2001;
Crstea, Ghe.- Didactica educaiei fizice, ANEFS, Bucureti, 2000;
Dragnea, A.- Educaie fizic i sport-teorie i didactic, Editura FEST, Bucureti 2006;

17

INSTRUIREA STUDENILOR DIN MEDIUL ACADEMIC MILITAR PRIN


MIJLOACELE AIKIDO-ULUI
Gheorghe Mihalache
Academia Forelor Aeriene Henri Coand, Braov
Universitatea De Stat De Educaie Fizic i Sport Chiinu
gigi_lake@yahoo.com
elul antrenamentului este de a-l ntri pe cel slab, de a-i fortifica trupul i a-i lefui spiritul.
Morihei Ueshiba

Abstract:
Realizarea obiectivelor n aikido este condiionat n cea mai mare parte de asigurarea unei pregtiri
multilaterale corespunztoare, ce presupune urmtoarele: dezvoltarea calitilor motrice i psihomotrice,
formarea i nvarea unei game diverse de deprinderi i priceperi motrice i psihomotrice de baz. Aikido
este o art marial unde calitile motrice (viteza, fora, rezistena, coordonarea i supleea) au o manifestare
foarte complex care trebuie dezvoltat pe toat perioada antrenamentelor i este completat de cele
psihomotrice (coordonarea general, coordonarea segmentar, echilibru static i dinamic, schem corporal,
lateralitate, ambidextrie, tonus muscular, percepii spaio-temporale, integrare spaial, ideomotricitate,
vitez de reacie, de repetiie i de anticipare, armonizare).
Keywords: aikido, motric, psihomotric, asana, pranayama, dharana, dhyana.
1. Introducere
Obiective generale ale studiului sunt urmtoarele:

Dezvoltarea capacitii de a interaciona pentru a dobndi experiene autonome de nvare;

Sprijinirea tinerilor studeni n achiziionarea de informaii, formarea, consolidarea i perfecionarea


deprinderilor, precum i a atitudinii necesare acestora n viitoarea carier, cu corespondent pe tot parcursul
vieii.
Studiind aikido-ul din mai multe perspective, am constatat c practicarea acestei arte mariale aduce
urmtoarele beneficii: dezvoltare fizic armonioas, capacitate excelent de concentrare, dezvoltarea
echilibrului psihoemoional, al seriozitii i moralitii, al spiritului pragmatic, contiinciozitii, respectului,
onoarei, al spiritului de solidaritate, autoeducaie etc. Acestea ar putea fi un posibil rspuns la cerinele i
nevoile studenilor militari.
Prin intermediul artelor mariale n general, i a aikido-ului n mod special, persoane fragile i permanent
deprimate pot s descopere n interiorul lor noi resurse i o energie extraordinar. Persoane cu o voin slab
sau crora le lipsete curajul de a-i exprima mcar a zecea parte din talentul lor, se pot dezvolta i desvri.
Persoane care nu au fost niciodat contiente de adevrata lor valoare, vor nelege demnitatea de a exista.
Cei care sunt prea timizi pentru a-i exprima ideile vor descoperi o nou ncredere i convingere. Cei al cror
spirit este adormit se vor simi inspirai de o nou credin i de noi obiective. Cei care se nchid n ei nii vor
descoperi bucuria de a tri, mprtit cu cei din jur. Cei oprimai i dispreuii vor nelege c toi oamenii
sunt egali n faa Creatorului Suprem - Dumnezeu i sunt liberi de a-i exprima personalitatea.
Aceast nobil art marial care se numete aikido, ne poate servi ca ghid printre enigmele spiritului, ale
raporturilor interumane, ne nva s ne micm corpul n concordan cu legile naturii i nu n ultimul rnd
poate fi manual de auto-educare i auto-formare n centrul vieii cotidiene.
Dac n vechile timpuri omul a fost nzestrat cu caliti specifice, istoria a evoluat n aa fel, nct naturaleea
acestora s-a pierdut n totalitate. Atunci cnd ncepem s practicm aikido, trebuie n primul rnd s cretem
supleea n acele pri ale corpului care au devenit rigide, astfel nct organismul s-i regseasc starea
natural.
Cu ct vom practica mai mult aikido, cu att sensul cuvntului natural devine mai evident. n mod progresiv,
pe msur ce ne debarasm de tensiunile musculare, observm c emoiile noastre se linitesc i se calmeaz,
iar noi devenim capabili s ne deschidem ctre lumea nconjurtoare i ctre marele Univers. O putere
ancestral ce era adormit n adncul fiinei noastre se va trezi i ne vom percepe din ce n ce mai mult viaa n
cadrul unei lumi tridimensionale, care reprezint adevratul spaiu al artelor mariale.
Practicnd aikido trebuie s avem rbdare, s nu fim grbii, pentru c rezultatele nu vor ntrzia s apar i
vom putea beneficia de puterea revigorant a acestora.
Ce este aikido?

18

Aikido este alctuit din urmtoarele caractere chinezeti: do, nseamn cale, drum; ki, energie, spirit; ai, a pune
la loc, a asambla, a armoniza.
Morihei Ueshiba, fondatorul aikido-ului a denumit aiki (tema central a filosofiei orientale) n urmtoarele
feluri:
Aiki este principiul universal care unete toate lucrurile: este procesul optim de asociere i armonizare care
acioneaz la toate nivelele de la imensitatea spaiului pn la cei mai mici atomi.
Aiki reflect marele plan cosmic, este fora vital, o putere irezistibil ce leag aspectele materiale i spirituale
ale creaiei. Aiki este curgerea naturii.
Aiki semnific uniunea corpului i spiritului i este o manifestare a acestui adevr. Mai mult, aiki ne d
posibilitatea s unim cerul, pmntul i omenirea ntr-un singur ntreg.
Aiki nseamn a tri mpreun n armonie, ntr-o stare de nelegere reciproc. Aiki este virtutea social
suprem. Este puterea reconcilierii, puterea iubirii (John Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov,
2002, pg. 21-22).
Accentul pus pe importana de a fi nvingtor, cu orice mijloace i cu orice cost, a distrus n mare parte
mobilul ideal de sportivitate n sportul contemporan. Moihei scria: n zilele noastre sportul este bun doar
pentru exerciiul fizic- el nu reprezint un antrenament al ntregii fiine. Practica aikido-ului pe de alt parte,
promoveaz valoarea, sinceritatea, fidelitatea, buntatea i frumuseea i de asemenea face corpul puternic i
sntos(John Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov, 2002, pg. 23).
John Stevens susine c cele opt ramuri ale filosofiei clasice yoga sunt paralele cu nvturile clasice Aikido ale lui
Morihei:
Yama, etica din care se distinge ahimsa nonviolenta.
Niyama disciplina, este denumit n Aikido tenren (forjare, furire): scopul antrenamentului este s nlture
delsarea, s ntreasc corpul i s ascut mintea.
Asana - posturile graiei. Ca i asanele, tehnicile Aikido cer mult efort i sunt dificile la nceput, dar cu
timpul ele devin mai uoare, mai stabile i mai plcute. n yoga se spune c asana este perfect cnd efortul de
a atinge poziia dispare. Morihei spunea: Funcionnd unitar i armonios, stnga i dreapta dau natere tuturor
tehnicilor. Cele patru membre ale corpului sunt cei patru stlpi ai cerurilor.
Pranayama, controlul respiraiei, este necesar pentru a te altura respiraiei Universului.
Pranayama nseamn eliberarea de neclaritate, o respingere a distragerilor simurilor, o minte care este ferm
i impenetrabil. n aceast privin Morihei spunea: Nu te uita n ochii adversarului tu: ar putea s te
subjuge. Nu-i fixa privirea pe sabia lui: ar putea s te intimideze. Nu te concentra deloc pe adversarul tu: ar
putea s-i absoarb energia.
Dharana, neclintirea minii, este cunoscut de asemenea ca ekagrata, pstrarea punctului unic, un concept
binecunoscut n Aikido: Dac eti centrat, poi s te miti cu uurin. Centrul fizic este propriul buric, dac i
mintea ta este acolo, ai victoria asigurat n orice ncercare.
Dhyana, meditaia, este o stare de introspecie ptrunztoare i clarviziune: nltur gndurile care te limiteaz
i ntoarcete ctre adevrata lips de coninut. Stai n mijlocul Marelui Vid.
Samadhi, detaarea total, merge i mai departe. Distincia dintre cunosctor i cunoscut se dizolv.... (John
Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov, 2002, pg. 25, 26, 27).
Societatea actual este concretizat printr-o evoluie accelerat i multilateral, crend nenumrate
interdependene ntre competenele sale implicnd consecine remarcabile asupra evoluieie devenirii umane.
Acestea impun luarea de msuri i adaptarea unor soluii de tip educaional, adecvate metodelor educaionale,
care sunt deja depite n evoluia societii.
Premisa teoretic a acestei lucrri, const n legtura indisolubil dintre societate, artele mariale n general i
n mod special aikido. Acestea din urm, ca parte integrant a unei vechi culturi i civilizaii, ofer rspuns la
nevoile fundamentale ale societii.
Aikido n sistemul educaional este determinat de o comand social general, contribuind la o dezvoltare
fizic armonioas i meninerea unei stri optime de sntate fizic i psihic subordonndu-se n principal
pregtirii pentru munc i via.
Dar mai exist o comand social special, n cazul de fa: accentuarea pregtirii studenilor militari, viitori
ofieri, care st la temelia calitii i a seleciei pentru accederea ctre obiectivele naltei performane i nu n
ultimul rnd a celei cu specific militar n mod expres.
n funcie de comanda social, aikido contribuie la ineriorizarea (internalizarea) valorilor culturale i
convertirea lor n valori existeniale, suport al adaptrii i inseriei individului n ansamblul societii.

19

2. Funciile i mijloacele pregtirii fizice n aikido


Aikido posed o serie de funcii care consolideaz i desvrete personalitatea individului, asigurndu-i n
acelai timp o dezvoltare fizic armonioas.
Funciile specifice aikido-ului sunt:
funcia de autoaprare, pe care o posed populaia civil;
funcia de aprare, ndeplinit de instituiile militare i de securitatea naional;
funcia educativ, care este cea mai complex, reprezentnd o influenare sistematic i
contient a individului la nivelul tuturor laturilor personalitii sale.
Mijloacele pregtirii fizice n aikido sunt, dup cum urmeaz:
2.1. Dezvoltarea vitezei
Viteza este raportul dintre distana parcurs de un segment al corpului sau a corpului combatantului n totalitate
pentru efectuarea unui act sau a unei aciuni motrice ntr-un timp ct mai scurt (Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n
disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 46-47).
Viteza este calitatea motric cu un puternic corespondent genetic i n comparaie cu celelalte caliti motrice
poate fi dezvoltat ntr-un ritm mai lent, dar cu aceeai valoare.
n aikido, atunci cnd se face randori (lupt), iar nivelul tehnic este ridicat, procedeele i combinaiile tehnice
pot fi executate cu vitez maxim, iar rspunsurile oponenilor trebuie s fie foarte rapide. Aceast reacie
imediat a partenerilor este n funcie de situaie i n aikido se numete armonie.
Exerciiile pentru dezvoltarea vitezei sunt recomandate s se fac dup pregtirea organismului pentru efort,
cnd acesta este odihnit, avnd astfel capacitatea de a rspunde imediat solicitrilor specifice.
2.2. Dezvoltarea forei
Fora n disciplinele de combat reprezint capacitatea de a executa procedee tehnice specifice prin contracii
musculare de nvingere, cedare sau meninere, dup caz, la orice rezisten intern sau extern, sau a
adversarului (Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 5960).
Aceast calitate motric poate fi dezvoltat n aikido cu rezultate spectaculoase, prin programe speciale
specifice acestei arte mariale. n funcie de structurile tehnice, fora se manifest diferit, n timpul execuiei
acestora. Cnd sunt executate tehnici de proiectare (nage-waza), dar cu amplitudine mare, micrile vor fi mai
dinamice, acest lucru presupunnd dezvoltarea forei explozive, adic a forei n regim de vitez.
Pentru dezvoltarea forei trebuie s se in cont de particularitile organismului, de nivelu de pregtire, i nu n
ultimul rnd de vrst.
Metodele de dezvoltare a forei sunt:

metoda lucrului cu greuti (mici, medii, mari);

metoda lucrului n circuit;

metode pentru dezvoltarea forei explozive - detentei (power training).


2.3. Dezvoltarea rezistenei
Rezistena n disciplinele de combat se refer la capacitatea organismului combatanilor de a face fa unui
angajament fizic i psihic total n condiiile unor solicitri cu o surat mai lung de lupt specific, reprize
multiple de 2 sau 3 minute, n funcie de stil, fr a se modifica randamentul prestaiei prin apariia oboselii
(Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 71-72).
Dezvoltarea rezistenei n aikido este necesar pentru ca practicanii acestei arte mariale s fac fa
solicitrilor din timpul antrenamentelor, precum i a cerinelor impuse de specificitatea acestora.
Metodele utilizate pentru dezvoltarea rezistenei sunt:

metoda creterii duratelor;

metoda creterii tempoului;

metoda alternrii efortului;

metoda efortului n circuit, etc.


2.4. Metoda coordonrii
Coordonarea este o calitate coordinativ psiho-motric, ce se dezvolt foarte mult odat cu practicarea
tehnicilor din stilurile de combat i pe care le condiioneaz la rndul su. nvarea unor tehnici noi ct mai
rapid i corect cu putin, adaptarea rapid i eficient a acestora la condiiile mereu variabile i imprevizibile
din timpul luptei, toate acestea aparinnd coordonrii (Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de
combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 76).
Aceast calitate motric contribuie n mod direct la nivelul calitativ al execuiilor aciunilor motrice specifice
aikido-ului, n concordan cu situaiile nicioadat asemntoare din timpul antrenamentului i nu numai.

20

Metodele de dezvoltare a coordonrii sunt:

metode directe:
exerciii efectuate n condiii neobinuite;
exerciii n oglind;
exerciii cu parteneri pasivi, semiactivi i activi;
repetri pe partea nedominant;
lucrul cu ochii legai (acoperii) sau pe ntuneric.

metode indirecte:
tafete i parcursuri aplicative;
jocuri dinamice cu tem;
piste cu obstacole, etc.
2.5. Metoda mobilitii i supleii
Dan Deliu (2008), susine c mobilitatea reprezint capacitatea de a realiza micri cu amplitudine ct mai
mare, n mod activ sau pasiv i se refer mai ales la articulaii. Supleea semnific calitatea elasticitii
musculare, condiionnd mobilitatea (Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti,
2008, pg. 69).
Un corp suplu i elastic va fi mai puin predispus la accidente (ntinderi, rupturi, etc.), consumul energetic va fi
diminuat, iar actele i aciunile motrice, vor fi condiionate n mod direct de aceste caliti.
Artele mariale n general i aikido n mod special pun mare accent pe mobilitate i suplee, calitatea
exerciiilor tehnice fiind strns legat de nivelul lor.
Metodele de dezvoltare sunt:
metoda exersrii cu:
o
micri simple de flexie i extensie;
o
micri de amplitudine mic, aproape statice;
o
micri cu amplitudine redus, la limita maxim a amplitudinii pasive;
o
micri cu contracie izometric;
metoda streching-ului.
3. Problematica cercetrii
Motivarea alegerii temei:
Aikido-ul, asemenea altor arte mariale, a fost i va rmne perfectibil i astfel n decursul timpului, dat fiind
faptul c este o art marial necompetiional (n antrenamentele de aikido nu exist nvingtor sau nvins,
rolurile practicanilor schimbndu-se permanent), a suferit modificri tehnice considerabile, tehnicile
(procedeele) fiind astfel rafinate i ultraelaborate, urmrindu-se n permanen armonia, orientat i dirijat
ctre perfeciune, ntre doi sau mai muli practicani, nu n ultimul rnd, ncurajndu-se creativitatea, att de
necesar studenilor militari, viitori lupttori cu mentaliti de nvingtori.
Morihei Ueshiba, citat de Dan Corneliu Ionescu (2003), spunea: Aikido este calea perfecionrii fiinei umane.
Aikido este o form de Budo (calea luptei) care deschide calea ctre armonie, este esena marelu spirit al
reunificrii i complexitii creaiei. Universul cuprinde toat fora i puterea (sufletul unic, cele 4 spirite, 3
origini i 8 puteri) i n ele se afl originea vieii i a forei umane.
Omenirea are abilitatea de a se unifica cu Universul, dar faptul c acest lucru nu se produce, conduce la
condiia sa nefericit.
Cnd o persoan i spune rugciunea n linite, ea se unific cu divinitatea (Enciclopedia de Aikido, Editura
MIX, Braov, 2003, pg.62).
Cunoaterea teoriei/teoriilor antrenamentului sportiv modern ne cluzete ctre o evoluie spectaculoas n
ceea ce privete atingerea obiectivelor specifice aikido-ului, n condiiile n care profesorul, antrenorul,
intuiete la timp schimbrile i este preocupat n permanen de tot ce nseamn NOU.
3.1. Scopul i obiectivele cercetrii
Scopul cercetrii const n utilizarea unor mijloace, specifice aikido-ului pentru educarea/ dezvoltarea
motricitii i psihomotricitii, optimizarea dezvoltrii fizice armonioase, cunoaterea posibilitilor de
micare ale corpului i segmentelor, a orientrii spaio-temporale i echilibrului, nsuirea unor norme de
comportament ce ncurajeaz o atitudine social pozitiv, stimularea imaginaiei i a creativitii, dezvoltarea
capacitii de comunicare, a calitilor morale i de caracter.
Din acest scop deriv urmtoarele obiective:
A obiectivele teoretice (ot):
- identificarea necesarului optim, formrii calitilor motrice i psihomotrice ale viitorilor studeni;
- aprofundarea cunoaterii particularitilor de vrst ale studenilor militari;

21

- stabilirea unei strategii utilizate n activitatea cu tinerii studeni.


