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68 (de) vizualizări9 paginiCementation factor (cementation exponent) is one of the
most important parameters in saturation equation to
determine the water or hydrocarbon saturations

Nov 27, 2014

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Cementation factor (cementation exponent) is one of the
most important parameters in saturation equation to
determine the water or hydrocarbon saturations

© All Rights Reserved

68 (de) vizualizări

Cementation factor (cementation exponent) is one of the
most important parameters in saturation equation to
determine the water or hydrocarbon saturations

© All Rights Reserved

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Masoud Asadollahi1, Ali Mohammad Bagheri2, Manouchehr Haghighi3, Mehran Namani4

1.

2.

Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI)

3.

Tehran University

4.

National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)

saturation uncertainty in an Iranian carbonate reservoir.

The first Monte Carlo simulation was done based on the

existing laboratory and log data and the second one based

on the new correlation for cementation factor. Results

showed that application of appropriate correlations was

resulted in decreasing saturation uncertainty.

The accurate determination of cementation factor

improves the saturation determination and consequently

OOIP calculations. Also, applying the correlations

decreases the uncertainty of saturations in the reservoir

zones to increase the accuracy level of possible, probable

and proven reserves in a hydrocarbon reservoir.

This paper was selected for presentation by the JFES program committee

following the review of abstract submitted by author(s).

ABSTRACT

Cementation factor (cementation exponent) is one of the

most important parameters in saturation equation to

determine the water or hydrocarbon saturations. It acts as

a power of porosity in the most of saturation equations

which increases the importance of this parameter. The

best cementation factor data is based on laboratory

measurements and log interpretation results, but

sometimes it is considered as a constant value in oil and

gas reservoirs which causes large errors in saturation

calculations. Using a constant value for cementation

factor in saturation equations may cause large errors and

uncertainties in hydrocarbon saturation determination

because it is dependent to porosity value, type of porosity

and pore types, pressure and lithology. Correlations are

the best alternatives when there are not sufficient

laboratory measurements or accurate log interpretation

values.

The effect of cementation factor on saturation was

investigated. It was shown that cementation factor has

almost the same values in porosities more than 5 percent

but there are completely different values in porosities less

than 5 percent. Investigation of pressure, porosity and

lithology effects on cementation factor from the

laboratory measurements and log interpretation in Iranian

carbonate reservoirs was resulted in a new correlation for

Sarvak, Kangan and Dalan formations. In the new

correlation, cementation factor was plotted versus

porosity to compare with the most famous existing

correlations like Shell and Borai. The most common

correlation which is being used in Iranian reservoirs is

Shell formula whereas it has completely different trend

compared to the new correlation in low porosities. Also a

couple of Monte Carlo simulations were used to

INTRODUCTION

Before 1942, core samples using oil base mud were the

only sources to measure the saturations in the reservoir

intervals. The method was difficult and expensive, so

there were a few points of measurements. In 1942,

Archie established a relationship between porosity, water

resistivity, formation resistivity and water saturation in

clean formations. Archie's method was easy and quite

cheaper than the previous methods. Also this method had

the ability of continuous determinations of saturation

through whole reservoir interval because he used log data

for the saturation equation calculations. The equation is

as follows:

S wn F

Rw

... (1)

Rt

formation resistivity (rock pores filled with brine water

and hydrocarbon) and F is the formation resistivity factor

as follows:

a

F m .... (2)

factor (cementation exponent). In above equations

-1-

Experiences from different fields showed that most

common values for cementation factor varies between

1.5 and 2.5, in which 1.8 to 2.0 have been vastly applied

for carbonate reservoirs while the values more than 2.0

have been applied for sand reservoirs. Bagheri et al

(2005) studied a sandstone Iranian reservoir and found

that applying a constant core derived cementation factor

(m=1.8), the calculated water saturations in the water

zones and water flooded zones are higher than 100%.

