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In: Environmental Research Journal Volume 5, Number 5

ISSN: 1935-3049 © 2011 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

UNDERGROUND CAVITY 3D DETECTION USING LASER SYSTEM [CROSS PUBLICATION]

Liu Xiling 1* , Li Xibing 1 , Anthony Comber 2 and Liu Kewei 1 1 School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China 2 Measurement Devices Ltd, Silverburn Crescent, Aberdeen, AB23 8EW, Scotland

Abstract

Safe and precise cavity detection, especially of dangerous or inaccessible voids, is essential to safe production in a working mine. Conventional underground cavity detection methods are briefly reviewed and their limitations discussed. Accurate 3D laser measurement systems are introduced. One of these laser systems was used to detect inaccessible underground cavities from the surface through boreholes at Luanchuan molybdenum open pit in China. The results from the scanner demonstrated very well the detailed level of information that can be collected in a cavity using this method, with the cavities‘ layout under various benches being fully mapped. The processed data can be imported into existing models in SURPAC and CAD and the roof and floor elevations from the model of the cavity was used to output sections which would be required at a later design stage. A minimum number of exploration boreholes can be coordinated based on the scanned data which therefore not only fully details the extent of the cavity, but also saves on the costs of exploration drilling. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of laser detection systems are analysed, and a combination of laser scanning techniques and conventional survey methodology is proposed to detect these unknown underground cavities.

1.

Introduction

The worldwide demand for mineral products is rising due to the increasing shortage of resources and rising consumption resulting from rapidly expanding economies & international trade. These conditions have led in the last few years to a particularly prosperous time for the mining industry. However, in many places, further exploration has been seriously restricted or been made extremely hazardous due to the presence of various abandoned, & unmapped underground cavities left over from previous mining operations. The disasters caused by cavities have been numerous & disastrous [1] . For example, in Chinese mines in recent years, disasters caused by underground cavities have

* Email: lxlenglish@163.com

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frequently caused multiple fatalities: 29 people dead in a gypsum mine caused by the collapse of a cavity roof; 81 people dead in a gold mine caused by cavity water inrush in 2001; 13 people dead and 9 injured in a stone mine caused by a cavity roof collapse, 11 people dead in a copper mine cause by cavity water inrush in 2004; 36 people dead and another 33 injured in a gypsum mine caused by cavity roof collapse in 2005; 6 people dead and other 4 injured in a gypsum mine caused by large area roof collapse of an old cavity in 2006. It is clear then that accurate cavity detection & mapping is vital for dealing with such cavities & for ensuring safe mineral exploitation. Similarly, the accurate detection of cavities and voids under highways, construction sites and buildings etc is essential for their operation & the safety of those people who use and work on them. Regarding conventional detection methods of detecting & mapping out cavities, these have required an understanding of the high precision equipment, of the complex theories behind this equipment, its deployment. It has also required deep analysis of the acquired data and details of the geology in the vicinity of the cavity. However, the geology around the cavity is often very complex & this greatly limits one‘s ability to interpret results, making accurate detection extremely difficult. Previously, the major goals of attempts to develop methods of cavity detection have been, firstly, designing more precise equipment to take the required observations; studying & interpreting the results of the observations to gain an understanding of the complex geology around the cavity; choosing different detection methods according to different prevailing geological conditions; and adopting multiple detection methods for each cavity. This latter point is to try to ensure that the different techniques verify each other, thus hopefully establishing more accurate & reliable results. However, cavity detection by these conventional methods can still not obtain a sufficiently accurate model of the cavity. 3D laser scanning however, does provide a means of highly accurate modelling of cavities. This method uses a pulsed, infra-red laser, measuring the ‗time-of-flight‘ of the laser pulse to calculate distance measurements. This method is not affected by the geology around the cavity and obtains a very clear visual 3D model of the cavity in a very short time. It is the most accurate way to perform cavity detection. Currently, the main methods of detecting cavities are: engineering drilling, geophysical exploration, hydrological experiments, gravity observation and magnetic observations. The main cavity detection methods are: micro-gravity method, DC electrical method, transient electromagnetic method (TEM), high-density resistivity method, ground penetrating radar technique, transient Rayleigh wave method, seismic tomography method (CT), shallow seismic exploration and radioactive gas measurement technique etc[2]. Different detection methods are favoured around the world depending on local conditions & preferred technologies. For example, in the USA, comprehensive detection techniques are used, particularly - the electrical method, electromagnetic method, micro-gravity method and seismic method. Japan is one of the leading places in the world for employing geophysical techniques: most commonly, the seismic wave method, electrical method, electromagnetic method and geophysical well logging; electrical method, transient electromagnetic method (TEM), seismic reflecting wave method, electromagnetic wave transmission method and radioactive gas measurement are