B obiectivele practic (op):
- elaborarea unui proiect de pregtire prin mijloacele aikido-ului, flexibil i adaptat Modelului
Absolventului;
- stabilirea modelului optim de pregtire, precum i argumentarea experimental a eficienei acestuia, n
optimizarea randamentului n misiuni i teatre de operaii.
3.2. Ipotezele cercetrii sunt urmtoarele:
Dac vom identifica trsturile educabile pentru aceast vrst (19-20 ani), atunci vom putea
mbunti substanial calitatea i eficiena procesului de educare/dezvoltare a motricitii i psihomotricitii
studenilor;
Dac educarea/dezvoltarea motricitii i psihomotricitii studenilor militari prin aikido va avea
un impact favorabil asupra dezvoltrii biologice, psihomotrice, sociale i a personalitii acestora, atunci vor
crete performanele fizice, psihologice i profesionale ale viitorilor ofieri.
3.3. Metodele cercetrii
3.3.1.
Metoda documentrii este metoda prin care cercettorul intr n posesia datelor privitoare la
rezultatele obinute de ali specialiti ai domeniului respectiv. Aceast metod presupune identificarea
materialului bibliografic de specialitate, consultarea i selecionarea acestora, apoi prelucrarea i interpretarea
lor.
3.3.2.
Metoda observaiei pedagogice presupune urmrirea contient a procesului instructiveducativ, a influenelor exercitate asupra subiectului/subiecilor i comportarea acestuia/acestora sub aceste
influene. Este absolut necesar ca aceast metod s se desfoare conform unui plan tematic i prin
intermediul unor mijloace tehnice menite s surprind fenomenele i procesele urmrite.
3.3.3.
Metoda convorbirii reprezint angajarea unei discuii relaxate ntre cercettor i subiect.
Aceasta presupune o sinceritate deplin a subiectului. Prin dialogul orientat spre problematica temei, pot fi
create posibiliti de cunoatere a realitii de ordin biologic, motric i psihologic.
3.3.4.
Metoda experimental const n verificarea unei relaii presupuse (enunat n ipotez) dintre
dou fenomene prin provocarea i controlul acestora de ctre experimentator (Epuran M., 2007).
3.3.5.
Metoda statistico-matematic permite realizarea unui studiu cantitativ al lucrurilor i
fenomenelor cuprinse n cercetare.
3.3.6.
Metoda grafic presupune o prezentare intuitiv a datelor de cercetare, prin care se scoate n
eviden esenialul, ocazie cu care poate fi fcut o evaluare ct mai exact a datelor.
4. Organizarea cercetrii
Obiectul general al cercetrii l constituie rolul procesului instructiv-educativ n formarea i dezvoltarea
calitilor motrice i psihomotrice ale studenilor militari, avnd ca sistem de acionare aikido-ul.
Subiectul cercetrii l constituie studenii Academiei Forelor Aeriene Henri Coand Braov, dou grupe de
studeni: grupa de control (16 studeni), grupa experimental (16 studeni), vrsta 19-21 ani.
Cercetarea s-a desfurat pe parcursul a 2 ani, din 15.09.2012 pn n 15.08.2014. Programul de antrenament al
grupei experimentale s-a efectuat separat i a fost diferit fa de cel al grupei de control. Acesta s-a realizat cu
mijloacele specifice aikido-ului, adresat tuturor componentelor antrenamentului, respectiv: pregtirea fizic,
tehnic, teoretic i psihologic.
Grupa de control a efectuat antrenamente de fitness.
Numrul antrenamentelor celor dou grupe a fost identic.
4.1. nregistrarea, prelucrarea i interpretarea datelor
n debutul cercetrii, cele dou grupe au fost supuse unei testri n aceleai condiii de regulament. Aceasta s-a
efectuat printr-un set de norme de control cu caracter general i specific artelor mariale.
Studenii au fost evaluai n dou etape principale, evaluarea iniial, la nceputul procesului de pregtire pentru
a se vedea nivelul general de pregtire i evaluarea final a celor dou grupe la sfritul procesului. Pentru
grupa experimental a mai existat o verificare intermediar (la sfritul primului an), din punct de vedere
tehnic.
Rezultatele obinute de cele dou grupe au fost trecute n tabele i reprezentate grafic.
Evaluarea studenilor din grupa experimental la o parte din procedeele tehnice de aikido (Ude-osae,
Kotemawashi, Kotegaeshi, Kotehineri, Koshinage), s-a fcut prin note de la 1 la 10, n funcie de acurateea
tehnic a execuiilor. n figura 1 sunt prezentate comparativ rezultatele (media notelor obinute la cele 5
procedee tehnice) obinute n urma celor dou evaluri menionate mai sus.

22

9
8
7
6
5

Evaluare intermediar

Evaluare intermediar

3
2
1
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Subieci

Fig. 1:
Comparaie ntre rezultatele grupei experimentale la cele dou evaluri
Comparnd rezultatele obinute de grupa experimental la efectuarea procedeelor tehnice n cele dou evaluri
(intermediar i final), constatm o uoar cretere a notelor, la evaluarea final.
Analiza per ansamblu a notelor obinute de ctre grupa experimental demonstreaz o repartiie gaussian n
urmtoarea variant:
primul interval cu rezultate slabe a fost calculat cu note de la 1 la 5;
al doilea interval corespunztor rezultatelor satisfctoare este apreciat cu note n 6 i 7;
al treilea interval corespunde rezultatelor bune, ntre 8 i 9;
cel de-al patrulea interval corespunde execuiilor foarte bune, apreciate cu nota 10.
n figurile 2 i 3 se prezint repartiiile rezultatelor obinute la gama de pr4ocedee tehnice la cele dou evaluri
(intermediar i final).
60

50

50

40

30

[%]

[%]

40
Procentaje

20

Procentaje
20
10

10
0

30

[1 ; 5] [6 ;7] [8 ;9]

10

Procentaje 3,75 53,75 41,25 1,25

Procentaje

Note obinute

[1 ; 5] [6 ;7] [8 ;9]
2,5

45

10

46,25 6,25

Note obinute

Fig. 2:
Fig. 3:
Repartiia notelor la evaluarea intermediar
Repartiia notelor la evaluarea final
Se poate observa evoluia ntre cele dou evaluri: la evaluarea intermediar procentul celor infradotai a fost
de 3,75%; acesta s-a micorat la 2,5% la evaluarea final. De asemenea, la evaluarea intermediar, 1,25% din
subieci s-au dovedit a fi supradodai, procent care s-a mrit la 6,25% la evaluarea final. Cea mai
spectaculoas evoluie ns se consider a fi micorarea substanial a procentului rezultatelor satisfctoare
(de la 53,75% la 45%), pe seama apropierii la evaluarea final a procentului acestor subieci de procentul celor
buni (45%, respectiv 46,25%). n aceste condiii, la evaluarea final se constat c media rezultatelor este la
grania ntre domeniile celor cu rezultate satisfctoare i a celor cu rezultate bune.
Testarea calitilor motrice a subiecilor din cele dou grupe a constat n:
traciuni la bar fix;
vitez 100m plat;
rezisten 3000m,
i a fost efectuat la nceputul i la sfritul perioadei de pregtire.
Rezultatele (comparative) obinute sunt prezentate n figurile 4, , 9.

23

14:45

14:03

14:38

14:03

14:31

14:02

14:24

14:01

14:16

Initial

14:09

Final

Initial

14:00

Final

14:00

14:02

13:59

13:55

13:58

13:48

13:58

13:40

100m plat - Grupa experimental

100m plat - Grupa de control

Fig. 4:
Grupa de control, vitez
14:32
14:29
14:26
14:24
14:21
14:18
14:15
14:12
14:09
14:06
14:03
14:00

Fig. 5:
Grupa experimental, vitez
13:37
13:35
13:32

Initial

Initial

13:29

Final

Final

13:26
13:23
13:20
3000m - Grupa experimental

3000m - Grupa de control

Fig. 6:
Grupa de control, rezisten

Fig. 7:
Grupa experimental, rezisten

7
6

5
4
3

Initial

Initial

Final

Final

0
Traciuni - Grupa experimental

Traciuni - Grupa de control

Fig. 8:
Fig. 9:
Grupa de control, for
Grupa experimental, for
Se poate observa c n urma programului desfurat, ambele grupe i-au mbuntit performanele.
Totui, subiecii din grupa experimental au obinut la final rezultate superioare celor ale grupei de control,
dup cum se poate observa din comparaiile ntre ele, prezentate n figurile 10, ,12.

24

14:03
14:02
14:01
Grupa de control

14:00

Grupa experimental

14:00
13:59
13:58
100m plat

Fig.10:
Comparaia rezultatelor celor dou grupe la evaluarea final la vitez

14:16
14:09
14:02
13:55
13:48
13:40
13:33
13:26
13:19
13:12
13:04
12:57

Grupa de control
Grupa experimental

3000m

Fig.11:
Comparaia rezultatelor celor dou grupe la evaluarea final la rezisten

8,2
8
7,8
7,6
7,4

Grupa de control

7,2

Grupa experimental

7
6,8
6,6
6,4
Traciuni

Fig.12:
Comparaia rezultatelor celor dou grupe la evaluarea final la for
O explicaie a superioritii rezultatelor grupei experimentale ar putea fi faptul c au fost corect identificate
trsturile educabile pentru nivelul de vrst al subiecilor, iar metodologia a fost corect aplicat prin
mijloacele aikido-ului.
Prin urmare, putem concluziona c un proces de instruire bazat pe crearea permanent de probleme
(problematizarea) va duce n final la creterea capacitii de adaptare la condiiile de antrenament specifice
aikido-ului i nu n ultimul rnd la formarea, consolidarea i perfecionarea deprinderilor/priceperilor motrice
specifice acestei arte mariale.

25

Datorit diversitii pe care am abordat-o n antrenament am reuit s elimin plictiseala i monotonia, reuind
astfel s-mi ating obiectivele propuse.
Pe perioada celor doi ani de pregtire nu am avut niciun abandon i nicio accidentare, studenii militari
comportndu-se la nivel de excelen.
n final, menionez faptul c dac dorim s folosim metode moderne de pregtire i s nu lucrm empiric,
trebuie s fim conectai n permanen la nou. Lucrul cu studenii militari este ceva inedit atunci cnd feedback-ul s-a realizat i cnd toat lumea este ntr-o deplin armonie, caracteristic esenial a aikido-ului.
Concluzii
n urma cercetrii i interpretrii rezultatelor obinute, am extras urmtoarele concluzii:
mijloacele utilizate s-au dovedit a fi accesibile vrstei i nivelului de pregtire i nu au existat
dificulti n aplicarea acestora;
mijloacele utilizate au vizat optimizarea tuturor componentelor antrenamentului: pregtirea
fizic, tehnic, teoretic, psihologic;
tehnicile selecionate au o larg aplicabilitate, prin urmare studenii au rspuns pozitiv la
solicitrile din timpul antrenamentelor;
complexitatea unor tehnici (Kotehineri, Koshi-nage), dei la nceput au necesitat un consum
energetic mai mare, nu a creat probleme n nvarea lor, datorit metodologiei moderne adoptate cerinelor
aikido-ului.
n final, considerm c nivelul bun la care au ajuns studenii dup un stagiu de pregtire de doi ani, reprezint
puntea de legtur cu nivelele superioare din aceast art marial i nu n ultimul rnd cu coresponden n
viitoarea lor carier.

Bibliografie
1. Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008;
2. Dan Corneliu Ionescu, Enciclopedia de Aikido, Editura MIX, Braov, 2003;
3. John Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov, 2002.

TRAINING OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE MILITARY ACADEMIC


ENVIRONMENT THROUGH AIKIDO MEANS
Gheorghe Mihalache
Academia Forelor Aeriene Henri Coand, Braov
Universitatea De Stat De Educaie Fizic i Sport Chiinu
gigi_lake@yahoo.com
The purpose of training is to tighten up the slack, toughen the body, and polish the spirit.
Morihei Ueshiba

Abstract:
The achievement of Aikido objectives is conditioned mostly by providing a certain multidimensional
preparedness, as following: development of the calitilor motrice i psihomotrice, formarea i
nvarea unei game diverse de deprinderi i priceperi motrice i psihomotrice de baz. Aikido is a
martial art where physical qualities (speed, strength, endurance, coordination and flexibility) have a
very complex display which has to be enhanced with psihomotrice qualities (general coordination,
segment coordination, static and dynamic equilibrium, body attitude, laterality, ambidextrous,
muscular tonus, space and time perception, space integration, ideomotricitate, reaction speed,
repetition speed, anticipation speed, harmonization).
Keywords: aikido, motric, psychomotric, asana, pranayama, dharana, dhyana.
1. Introduction
General objectives of the study are the following:

Development of the capacity to interact in order to acquire autonomous learning


experiences;
26


Sustain the young students in the information gathering; development, consolidation and
improving the skill and the required attitude for the future career and the life time correspondent.
After studying Aikido from many perspectives, I have found the following benefits that arise from
practicing this martial art: harmonious physical development, excellent focusing capacity, psychical
and emotional equilibrium development, and development of seriousness, morality, pragmatic spirit,
consciousness, respect, honor, solidarity, and self-education.
More fragile and depressed persons may discover new resources and an extraordinary energy through
martial arts, especially through Aikido.
The people that are to shy to express their ideas will discover a new self-confidence and conviction.
Those of which spirit is sleeping will find a new believe and objectives. Those who are closed itself
will discover the happiness of sharing with others of their life experiences. Those who are oppressed
and despised will understand that all people are equal in front of God and they are free to express
their personality.
This noble martial art named Aikido may guide us throughout spirit enigmas and human
relationships; it teaching us how to move our body in accordance with laws of nature and least but not
last it can be perceived as self-education and self-developing manual for all of the life aspects.
Even from ancient times humans have been gifted with specific qualities. Because of the history
evolution, the naturalness of these qualities was totally lost. When we start practicing Aikido, we
must, first of all, to enhance the flexibility of our body which are very ridgid, to regain the naturalness
of it.
More we practice Aikido, so more obvious will be our naturalness. Progressively, when the muscular
tense decrease, we can observe that our emotions will calm down and we will be able to open through
the mighty Univers. An ancestral power which was asleep inside us shall wake up and ensure our
perception on the tridimensional life, which represents the true space of the martial arts.
By practicing Aikido we have to be patient, to not hurry up and the results will pop up to display their
revival benefits.
What is aikido?
Aikido is characterized by three Japanese kanji: Ai harmony, to harmonize; Ki energy, spirit; Do
the way.
Morihei Ueshiba, the Aikido founder, named Aiki (the core of the Oriental philosophy) in various
forms:
Aiki represents the universal principle which unites all the things; it is the optimum process to
associate and harmonize which act at all levels, from the endless space to the tiny atoms.
Aiki reflects the Big Cosmic Plan; it is a vital force, an irezistible power which links the material and
spiritual aspects of creation. Aiki is the flow of nature.
Aiki means blended mind and body and is a manifestation of this true. More, Aiki give us the
possibility to unify the heaven, earth and humanity in one.
Aiki means to live in harmony, in a consciouss state of mind and mutual understanding. Aiki
represents the supreme social virtue. It is the reconciliation power, the power of love (John Stevens,
Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov, 2002, pg. 21-22).
The idea of being the winer at any price and by any means has destroyed the fairness in the modern sports.
Morihei Ueshiba wrote: "In our days sport is very good for physical exercise only - it not represent the
whole body training. Aikido practice, on theother hand, promotes the value, sincerity, fidelity, kindness
and beauty and make our body strong and healthy (John Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX,
Braov, 2002, pg. 23).
John Stevens considered that all the eight pilars of Yoga's classic philosophy are very similar with
Ueshiba taughts:
Yama, is that ethic from which non-violent ahimsa is to be distinguished;
Niyama discipline, named in Aikido as Tenren (forging): the training goal is the removal of halfhearted and the strengthening the mind and the body;
Asana - the posture. As Yoga asanas, the Aikido techniques require a lot of effort and are very
difficult at the very beginning. After some time, the techniques are becoming more affordable, stable
27