This resulted to a negative value of residual oil saturation

in some intervals in water flooded zones. Their results

stressed the application of variable cementation factor,

e.g. correlations, in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Roberto

Aguilera (1976) proved that cementation factor value

firstly is variable (i.e. constant value can not be applied

for e reservoir or a well and even for several intervals)

and secondly, in naturally carbonate fractured reservoir,

could be 1.3 for highly fractured and 1.9 for dense

carbonate rocks. Hence correlations are an alternative

method for calculation of these parameters which are

usually the best solutions to calculate the unknown

parameters in a reservoir. Also there are some innovative

methods for estimation of unknown parameters. For

example Core Archie-Parameter Estimation (CAPE) and

back calculations in water zones can estimate the

Archie's equation parameters in a reservoir. Kazemzadeh

et al (2007) presented a new approach for the

determination of cementation exponent in different

petrofacies for the carbonate Asmari formation.

Several studies, Hosseini Nia and Rezaei (2002), Bagheri

et al. (2005) and Asadollahi et al. (2006 & 2008), showed

that cementation factor could be the most important

uncertain parameter which affect saturation in Iranian

carbonate reservoirs. Figures 1,2 and 3 show water

saturation vs. total resistivity for different porosities

using Archies saturation equation. In figure 1, S w vs. R t

has plotted for a=1.0, m=2.0 and n=2.0 which are the

most common values considered in Iranian reservoirs.

The only changes in figure 2 and figure 3 are m=1.5 and

n=1.5, respectively. Comparing figures 2 and 3 with

figure 1 shows that variation of cementation factor could

be more important than saturation exponent in Archies

equation. Also it is obvious that applying common

constant values for m and n is not an acceptable method

for saturation calculations. So this study has been

focused on the investigation of cementation factor in

Iranian carbonate reservoirs. The cementation exponent

R w is calculated from appropriate tables using brine

salinity and reservoir temperature. At last a, m and n

should be calculated based on special core analysis data.

Since special core lab data are not available in all

reservoir studies, a number of methods developed to

determine these parameters but still core lab

measurements are the most accurate one. The

conventional determination method of a, m and n will be

described here and then the study will be focused on

cementation factor investigation.

Conventional method for a and m determination:

equation (2) on log-log plot would be as follows:

log F log a m log ..... (3)

on a log-log scale and fitting a straight line through the

data yields a line with a slope of m. Also a is given from

the intercept of the line at =1 in the same plot but it

usually considered as 1.00 in petrophysical evaluations.

Archies noted, without presenting data to prove it, m

was around 1.3 for unconsolidated sands. Since he had

observed m around 2 in Gulf Coast sandstones, this made

it likely that m would increase as sand grains became

cemented.

Conventional method for determination of n: equation (1)

is rewritten as:

n log S w log F

Rw

(4)

Rt

parameters should be measured in core lab so classically

n can be determined from the slope of an appropriate

bi-logarithmic plot.

Since special core lab, especially saturation exponent,

measurements are expensive and time consuming; they

may not be available for all reservoirs or during the

primary studies of a hydrocarbon reservoir. So some

other methods were developed to determine cementation

and saturation exponents for reservoir studies.

Considering some common constant values for

cementation factor and saturation exponent is the first

solution. In Iranian reservoirs both of them are usually

considered about 2.00 for most of the reservoir studies.

Tabibi et al. (2003) studied the values of cementation

-2-

shape, sorting and packing of the particulate system, pore

configuration and size, constrictions existing in a porous

system, tortuosity, type of pore system (intergranular,

intercrystalline, vuggy, fractured), compaction due to

overburden pressure, presence of clay minerals, and

reservoir temperature.

