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FIB-Bulletin 38-2007-Fire design of concrete structures-materials,

structures and modelling


Performance based fire engineering calculation for the structural analysis and design against fire
is required for good design practice
Engineers mainly employed prescriptive methods of design to ensure structural stability in fire
for a sufficient period of time to allow people to escape and fire services to extinguish the fire.
Traditionally fire safety was a set of conventions rather than a rational approach with
engineering tools.
Structures requires a design based on scientific principles, rendering inappropriate simple
extrapolation of existing practice.
Traditionally, concrete has been regarded as fireproof because of its incombustibility and its
high thermal insulating properties.
When concrete subjected to fire, deterioration in mechanical properties, damage caused by
thermal deformation and spalling.
Research to date has shown that concrete is a versatile material and, if appropriately designed
can be inherently fire resistant.
U.K., Sweden, Norway, New Zealand and Australia have performance-based codes.
Key parameters of temperature-time curve imposed by fire at structure surface are
o Heating rate-Influences the development of temperature, moisture and pore pressure
gradients
o Maximum temperature level-Influences the nature of the physic-chemical relations in
material and through this its properties
o Duration-Influences the temperature development in the structure with time
o Cooling regime- e.g. water cooling would have different influence upon the material and
temperature distribution from natural cooling.

First step of performance base design is model the real fire to a realistic and conservative fire
scenario. (Nominal fire curves, parametric fire curves, Multi-Zone Models.
Temperature rese in concrete causes Thermal expansion of constituents, evaporation of
moisture, buildup of pore pressures and degradation of mechanical propertied
Fire resistance is define in Eurocode 2 as the ability of a structure, a part of a structure or a
member to fulfil its required functions (load bearing function and/or separating function) for a
specified fire exposure and a specified period of time. Fire resistance is measured in minutes up
to failure for nominal curves.

The minimum load-bearing capacity occurs during the cooling phase and consequently the risk
of collapse is then greatest.
When bending failure governs the load bearing behavior, the minimum load-bearing capacity is
reached when the reinforcing steel temperature is at its maximum value-some considerable
time after maximum surface temperature has been attained