and pleasant. In Yoga, the perfect asana is to be reached when is effortless. Morihei Ueshiba said:
Functioning harmoniously together, right and left give birth to all techniques. The four limbs of the
body are the four pillars of heaven.
Pranayama, the breath control, is necessary to blend ourselves with the Univers.
Pranayama means to release the blur, to reject the sense distraction, to strength a ferm and
impenetrable mind. In this respect, Morihei Ueshiba said: Do not stare into the eyes of your
opponent: he may mesmerize you. Do not fix your gaze on his sword: he may intimidate you. Do not
focus on your opponent at all: he may absorb your energy..
Dharana, the mind firmness, is to be known also as ekagrata, keeping the single point, a very well
known concept in Aikido. If you are centered, you can move freely. The physical center is your
belly; if your mind is set there as well, you are assured of victory in any endeavor.
Dhyana, the meditation, represents an introspective state of consciousness: Cast off limiting thoughts
and return to true emptiness. Stand in the midst of the Great Void..
Samadhi, total detachment, is going further and further. The distinction between the connoisseur
and known dissolve .... (John Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov, 2002, pg. 25, 26,
27).
The modern society displays a multidimensional and accelerated evolution that drives through
unnumbered interdependencies among its competencies which produce remarkable consequences
over human evolution.
All of those require certain actions and educational solutions consistent with the level of the societal
development.
The theoretical premise of this paper consists of undestroyable link among society, martial arts ai
general and Aikido at first hand. Aikido, as inseparable part of an ancestral culture and civilization,
may offer an answer to the fundamental needs of the society.
Aikido in educational system is determined by general social command, and may contribute to a
harmonious physical development and maintain of the optimal physical and psychical health which
help the general preparedness for work and life.
In the other hand, it is another special social command emphasized in this paper: the training of the
military students, future officers, which represents the foundation of the quality and selection in order
to reach the objectives of high performance, and not only from the military point of view.
In regard with the social command, Aikido may contribute to internalize the cultural values, to
convert them in day to day existance values as foundation of adaptation and social insertion of the
individuals.
2. Functions and means of Aikido phisycal training
Aikido consists in several functions which consolidate and perfects the individual personality, by
providing in the same time a harmonious physical development.
The specific functions of Aikido are the following:
Self-defense function, related to the civilian population;
Defense function, which belong to military institutions and national security;
Educational function, which is the most complex and consist in the systemic influence of
individuals at all his/ her personality levels.
The means of Aikido are the following:
2.1. Speed development
The speed represents the distance covered per unit of time by the moving of one part or the entire body of
a combatant in order to fulfil a certain action (Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat,
Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 46-47).
The speed represents a motric quality and is strong related to the genes. It can be developed slowly
but with the same ratio.

28

In Aikido, during randori, at the high technical level, the techniques and combination of them can be
executed at full speed and the opponents response must be accordingly. This immediate reaction of
the partners is consistent with the situation and is named harmonization.
The recommended exercises for development of the speed will be performed after effort, when the
individual is relaxed and posses the capacity to immediate response to specific requirement.
2.2. Strenght development
The strength on combat disciplines consist in the capacity of individual to execute specific techniques
by muscular contractions as following: lengthen, shorten, remain the same length. This is to be
performed at any level of effort, internally or externally, or due to the adversary. (Dan Deliu,
Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 59-60).
This motric quality can be developed in Aikido with good results by implementing special
programmes belonging of this martial art. Due to technical structure, the strength will be different
according to the execution. When throwing techniques are applied (Nage waza) at high amplitude all
the movements will be more dynamic. These correspond to explosive strength.
There are some particularities to be accounted in order to develop the strength: specificity of the
body, preparedness level and the age
The methods used to develop the strength are the following:

The method of using weights (small, medium, big);

The method of using various exercises continuosly;

The method of power training.


2.3. Endurance development
The endurance in the combat disciplines refers to the combatants body capacity to sustain total
physical and mental effort during short or long fight rounds, 2-3 minutes rounds depending on the
combat style, without any alteration of the performance due to fatigue (Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul
sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 71-72).
The endurance development in Aikido is mandatory to allow the practitioners to face up the efforts
and specific requirements during the training.
The methods used to develop the endurance are the following:

The method of duration increase;

The method of tempo increase;

The method of effort alternation;

The method of recurrent effort.


2.4. Coordination method
Coordination represents a coordinative psycho-motric quality which is developed at the same time
with combat practicing and conditionated them. Learning new techniques as fast and correct possible
and adapting rapidly and efficient to impredictable and variable conditions during fight represent
relevant aspects of coordination (Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura
Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 76).
This motric quality directly contribute to execution qualitative level of the motric actions performed
in Aikido according with various situations arised during the training sesion and not only.
The methods used to develop the coordination are the following:

Direct methods:
Exercises performed in unusual conditions;
Exercises performed in mirror;
Exercises performed with partners (passive, semiactive and active attitude);
Repetition for non-dominant part;
Work with covered eyes or in the dark.

Indirect methods:
Relays and applied along;
Thematic dynamic play;
Tracks with obstacle.
29

2.5. Mobility and flexibility method


Dan Deliu (2008), sustain that mobility represents the capacity of an individual to perform high
amplitude movements, in active and passive mode, with special refer to joints. Flexibility consist in
the quality of the muscular elasticity, conditioning the mobility (Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele
de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008, pg. 69).
A slim and flexible body will be less affected by accidents (overstretch, ruptures) and will consume
small amount of energy. All actions will be direct affected by these qualities.
Martial arts, Aikido especially, emphasize the mobility and flexibility by revealing the quality of
performing the techniques.
The methods used to develop mobility and flexibility are the following:
The method of exercizing with:
o
Simple movments of flexion and extension;
o
Low amplitude movements, almost static;
o
Reduced amplitutde movements, at the passive amplitude level;
o
Isometric contraction movements;
The stretching method.
3. Research objective
Aikido, as many of other martial arts, was and will be perfectible. Due to time, this non-competitional
martial art suffered many technical alterations in order to emphasize harmony between the partners.
In Aikido arent winers and losers, they change their status of uke and nage harmoniously. This way
allows the military students to enhance their creativity, required for their status of future fighters.
Morihei Ueshiba, cited by Dan Corneliu Ionescu (2003), said: Aikido represents the way of development
of the human individual. Aikido is a form of Budo (the fight way) which open the way to harmony,
represents the essence of the great spirit of reunite and complex creation. The Universe comprises all
the power and soul (the unique soul, the 4 spirits, 3 origines and 8 powers) and contains the origin of
life and human force.
The humanity has the ability to blend with the Universe. If the unification is not achieved it will
produce unhappiness to the people.
When an individual saying his/her pray, he/she is unified with the Divine (Enciclopedia de Aikido,
Editura MIX, Braov, 2003, pg.62).
Knowing the theory/ theories of the modern sport training guiding us to a spectacularly evolution of
specific objectives of Aikido, especially when the professor, the trainer predicts timely the changes
and is permanent concerned about what is NEW.

3.1. The research goal and objectives


The goal of the research consists in utilization of specific Aikido means in order to: educate/ develop
moticity and psycho-motricity; optimization of harmonious physical development; knowledge of the
moving possibilities of body segments and space and time orientation and equilibrum; acquiring
behavioral norms which encourage a positive social attitude; imagination and creativity stimulation;
comunication capacity, moral quality and character development
From this goal derive the following objectives:
A Theoretical objectives (TO):
- Identification the optimum requirements to develop motric and psychomotric qualities for future
students;
- Deepening the knowledge about age particularities of the military students;
- Estalishment of the strategies to be used during activities with young students.
B Practical objectives (PO):
- Development the training project through Aikido means, flexible and adaptated to Graduate
Model;
30

- Establishment of optimum training model, precum i argumentarea experimental a eficienei


acestuia, n optimizarea randamentului n misiuni i teatre de operaii.
3.2. Research hypotesys:
If we would identify the educable features for the specific age of 19 20 years, then we
can tremendeously improve the quality and efficiency of the education/ development of motricity and
psychomotricity of the military students;
If the education/ development of the motricity and psychomotricity of the military
students may have a favorable impact over the biological, psychomotrical, social and personality
development then we may observe a consistent increase of the physical, psychical and professional
performances of the future officers.
3.3. Research methods
3.3.7.
Documentary method represents the method which the researcher collects data from
other studies that belong to the domain. This method identifies the relevant papers, books, studies to
be analyzed and selected, processed and interpreted.
3.3.8.
Pedagogical observation method consist in conscious observation of the instruction
and educational process and all the influences which are applied over the subject/ subjects and the
how they change their behavior under the circumstances. We need to develop for this method a
thematical plan which will consist in technical means to help us in the process of observation of
relevant phenomenon and processes.
3.3.9.
Conversational method consist in relaxed discussions between the researcher and the
subject of research. This supposes to have sincerity from both sides and about the research. Through
oriented dialogue on the research objective we can find new knowledge about biological,
psychological and motrycal reality.
3.3.10.
Experimental method consist in checking the hypothesis of the supposed relation
between two phenomena by provoking and controlling them by the researcher (Epuran M., 2007).
3.3.11.
Statistical-mathematical method allow the quantitative study of the things and
phenomena which are studied.
3.3.12.
Graphical method consist on intuitive data representation of research which emphasiye
the relevant facts in order to a better evaluation of data.
4. Organizing the research
The general objective of the research is to emphasiye the role of the instruction and educational
process in development of the motric and psychomotric qualities to the military students by Aikido
means.
The subject of the research consists in military students from Henri Coand Air Force Academy
Braov. They were organized in two research groups: the control group (16 students) and the
experimental group (16 students), all at the age between 19 21 years old.
The research was deployed over 2 years, from 15.09.2012 to 15.08.2014. The training programme of
the experimental group was performed separately and was different than the control group. The
training programme was performed through Aikido means addressing all the training components:
physical, technical, theoretical and psychological.
The control group performed fitness training.
Both groups performed the same number of trainings.
4.1. Recording, processing and interpret data
At the beginning of the research, both groups were tested in the same conditions of the manual. There
was performed one set of exercises having general and specific martial arts features.
The military students have been evaluated in two main steps: initial evaluation, at the beginning of the
training process; and the final evaluation, at the enf of the training process. For the experimental
group another intermediate evaluation was performed, at the end of the first year, onlz for technical
purposes.
The results obtained by both groups are presented in the tables and graphs bellow.
31

The evaluation of the students from experimental group, for part of the Aikido techniques (Ude-Osae,
Kotemawashi, Kotegaeshi, Kotehineri, Koshinage) was performed by using marks from 1 to 10,
emphasizing the accuracy of the technical execution. Figure 1 represent comparative results (the
average of the marks obtained after performing 5 techniques) for the intermediate and final
evaluation.
9
8
7
6
5

Intermediate evaluation

Final Evaluation

3
2
1
0
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Subjects

Figure 1: Comparison between results obtained by experimental group for both evaluations
After performing the comparison we may observe a fine increase of the marks at the final evaluation.
The overall analysis of the marks obtained by the experimental group demonstrates a Gaussian
distribution:
The first interval with low marks was calculate in the range from 1 to 5;
The second interval correspondent to average marks is in the range from 6 to 7;
The third interval is consisting with good results, in the range from 8 to 9;
The fourth interval is corresponding to high quality of execution, only marks of 10.
Figure 2 and 3 represents the distributions of the obtained results after performing 4 techniques during
intermediate and final evaluation.
60

50

50
40

40
[%]

30

Percentages

[%]

30
Percentages

20

20

10

10

0
[1 ; 5] [6 ;7] [8 ;9]

10

Percentages 3,75 53,75 41,25 1,25

Percentages

Obtained marks

[1 ; 5] [6 ;7] [8 ;9]
2,5

10

45 46,25 6,25
Obtained marks

Figure 2:
The distribution of the marks at intermediate evaluation.
evaluation.

Figure 3:
The distribution of the marks at final

It may be easily observed the evolution between evaluations: at the intermediate evaluation the
percentage of low prepared students was 3.75%; this was reduced to 2.5% at the final evaluation. The
high prepared students represented 1.25% at the intermediate evaluation which increased to 6.25% at
the final evaluation. The most spectacular evaolution was the percentage decreasing of average
marks, from 53.75% to 46.25%. For the good students the percentage increases from 45% to 46.25%.
32

In this respect, at the final evaluation the average mark for the entire group was shifted from average
level to a good level.
After testing the motric qualities of the military students of both groups, the following results were
obtained:
Tractions at the fixed bar;
Running 100 meters;
Running 3000 meters, at the beginning and the end of the training period.
The comparative results are presented in Figure 4 9.
14:45

14:03

14:38

14:03

14:31

14:02

14:24

14:01

14:16

Initial

14:09

Final

Initial

14:00

Final

14:00

14:02
13:55

13:59

13:48

13:58

13:40

13:58
100m Control group

Figure 4:
Control group, running 100m
14:32
14:29
14:26
14:24
14:21
14:18
14:15
14:12
14:09
14:06
14:03
14:00

100m - Experimental group

Figure 5:
Experimental group, running 100m
13:37
13:35
13:32
Initial

Initial

13:29

Final

Final

13:26
13:23
13:20
3000m Control group

Figure 6:
Control group, running 3000m

3000m Experimental group

Figure 7:
Experimental group, running 3000m

7
6

5
4

Initial

Initial

Final

Final

0
Tractions Control group

Fig. 8:
Control group, tractions

Tractions Experimental group

Fig. 9:
Experimental group, tractions

It may be observed the improving of both groups results after the training period.

33

However, the military students from experimental group obtained better results than control group.
The comparison is presented in Figures 10 12.
14:03
14:02
14:01
Control group

14:00

Experimental group
14:00
13:59
13:58
100m plat

Figure 10:
Comparison between results for both groups obtained at final evaluation, running 100m
14:16
14:09
14:02
13:55
13:48
13:40
13:33
13:26
13:19
13:12
13:04
12:57

Control group
Experimental group

3000m

Figure 11:
Comparison between results for both groups obtained at final evaluation, running 3000m
8,2
8
7,8
7,6
7,4

Control group

7,2

Experimental group

7
6,8
6,6
6,4
Tractions

Figure 12:
Comparison between results for both groups obtained at final evaluation, tractions
The overall appreciation may lead us to observe that educable characteristics of the military students
according to their edge were correct identified. In the same way, the methodology used to train and
evaluate were correct applied through Aikido means.
We may conclude that an instruction process based on permanent problem solving may lead, finally,
to an increasing adaptation capacity to Aikido specific training conditions. In the same time, it will
contribute to development, consolidation and improvement of specific Aikido motric skills.
34

Because of highly diversity of activities performed during training sessions, the boredom and
monotony were eliminated and the training objectives were reached.
During the two years period of training nobody was injured or left the program. The military students
attitude was excellent regarding the program.
Finally, I would like to mention the necessity to use modern methods of training, not empirical, the
permanent connection with is new and effective. The work with military students was exciting and
the positive feed-back was obtained only after the harmony was established. This was a
demonstration of how Aikido work.

Conclusions
After research and interpretation of the results, the following conclusions are to be made:
The means used were consistent with the age and preparedness level of the military
students and were not been identified difficulties in applying them;
The means targeted the optimization of all training components: physical, technical,
theoretical, psychological;
Selected techniques have a large applicability, so the military students had a positive
response to all requirements during the training period;
The complexity of some techniques (Kotehineri, Koshinage) required at the beginning
more energy from the students, but not any problem arise in learning them because of applying the
modern methodology to train Aikido.
Finally, I consider that the very good level attained by the students after two years training represents
the connection with higher level of Aikido and the future career of the military students.
Bibliography
1. Dan Deliu, Antrenamentul sportiv n disciplinele de combat, Editura Bren, Bucureti, 2008;
2. Dan Corneliu Ionescu, Enciclopedia de Aikido, Editura MIX, Braov, 2003;
3. John Stevens, Secretele Aikido-ului, Editura MIX, Braov, 2002.