In the following sections, the uncertainty of water

saturation has been evaluated in one of giant Iranian

carbonate reservoirs. Then based on available data a

correlation has been presented for cementation factor in

clean carbonate reservoirs with special focus on Sarvak

formation and it has been compared with the Borai

correlation and Shell formula. Finally the correlation has

been applied for re-evaluation of water saturation

uncertainty and compared with initial uncertainty

analysis. The results of uncertainty analysis showed that

application of appropriate correlation decreases the

uncertainties in formation evaluations.

CORRELATION

In cases including lack of laboratory measurements,

correlations from the same type of reservoirs, are the best

solutions to estimate the unknown parameters. Since

there is no correlation for cementation factor in Iranian

hydrocarbon reservoirs, it has been tried to find an

appropriate one based on available data from core and

log data. The log cementation factors has been calculated

using back calculation method in aquifer zones, S w =1, of

this reservoir by considering n=2.0. The calculated

cementation factors, by this method, had a good

consistency with core lab data. Then the effect of

different parameters on cementation factor has been

investigated to find an appropriate relation between

cementation factor and other available reservoir

parameters such as pore type, confining pressure,

reservoir temperature, lithology and porosity. Based on

geological reports, pore types did not have any effect on

cementation factor in this carbonate reservoir.

UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

important factors that could affect cementation factor.

Behin (2004) studied the effect of cementation factor in

two different Iranian oil reservoirs and he found two

different cases for those reservoirs. In one of the

reservoirs cementation factor was independent of

confining pressure whereas in the other one it was a

function of confining pressure. The effect of confining

pressure was investigated using core lab data. Figure 7

shows the plot of cementation factor vs. confining

pressure. In fact cementation factor is independent of

confining pressure for pressures higher than 2000 psi and

it has a constant value. The proposed reservoir pressure is

about 2500 psi so cementation factor can not be

presented as a function of confining pressure.

selected for uncertainty analysis. Based on petrophysical

and geological properties, reservoir interval in each well

was divided to eight zones for the analysis. The reservoir

was clean carbonate so Archie's equation was used for

water saturation calculations.

Then saturation exponent considered as a constant value

(equal to 2.00) in this study because there were no

measurements for this parameter. Also since tortuosity

factor did not show any important effect on water

saturation in previous studies, a constant value of 1.00

was taken into account in calculations.

In the next step, the appropriate distributions were fitted

to available data in each oil zone. Because of the large

number of distributions, the distributions have not been

presented in this text and only their results have been

used. Monte Carlo simulation method has been applied to

evaluate the water saturation uncertainty and P 5 , P 50 and

P 95 have been considered as possible, probable and

proved S w values. Figure 4 shows the uncertainty results

for well no. 1. The probable water saturations have been

shown with a line in center and the possible and proved

water saturations have been shown with the primary

shaded area around the probable value. Figures 5 and 6

show the uncertainty analysis results in wells no. 2 and 3

of the reservoir, respectively.

different lithologies. Based on log data, the lithology

variations was investigated in this reservoir using

appropriate cross plots with Geolog software. The results

were consistent with geological reports and the dominant

lithology in the reservoir was clean carbonates. Figure 8

up to 10 show these cross plots which indicate clean

carbonate formation. So in this reservoir, there is no

classification for cementation factor as a function of

lithology.

Porosity effect: Cementation factor vs. porosity has been

-3-

m 1.87

parameters. The investigation showed that cementation

factor is a function of porosity in the reservoir, especially

in low porosity zones. So it has been tried to present a

correlation between cementation factor and porosity.

