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SISTEME EOLIENE DE

PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI
ELECTRICE
titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca
Laborator_1

Masurarea parametrilor atmosferici;


vantul si directia vantului;
presiunea si temperatura
An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

Masurarea vitezei vantului este foarte importanta


pentru multe domenii de activitate:
meteorologie;
agronomie;
navigatie aeriana;
navigatie maritima;
ingineria mediului dispersia poluantilor;
industrie energetica.

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

In ingineria vantului, respectiv energie eoliana,


cunoasterea vitezei si directiei vantului sunt importante in
determinarea unor amplasamente corecte si cu potential
eolian maxim.
Viteza vantului este masurata intr-o mare varietate de
moduri, de la cele mai simple la cele mai sofisticate
sisteme electronice.
Variatia aleatoare in timp a vitezei vantului, ata ca
marime cat si ca sens, face ca masuratorile sa fie dificil de
realizat la acuratetea ceruta.
Calitatea masuratorilor depinde de calitatea mijloacelor
de masurare si monitorizare folosite.

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

MASURAREA VITEZEI VANTULUI CU ANEMOMETRE

Dispozitivele de masurare a vitezei vantului


se numesc anemometre.
Tipuri de anemometre:
anemometre cu cupe sferice (inventat n 1846
de John Thomas Romney Robinson);
anemometru cu elice;
anemometru cu placa de presiune;
anemometru cu tub de presiune;
anemometru cu fir cald;
anemometru Doppler acustic;
anemometru cu laser.
An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

Anemometrul cu cupe
sferice (inventat n 1846 de
John Thomas Romney
Robinson)

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

Anemometrul cu elice

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

ANEMOMETRU CU FIR CALD


Principiu de functionare:
Un fir este incalzit continuu la
o temperatura superioara
mediului
ambiant masurat si este racit
continuu de debitul de aer.
Temperatura firului este
mentinuta constanta printr-un
circuit de reglare.
Curentul de incalzire al firului
este proportional cu viteza
debitului de aer.
An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

Anemometru cu laser

The laser is emitted (1) through the front lens (6) of


the anemometer and is backscattered off the air
molecules (7). The backscattered radiation (dots) reenter the device and are reflected and directed into a
detector (12).
An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

Anemometru Doppler acustic

Anemometre Sonic, dezvoltat pentru prima oar n anii


1970, utilizeaza undele sonore ultrasunete pentru a
msura viteza vntului.
An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

Statii meteo complete:

http://www.lpelectric.ro/ro/products/meteo_ro.html

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

RADIOSONDE

A radiosonde (Sonde is French and German for probe) is a unit for use in
things such as weather balloons that measures various atmospheric
parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. Radiosondes may operate
at a radio frequency of 403 MHz or 1680 MHz and both types may be adjusted
slightly higher or lower as required.
Rawinsondes are usually referred to as radiosondes.
Modern radiosondes measure or calculate the following variables:
Pressure
Altitude
Geographical position (Latitude/Longitude)
Temperature
Relative humidity
Wind (both wind speed and wind direction)
Cosmic ray readings at high altitude
Radiosondes measuring ozone concentration are known as
ozonesondes.[1]

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

RADIOSONDE
The modern radiosonde communicates via radio with a computer that stores all
the variables in real-time. The first radiosondes were observed from the ground
with a theodolite, and gave only a wind estimation by the position. With the
advent of radar by the Signal Corps it was possible to track the balloons with the
SCR-658 radar. Modern radiosondes can use a variety of mechanisms for
determining wind speed and direction, such as a radio direction finder or GPS.