35

EFICIENTIZAREA DEZVOLTRII REZISTENEI LA CLASELE


GIMNAZIALE DE LA COALA GENERAL GRECI, JUD. TULCEA.
Lector univ. Dr.One Ioan
Prof. Moldoveanu Constantin
Cuvinte cheie: eficien;obiective;rezisten.
Rezumat: Lucrarea urmrete modalitile de dezvoltare a rezistenei la elevii ciclului gimnazial de la
coala Gimnazial din comuna Greci, judeul Tulcea. De asemenea am urmrit dac exerciiile
folosite la dezvoltarea rezistenei acioneaz i la dezvoltarea altor caliti motrice de baz.Rezultatele
cercetrii ne demonsctreaz eficacitatea rezultatelor obinute la finalul experimentului.
Educaia fizic i sportul au ca scop i sarcin principal ntrirea continu a sntii copiilor,
asigurarea dezvoltrii fizice armonioase a elevilor, nsuirea unui bagaj de deprinderi motrice utile n
via. La baza acestei activiti st o munc complex, minuios organizat i condus, care se
bazeaz pe particularitile morfo-funcionale i psihice ale vrstei de cretere.
n acest context se nscrie i cercetarea pe care am desfaurat-o la coala Gimnazial din comuna
Greci, judeul Tulcea.
Coninutul activitilor din cadrul leciilor s-a desfurat conform prevederilor programelor colare,
adaptate la condiiile existente n coal.
Obiectivele demersului tiinific au constat n demonstrarea faptului c prin folosirea procedeelor
metodice de dezvoltare a rezistenei, se dezvolt att rezistena general a organismului, ct i faptul
c se influieneaz i dezvoltarea celorlalte caliti motrice a elevilor din ciclul gimnazial.
Organizarea cercetrii
Studiul s-a desfurat la coala Gimnazial Greci din judeul Tulcea n perioada anului colar
2013/2014 n condiiile bazei materiale de care dispunem i anume:
terenul din curtea colii
baza sportiv a localitii
Subiecii pentru experiment au fost elevii i elevele claselor a VII-a i a VIII-a, din totalul crora
au fost constituite dou grupe experimentale dup cum urmeaz:
- Grupa martor format din 20 fete i 20 de biei, unde am folosit metoda antrenamentului cu
intervale
- Grupa experiment format deasemenea din 20 fete i 20 de biei, unde am folosit metoda
eforturilor uniforme continue.
Rezultnd n final pentru desfurarea experimentului propus un total de 80 subieci. Programul
pentru dezvoltarea rezistenei a fost aplicat n semestrul II pe o durat de 12 sptmni, perioad ce a
fost mprit n trei etape,fiecare etap fiind format din 4 sptmni:
17 martie- 11 aprilie etapa I; 23 aprilie 16 mai etapa a II-a, 19 mai 13 iunie etapa a III-a
nainte de aplicarea programului de alergare i a testelor fiziologice s-a procedat la instruirea
grupelor experimentale, explicndu-le importana i programul de lucru pe tot parcursul
experimentului. Elevii i elevele au fost testai la nceputul i la sfaritul experimentului, 1a probele
din Sistemul Naional colar de Evaluare la educaie fizic ( tabel nr 1)

36

Tabel nr 1
Clasa
Nota
Sritura n lg. de
pe loc (cm)

Alergarea de
vitez 50m
Alerg de
rezist. 600-1000
m

Clasa a VII-a
5

160

163

166

140

143

8,6

Clasa a VIII-a
9

10

169

172

175

165

146

149

152

155

8,4

8,2

8,0

7,8

9,4

9,2

9,0

8,8

4,55

4,52

4,49

4,46

10

168

171

174

177

180

145

148

151

154

157

160

7,6

8,4

8,2

8,0

7,8

7,6

7,4

8,6

8,4

9,2

9,0

8,8

8,6

8,4

8,2

4,43

4,40

4,50

4,47

4,44

4,41

4,38

4,35

Preponderent ca mod de acionare asupra rezistenei generale a organismului,viznd creterea


acesteea, am folosit urmtoarele tipuri de alergare:
a)- alergare cu intervale pe etape dup cum urmeaz:
Avnd ca obiectiv principal dezvoltarea rezistenei generale a organismului am acionat
indirect pentru realizarea scopului propus prin folosirea mijloacelor sportive ale altor ramuri ca
handbal,fotbal, etc.
Comparnd datele iniiale cu cele finale constatm progresul n cadrul tuturor probelor, lucru care
confirm regula metodic general valabil, potrivit creia, prin practicarea exerciiului fizic n mod
continuu i sistematic capacitatea motric se dezvolt.
GRAFICUL CRESTERII VALORILOR FINALE COMPARATIV CU VALORILE
INITIALE LA CELE TREI PROBE DE CONTROL LA GRUPELE DE FETE
250,00
50 m initial
200,00
50 m final
150,00

saritura in lungime fara elan


initial

100,00

saritura in lungime fara elan final


1000 m initial

50,00
1000 m final
0,00
Grupa martor fete

Grupa experiment fete

GRAFICUL CRESTERII VALORILOR FINALE COMPARATIV CU VALORILE


INITIALE LA CELE TREI PROBE DE CONTROL LA GRUPELE DE BAIETI
250,00
50 m initial
200,00
50 m final
150,00

saritura in lungime fara elan


initial

100,00

saritura in lungime fara elan final


1000 m initial

50,00
1000 m final
0,00
Grupa martor baieti

Grupa experiment baieti

CONCLUZII SI PROPUNERI
Rezistena este o calitate motric perfectibil cu indici superiori de dezvoltare n cadrul leciilor de
educaie fizic la elevii din ciclul gimnazial n condiiile colii Gimnaziale Greci.
O prim concluzie care se desprinde n urma acestui studiu este aceea c aplicnd n practic, pe o
perioad de 12 sptmni, preponderent i sistematic unul sau altul din cele dou procedee metodice
37

de baz pentru dezvoltarea rezistenei, respectiv metoda antrenamentului cu intervale i metoda


eforturilor continue cu alergarea de durat, se nregistreaz rezultate superioare la probele de control
specifice privind rezistena ( 800m fete i 1000 m biei).
Aceast tez general constatat n condiiile practicii experimentale din coala Gimnazial Greci
confirm ipoteza i n acelai timp teza metodic potrivit creia rezistena este o calitate motric
perfectibil, cu indici superiori de dezvoltare, n cadrul leciilor de educaie fizic la clasele a VII-a i
a VIII a.
O alt concluzie care se desprinde este aceea c lucrul pentru dezvoltarea rezistenei la aceast
vrst ( 13 14 ani), n contextul programei colare, poate avea influiene secundare, asupra celorlalte
caliti motrice de baz, fapt ce reiese din valorile finale nregistrare la testarea final.
Pentru desfurarea unei activiti corespunztoare, propun ca la nceputul fiecrui an colar s se
realizeze o proiectare curricular specific clasei de elevi creia i este adresat, innd cont de
particularitile de vrst, de mijloacele existente i de baza material a colii.
De asemenea, la nceputul activitii, cadrul didactic s realizeze o cunoatere aprofundat a
colectivului prin testri specifice domeniului nostru, s tie care sunt posibilitile individuale din
colectiv, evaluarea realizndu-se n consecin. O alt propunere vizeaz o mai mare preocupare din
partea cadrelor didactice pentru cunoaterea unui volum ct mai variat de structuri de exerciii pentru
dezvoltarea fizic armonioas, aplicarea acestora i evitarea folosirii la nesfrit a acelorai exerciii,
care duc, inevitabil, la monotonie i dezinteres din partea elevilor.
BIBLIOGRAFIE
BADIU T.,, Didactica educaiei fizice colare, Editura Fundaiei universitare Dunrea de Jos,
Galai, 2001.
BUIAC D ,, Rezistena n sport , Editura Sport Turism, Bucureti, 1983
BOTA C. ,, Fiziologia Educaiei Fizice i Sportului, Bucureti, 1994.
CRSTEA GH. ,, Teoria i metodica educaiei. fizice i sportului, Ed. AN-DA, Bucureti, 2000
DRAGNEA A ,, Educaie Fizic i Sport teorie i didactic, Editura FEST, Bucureti, 2006
DRAGOMIR P. ,, Educaie fizic colar /Repere noi mutaii necesare,
Editura Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 2004.
PLOESTEANU C ,, Teoria Educatiei Fizice si Sportului, Editura Didactica i Pedagogica,
Bucuresti, 2012.

STREAMLINE THE DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE TO SECONDARY


SCHOOL FROM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL GREEKS COUNTY. TULCEA
Lector univ. Dr.One Ioan
Prof. Moldoveanu Constantin
Keywords: efficiency, objectives, resistance.
Abstract: This paper seeks ways to develop resistance to secondary school students from Middle
School of the Greek village, Tulcea. I also watched that exercises used to develop resistance to the
development work and other basic motor skills. The results of our research demonsctreaz efficacy
results obtained at the end of the experiment.
Physical education and sport aim and main task continues strengthening children's health, ensuring a
harmonious physical development of pupils acquiring an item of motor skills useful in life. Behind
this lies a complex work activities, carefully organized and managed, based on morpho-functional
peculiarities of age and mental growth. In this framework encompasses research that we conducted a
Secondary School in the Greek village, Tulcea.
The content of the lesson activities took place according to curricula adapted to the conditions in the
school.
The scientific objectives have been to demonstrate that by using methodical processes of developing
resistance develops both general resistance of the body and that it influences the development of other
qualities driving schoolchildren.
38

The study was conducted in Greek in Tulcea County Middle School during the school year
2013/2014 given the material at our disposal, namely:
-Land in the schoolyard
The sports of the village
Subjects for the experiment were students and schoolgirls classes VII and VIII, out of which two
experimental groups were constituted as follows:
- The control group consists of 20 girls and 20 boys, where we used the training to interval
- The experimental group also consists of 20 girls and 20 boys, where we used the uniform efforts
- continue.
Resulting in the final for the experiment proposed a total of 80 subjects. Program for development
of resistance was applied in the second half for a period of 12 weeks, a period that was divided into
three stages, each consisting of 4 weeks:
17 March-11 April - Phase I; April 23 to May 16 - Stage II, May 19-June 13 - Phase III
Before running the application program and physiological tests was done to train experimental
groups, explaining the importance of the work program throughout the experiment. Students and
female students were tested at the beginning and end experiment, 1 samples of the National System
for Evaluation School physical education (table 1)
Clasa
Nota
Sritura n lg. de
pe loc (cm)

Alergarea de
vitez 50m
Alerg de
rezist. 600-1000
m

Clasa a VII-a
5

160

163

166

140

143

8,6

Clasa a VIII-a
9

10

169

172

175

165

146

149

152

155

8,4

8,2

8,0

7,8

9,4

9,2

9,0

8,8

4,55

4,52

4,49

4,46

10

168

171

174

177

180

145

148

151

154

157

160

7,6

8,4

8,2

8,0

7,8

7,6

7,4

8,6

8,4

9,2

9,0

8,8

8,6

8,4

8,2

4,43

4,40

4,50

4,47

4,44

4,41

4,38

4,35

Mostly as a way to drive the overall rezistenei body to increase it, I used the following running:

a) - running with intervals in stages as follows:


Having as main objective the development of overall body rezistent have acted indirectly to achieve
its purpose by using means other branches sportivs as handball, football, etc.
Comparing baseline data with the final notice progress in all samples, which confirms the general
methodological rule applies, that, by practicing exercise continuously and systematically develops
motor ability.
FINAL SCHEDULE ELEVATIONS FROM BASELINE IN THE THREE PROBE OF CONTROL GROUPS OF
GIRLS
250,00
50 m initial
200,00
50 m final
150,00

saritura in lungime fara elan


initial

100,00

saritura in lungime fara elan final


1000 m initial

50,00
1000 m final
0,00
Grupa martor fete

Grupa experiment fete

39

FINAL SCHEDULE ELEVATIONS FROM BASELINE IN THE THREE PROBE OF CONTROL GROUPS OF
BOYS
250,00
50 m initial
200,00
50 m final
150,00

saritura in lungime fara elan


initial

100,00

saritura in lungime fara elan final


1000 m initial

50,00
1000 m final
0,00
Grupa martor baieti

Grupa experiment baieti

CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS


Resistance is a quality motor development superscript perfect in physical education lessons to
students
in
secondary
schools
under
Greek
Secondary
School.
A first conclusion that emerges from this study is that applying in practice over a period of 12
weeks, largely and systematically one or the other of the two basic methodological procedures for the
development of resistance or interval training method and the method of continuous efforts Running
lasting, superior results are recorded in control samples specific resistance (800m girls and boys
1000 m).
This general thesis found under experimental practice of Greek Secondary School and at the same
time confirms the thesis that methodological quality motor resistance is perfectible, with higher
indices of development in physical education lessons in classes VII and VIII to him.
Another conclusion that emerges is that working for development of resistance to this age (13-14
years) in the context of the curriculum may have secondary influences on other basic motor skills,
which appears in the final registration to final testing .
To conduct a proper work, I propose that at the beginning of each school year to achieve a
specific classroom curriculum design which it is addressed, taking into account age specificities of
existing resources and the material basis of the school.
Also at the beginning of a teacher to conduct a thorough knowledge of our field staff through
specific testing to know which individual possibilities of collective evaluation being done accordingly.
Another proposal seeks greater concern from teachers knowing volume structures as varied exercises
harmonious physical development, implementation and avoid using the same exercises over and over
again, leading inevitably to the monotony and lack of interest students.
REFERENCES
BADIU T.,, Didactica educaiei fizice colare, Editura Fundaiei universitare Dunrea de Jos,
Galai, 2001.
BUIAC D ,, Rezistena n sport , Editura Sport Turism, Bucureti, 1983
BOTA C. ,, Fiziologia Educaiei Fizice i Sportului, Bucureti, 1994.
CRSTEA GH. ,, Teoria i metodica educaiei. fizice i sportului, Ed. AN-DA, Bucureti, 2000
DRAGNEA A ,, Educaie Fizic i Sport teorie i didactic, Editura FEST, Bucureti, 2006
DRAGOMIR P. ,, Educaie fizic colar /Repere noi mutaii necesare,
Editura Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti, 2004.
PLOESTEANU C ,, Teoria Educatiei Fizice si Sportului, Editura Didactica i Pedagogica,
Bucuresti, 2012.

40

MINILUPTA-CRITERIUL DE BAZ AL SELECIEI I DRUMUL SPRE MAREA


PERFORMANA N SPORTURILE DE LUPTE

Lazr Tipa, doctor in domeniul tiinele Motricitii Umane


Colegiul Economic Dimitrie Cantemir Suceava
Ciutius Altius Fortius-Mai iute, Mai repede, Mai tare
Cuvinte cheie: minilupta, selecie, tehnico-tactic, procedee, lupte.
Sumar: Iniierea copiilor la o vrst fraged n tainele sporturilor de lupt i determin s-i
insueasc treptat procedeele tehnico-tactice i aplicarea acestora n cadrul concursurilor,
deschizndu-le drumul spre marea performan.
Este dificil s sintetizezi diferite forme de selecii, invare i perfecionare propuse pe plan
naional ct i pe plan internaional copiilor care vor s practice luptele, cci ele au devenit destul de
variate. Procesul de nvare fiind cel mai adesea empiric, este i diversificat pentru c antrenorii nu
au primit toi aceeai informaie stiinific, pedagogic, chiar i tehnic.
Aceasta se datoreaz faptului c muli dintre antrenori care au devenit profesori au fcut studiile
superioare la fr frecven sau la ID neintrnd n aprofundare amnunt a cunotinelor i a studierii
mijloacelor i metodelor tehnice sau psiho-pedagogice ale sportului sau copilului.
ntr-o manier general, procesul de nvare a tehnicii constituie partea principal a nvarii, dar
n aceti ultimi ani, antrenorii, noi profesori de educaie fizic, i-au dat silina pentru a promova
procedee pedagogice mai stiinifice dect cele folosite pna atunci. Acestea nu au obinut mare succes
n analizele federale, pentru c ele nu ineau seama destul de realitai n aplicare, n snul cluburilor
i de formaia celor mai muli antrenori actuali.
Minilupta nu nseamna o lupt de durat redus ci este, un program de nvamnt destinat copiilor
i nseamn, lupta pentru cei mai tineri, pe o saltea mai mic, mini-program de antrenament, de
nvare a procedeilor tehnice i a diferitelor prize pentru copii, si ct mai multe jocuri de micare
specifice sportului de lupt, pentru atractivitate.
Avnd n vedere cercetrile experimentale i teoretice multiforme, lucrarea expune anumite
probleme privind selecia, iniierea n tehnic, particularitaile atomo-morfologice, fiziologice i
psihologice n dezvoltarea copiilor precum i exigenele metodologice adegvate vrstei n procesul de
antrenament i educaie.
Cu scopul de a obine maximum se recomand perfecionarea elementelor structurale ale
pregtirii i legturilor funcionale reciproce pe trei niveluri difereniate:
nivelul orientrii seleciei primare
nivelul pregtirii didactice i metodologice a tehnicii i tacticii
nivelul participrii n concurs i aplicrii procedeeielor tehnice nvaate
nivelul aprecierii i controlului

