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Muzica populara

Muzica popular american mai mult dect , orice alt mediu a devenit a factorul de conducere
a globalizrii i imperialismului cultural de cand lumea este acordata n ritmuri americane.
Industria muzical este o afacere foarte mare, poate cea mai mare. Este capitalismul perfect,
crearea unei piee i furnizarea produsului. Nebunia muzicii pop a aparut n anii 1950 i 1960
de cand televiziune a adus faima cantaretilor si trupelor i tehnologia a produs Playere
accesibile pentru adolescenii din epoca Baby Boom.
A existat ntotdeauna muzica nativ americana, cntece ale sclavilor de pe plantatii, i slogane
politice pentru a ajuta ara sa treaca prin diferite razboaie in, dar muzica era in special
limitata la ritualurile religioase sau sau cantata la adunari ale comunitatii.
Odat cu aparitiade imperialismului american la inceputul secolulului al XIX-lea, muzica
miliatara si trupele de mar militar au cantat muzica naionalista a lui John Philip Sousa.
Trupele de mar negru din New Orleans a preluat aceast micare, au amestecat-o cu n
Bluesul din melodiile sclavilor rezultand astfel nu doar Jazz-ul, ci o muzic cu un ritm
special"zdrenuit" , Ragtime- dou forme, care au subliniat att modernul cat i exoticul. Jazz
s-a rspndit rapid n Europa dup primul rzboi mondial, dezvoltand de la creaii
instrumentale la modelele vocale precum Billie Holiday, Charlie Parker, i Louis Armstrong.
Recesiunea i al doilea rzboi mondial a adus n Swing, cu sunetul unei trupe mari al lui
Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, i Duke Ellington. Balade populare patriotice de munc grea,
eroism, sacrificiu i au fost, de asemenea, sustinute de ctre Woodie Guthrie.
Muzica country a aprut in timpul recesiunii in cele mai sarace segmente albe ale Americii
rurale din regiunea Appalachian Munte din Tennessee i Kentucky. Povestiri de mineri, inimi
frante , i Versuri de tip"sarac lipit panatului-dar-mndru" exprima realitatea pe care muli au
trait-o.. Dup ce Roy Acuff i a lui Smoky Mountain Boys a devenit muzica live
predominanta a show-urilor radio din America, genul s-a raspnadit.. Hank Williams, Sr., a
devenit primul star adevrat cu melodiile sale despre betie i dragoste; moartea sa, la vrsta de
29 din cauza unui amestec de alcool i pastile a crescut faima de muzicii country. Loretta
Lynn, Willie Nelson, Johnny Cash, Dolly Parton, i Garth Brooks au ade popularizat aceasta
forma atat de mult, c acesta rmne formatul numrul unu pentru posturile de radio din
America in sec douzeci i unu.
O schimbare important a venit atunci cnd modelele Bluesului afro-american a fuzionat cu
chitara pentru a produce roll Rock-'n'-. Rebeliunea tinerilor se pornise de cand cei ca Chuck
Berry, Jerry Lee Lewis, Bill Haley, i Elvis Presley au amestecat amestecat versuri erotice cu
ritmul rapid , care a traversat Oceanul Atlantic pentru a inspira Beatles i Rolling Stones. The
Beatles a cantat melodii de dragoste romantice, n timp ce Rolling Stones apropulsat actul
sexual fr angajament. Tinerii au nceput s triasc pentru muzica, o dependenta care este
nc evident. Rock-'n'-Roll-au ajutat furnizarea unui motiv pentru tineri i ce protestau
impotriva rzboiului din Vietnam i a resemnarii vechii generaii . Rock-'n'-Roll, i mai trziu
Rockul, a devenit la fel de mult o atitudine cat si o form de muzic. Multi adulti au criticat
ritmul i versurile ca imorale, depravate, i mult prea galagios. Critic cultural Allan Bloom a
criticat Rock afirmand ca ar fi un un "apel barbar de dorinta sexuala", care distruge

capacitatea asculttorului de a constientiza, datorit efectelor incurajarii consumului de