Since proposed reservoir was a high porosity reservoir;

there was not sufficient data for low porosities to present

a correlation. So the data from the same formation in

neighboring oil fields have been used to find an

appropriate correlation for Sarvak formation. Also the

data form Kangan and Dalan formations have been

included to present a qualified relation between

cementation factor and porosity in Iranian carbonate

formations, both low and high porosity reservoirs. The

cementation factor data from neighboring oil fields had

the same conditions as the proposed oil field such as the

same pore type, reservoir temperature, confining pressure

and lithology. A number of different functions were fitted

to the data and the best relation was selected for Iranian

carbonate reservoirs. There are some reasons for the

selection of this function. First of all, there is an

acceptable match to the data (R2=0.88). Secondly, this

function showed better prediction of cementation factor

for both low and high porosity reservoirs. The fitted

function has a reasonable estimation for low porosity

carbonate in consistency with Aguilera (1976) and also

for high porosity reservoirs in consistency with

measurements in Iranian carbonate reservoirs. Figure 11

shows the fitted line to the data as follows:

using new correlation. First, all appropriated distributions

in oil zones have been generated for the cementation

factor. Then Monte Carlo method has been applied to

re-evaluate the uncertainty analysis in the reservoir

intervals. The only difference with the previous

uncertainty analysis was cementation factor distribution.

In previous uncertainty analysis, there was not sufficient

data for cementation factors so a unique distribution has

been used in all oil zones of the reservoir. In the current

case, the proper cementation factor distributions

generated based on new correlation for each well and oil

zone separately. Figures 13, 14 and 15 show the results of

re-evaluation. Water saturation variations vs. oil zones

have been plotted to investigate the results of analysis.

Comparison of the current with previous uncertainty

analysis results showed that application of new

correlation decreases the uncertainty level of water

saturation. As an example, the uncertain levels of water

saturation (as P 5 and P 95 ) in zone 7 of well no. 3 were 17

and 57 percent whereas in new evaluation, they were 22

correlations in the next section. Since a large number of

core measurements (357) and log data (321) from

different reservoirs have been used to present the new

correlation, it could be used vastly in Iranian carbonate

reservoir studies with the same reservoir rock properties.

Comparison with other correlations: Borai correlation

and Shell formula are two famous common correlations

which are widely used in petrophysical studies. The

Borai correlation is:

0.042

0.035

.... (7)

correlations using 18 core samples data for an Iranian

clean vuggy carbonate reservoir. They concluded that

Shell formula is the best correlation to estimate the

cementation factor and Borai correlation had very close

results to Shell formula. In fact all of their samples were

from high porosity reservoirs and both Borai and Shell

formula have almost the same value and trend for high

porosity reservoirs. As shown in Figure 12, the main

differences between these correlations are for porosities

lower than 5 percent. New correlation for Iranian

carbonate reservoirs showed the same trend as Borai

correlation whereas Shell formula is still applying for

some of Iranian carbonate reservoir studies. Also, the

new correlation showed that cementation factor is more

dependent to porosity for porosities lower that 5 percent

whereas this dependency decreases for porosities higher

than 5 percent.

However the correlations should be applied carefully

with sufficient reasons for the reservoirs. The best

correlation can be chosen by comparing the properties of

a reservoir rock and the conditions in which the existing

correlations have been developed.

1.0

........ (5)

0.36 0.08 ln

m 2.2

0.19

..... (6)

-4-

Haghighi, M., 2006, Investigation of the effect of

cementation factor on OOIP in an Iranian carbonate

reservoir: GEO 2006 Middle East Conference and

Exhibition (March 27-29).

It should be considered that there was no considerable

difference for the cementation factor in different oil

zones of this reservoir. The global cementation factor

distribution of the reservoir showed 0.2 differences

between P 5 and P 95 in this carbonate reservoir. This

value may increase to 1.0 in some Iranian fractured

carbonate reservoirs. Because of the importance of this

parameter for saturation calculation, it can highly affect

these calculations in reservoirs with wider variations of

cementation factor, especially in fractured carbonate

reservoirs.

Namani, M., 2008, Cementation factor effect on OOIP in

Iranian carbonate reservoirs, a Monte Carlo approach:

The 14th Formation Evaluation Symposium of Japan,

SPWLA (29-30 Sep.).

Bagheri, A. M., Aloki Bakhtiari, H., Fasih, M., Bagheri

Rezazadeh, S. H., Rsaasen, T., Fllo, L.H. and Azedi, A.