41

Elementele
structurale ale
pregtirii copiilor

Orientarea seleciei
primare

Pregtirea
didactic si
metodologic a
tehnicii i tacticii

Participarea in
concurs i aplicarea
tehnicii nvate

Aprecierea i
controlul

Pentru c nu exist obstacole de ordin tiinific care s se opun ca lupta s fie ordonat nc de la o
vrst fraged, aceasta fiind inerent naturii copiilor , trebuie s se canalizeze acest instinct i s se
profite de aceast,circumstan, sub o form ordonat i tiinific, ntr-o manier n care nvarea
procedeelor n lupte s se bazeze pe fundamente profunde.
A trecut vremea cnd anumii teoreticeni susineau c lupta nu este indicat pentru copii, far
argumente valabile care s aib baza tiinific. Copii se nfrunt continu, exist ntr-adevar, n natura
uman, o tendin care incit deja copii la emulaie, n dorina de a vedea care dintre ei este mai
puternic. Este dificil s se determine, n decursul secolelor, dac lupta ca sport, nu sa dezvoltat din
ncerrile copiilor aa cum se manifest la copii din lumea ntreag.
Dac lupta sportiv nu are ca origine acest joc copilresc, lupta ancestral a omului pentru a
supravieui, gsindu-i n acest caz fundamentele n natura uman, care se relev in zilele noastre mai
mult la copii dect la adulti, sub forma dorinei de a se bate, rdciniile luptei sunt mai profunde. Nu
ine de noi studiul problemei originilor luptei pe plan istoric i social, dar trebuie s constatm ca
aceasta debuteaza iniial la copii i de aici si trage profilul maxim.
Ce se vede ntr-adevr pe strad, n coli, n spaiile de joac ale copiilor? Copii practicnd jocuri de
contact care seamn cu luptele i care, disciplinate ntr-o secie de sport vor face din aceti copii
tineri lupttori. Dintre toate sporturile, luptele par a fi cele mai naturale i cele mai aproape de
temperamentul copiilor. Aici nu este nevoie de minge, nici de aparate, un partener ajunge i cu o
nlnuire de procedee tehnice i jocuri de micare specifice sporturilor de lupt constituie o distracie.
De altfel, acest divertisment continu chiar din momentul n care copilul vine la club, cci aici
antrenori l vor nva s se joace prin jocuri de micare specifice n spiritul respectrii
regulamentului.
Copilul care continu s vin la pregtire permanent, s practice jocurile de micare specifice,
nva un minim de elemente i procedee tehnice, de prize, de reguli stricte i diciplin. ncetu cu
ncetu el ajunge s nving anumite complexe, repulsii sau din contra s domine anumite nclinaii,
lsnd sa explodeze excesul de energie. Astfel, crete n el dorina de a lupta loial i respectul pentru
adversar.
Pe msur ce tehnica se afirm se observ c apare un interes tot mai crescut pentru lupte i
antrenori, profesorii au mult de lucru pentru a explica, arta i rspunde cererilor de sfaturi. Odat cu
competiia, acest interes devine un entuziasm surprinztor, cci este izvor de mari bucurii, chiar dac
exist deseori si mici decepi. Ca toi tineri, lupttorul cunoate i bucuria i lacrimile.
De o perioad de timp am putut constata acest entuziasm i aceast bucurie n lupt, am vzut
uneori amrciune, dar foarte rar mici drame, accidente n general fr consecine grave i, n orice
caz, nu prea frecvente i foarte adesea mai puin grave dect cele survenite pe strad sau n oarecare
alt activitate.
42

Este convenabil ca sportivii s fie orientai de foarte devreme i, s fie specializai cei care se
consacr unui anumit sport, aceasta fiind singura manier de a le permite s obtin rezultate de mare
valoare i s serveasc de exemplu pentru tineret.
Poziia noastr in ceea ce privete dezvlotarea luptei la copii este urmatoarea :
copiii avnd dispoziii pentru lupt, trebuie ncurajai s practice acest sport;
orientarea lor nc de la prima tineree i va determina s practice acest sport pe toat
durata vieii;
a se ncepe procesul de nvare de la vrsta fraged nseamn a face s se nasc dorina de
a cultiva lupta i de a menine acest antrenament;
o specializare precoce a antrenorilor asigur sportivilor un nivel mai ridicat n pregtire;
minilupta, ca sport cu caracter combativ, comport elementele care joac un rol deosebit n
formarea multilateral a omului, constituie fizic bun, pregtire pentru munc, generos i
loial.Oricare societate din ziua de azi are nevoie de asemenea oameni.
A-i nvata pe copii luptele i ai face s se perfecioneze n acest sport este o interprindere complex
sub unghi pedagogic i din punct de vedere al antrenamentului, aciunile legate de o ntreag serie, de
factori anatomici i morfologici, fiziologici, psihologici, ca i de cei relativi la vrsta i la
cunostinele prealabile n acest sport. Aceasta trebuie s incite antrenorul la pregatirea fizic a copiilor
in prim plan, fr a considera faptul c ei au luptat n leciile din coal, pe gazon sau pe saltea n sala
de gimnastic. Al doilea element esenial care intr n joc const n gradarea efortului. Al treilea este
reprezentat de selecia procedeielor tehnice i prizelor , executate din parter i picioare, adaptate
copiilor, de stabilire a gradrii n nvarea procedeelor.
Luptele la tineri comport numeroase dificulti :
gsirea de antrenori calificai
respectarea orarelor colare
insuficiente confruntri,concursuri cu sporivi
problemele pe plan financiar
Talentul, supleea,uurina de a nva, modul de punere n aplicare a ceea ce au nvat, face ca
aceti copii, bine antrenai s dea ntlnirilor lor un caracter i o calitate care fac unanim i marea
bucurie a spectatorilor.
Pe plan medical trebuie s se depisteze aptitudinile tnrului pentru lupte i supravegherea lor n
antrenament i competiii. Aptitudinea pentru lupte este determinat de un examen medical pe ct
posibil de aprofundat. Dezvoltarii morfologice si funcionale permite ca tnarul s fie admis s
practice sportul su preferat fr vreun pericol pentru el i eventual pentru alti.
Se vor elimina pe ct posibil, la nivelul copiilor, situaiile de slbire a sportivilor, deoarece
aduc o stare psihologic nefavorabil, grija permanent pentru sportivi si antrenori.
Ceea ce este esenial n ceea ce privete minilupta este c att n sala de gimnastic ct i n
timpul competiiilor se organizeaz nfruntarea ntre copii de aceeai vrst, de aceeai categorie de
greutate, cu aceeai aptitudine fizic (calitate) i aproape de acelai nivel tehnic.
` Este important s se slublinieze n special c minilupta, ca i celelalte sporturi, face
importante progrese sub unghiuri tehnice i al varietaii executrilor. Asa cum nu se ncepe prin
iniierea de la nceput prin dublusalturi, prin dublunelson, i cu alte prize dificile care, executate
incorect pot fi periculoase . Pentru aceasta anumite prize sunt interzise copiilor. Antrenorul trebuie s
dezvolte predispozitia existenei la copii, adugndu-le progresiv fineea tehnic. Datorit coplexitii
efortului trebuie s se aleag pentru nvarea miniluptei antrenori cei mai buni i mai bine formai.
Federaia Naional ar trebui sa ncurajeze att nvarea progresiva a miniluptei n coli ct i
competiiile, n mod egal, sub aspectul tradiional al luptei folclorice(trnt). Propun introducerea
acestora n noile programe colare. Se nelege de la sine c acolo unde exist cluburi de minilupte, a
cror creare trebuie s fie, de altfel, obligatorie, este bine s se dezvolte sistemul de competiii,
idividual i pe echipe, naional si internaional.
n concluzie prin comportamentul tinerilor trebuie s se estimeze c printr-un antrenament bine
organizat i respectnd indici morfologici si funcionali, nsuirea procedeelor tehnico-tactice,
43

folosirea jocurilor de micare poate aduce la depistare tinerelor talente, pregtirea lor i promovarea
pentru nalta performana.
SCOPUL LUPTEI ESTE DE A PREGTI ACETI TINERI CA NTR-O BUN ZI S DEVIN
BRBAI ADEVRAI!
Bibliografie:
1.Epuran M.petagogie si psihologie- personalitatea si cunoaterea psihologica a elevilor IEFS,
Bucuresti 1986
2.Epuran M., Ghidul psihologic al antrenorului, Ed. IEFS, Bucuresti 1982
3.Luptele clasice (Greco-romane). Manual pentru antrenori care lucreaz cu lupttorii ncepatori.
Bucuresti, editura C.N.E.F.S. 1982
4.Veaceslav Manolachi, Sporturi de lupt-teorie i metodic ,Chiinu 2003.

MINIFIGHT- THE BASE CRITERION OF SELECTION AND THE PATH FOR A


BIG PERFORMANCE IN FIGHTING SPORTS

Lazr Tipa, doctor in the domain of The Science of Human Motricity


Economical College Dimitrie Cantemir Suceava
"CITIUS ALTIUS FORTIUS"
Keywords: minifight, selection, tehnico-tactical, processes, fights.
Sumar: Initiating childrens, from early age, in the art of fighting sports determines them to gradually
acquire all the tehnico-tactical processes and to apply them in contests, opening their path to great
performance.
It is difficult to synthesize different forms of selecting, learning and development. proposed
nationally and internationally, for children who desire to practice fights, because they became very
varied. Being most of the time rather empiric, the process of learning is diversified forasmuch trainers
did not recieved the same scientific, pedagogical and even technical information.
This is due to the fact that many of the trainers, witch became teachers, made their
superior studies in less frequency or far-learning programs (ID) witch mede them not to focus on
certain elements such the research of technnical, psycho-pedagogical methods of sport, different
means and even children.
In a general matter the technique learning process is the main part of the training, but in
the last years, the trainers, the new proffesors in physical education, did their best to promote more
scientific teaching methods than those used before. These had little success in the federal analysis
because they did not taken enough account of reality application within the club and the group of
most coaches today.
The minifight does not means a short battle but is, a educational program for children which means
the battle for the youngest, on a little mattress, mini workout, learning techniques and different
outlets for children, and, for appeal, as many workout games for specific combat sport.
44

Given the experimental and multishaped theoretical research, the work exposes
several problems about the selection, initiation in the technique, atomic-morphological
particuliarities, physiological and psychological development of children and age appropriate
methodological requirements in the process of training and education.
In order to achieve maximum it is recommended to improve the stuctural elements of
trainings and the reciprocal functional connections on three differentiated levels:
-

the level of primary orientation selection


the level of didactic and methodological preparation of tactics and technique
the level of contest participation and implementing the learned technique processes
the level of control and estimation

The structural
elements of
children
preparation

The primary
orientation
selection

The didactic and


methodologocal
preparation of tactics
and technique

The contest
participation and
implementing the
learned techniques

Control
and
estimation

Because there are no scientific obstacles to oppose that fight must be ordered from a very young age,
which is inherent in the nature of children, this instinct must be channeled and then take advantage of
this circumstance in a ordered and scientific form in a way that learning processes in battle must rely
on deep foundations.
The time when theorists claime that the fight is not indicated for children, without having valid
arguments based on scientific informations, have passed. Children confront continuous because there
is indeed in the human nature a tendency witch incities children to emulation together with the desire
and curiosity to see which is stronger. It is difficult to determine, over the centuries, whether fighting
as a sport, have not developed from various children scrambles manifested worldwide.
If these childish games are not home for combat sports, the ancestral human fight for
survival, finding in this case the foundations of human nature, which is more relevant today in
children than in adults in a desire of fight, the true fight roots are deeper. The study of the origins of
the historical and social struggle its not our goal but we must acknowledge that this initially started
from children and hence it derives its maximum profile.
What we really see on the street, in schools and even on children's playgrounds? Kids are
practicing contact games resembling fighting that can make good young fighters disciplined by an
sport departament. Of all sports, fights seem to be the most natural and closer to the temperament of
children. You do not need a ball or other devices, you only need a partner and with a chain of
techniques and specific motion gaming combat sports can be fun. Moreover, this entertainment
continues even when the child comes to a club because here coaches will learn him to play the game
in a spirit of specific moving compliance regulations.
The child witch continues to a permanent training that practices specific moving schemes
learns a minimum of elements and techniques, sockets, strict rules and discipline. Slowly he gets to
overcome some complexs, repulsions or even dominate some tendencies leaving the excess energy to
explode. This increases the will of and fair fight and the respect for the opponent.
45

When a technique is observed together with an increasing interest for competition, coaches,
teachers have a long way of explanations, demonstrations and the pleasure to respond at requested
advices. With competition this interest becomes a surprising enthusiasm being a source of great joy,
even though there are often small deceptions. Every young fighter knows the joy and the tears.
In the late period I have seen this enthusiasm and joy in battle, I have seen sometimes bitter,
but rarely small dramas, generally without serious injuries but, in any case, not very often and less
severe than can occurred on the street or at other activities.
It is convenient for athletes to be targeted from an early beginning and specialized in order
to devote a particular sport witch is the only way that ensures them to achieve high value and serve as
an example for the youth.
Our position regarless children battle development is:
children made for combat should be encouraged to practice this sport;
orientation since the first youth will lead them to practice this sport for life;
starting the learning process at an early age means developing a desire to develop fighting
and maintain this practice;
an early specialization for coaches provides athletes a higher level in preparation;
minifight, as an combativ sport, includes elements that play an important role in a
multilateral shaping of an human: good physical constitution, preparation for employment,
generosity, charity and loyalty. Today every society needs such people.
Teaching children to fight and making them improve in this sport is a complex matter, in terms of
trainig, from a pedagogical angle, including actions related to a whole serie of anatomical,
morphological, physiological and psychological factors, as well as the relative ones related to age and
preliminary knowledge in the sport.
Firstly, this should encourage the children's physical training coach, without considering the fact that
they fought in the school lessons, on the lawn or on the mattress in the gym. The second essential
element, that comes into play, is the grading of exercises. The third element is the selection of
technical procedures and outlets, adapted to children, based on a gradation of the learning processes.
Youth scrambles involve many difficulties:
- finding qualified coaches
- respecting school timetables
- the lack of confrontations or sports competitions
- financial problems
Talent, flexibility, ease of learning, the way how of implement what they have learned, makes well
trained children give their meetings a character and a quality that are unanimous, for the great joy of
the spectators.
The medical service must track the fighting skills, of a young, and supervise them in training and
competitions. The ability to fight is determined by a medical examination as tough as possible
beacuse functional and morphological development of allows young to be accepted to practice his
favorite sport without any danger to himself and possibly others.
Weakening situations, for athletes, will be removed, as much as possible, in the case of children,
because they bring a bad psychological state. Constant care for athletes from coaches is important.
What is essential, in terms of minifights, is that both in the gym or during competition, confrontations
are organized between children of the same age, same weight category, with the same physical fitness
(quality) and close to the same technical level.
It is important to emphasize that especially the minifight, like other sports, makes important progress,
from a technical point of view and variety of performances. Thats why, from the beginning, we do
not start with double jumps, doublenelson and other dangerous outlets that can be unsafe if executed
wrong. These moves are prohibited for children. The coach should develop an existing predisposition
by gradually adding technical finesse in the training. Due to the effort complexity we must choose,
for minifight trining, the best and the most trained coaches.
46

The National Federation should encourage progressive learning of minifights in schools and
competitions, equally, in terms of traditional folk fight (trnt, wrestling). I propose their introduction
in the new school programs. It goes without saying that where minifight clubs exist, whose creation
should be, in fact, mandatory, it is good to develop a system of individual and team competition
nationally and internationally.
In conclusion, with the behavior of young people we should expect that with a well-organized
training and by observing morphological and functional indices, learning technical and tactical
procedures, using movement games, can bring to the discovery of talents by preparing and promoting
them for high performance.
THE PURPOSE OF FIGHTING IS TO PREPARE THESE YOUNG PEOPLE SO THAT ONE
DAY THEY CAN BECOME REAL MEN!
Bibliography:
1. Epuran M., Pedagologie and psychology the personality and the understanding of students,
Published by IEFS, Bucharest, 1986;
2. Epuran M., Psychological coach guide, Published by IEFS, Bucharest, 1982;
3. Classic fights (Greco-roman). Handbook for coaches working with beginner fighters, Published by
C.N.E.F.S, Bucharest, 1982;
4.Veaceslav Manolachi, Fighting sports - Theory and methodology ,Chisinau, 2003.