An optical theodolite,
manufactured in the
Soviet Union in 1958 and
used for topographic
surveying

Modern theodolite Nikon DTM-520

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

Meteorological Masts and Towers

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

Sound intelligence in the search for


wind power
October 11, 2010 by WindPower
Engineering
Filed under Condition Monitoring, Wind
Maintenance

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

The wind industrys need for wind


measurement has grown beyond the
60-m reach of standard
meteorological (met) masts. To
reduce uncertainty for wind projects
that can cost anywhere from $100
million to $1 billion, the industry
needs data from the entire rotor
sweep that cant be gleaned from 60,
80, or even 100-m met masts.
A 60-m met mast outfitted with
sensors measures only about a
quarter of the rotor sweep of a typical
commercial turbine mounted on an
80-m tower. Taller masts are
obtainable, but permitting and aircraft
obstruction regulations make them
challenging to site. And even where
an 80-m mast is feasible, it only
monitors the lower half of the wind
powering the turbine. Is there a
solution to met mast shortcomings?

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

SODAR (SOnic Detection And


Ranging), also written as sodar, is a
meteorological instrument used as a
wind profiler to measure the scattering of
sound waves by atmospheric turbulence.
SODAR systems are used to measure
wind speed at various heights above the
ground, and the thermodynamic
structure of the lower layer of the
atmosphere.
Sodar systems are like radar (radio
detection and ranging) systems except
that sound waves rather than radio
waves are used for detection. Other
names used for sodar systems include
sounder, echosounder and acoustic
radar.[1]

An universitar 2014-2015

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

Sodar is a form of sonar, like that used for echolocation by dolphins and bats. Sodar sends audible
acoustic pulses into the air, which reflect off encountered temperature differences. Microphones detect
the resulting back-scatter. Calculating the time it takes for the sounds to travel back to the
microphones yields the heights where the reflections occurred. Measuring the frequency change from
the emitted pulse allows calculating wind speed towards or away from the instrument. Sending acoustic
pulses in three or more different directions allows translating steeply angled wind speed measurements
into horizontal wind speeds and directions over the measurement range.

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging, also LADAR) is an optical remote


sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a
target by illuminating the target with light, often using pulses from a laser.
LIDAR technology has application in geomatics, archaeology, geography,
geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, remote sensing and
atmospheric physics,[1] as well as in airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM),
laser altimetry and LIDAR contour mapping.
LIDAR technology (Light Detection and
Ranging) is a ground-based laser system that
measures the wind profile from 10 m to 200
m. Wind Measurement International has
chosen the ZephIR LIDAR system as offering
the most bankable data. It is a candidate to
replace the met mast based wind
measurements used in power curve
calculations for offshore wind farms.

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

Lidar, like Sodar, measures wind speeds by processing the Doppler shifts of
its emitted beams. A Lidar either pulses or continuously fires a solid-state
infrared laser while motorized mirrors or optical waveguides maneuver the
beams. These strike particles in the air, aerosols, which reflect back to the
source instrumentation where photosensors detected them.

Like Sodar and Sonar, Lidar technology has been in use for years in
applications other than wind power. Meteorological lidar has been used
successfully to measure narrow regions of air, sometimes to distances as great
as 15 km. Such systems have been built with color-tunable lasers, high-power
requirements, and great expense, typically upwards of $1 million.

An universitar 2014-2015

SISTEME EOLIENE DE PRODUCERE A ENERGIEI ELECTRICE

titular curs: dr. ing. SAFTA Carmen Anca

Sodar and Lidar each have advantages and disadvantages. Lidars strong suit is
response time. Light speed permits many more measurements than can be
made in the round-trip time of sound waves traveling a few hundred meters.
Lidar can make second-by-second wind-speed measurements, which are useful
for wind turbine controls. For resource assessments, however, the high
response speed possible with lidar has no particular advantage.
Sodars technical advantages include an inherently lower cost and power of
basic transducers. These are not academic considerations. There are several
sodar systems available from $50,000 to $75,000, while the lowest cost
complete lidar systems carry price tags of $150,000 to $250,000. The lowest
power sodar, Triton, consumes 7W on average. The lowest power lidar system
is reported to be 45W. For remote applications this is a substantial difference.

An universitar 2014-2015