R., 2005, Effect of uncertainty in water saturation equation

and parameters on estimated residual oil saturation: 13th

Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Congress, 4th international

IOR Conference.

CONCLUSION

reservoirs showed that:

Cementation factor is highly important in saturation

calculations. Small variation in cementation factor

values can affect the results of water saturation

determination considerably.

Using appropriate correlations can decrease the

uncertainty level of saturation calculations in

petrophysical studies. Applying correlations is a

simple and useful method which decreases the

uncertainty levels in reservoir studies.

The cementation factor correlations in Iranian

carbonate reservoirs can be case dependent so, a

unique correlation should not be applied for all

Iranian reservoirs.

In case of clean Iranian carbonate reservoirs, the new

correlation showed that Borai correlation can

estimate the cementation factor better than Shell

formula and common constant values method which

are still applying for saturation calculations in some

studies of Iranian reservoirs.

cementation factor of Iranian carbonate oil reservoir

rocks: International Symposium of the Society of Core

Analysts held in Abu Dhabi, UAE, SCA 2004-41.

Boraei A.M., 1985, A new correlation for cementation

factoring low-porosity carbonates: SPE Annual Technical

Conference and Exhibition held in Las Vegas, SPE

21316.

Focke, J.W. and Munn, D., 1985, Cementation exponent

in Middle Eastern carbonate reservoirs: SPE Middle East

Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition held in Bahrain,

SPE 13735.

REFERENCES

uncertainty in archies water saturation equation

parameters determination method: SPE Middle East Oil

Show, Bahrain, SPE 68083.

Asquith, G.B., 2000, Historical use of m and a in well log

interpretation: is conventional wisdom backwards?:

Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference in

Midland, Texas, SPE 59699.

Variable saturation exponent effect on determination of

hydrocarbon saturation: SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas

Conference and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia, SPE

77887.

reservoirs from conventional well logs: Journal of

Petroleum Technology, July 1976, p.764-772.

Improved technique

to

determine

Archie's

parameters and consequent impact on the exactness of

-5-

Sept. 8-10, Montpellier, France, SCA 9623.

p.243-253.

different petrophysical parameters sensitivity on water

saturation in oil reservoirs: Tehran University Journal,

vol. 28, p.69-91.

thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs: Statoil

ASA Technical Report, Bergen, Norway.

Tabibi, M. and Emadi, M.A., 2003, Variable Cementation

Factor Determination (Empirical Methods): 13th Middle

East Oil Show & Conference in Bahrain, SPE 81485.

place determinations of shaly rocks from laboratory

electrical resistivity measurements at reservoir

conditions: Offshore Europe Conference held in

Aberdeen, SPE 23103.

Masoud Asadollahi is a PhD student in International

Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS). E-mail:

Masoud.Asadollahi@iris.no. Prior to starting his PhD in

IRIS, he worked two years for Research Institute of

Petroleum Industry (RIPI) and one year for Petropars Oil

and Gas Institute (POGI) as a reservoir engineer. His

research interests are reservoir characterization, reservoir

simulation, enhanced and improved oil recovery and

production optimization. Masoud holds a BSc degree in

petroleum engineering from Petroleum University of

Technology (PUT) and a MSc degree in reservoir

engineering from Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP

School). Ali Mohammad Bagheri is a senior researcher

in petrophysical department of Reseach Institute of

Petroleum Industry (RIPI). E-mail: Bagheriam@ripi.ir.

Ali joined to RIPI in 1999 and holds a BSc degree in

mining exploration from Shahrood Univesity and a MSc

degree in petroleum engineering from Tehran

Polytechnic University. Manouchehr Haghighi is an

Associate Professor in Petroleum Department of Tehran

University. E-mail: Haghighi@ut.ac.ir. His research

interests are reservoir characterization, reservoir

simulation and heavy oil recovery. Mehran Namani is a

reservoir engineer in National Iranian Oil Company

(NIOC). E-mail: M.Namani@gmail.com. He worked for

Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI) for two

years. His research interests are reservoir characterization,

reservoir simulation, enhanced and improved oil

recovery and reservoir management. Mehran holds a BSc

degree in reservoir engineering from Petroleum

University of Technology (PUT) and a MSc degree in

reservoir engineering from Institut Francais du Petrole

(IFP School).