47

DETERMINAREA INTELIGENEI EMOIONALE


PRIN APLICAREA TESTULUI FRIEDMANN
Conf. univ. dr. Nanu Liliana
Facultatea de Educaie Fizic i Sport Galai

Cuvinte cheie: emoii, sentimente, inteligen emoional, chestionar


Rezumat: Evoluia uman este legat de modul n care i cunosc i i gestioneaz emoiile.
Emoiile reprezint imaginea sufletului uman, dar pentru a-i exercita rolul, acestea trebuie lsate
s se exprime aa cum sunt ele, pozitive sau negative.
Introducere
Evoluia uman este legat de modul n care i cunosc i i gestioneaz emoiile. Emoiile
reprezint imaginea sufletului uman, dar pentru a-i exercita rolul, acestea trebuie lsate s se
exprime aa cum sunt ele, pozitive sau negative. Oamenii nu se pot dezice de emoiile personale,
chiar dac-i doresc acest lucru. Dei mare parte dintre indivizi pretind c pot depi emoiile, n
realitate, chiar dac nu sunt exteriorizate, emoiile exist n interior. Specialitii sunt de prere c
lipsa exteriorizrii emoiilor pot avea efecte duntoare, crend adevrate rni ale sufletului i
trupului, lsnd urme de neters care n final se transform n durere fizic i psihic.
Printre cei mai dedicai specialiti n studierea suferinelor psihice cauzate de emoii, se afl
dr. Antonio R. Damasio, de la Universitatea din Iowa (1986) i soia sa, neurologul Hanna Damasio
i ali psihocardiologi care n urma a sute de studii au ajuns la concluzia c emoiile i sentimentele
pot influena sntatea i comportamentul uman.
Emoiile sunt frecvent identificate cu sentimentele: iubire, ur, dorin, bucurie, tristee,
mnie, fric, surpriz, dezgust, ruine i altele. Dar, dac despre dorine se poate afirma c fac parte
din grupa strilor afective elementare, de scurt durat, fiind o trebuin contient de obiectul ei,
sentimentele sunt triri afective de amploare, care structureaz aspiraii, interese, atitudini etc.
nuannd diversificarea emoiilor provocate de diferite situaii.
n urma unei analize statistice specializate s-a ajuns la concluzia c 65% dintre brbai sunt
gndire i 65% dintre femei sunt afect.
Deci, doi din trei brbai se nasc cu emisfera cerebral stng (se ocup de raiune) mai
dezvoltat i prin educaie, sunt nvai s fie puternici, s nu i exteriorizeze sentimentele i s
aib logica drept lege, n timp ce dou din trei femei se nasc cu emisfera dreapt (se ocup de
emoii) mai dezvoltat i tot prin educaie, sunt nvate s i exteriorizeze emoiile, s fie ct mai
comunicative. Acest lucru explic de ce, la acelai grad de instruire, fetele sunt mai performante n
anumite domenii dect biei, de ce unii se chinuie n slujbe mrunte, n timp ce alii urc iute
treptele succesului. De ce exist imbecili care fac avere, n timp ce o grmad de indivizi inteligeni
abia se descurc. Rspunsul la aceste situaii gsit de Daniel Goleman este legat de inteligena
emoional (EQ). Chiar dac raiunea i logica sunt indispensabile n evoluia uman, emoiile
nseamn via i bat logica n orice clip.
Inteligena emoional (EQ) este capacitatea personal de identificare i gestionare eficient a
propriilor emoii n raport cu scopurile personale (carier, familie, educaie etc.). Finalitatea ei
const n atingerea scopurilor cu un minim de conflicte inter i intra-personale.
Conform ultimelor studii, inteligena emoional este responsabil de reuita sau nereuita
oamenilor n via, avnd de multe ori o valoare mai mare dect o diplom sau un CV redutabil,
deoarece angajatorii pun accent pe gradul de implicare i comunicare al celor angajai, pe
autocunoatere i autocontrol, pe intuiie i creativitate, pe contiina social i de grup, pe
managementul relaiilor interpersonale, contientiznd impactul acestor caliti n realizarea
obiectivelor propuse.
Scopul prezentei lucrri este s informeze i s evidenieze importana emoiilor i
sentimentelor n derularea vieii cotidiane a indivizilor secolului XXI. La baza formulrii ipotezei de
48

lucru se presupune c o bun informare, dar mai ales o bun gestionare a emoiilor poate influena
pozitiv derularea evenimentelor personale, sntatea i reuita n via.
Metodele de cercetare folosite sunt: studiul materialului bibliografic, observaia pedagogic,
ancheta de tip chestionar, metode matematice.
Demersul tiinific a fost demarat n perioada 15 noiembrie 2010 pn la 15 martie 2011, cnd
s-a desfurat o anchet cu aplicarea unui chestionar (Testul Friedmann) pentru determinarea
nivelului de inteligen emoional (EQ) unui numr de 238 studeni (103 sunt fete i 135 biei) de
la:
Facultatea de Educaie Fizic i Sport - FEFS - (51 20 fete i 31 biei);
Facultatea de tiine Economice i Administrative - FSEA - (44 26 fete i 18 biei);
Facultatea de tiina Industriei Alimentare - FSIA - (50 20 fete i 30 biei);
Facultatea de Litere - FL - (42 6 fete i 36 biei);
Facultatea de Arte - FA - (20 15 fete i 5 biei);
Facultatea de Medicin - FM - (31 16 fete i 15 biei) din cadrul Universitii Dunrea de
Jos din Galai.
Deci, dintr-un numr total de 238 de subieci, 103 sunt fete i 135 biei.
Scala de maturitate emoional a lui Friedmann const ntr-un tip chestionar cu 25 de ntrebri
la care se rspunde cu Da sau Nu, fiecare rspuns avnd asociat un numr de puncte tabel 1.
Tabel 1
Nr.
crt.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

SCALA FRIEDMANN
Item
M descurajez uor i am stri i momente, crize ocazionale de deprimare
mi place s fiu pus la punct, m bucur cnd reuesc s atrag atenia asupra mea cu
mbrcmintea i manierele mele
Sunt stpn pe mine i cu snge rece n situaii neprevzute i periculoase
Sunt nclinat s fiu iritabil i rigid cnd susin o prere mpotriva unei opoziii
puternice
mi place s fiu singur/
Spun adesea lucruri pe care apoi le regret
Relaiile cu familia mea sunt panice i armonioase
M simt adesea rnit de aciunile i cuvintele altora
Sunt gata s admit c am greit cnd mi dau seama de asta
Sunt nclinat s dau vina pe alii pentru greelile i erorile mele
M plasez primul printre aproape toate rudele mele
Nutresc gndul c nu am noroc n via
Sunt nclinat s triesc peste mijloacele mele
Am un accentuat sim de inferioritate sau o lips de ncredere n mine pe care ncerc
s o ascund
Sunt nclinat s plng cnd asist la o pies de teatru sau la un film emoionant
Micile suprri m fac s-mi ies din fire
Sunt nclinat s impresionez cu superioritatea mea pe alii
Sunt dominator, mi place s m afirm fa de alii
Aproape totdeauna caut s ctig simpatia celorlali
Sunt furios cnd am necazuri sau neplceri
Sunt stpnit de ur, am o antipatie activ fa de unele persoane
Devin plin de invidie i gelozie cnd alii au succes
Sunt foarte atent fa de sentimentele altora
M nfurii sau m necjesc adesea i am certuri cu oamenii
Am uneori gnduri de sinucidere

Pct.
DA
11

Pct.
NU
21

7
26

20
7

12
40
10
31
11
26
7
6
11
13

30
8
20
9
20
10
26
25
29
26

7
5
11
7
12
7
5
7
11
22
10
5

25
30
28
25
30
24
20
21
21
7
20
20

Rezultatul final a fost determinat n urma nsumrii punctelor acumulate corespunztor


rspunsurilor date i mprirea sumei la 25.
Evaluarea s-a realizat prin interpretarea rezultatelor astfel:
0-10 puncte - infantilism emoional;
49

18-20 puncte - nivel mediu de maturizare;


20-21 puncte - nivel corespunztor de maturizare;
22-24 puncte - maturizare bun;
peste 25 puncte - perfect maturizat emoional.
n urma prelucrrii rezultatelor obinute de la rezolvarea testului de inteligen emoional
(EQ), conform Scalei lui Friedmann, se desprinde concluzia c bieii prezint o medie a
inteligenei emoionale mai bun dect cea a fetelor, dar totodat datorit vrstei participanilor la
studiu (19-25 ani) situeaz acest segment de vrst n categoria persoanelor cu un nivel
corespunztor de maturizare tabel 2.
Tabel 2

FACULTATE
EFS
SEA
SIA
LITERE
ART
MEDICIN
x
m

MEDIA COEFICIENTUL DE INTELIGEN EMOIONAL


PUNCTE
FETE
PUNCTE
BIEI
PUNCTE

414,4
20,72
652,0
21,03
1066,4
537,6
20,67
380,8
21,15
918,4
439,6
21,98
650
21,66
1089,6
127,2
21,20
776,4
21,56
903,6
312,4
20,82
118
23,6
430,4
340,0
21,25
322,0
21,46
622
21,10
21,74
B = + 64

TOTAL
x
20,91
20,87
21,79
21,51
21,52
20,06
21,11

Astfel, dac urmrim rezultatele obinute de studenii inclui n studiu apreciem c studentele FSIA
prezent o medie a coeficientului de inteligen emoional mai bun dect cea a studenilor aceleai
faculti, iar studenii FA prezint o medie a coeficientului de inteligen emoional superioar fa
de toate mediile coeficienilor emoionale ale studenilor testai, prezentnd o maturizare bun
pentru acest segment de vrst tabel 3.
Tabel 3
FACULTATE
EFS
SEA
SIA
LITERE
ART
MEDICIN

MEDIA COEFICIENTUL DE INTELIGEN EMOIONAL


x (fete)
x (biei)
20,72
21,03
20,67
21,15
21,98
21,66
21,20
21,56
20,82
23,60
21,25
21,46

xb(f) xf(b)
B = + 0,31
B = + 0,48
F = + 0,32
B = + 0,36
B = + 2,78
B = + 0,21

De asemenea, s-a evideniat faptul c studentele i studenii de la FSIA prezint cea mai bun
medie a coeficientului emoional (21,79) urmat de FL i FA ,avnd valori foarte apropiate (21,52
i 21,51) i de FEFS (21,91), SEA ( 20,87) i FM (20,06) Fig. 1.
22
21,5
21
20,5
20
19,5
19
EFS

SEA

SIA

LITERE

ART

Fig.1 Media valorilor EQ pe faculti

50

MED

n urma analizei i interpretrii datelor culese dup rezolvarea testelor de inteligen


emoional se desprind urmtoarele concluzii:
Dup ce a fost studiat materialului bibliografic s-a constatat lipsa unui studiu care s
demonstreze valoarea coeficientului de inteligen emoional al studenilor din ara noastr, dei la
nivelul sportivelor de performanta exista un studiu realizat pentru gimnastica ritmic.
Rezultatele nregistrate arat c studenii, aflai n plin formare profesional, au o medie a
coeficientului emoional mai ridicat comparativ cu media coeficientului emoional al studentelor.
Inteligena emoional i cognitiv nu este un concept omogen, fiecare individ putndu-se
afirma cu un coeficient de inteligen diferit n anumite situaii i pe anumite domenii;
Prin antrenament sau lecii de control, inteligena emoional poate fi controlat, astfel nct
indivizii s-i poat controla i gestiona cu succes emoiile;
n viziunea specialitilor, n prezent IQ-ul i pierde din importan n timp ce EQ-ul este pe
cale s devin noua cheie a succesului, adevratele valori fiind: intuiia, blndeea, simpatia,
comunicarea, acordul etc.
Bibliografie
Adler A. , Cunoaterea omului, Editura IRI, Bucureti, 1996, (trad.)
Azzopardi G., Dezvoltai-v inteligena, Editura Teora, Bucureti, 2000
Belous V., Bazele performanei, Editura Performantica, Iai, 1995
Damasio A.R., Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, Putnam, 1994; revised Penguin edition,
2005
Damasio A.R., Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, Harcourt, 1999
Damasio H., Human Brain Anatomy in Computerized Images, 2nd edition, Oxford University
Press, New York, 2005
Goleman D., Inteligena emoional, cheia succesului n via, Editura Alfa, Bucureti, 2004
Havrneanu C., Cunoaterea psihologic a persoanei, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2000
Holdevici I., Psihologia succesului, Editura Ceres, Bucureti, 1993
Horst H. S., Cum s ne calculm coeficientul de inteligen, Editura Gemma Pres, Bucureti, 1996
Popescu ., Cunoaterea sinelui prin teste psihologice, Editura Antet, Bucureti, 2000
Selye H., tiina i viaa, Editura Politic, Bucureti, 1984

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE WITH THE TEST FRIEDMANN


Nanu Liliana PhD. Associate Professor
The Faculty of Physical Education and Sports

Keywords: emotions, feelings, emotional intelligence, survey


Abstract: Human evolution is related to how we know and manage our emotions. Emotions are
the image of the human soul, but to fulfill their role, they should be allowed to express themselves
as they are, positive or negative.
Introduction
Human evolution is related to how we know and manage our emotions. Emotions are the image
of the human soul, but to fulfill their role, they should be allowed to express themselves as they are,
positive or negative. People can not deny personal emotions, even if they want it. While many
individuals claim that they can overcome their emotions, in fact, even if they are not externalized,
the emotions are inside. Experts believe that the lack of emotion externalization can have harmful
effects, creating real wounds of soul and body, leaving indelible marks that eventually turns into
physical and mental pain.
Among the most dedicated professionals that study the mental suffering caused by emotions,
Dr. Antonio R. Damasio from the University of Iowa (1986), his wife, Hanna Damasio a
51

neurologist and other psycho-cardiologists who after hundreds of studies have reached the
conclusion that emotions and feelings can affect health and human behavior.
Emotions are often identified with the feelings of: love, hate, desire, joy, sadness, anger, fear,
surprise, disgust, shame and more.
But, if you think wishes are part of the elementary group of affective states of short duration,
feelings are complex emotions that systemize aspirations, interests, attitudes etc.
A specialized statistical analysis concluded that 65% of men are led by logic and 65% of
women are led by their emotions.
Two out of the three men are born with a more developed left cerebral hemisphere (in charge
of reason). With education, they are taught to be strong, not to externalize their feelings and have
logic as law, while two out of three women are born with a more developed right hemisphere
(dealing with emotions) and also through education, they are taught to externalize their emotions,
and to be more communicative. This explains why, at the same level of training, the girls are better
in some areas than boys, why some struggle with
small jobs, while others quickly climb the steps to success, why there are imbeciles who just
cant have enough money, while a lot of intelligent individuals are barely going through life with
their salary. The answer to these situations is found by Daniel Goleman who thinks it is related to
emotional intelligence (EQ). Even if reason and logic are indispensable in the evolution of
humankind emotions can beat logic at any time of the day.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is the personal ability to properly identify and manage emotions
in relation with personal goals (career, family, education, etc.). Its purpose is to achieve goals with
minimal inter and intra-personal conflicts.
According to the latest studies, emotional intelligence is responsible for the success or failure
of people in life, often having a higher value than a diploma or a formidable CV as employers focus
on the degree of involvement and communication of the employees, on self-awareness and selfcontrol, intuition and creativity, on the social and group conscience and on the interpersonal
relationship management, realizing the impact of these qualities in achieving objectives.
The purpose of this paper is to inform and highlight the importance of emotions and feelings
in the daily life of individuals in the XXI century. Good information and especially good emotion
management can positively affect the development of personal events, health and life. The research
methods that have been used are: bibliographic study material, teacher observation, survey-type
questionnaire, statistical and mathematical analysis and the graphical and tabular method.
The scientific approach was conducted between January 15, 2011 and March 15, 2011, when
an investigation was conducted with the application of questionnaires (Friedmann test) to determine
the level of emotional intelligence (EQ) of 238 students from:
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport - FEFS - (51-20 girls and 31 boys);
Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences - FSEA - (44-26 girls and 18 boys);
Faculty of Food Science Industry - FSIA - (50 - 20 girls and 30 boys);
Faculty of Letters - FL - (42-6 girls and 36 boys);
Faculty of Arts - FA - (20 - 15 girls and 5 boys);
Faculty of Medicine FM (31 16 girls and 15 boys) at the University
Dunrea de Jos.
So, from a total of 238 subjects, 103 are girls and 135 boys.
Friedmanns scale of emotional maturity is a questionnaire with 25 questions to be answered with
"Yes" or "No", each answer being associated with a number of points table 1.
Table 1
No.
1.
2.
3.

Friedmann Scale
Item
Im easily discouraged.
I like to attract attention with my clothing and my manners.
Im calm and cold-blooded when it comes to dangerous situations.