droguri .
n acelai timp, James Brown, Aretha Franklin, i Wilson Pickett au cntat versurile ntr-un
mod mai lent, mai profund numit Soul. Cntrei folk, cum ar fi Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, i
Pete Seeger au amestecat balade mixte, spirituale i rock n muzic de protest. George
Clinton i alii amestecat cu Soul Jazz pentru a produce o sincopa urban numita Funk. n anii
1970 i 1980, Michael Jackson a devenit "regele muzicii pop", cu paii lui de dans, vocea de
adolescent, si versuri suave. n anii 1980 i 1990, Madonna - cu mai multe hit-uri dect a avut
cineva vreodat - a criticat materialismul, rasismul, pudismul, i ipocriziile religioase ale
culturii americane din timpul cand aceasta se baza pe acest tip de cultura.
Rap, sau Hip Hop, a raspandir tcultura de strada pentru a a transforma vocabularul de centrul
oraului ncea de uz comun. Repede, din clasa de mijloc afro-americanii, care nu au facut
niciodat parte din bande, cum ar fi Niggaz4Life, Run DMC-, i Public Enemy a preluat
stafeta. Cea mai mare audiena muzicii rap sunt adolescenti albi din suburbii care caut
senzaii tari ale ....., droguri, arme, i crim fr nici un risc pentru ei nii. Acesti fani il
admira n special rapper alb Eminem, care prin utilizarea lui de versuri misogini, vulgar,
homofobe i violente, le-a dat o cale de a-i exprima furia adolescentina i confuzia. Chiar
dac Eminem confund problema, practic rapperi i productorii de discuri folosesc o imagine
standard sfidatoare a barbatilor negri si violenti pentru a crete audiena lor ,folosesind
aceste imagini intunecate pentru a defini diferenta dintr ei, albul. O alt perspectiv explic
Rap ca expresie cultural prin care muzicienii negri exprima stereotipurile rasiale prin
exagerarea lor si transformarea lor n parodie.
UT este Rap obscen?Curtea Suprem de Justiie a definit "obscenitate", ca ceva incontestabil
ofensator pentru persoana medie i care nu conine nici o valoare artistic serioas. Instanele
i jurile sunt lsate s decid probleme la caz la caz. n general, instanele de judecat au
constatat rapperi "nevinovat", din cauza proteciei Primul Amendament a libertii de
exprimare. n 1997, Curtea Suprem de Justiie a declarat neconstituional Federal
Communications Decen Act (1996), care a fcut o crim pentru a pune materialul
"indecent" pe internet. Rapperi au folosit aceast decizie s fie "Ca Nasty aa cum vrea s fie"
- ca extrem de controversat 2 album Crew live a fcut.
Cu creterea de imigrani din America de Sud n timpul ultimului deceniu, muzica american
este de a face o alt schimbare la impulsurile electrice i ritmurile de Christina Aguilera,
Ricky Martin, i Jennifer Lopez. n America zilelor noastre, muzica este peste tot, asimilarea
persoanelor sau modelarea ei la fel de sigur ca i limba englez. Cultura american este o
cultur creat care se bazeaz pe noutatea i schimba vibraia. Aceasta vibratie continua
expansiunea culturii americane n arena mondial.

Whiff train wheels


Mircea Mihie
I keep a good memory of the first (and so far only) trip with my high-speed train traveling
from Paris to London. We went on the train to Gare du Nord and two and a half hours later,
down to the St. Pancras on British soil. I will describe the journey (otherwise eventless as
possible) and I did not do any comparison with the overall decline in our railways.
As I do not remember any of the first voyage to the West by train, in the fall of 1990, and
welcome words of Austrian customs officers: "Let go and these pigs!" Pigs we were
Romanians. Train that had climbed to attach to Budapest Hungarian gasket so when they
opened the doors hard ncercatelor Romnai compartments were filled with striking
comparison of unimaginable filth and miasma in the best exotic. Then I felt insulted,
discriminated against, mocked, falsely described as a sub-human. But even I was. Among
other things, because I had no terms of comparison and seemed normal for a train to look like
I knew them in the small country.
Later, when I discovered normality when I saw what a train (in Germany, Italy, Spain), and
how sleek and clean can be a crowded subway in a city (Washington, for instance), some
crumbled in me. How I was able to endure, to accept, to not revolt against something which,
defiant, represent the survival of a system concerned to humiliate, to mock, to animalize man?
What Westerners fail to maintain cleanliness in the toilets, even travel a thousand miles, when
Romania did not even train left the station and spill guts if you do imprudence to visit "section
of one person"? Or be there between them and us, such as physiological differences, scholars
still undetected? Of course we are different, but even in such ?!
Invoked such absurd suppositions, since reason is unable to give you clear answers. How
different I was convinced once again by train from Cluj to Timisoara. But as I said, it's trains,
but people. The train is just feeling accelerator mediator, the mediator - much the way it
works and Agatha Christie novel, Murder on the Orient Express. In this case, he did not die,
thankfully, no. It happens to me, but that does not matter for what I say below. True, the
means of locomotion that had been forced to take it enjoys an infamous. It's called "hunger
train 'ghost wheels that starts in Iasi and nineteen hours later, arrive, pestilential, triumphant,
in Timisoara.
I have not until Dante or Goya's brush (or even Pasolini's camera - of course, of Sal, or The
one hundred twenty days of Sodom) to describe the horror lived for nearly seven hours,
prisoner the miasma emanating unbearable angry from the two ends of the car, covering the
ceiling with a dense mist vapor smell urine and feces almost physical. The deeply depressing
is that we seemed to be the only one who suffers. A physical suffering first, and then revolt
before that were subject to ridicule as a person. No. I was born in a bed covered with rose
petals. Acutele reasonably well tolerated, and bass, public behavior. Jaundice when I do see
that it is impossible, on any street in Romania, avoid carpets spit filth gathered for years in
sovereign contempt broom and dustpan. I abhor not get my hands on the handles greasy
buses, trams or the doors of public institutions. But what I experienced in "hunger train