Moezabad, M., Rezaee, M. R. and Saadat, K., 2007, A

new approach for the determination of cementation

exponent in different petrofacies with velocity deviation

logs and petrographical studies in the carbonate Asmari

formation: Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, vol. 4,

p.160-170.

Maute, R.E., Lyle, W.E. and Sprunt, E.S., 1992,

Improved data analysis method determines Archie

parameters from core data: Journal of Petroleum

Technology, January 1992, p.103-107.

Regland, D.A., 2002, Trends in cementation exponent

(m) for carbonate pore systems: Journal of Petrophysics,

September-October 2002.

Salem, H.S., 1993, Derivation of the cementation factor

(Archies exponent) and Kozeny-Carman constant from

well log data, and their dependence on lithology and

other physical parameters: SPE 26309.

Saraji, S. and Emadi, A.R., 2003, Investigation of

Archies parameters: 1st SPE Students Conference in

Iran.

Shouxiang, M. and Xiaoyun, Zh., 1994, Determination

of Archie's cementation exponent from capillary

pressure measurements: Intr. Symposium on Well

Logging Technology, X'ian, China, p.83-103.

Stalheim, S.O., Eidesmo, T. and Rueslatten, H., 1999,

Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling:

-6-

FIGURES

and n=1.5

Figure 1: S w vs. R t for different porosities at m=2, a=1

and n=2

Well 1

0.8

Sw

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Sw / Z1

Sw / Z2

Sw / Z3

Sw / Z4

Sw / Z5

Zone 1-8

Sw / Z6

Sw / Z7

=Mean,+1/-1SD

Sw / Z8

=+95%,-5%

Well 2

0.8

Sw

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Sw / Z1

Sw / Z2

Sw / Z3

Sw / Z4

Sw / Z5

Zone 1-8

and n=2

Sw / Z6

Sw / Z7

=Mean,+1/-1SD

Sw / Z8

=+95%,-5%

Well 3

0.8

0.7

0.6

Sw

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

Sw / Z1

Sw / Z2

Sw / Z3

Sw / Z4

Zone 1-8

Sw / Z5

Sw / Z6

Sw / Z7

=Mean,+1/-1SD

-7-

Sw / Z8

=+95%,-5%

DT cross-plot

2.5

Cementation Factor

2.25

2

1.75

1.5

1.25

Forced Fit

Free Fit

1

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

Pressure

log data

NLITH cross-plot

carbonate reservoirs

formula and Borai correlation

Figure 9: Evaluation of formation mineralogy, RHO vs.

-8-

0.8

0.8

0.6

Sw

Sw

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0

Sw / Z1

Sw / Z2

Sw / Z3

Sw / Z4

Sw / Z5

Zones 1-8

Sw / Z6

Sw / Z7

=Mean,+1/-1SD

Sw / Z8

=+95%,-5%

Sw

0.6

0.4

0.2

Sw / Z3

Sw / Z4

Zones 1-8

Sw / Z5

Sw / Z6

=Mean,+1/-1SD

Sw / Z7

Sw / Z3

Sw / Z4

Sw / Z5

Sw / Z6

=Mean,+1/-1SD

Sw / Z7

Sw / Z8

=+95%,-5%

using new correlation in well no. 3

0.8

Sw / Z2

Sw / Z2

Zones 1-8

using new correlation in well no.

0.0

Sw / Z1

0.0

Sw / Z1

Sw / Z8

=+95%,-5%

using new correlation in well no. 2

-9-

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