52

Pct.
YES

Pct.
NO

11
7
26

21
20
7

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Im rigid and sensible when I have to support my opinion in front of a strong


opposition.
I like to be alone.
I sometimes say things that i later regret.
The relation with my family is peaceful and harmonious.
Im always affected by other peoples words and actions.
Im always ready to admit a mistake when I make it.
Im blaming others for my mistakes and errors.
I feel Im the most important in my family.
I always think Ive never been lucky in my life.
I always spend more than I have.
I feel inferior or I have a lack of trust in myself that i try to hide.
I cry when I watch a play at the theater or when I watch a touching movie.
When I am upset I tend to act strangely and to be bad to the people around me.
I like to impress people with my superiority.
I like to dominate.
I always like to earn the sympathy of others.
Im mad when Im in trouble or have made some mistakes.
Im led by anger, I am against a lot of people.
I get really jealous when I see someone successful.
I pay close attention to other peoples feelings.
I always get angry and I have fights with people.
I sometimes think of committing suicide.

12
40
10
31
11
26
7
6
11
13
7
5
11
7
12
7
5
7
11
22
10
5

30
8
20
9
20
10
26
25
29
26
25
30
28
25
30
24
20
21
21
7
20
20

The final result was determined from the summation of accumulated points followed by
dividing the corresponding responses to 25.
The evaluation was done by interpreting the results:
0-10 points - emotional infantilism;
18-20 points - average level of maturity;
20-21 points - appropriate level of maturity;
22-24 points - good maturity;
Over 25 points - perfectly matured emotionally.
After processing the results obtained from solving the test of emotional intelligence (EQ),
according to Friedmann's Scale, it is concluded that the boys have a better average emotional
intelligence than girls table 2.
Table 2
FACULTY
FEFS
FSEA
FSIA
FL
FA
FM
x
m

TABLE WITH THE AVERAGE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


POINTS
GIRLS
POINTS
BOYS
POINTS
SUM

x
414,4
20,72
652,0
21,03
1066,4
20,91
537,6
20,67
380,8
21,15
918,4
20,87
439,6
21,98
650
21,66
1089,6
21,79
127,2
21,20
776,4
21,56
903,6
21,51
312,4
20,82
118
23,6
430,4
21,52
340,0
21,25
322,0
21,46
622
20,06
21,10
21,74
21,11
B = + 64

Thus, if we follow the performance of students enrolled in the study we consider that the FSIA
female students present a better average EQ than the male students of the same university and FA
students have superior EQs to all the subjects that have been tested, providing a good level of
maturity for this age group - table 3.
Table 3
FACULTY
FEFS
FSEA
FSIA

TABLE WITH THE AVERAGE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE


x (girls)
x (boys)
20,72
21,03
20,67
21,15
21,98
21,66

53

xb(f) xf(b)
B = + 0,31
B = + 0,48
F = + 0,32

FL
FA
FM

21,20
20,82
21,25

21,56
23,60
21,46

B = + 0,36
B = + 2,78
B = + 0,21

It was also revealed that the FSIA students have the best average emotional quotient (21.79)
followed by FL and FA, with very close values (21.52 and 21.51) FEFS (21, 91), SEA (20.87) and
FM (20.06) - in fig. 1.
22
21,5
21
20,5
20
19,5
19
EFS

SEA

SIA

LITERE

ART

MED

Fig.1 The average emotional intelligence on faculty

After the analysis and interpretation of the collected data after the completion of the
emotional intelligence tests there were the following conclusions:
After the bibliographic material was studied there was found lack of study to prove the value
of emotional intelligence quotient of students in our country;
The results have shown that male students have a higher average EQ than the average of
female students.
Emotional or cognitive intelligence is not a homogeneous concept, each individual being able
to stand out as an intelligence quotient in certain situations and in certain areas;
With training, emotional intelligence can be controlled so that individuals are able to
successfully withstand and manage emotions;
In the view of the experts, in the present IQ is beginning to lose importance while EQ is about
to become the new key to success, the real values being: intuition, gentleness, sympathy,
communication etc.
Bibliography:
Adler A. , Cunoaterea omului, Editura IRI, Bucureti, 1996, (trad.)
Azzopardi G., Dezvoltai-v inteligena, Editura Teora, Bucureti, 2000
Belous V., Bazele performanei, Editura Performantica, Iai, 1995
Damasio A.R., Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, Putnam, 1994; revised Penguin edition,
2005
Damasio A.R., Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, Harcourt, 1999
Damasio H., Human Brain Anatomy in Computerized Images, 2nd edition, Oxford University
Press, New York, 2005
Goleman D., Inteligena emoional, cheia succesului n via, Editura Alfa, Bucureti, 2004
Havrneanu C., Cunoaterea psihologic a persoanei, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2000
Holdevici I., Psihologia succesului, Editura Ceres, Bucureti, 1993
Horst H. S., Cum s ne calculm coeficientul de inteligen, Editura Gemma Pres, Bucureti, 1996
Popescu ., Cunoaterea sinelui prin teste psihologice, Editura Antet, Bucureti, 2000
Selye H., tiina i viaa, Editura Politic, Bucureti, 1984

54

ROLUL PREGTIRII PSIHOLOGICE N CRETEREA


PERFORMANELOR SPORTIVE A GIMNASTELOR DE 10 -12 ANI
Conf. univ. dr. NANU LILIANA
Facultatea de Educaie Fizic i Sport Galai
Prof. DRGAN TANA-MIOARA
Clubul Sportiv colar Galai

Cuvinte cheie: pregtire psihologic, emoii, stres, antrenament, competiii


Abstract: Factorul psihologic se evideniaz i i demonstreaz importana n timpul desfurrii
concursurilor, mai ales n condiiile n care posibilitile i ansele participanilor sunt mai mult
sau mai puin egale, scopul final fiind acela de a participa cu succes n competiii.
Este cunoscut faptul c n activitatea sportiv, performanele se obin de tineri cu structuri
biologice deosebite, ce posed caliti motrice i psihice ieite din comun i care se pregtesc timp
ndelungat i cu perseveren n cadrul antrenamentului sportiv (Ifrim M., 1993). Antrenamentul
sportiv este un proces de adaptare de lung durat, care se desfoar pe parcursul mai multor ani,
fapt pentru care conducerea sa eficient nu poate fi realizat dect pe bazele prevederii tiinifice ale
ansamblurilor de obiective, decizii i mijloace (Nicu A., 1993).
Simultan cu amploarea pe care a luat-o sportul de performan, a nceput s se vorbeasc tot
mai mult de nsemntatea factorului psihologic n pregtirea sportivilor de performan, fapt care a
determinat efectuarea a numeroase studii i cercetri concretizate n adunarea unui bogat material
faptic constatativ dar i cu pronunat caracter aplicativ. Factorul psihologic se evideniaz i i
demonstreaz importana n timpul desfurrii concursurilor, mai ales n condiiile n care
posibilitile i ansele participanilor sunt mai mult sau mai puin egale, scopul final fiind acela de
a participa cu succes n competiii.
Este cunoscut faptul c fiecare sportiv are particularitile sale. De aceea, nenumrate sunt
cazurile n care sportivi bine pregtii din punct de vedere tehnic i tactic, cu o solid pregtire
fizic, cad prad emoiilor negative, aa cum se cunosc i cazurile n care sportivi cu o pregtire
fizic i tehnic insuficiente, dar animai de dorina de a nvinge au ntrecut adversari bine pregtii
tehnic, dar cu un moral mai slab. Deci, cnd pregtirea fizic i tehnic sunt rezolvate, ntrecerea
sportiv nu reprezint altceva dect o lupt psihologic a nervilor, a moralului, a voinei, a
sentimentelor i a raiunii. n viziunea lui A. Massimo (1990), ceea ce deosebete un campion de
un alt sportiv, este tocmai capacitatea sa de a-i controla emoiile.
S-a dovedit tiinific c aproape de momentele decisive ale unei competiii, sportivii manifest
o diversitate de reacii. Unii prezint simptome fiziologice (transpiraie excesiv, tahicardie), alii
prezint modificri emoionale (nervozitate, iritabilitate i agresivitate), iar alii modificri de
comportament (insomnii, i rod unghiile i se izoleaz). n aceste situaii, recomandarea este ca
aceste reacii s fie controlate pentru ca numrul infinit de ore de antrenamente s nu fi fost n
zadar.
F. Robbins (2001) identific o serie de factori cauzatori de emoii negative printre care
amintete: antrenamente precompetiionale insuficiente, comiterea unor greeli majore, ratarea unei
probe sau frica de ratare, lipsa contientizrii propriului progres comparativ cu evoluia altor
concureni, comentariile celor din jur, spectatorii, expectativele proprii i ale altora etc. Pe lng
aceti factori, n gimnastica artistic feminin intervine i factorul vrstei, unde cariera sportiv
ncepe timpuriu. Participarea la Campionatele colare i Naionale ncepe la vrsta de 8 9 ani,
imaturitatea emoional putnd compromite nenumratele ore de antrenament nereuind, de multe
ori, s se ridice la standardele i cerinele caracteristice sportului de performan. V. Samulski
(2002) subliniaz faptul c
antrenamentul precoce, dar mai ales eforturile exagerate din
antrenamentul i competiiile, din gimnastica artistic, pot crea probleme psihologice i sociale
55

copiilor. n gimnastic, pregtirea psihologic ncepe odat cu cea fizic i tehnic i se face paralel
cu nvarea fiecrui element i exerciiu n parte, mpletind instruirea sportiv cu educarea.
Problema pregtirii psihologice n gimnastic este de mare actualitate n condiiile amplificrii
sistemului competiional internaional i mai ales al luptei sportive acerbe pentru ocuparea unui loc
pe podium. De aceea, aceast cercetare i propune ca prin utilizarea unor mijloace specifice
adecvate s contribuie la eliminarea emoiilor negative (stres) depistate n antrenamentul i
competiiile gimnastelor de 10 12 ani, dar i la dezvoltarea emoiilor pozitive, stimulatoare. Deci,
scopul cercetrii l constituie evidenierea faptului c pregtirea psihologic poate avea influene
majore n obinerea performanelor superioare n gimnastic.
La baza formulrii ipotezei de lucru a acestei cercetri se presupune c dac n procesul de
pregtire al gimnastelor de 10 12 ani sunt folosite programe psihologice corespunztoare poate fi
influenat calitatea procesului de pregtire i implicit va crete i performana sportiv.
Obiectul cercetrii l reprezint comportamentul performanial al gimnastelor de 10 12 ani
de la CSS Galai, n baza propunerii unor programe psihologice experimentale.
Subiectul cercetrii const n tehnologia de aplicare a sistemului de pregtire psihologic n
antrenamentului sportiv pentru nlturarea emoiilor negative i dezvoltarea emoiilor pozitive a
gimnastelor de 10 12 ani.
Metodele de cercetare folosite sunt: studiul materialului bibliografic, observaia pedagogic i
studiul experimental.
Demersul tiinific s-a desfurat n perioada 15 septembrie 2009 15 martie 2010 pe 8
gimnaste de 10-12 ani de la CSS Galai, la sala de gimnastic. Cercetarea din prezenta lucrare s-a
realizat n trei etape astfel:
Etapa I s-a axat pe studierea datelor furnizate de literatura de specialitate i pe observaia
atitudinilor, temperamentelor i personalitii sportivelor de la CSS Galai n antrenamente i n
competiii. Astfel, s-a putut observa c, dei gimnastele n antrenamente se comportau destul de
bine la lucru pe aparate, reueau s execute toate elementele impuse de Federaia Romn de
Gimnastic, n competiii nu erau foarte sigure pe ele, motiv pentru care i rezultatele nregistrate
erau modeste.
Etapa a II-a a fost orientat spre organizarea studiului experimentul i formularea ipotezei de
lucru, depistarea tipurilor temperamentale ale gimnastelor incluse n studiul experimental (coleric,
sangvinic, flegmatic, melancolic) i a cauzelor individuale (accidentare, lipsa autoreglrii, ,
autodeterminrii, autoanalizei etc.), ce determin obinerea unor rezultate inferioare, mai ales n
competiii, precum i identificarea i propunerea unor tehnici psihologice specifice (reducerea
stresului emoional, dezvoltarea planurilor de concurs, simularea condiiilor de competiie n
antrenament, stabilirea unei rutine de comportament, practicarea controlului vizual, pstrarea
concentrrii la situaiile prezente i necunoscute, ntrirea pozitiv, folosirea cuvintelor cheie pentru
respingerea eecului, de confirmare a succesului, de reevaluare a situaiilor etc.) pentru nlturarea
emoiilor negative i aplicarea stimulilor pozitivi n vederea realizrii obiectivelor propuse.
n urma observaiei pedagogice comportamentale a gimnastelor n antrenamente i competiii,
a discuiilor individuale i evalurii caracteristicilor temperamentale ale fiecrei gimnaste incluse n
studiul experimental s-au desprins urmtoarele informaii i au fost formulate urmtoarele obiective
utiliznd la toate antrenamentele tehnicile psihologice propuse tabel 1:
TABEL 1
Manea Amalia
Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Obiective de pregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

- sanguinic;
- extrovertit, stabil, motivat performanial - tipul nvingtorului;
- lider a grupei are rol n ncurajarea i motivarea colegelor;
- mbuntirea relaiilor cu colegele;
-clasificarea n primele 20 de sportive ale rii la individual compus;
- tehnica group-feeling (senzaia unirii grupului): n situaii dificile, ncerc s-mi motivez

56

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Obiective denpregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Cauze
Obiective de pregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Cauze
Obiective de pregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Cauze
Obiective de pregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Obiective de pregtire

colegele;
- ignorarea adversarelor;
- relaxare i refacere;
Costescu Antonia
- sanguinic;
- extrovertit, stabil, motivat performanial tipul nvingtorului;
- mbuntirea ncrederii n forele proprii, creterea capacitii de exprimare a
micrilor;
- obinerea unui loc pe podium la campionatele colare;
- tehnica winning-feeling (senzaia de victorie): n timpul exerciiului cred ntotdeauna
c voi ctiga;
- focalizarea ateniei spre ndeplinirea obiectivelor propuse;
- autodeterminare;
Grigore Emilia
- melancolic;
- introvertit, instabil, motivaie extrinsec - tipul nvinsului
- accidentare
- depirea barierei psihologice cauzate de accidentarea de la antebra;
- adoptarea atitudinii de nvingtoare;
- obinerea unui punctaj minim de 50 puncte pe cele patru aparate;
- continuarea recuperrii prin ncurajare i nvarea tehnicii de
represiune: evitarea amintirii momentului accidentrii;
- anticiparea mental prin auto - ncurajare: voi mulumit de mine nsmi;
- contientizarea propriei valori: cred n tehnica i pregtirea mea;
- auto-afirmare: mi voi face un cadou dup concurs;
Stoica Alexandra
- coleric;
- extrovertit, instabil, motivaie extrinsec - tipul nvinsului;
- lipsa auto-reglrii comportamentale;
- dezvoltarea capacitilor volitive i ncrederii n forele proprii;
- adoptarea atitudinii de nvingtoare;
- obinerea unui loc pe podium la brn i sol;
- stabilirea i formularea ct mai multor obiective n antrenamente;
- contientizarea metodelor concrete: doar prin antrenamente intensive voi
atinge performane superioare;
- focalizarea ateniei spre obiectivele propuse;
- ascunderea emoiilor n faa adversarelor;
Nstase Marinela
- flegmatic;
- introvertit, stabil, motivaie extrinsec - tipul nvinsului;
- lipsa auto-analizei
- creterea interesului pentru activitatea de performan;
- adoptarea atitudinii de nvingtoare;
- obinerea unui punctaj minim de 50 puncte pe cele 4 aparate;
- tehnici de contrare pe sarcin prin folosirea cuvintelor cheie i evitarea sentimentelor
negative;
- creterea motivaiei pentru performan prin analizarea momentelor de succes;
Ctea Alexandra
- sangvinic;
- extrovertit, stabil, motivat performanial - tipul nvingtorului
- ctigarea ncrederii n forele proprii i a stimularea curajului
- adoptarea atitudinii de nvingtoare

57

Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Obiective de pregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

Temperament
Caracteristici
psihologice
Cauze
Obiective de pregtire
Obiective de
performan
Tehnici psihologice

- calificarea n primele 20 gimnaste;