'exceeds the capacity of a normal human compassion. Or at least a normal human as I imagine
it.
I tried, first, to adjust my breath. Do not breathe too deep and sit with your eyes closed.
Nothing. I think it would have helped even three overlapping medical masks in the stench was
so penetrating material, sharp, tough and merciless. Then I wanted - giving you knew how I
wanted! - To be on a train in India. You've seen them in the movies: uncomfortable,
overcrowded and dangerous. But even without a roof. No damn roof redesign my brain
directly Nasty odors, offensive, abusive that came from what is called toilets. I was distracted
by the physical suffering endured only a few details of context. First transistor radio (I did not
know that there!) The traveler in front of me I strongly wielded looking probably manele. But
all I could squeeze out small and sinister screeching equipment were some that had on me the
effect of childhood mill the dental office. I mean, torture open stage.
Together, reeking of nesplare with wide who have never known the shame of water for at
least a month, a small, skinny guy with a look sly and evil you see in movies offenders
prepare their leisurely, rhythmic splashing alcohol . Poured from a plastic bottle reddish
liquid, sweet-smelling chemical into another container, which they then add water. Once the
operation ended, leading to his mouth and sucked object (that's the word!) Thoroughly with
sips equal metronome marked uvula, to the last drop. As I stood there about two hours, the
operation was repeated four times. This means that the individual you consume about two
liters of alcohol. And all this time he never went o the toilet.
At one point, I took my coat and bag and squeezing me between the legs of the other three
guys in the compartment, sleeping taken the position fakirs, undisturbed scrnetele nor
transistor nor the stench that intensified with each station on an outdated, I took refuge in
another car. Pestilent - me. I scanned the looks suspicious, because, I suppose, my face split
reflects what I felt: revulsion, disgust and retching hard bridled. What vomiting has started
about four hours later when physiologic was louder than my heroic civilization.
But until then I met other travelers as little permeable hygienic and totally indifferent to what
seemed to me to be sulfur transmitted through unknown pipes directly from the depths of
Hell. Haggard, trying to figure out how to get to me - and if only to me - sulfur and ammonia
mixed with feces. And suddenly I had a revelation: it was not any secret machinery. It was the
people. Hit in that layer of the population - the majority, of course - for the niceties
civilizational, cultural and subtleties zglobioeniile hygienic simply did not exist. They had no
training for it - as we do not have in comparison with the Eskimos, the ability to distinguish
shades and kinds of snow, or Bedouin to discern the infinite sands of the Sahara.
This sad revelation if my pain subsided for a moment. I thought Kafka at his rtciii maze of
a world rapacious absurd, I thought the stranger Camus. I thought the romantic suffering from
Weltschmerz. I thought the spleen baudelairean. I thought the pain metaphysical German
expressionists. I thought the howl of Munch. I thought of all solitaries and world literature.
I'm not used to anything. That's the downside of civilization and culture: their resistance
collapses at the first whiff of the wheels of the train ... (From Romania literary, no. 40, 2014)