- dezvoltarea perseverenei efortului prin ncurajri i laude personale;
- participarea contient la propriul progres prin conversaie cu antrenorul;
Bejan Cristina
- flegmatic;
- introvertit, stabil, motivaie intrinsec - tipul nvingtorului;
- dezvoltarea calitilor voinei, perseverenei i orientrii spre scop
- clasificarea n primele 6 sportive pe ar la srituri i sol;
- trezirea interesului pentru performan prin evitarea monotoniei i propunerea unor
mijloace tehnice noi, provocatoare;
- susinerea efortului voluntar prin ncurajare i susinere din partea colegelor;
Olteanu Maria
- melancolic;
- introvertit, instabil, motivaie extrinsec - tipul nvinsului;
- lipsa auto-determinrii;
- creterea interesului pentru obinerea unor performane superioare;
- adoptarea atitudinii de nvingtoare
- obinerea unui punctaj minim de 50 puncte pe cele 4 aparate;
- contientizarea nivelului propriilor capaciti: voi reui s fac exerciiul foarte bine
- nvarea elementelor noi pe pri, cu numr mare de repetri;
- percepia i analiza tririlor de succes / eec;
- focalizarea ateniei pe realizarea obiectivelor;
- laude i ncurajri personale, din partea colegelor i antrenorilor.

n etapa a III-a au fost nregistrate progresele realizate de gimnastele de 10-12 ani, din punct
de vedere al pregtirii psihologice n antrenamente i competiii n urma aplicrii programelor
propuse n pregtire.
Eficiena programelor propuse s-a evideniat prin realizarea obiectivelor de performan la
Campionatul colar de la Buzu desfurat n perioada 13 14 martie a.c.:
1. Manea Amalia locul 12 la individual compus;
2. Costescu Antonia locul 3 la individual compus, locul 2 la sol, locul 2 la brn Campionatul colar;
3. Grigore Emilia, Nstase Marinela, Olteanu Maria au obinut peste 50 puncte n urma
participrii la concurs pe cele 4 aparate;
4. Stoica Alexandra locul III la brn;
5. Ctea Alexandra locul 19 la individual compus;
6. Bejan Cristina locul 3 la srituri.
Pe baza datelor nregistrate au fost formulate urmtoarele concluzii:
experimentul a confirmat ipoteza de lucru potrivit creia dac n procesul de pregtire a
gimnastelor sunt folosite programe psihologice i structuri motrice corespunztoare poate fi
influenat calitatea procesului de pregtire i implicit va crete i performana sportiv.
programarea obiectivelor de pregtire s-a realizat pe baza cunoaterii potenialului motric i al
profilelor psihologice al fiecrei gimnaste reuindu-se astfel optimizarea pregtirii individualizate;
participarea contient a gimnastelor, stimularea dorinei de cunoatere, auto-cunoatere, autoreglare, auto-perfecionare a dus la ndeplinirea obiectivelor de pregtire i de performan;
a fost ncurajat folosirea resurselor emoionale pozitive ( ncrederea n forele proprii,
respectul i demnitatea personal, ambiia i mndria, motivaia pentru performan etc.).
n urma analizei datelor nregistrate recomandm ca antrenorii s pun un accent sporit pe
pregtirea psihologic, dezvoltnd gimnastelor capacitatea de autoapreciere a execuiilor,
autodepirea situaiilor dificile, cultivarea calitilor volitive, creterea ncrederii n forele proprii,
58

stimularea gndirii pozitive etc. pentru obinerea unor rezultate superioare n antrenamente i
competiii.
Bibliografie:
Cruz J. F. A., Manual de psicologia do desporto, Editura Sistemas Humanas e Organizacionais,
Porto, 1996;
Dragnea A., Teodorescu-Mate S., Teoria sportului, FEFS, Bucureti, 2002;
Drgan I. i colab., Medicina sportiv, Editura Stadion, Bucureti, 1974;
Epuran M., Metodologia cercetrii activitilor corporale, Bucureti, ANEFS, 1992;
Epuran M., Modelarea pregtirii psihologice n sport, ANEFS Bucureti,1994;
Grigore V., Gimnastica de performan, Editura Inedit, Bucureti, 1998;
Nicu A., Antrenamentul sportiv modern, Editura Editis, Bucureti, 1993;
Samulski D. M., Psicologia do Esporte, Editura Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Sociedade
Portuguesa de Psicologia do Desporto, 2002;
tir C.C.,Psihologia sportului, Editura Fundaiei Universitare Dunrea de Jos, Galai, 2003
Vrabie D., Psihologia educaiei, Editura Geneze, Galai, 2002.

THE PSYHOLOGICAL PREPARATION TO INCREASE


SPORTING PERFORMANCES OF GYMNASTS 10-12 YEARS
Nanu Liliana PhD. Associate Professor
The Faculty of Physical Education and Sports
Drgan Tana-Mioara Teacher trainer
School Sports Club Galati

Key words: competitions, emotions, the psychological training, stress


Abstract: The psychological factor is carried forth and it proves its importance during the
competition, especially when the possibilities and the chances of the contestants are or less equal,
the final aim being the successful participation in competitions.
It is known that in the sport activity, the performances are gained by young men having
special biological structures, with egregious actuating and psychic qualities and who are preparing
with perseverance a long time in the sport training (Drgan I., colab., 1994).
Nicu A. (1993) affirm, the sport training is o long standing process of adaptation, which
deploys during several years, fact for which its efficient guidance can not be realized than on the
basis of scientific provisions of the assemblies of objectives, decisions and means.
At the same time with the amplitude of the performance sport, it started to be talked more and
more about the importance of the psychic factor in the training in the performance sportsmen, fact
which has determined the carrying out of numerous studies and researches completed in collecting a
rich conclusion documentation having also an applicative character.
The psychological factor is carried forth and it proves its importance during the competition,
especially when the possibilities and the chances of the contestants are or less equal, the final aim
being the successful participation in competitions.
It is known that each sportsman has his characteristics, therefore, numerous are the cases in
which well-trained sportsmen from the technical and tactical point of view and cases in which
sportsmen having insufficient psychological technical training, but are animated by the desire to
win, have defeated the technical well-trained opponents but with a weaker mind. Thus when the
physical and technical training are solved, the sports competition is no more than a psychological
59

battle of nerves, mind, will, feelings and reason. In J. Cruzs vision (1996) what distinguishes a
champion by other sports man, is just his ability to control his emotions.
It was scientifically proven that almost all the decisive moments of a competition, sportsmen
present a variety of reactions. Some of them present a variety of reactions. Some of them present
psychological symptom (excessive perspiration, tachycardia) others present emotional variation
(nervousness, irritability and aggressiveness) and other behavior modifications (insomnia, crunch
his nails and isolate himself). In these situations the recommendation is that these reactions to be
controlled so as the countless number of training hours is not used in vain.
Stir C.C. (2003) identifies a series of factors causing negative emotions among which he
mentions: insufficient training before competition, making major mistakes, fail a test or the fear of
failing, the lack of awareness of his own progress in comparison with the evaluation of other
competitors, the comments of those around them, the viewers, their own and others expectation etc.
Beside these factors, in the female artistic gymnastics the age factor interferes, where the sport
career starts early. Taking part at the School or National Championship starts at the age of 8-9 year,
the emotional immaturity being able to compromise the countless training hours not managing,
many times, to raise at the standards and requirements of the performance sports. D.M. Samulski
(2002) underlines the fact that early training, but especially the exaggerated efforts in the training
artistic gymnastics may cause psychological and social problems to children.
The psychological training problem in gymnastics is very topical providing the growth of the
international competition system and especially of the sports bitter struggle in order to occupy a
place on the podium. This is the reason why, this research proposes by using adequate specific
means to contribute at eliminating the negative emotions tracked during the training and the
competitions of the 10-12 year old gymnasts, but also to the development of the positive stimulating
emotions.
Thus the aim of the research is the high lightening of the fact that the psychological
preparation may have major influences in achieving superior performances in gymnastics.
At the basis of the work conjecture of this research it is supposed that if in the training
process of 10-12 year old gymnasts are used appropriate psychological programmers, the quality of
the training process improves and also the sport performance will increase.
The object of the research is the performing behavior of the 10-12 year old gymnasts from
CSS Galati, on the basis of proposing some experimental psychological curriculum.
The subject of the research is the appliance technology of the psychological training in order
to supersede the negative emotions and to develop the positive emotions of 10-12 year old
gymnasts.
The used research means are: the study of the bibliographical material, pedagogical
observation, experimental study and the street method.
The scientific intercession the examination has been made between 15th September 2009
15th March 2010 on eight. 10-12 year old gymnasts from CSS Galati, at the gym. The hereby
research has been made in three stages as follows:
The 1st stage I based on the study of the data from the special literature, on the observation of
the sports womens attitudes, temperament and personalities during the trainings and competitions.
Thus it could be observed that, although the gymnasts during the training had satisfying results, in
competitions they were not very sure of their own forces reason for which the results were low.
The 2nd stage has been oriented to the study of the experiment and the work conjecture,
tracking the temperament type of the gymnasts included in the experiment study (choleric,
sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic) and of the single causes (accidents, lack of self adjustment and
self-analysis) which determines the achievement of low results and identify and propose specific
psychological techniques (reduction of contest plans, simulation during training of the competition
conditions, establishment of a routine behavior practicing the visual control, keeping the focus on
the present and unknown situations, positive strengthening, us age of the key words in order to
reject failing, the situations etc) in order to abolish the negative emotions and apply positive
stimulation to achieve the aimed objectives.
60

As a consequence of the observation of the gymnasts pedagogical behavior during training


and competitions, individual discussions and the temperament traits evaluating of each gymnast in
the experimental study the following information were distinguished and the following objectives
have been created using the proposed psychological techniques in all the trainings table 1:

Table 1
Manea Amalia
Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Training objectives

Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Causes
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Causes
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Causes
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

- sanguine;
- extrovert, stable, motivated for performance the winner type ;
- leader of the group she has the role of encouraging and motivating her
colleagues;
- improving the relationships with her colleagues;
- classify in the first 20 gymnasts of the country at all-around;
- the group-feeling technique ( unifying the group feeling): in the difficult
situation I try to motivate my colleagues;
- ignoring the opponents;
Costescu Antonia
- sanguine;
- extrovert, stable, motivated for performance the winner type ;
- improving the self-confidence, increasing the ability to express the movements;
- occupy a place on the podium at the school championship;
- the winning - feeling technique :during the exercise I always think I am going
to win;
- focus attention on accomplishing the proposed objectives;
Grigore Emilia
- melancholic;
- introvert, instable, extrinsic motivation defeated type;
- accident;
- over passing the psychological barrier caused by the accident at the forearm;
- adopting a winner attitude;
- scoring at least 50 points at all-around;
- recovering through encouragement and learning the repression technique:
avoiding the memory of the accident;
- mental anticipation through self-encouragement: I will be pleased by myself;
- awareness of own quality :I believe in my training and my technique;
- self-affirmation: I will get myself a present after the competition;
Stoica Alexandra
- choleric;
- extrovert, instable, extrinsic motivation defeated type;
- lack of behavior self-adjustment;
- development of the volitional abilities and of self-development;
- adopting a winner attitude;
- occupy a place on the podium at balance beam and floor;
- establishing many objectives during training;
- awareness of the actual methods: only by training hard I will accomplish
superior results;
- focusing on the proposed objectives;
- hiding emotions from the opponents;
Nstase Marinela
- phlegmatic;
- introvert, instable, extrinsic motivation defeated type;
- lack of self-analysis;
- increasing the interest for performance activity;
- adopting a winner attitude;
- scoring at least 50 points at all-around;
- techniques focused on tasks by using the key-words and avoiding the negative

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Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

Temperament
Psychological characteristics
Causes
Training objectives
Performance objectives
Psychological techniques

feeling;
- increase the motivation for performance by analyzing the success moments;
Ctea Alexandra
- sanguine;
- extrovert, stable, motivated for performance the winner type ;
- gaining self-confidence and stimulating the courage;
- adopting a winner attitude;
- qualification in the first 20 gymnasts;
- development of the effort perseverance through encouragement and self
praise;
- conscious participation at self development by talking with the coach;
Bejan Cristina
- phlegmatic;
- introvert, stable, motivated for performance the winner type ;
- development of the volition, perseverance and aiming this goal;
- qualification in the first 6 gymnasts in the country at vault and floor;
- awaken the interest for performance and proposing new challenging techniques;
- sustaining the voluntary effort by encouragement and support form the
colleagues;
Olteanu Maria
- melancholic;
- introvert, instable, extrinsic motivation defeated type;
- lack of self-determination;
- increasing the interest in achieving superior performances;
- adopting a winner attitude;
- scoring at least 50 points at all-around;
- awareness of the level of her abilities: I will manage to make the exercise very
well
- learning new elements divided in parts, with many repetitions;
- perception and analysis of the success / failure feelings;
- praises and personal encouragement, from colleagues.

In the 3rd stage it has been registered the progress made by the 10-12 year-old gymnasts, from
the point of view of psychological preparedness during training and competitions as a consequence
of the experimental curriculum appliance.
The efficacy of the proposed curriculum has been carried forth through the achievement of the
performance objectives at the School Championship from Buzu that took place between 13th-14th
March this year.
1.Manea Amalia 12th place at All-around;
2.Costescu Antonia 3rd place at All-around, 2nd place at Floor, 2nd place at Balance beam
School Championship;
3.Grigore Emilia, Nstase Marinela, Olteanu Maria scored 50 points in All-around;
4.Stoica Alexandra 3rd place at Balance beam;
5.Ctea Alexandra 19th place at All-around;
6.Bejan Cristina 3rd place at Vault.
On the basis of the registered data the following conclusions have been drawn:
The experiment confirmed the work conjecture according to which if in the gymnasts training
process (physical, technical, artistically, theoretical, tactic) are used psychological programs, the
quality of the training process can be improved and the sports performance will increase.
The programming of the training objectives has been made on the basis of knowing the actuating
potential and the psychological profile of each gymnast, achieving the improvement of
individualized training.
The conscious participation of gymnasts, stimulating the desire for knowledge, self-knowledge,
self perfection, lead to the accomplishment of the training and performance objectives.
62

The usage of positive emotional resources (self-confidence, respect and dignity, ambition and
pride, motivation for performance etc.) has been encouraged.
After the data analysis we recommend that coaches focus on the psychological training., developing
the gymnasts ability of self-esteem their executions, over passing the difficult situations,
volitional qualities cultivation, increasing the self-confidence, positive-thinking stimulation etc, in
order to achieve superior results in training and competitions.
Bibliography:
Cruz J. F. A., Manual de psicologia do desporto, Editura Sistemas Humanas e Organizacionais,
Porto, 1996;
Dragnea A., Teodorescu-Mate S., Teoria sportului, FEFS, Bucureti, 2002;
Drgan I. i colab., Medicina sportiv, Editura Stadion, Bucureti, 1974;
Epuran M., Metodologia cercetrii activitilor corporale, Bucureti, ANEFS, 1992;
Epuran M., Modelarea pregtirii psihologice n sport, ANEFS Bucureti,1994;
Grigore V., Gimnastica de performan, Editura Inedit, Bucureti, 1998;
Nicu A., Antrenamentul sportiv modern, Editura Editis, Bucureti, 1993;
Samulski D. M., Psicologia do Esporte, Editura Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Sociedade
Portuguesa de Psicologia do Desporto, 2002;
tir C.C.,Psihologia sportului, Editura Fundaiei Universitare Dunrea de Jos, Galai, 2003
Vrabie D., Psihologia educaiei, Editura Geneze, Galai, 2002.

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Curriculum vitae
Numele: NANU
Prenumele: LILIANA
Data naterii: 10.09.1967
Naionalitatea: romn
Starea civil: cstorit, 1 copil
Domiciliul stabil: Galai, Str. Domneasc nr. 130, Bl. Ialomia, Ap. 43
1.
Studii:

Liceul pedagogic C. Negri Galai/ 1985

Institul de Educaie Fizic i Sport Bucureti liceniat n educaie fizic i sport, specializare
gimnastic/ 1990

Facultatea de Educaie Fizic i Sport Galai master n management sportiv/ 2005

Universitatea de Stat de Educaie Fizic i Sport Chiinu - Republica Moldova doctor n


tiine pedagogice/ 2009

Centrul Naional de Formare i Perfecionare Antrenori antrenor categoria I, specializare


gimnastic artistic/ 2008
2.

Specializri i titluri:
Profesor antrenor de gimnastic
Preparator universitar, asistent universitar, lector universitar, confereniar universitar
Master n management sportiv
Doctor n tiine pedagogice
Antrenor categoria I specializare gimnastic artistic
Maestru internaional al sportului

3.

Locuri de munc:

1990-1992 Liceul cu program sportiv Galai


1991-n prezent Universitatea Dunrea de Jos Galai/ Facultatea de Educaie Fizic i

Sport

4.

2001 - The International School Choueifat Dubai Emiratele Arabe Unite

Lista lucrrilor tiinifice:

Cri cu ISBN 11

Lucrri publicate 63

Lucrri comunicate 23

Note de curs, cursuri, caiete de lucrri practice i alte lucrri publicate - 8

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