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mostly used in Russia, while ground penetrating radar is well used in many European countries. Due to severe disasters in China caused by cavity collapses, various geophysical detection techniques have been used to carry out cavity detection[1,2]. There is much ongoing research into different detection techniques. Ground penetrating radar can provide a high resolution map at different levels of a geological body, and carry out scatheless detection of underground objects[3-5]; the high frequency electromagnetic detection method has the advantage of high detecting speed, low cost and a large control area, making it an effective method for geological disaster prevention[6]; based on a 2D simulation model, the 2D electrical method can obtain more accurate results than a conventional electrical method, and cost less than 3D one, making it the most economical method for cavity detection[7-9]; seismic share-wave reflection method can better distinguish the object in shallow stratum, which is difficult for conventional seismic methods to distinguish by detected shallow seismic information[10]. An on-site experimental study was performed in paper [11] aiming at investigating the difficulty of seismic signal interpretation caused by complicated geological condition; BIE (Boundary Integral Equation) was used to analyze shallow seismic measurements in paper [12]; the detection results tested by geological radar method, transient electromagnetic method (TEM), shallow seismic reflecting wave method, transient Rayleigh wave method and high-density resistivity method were commented in paper [13].In order to overcome the limitations of single detection methods, a combined method which integrates different detection techniques was proposed to carry out cavity detection to achieve more accurate results; and this method was used to perform cavity detection which proved to be valid, especially for complex cavities [2,14-17] . In general, these various conventional methods do not easily produce accurate 3D models of the cavity under investigation. Further, since the detection of abnormalities by these methods is dependent on the rock mass and geological conditions around the cavity, different methods must be used according to the local geological condition. Given the complexity of geological conditions commonly found around cavities, the accurate interpretation of the results is very difficult. For this reason, various methods are combined to overcome the limitation of a single detection method, causing the operation to become more complex & costly. In recent years, 3D cavity detection methods based on laser range finding techniques have been widely used in mines around the world. Results have proved it to be a very successful method of 3D cavity detection. As early as 1989, AFGANDML853 laser system was tested by the Gaspé mining company, its detection range was limited in 60 meters, and the system was not automated in any way. OPTECHG150 laser rangefinder with 100 meters detection range and 0.05% accuracy was tested also in Gaspé in Feb 1990 [18] . A laser detector and automatic scanning equipment were fixed on a rigid rod to measure an excavated space at Noranda‘s technique centre in 1992 with encouraging performance [19] . Thereafter, laser rangefinders have been increasingly utilised in mines for automatic measurements, with the measured models being imported into existing, integrated mine maps & models [20] . These laser rangefinders and scanners have been used in mines for a wide variety of applications: performing the detection of cavities and

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excavation spaces; 3D modelling of underground spaces by mounting the laser on a moving vehicle [21] ; scanning of rock mass joint surfaces [22] , and monitoring vehicles in underground mines and open pits [23] etc. Some of the main manufacturers of laser surveying systems used in these applications are I-SITE in Australia, MDL in United Kingdom, OPTECH in Canada, CYPA in Unite states, RIEGL in Austria and CALLIDUS in Germany. However, for particular, inaccessible cavities such as those under open pits, cavities under highways or buildings etc, the laser scanner needs to be deployed through a borehole if we want to carry out laser 3D detection as there is no other way of entering the void with laser equipment. This laser system therefore needs to have an extremely small cross-section to fit through the drilled hole. It also needs to be flexible, rugged, easy to deploy & recover, and to incorporate an orientation system to automatically correct the resulting data according to the angle of the instrument during the survey. At present, there are two kinds of laser detection system in the world which are designed to be suitable for surveys of inaccessible cavities: OPTECH‘s CMS (Cavity Monitoring System) and MDL‘s C-ALS (Cavity Auto-scanning Laser System). The CMS and C-ALS have been widely used in mines around the world [24-28] since the 1990s, but their application in mines of China commenced just a few years ago [29,30] . There have been many mines in China which have suffered terrible tragedies resulting from underground cavities. An open pit run by Luoyang Luanchuan Molybdenum CO., LTD. is severely threatened by such cavities under the working pit. Detection of cavities needs to be carried out on the surface, rather than from underground, and in this case, the laser instrument needs to be deployed through a borehole. For these reasons, due to its 50mm diameter, the C-ALS is the only suitable system for underground cavity detection in Luanchuan open pit. This is the mine where we choose to use the C-ALS to perform accurate 3D cavity detection with the object of providing detailed information on the layout and extent of the cavities in order to increase the safety of production on the mine.

2. Cavity Laser 3D Detection Technique

2.1. Principle of Laser 3D Detection

A laser is a device which emits light formed by stimulated radiation which is intense,

concentrated and highly monochromatic. The lasers used in 3D cavity measurements are generally based on a laser measuring technique called ‗time-of-flight‘. The basic principle is to measure the time taken for a laser pulse to travel from the receiving optic

to the target and back to the receiving optic. This time is then used to calculate the

distance travelled, L , by the laser pulse. The conversion equation is [31] :

L

1

2

ct

where c is laser propagation speed in the atmosphere, and t is the time taken for the

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laser travelling the measuring distance and back to the laser. The raw data observed by the 3D laser scanner will be as follows: 1) the horizontal and vertical direction of the laser beam based either on the angle of a continuously rotating mirror, used to reflect the laser, or on the angle of the laser head, moved mechanically by motors in the instrument; 2) the distance between the instrument and the measured point, calculated from the laser pulse‘s ‗time-of‘flight‘; 3) the intensity of the reflection of the scanned point. The data from 1) and 2) are used to calculate the three dimensional coordinate values, and the reflection intensity is used to colour the measured points according to their signal strength [32] . Commonly, 3D laser scanners will uses the instrument‘s own internal reference frame shown in Figure 1.

y

P(x, y, z) z S O   x
P(x, y, z)
z
S
O  
x

Figure 1. Imaging principle of Laser 3D scanning

Axes x and y are in the cross direction scanning plane and are perpendicular to

each other. Axis z is perpendicular to the cross direction plane. Observation value S is the range observed with the laser, the horizontal scanning angle and vertical scanning

angle of every laser impulse are measured simultaneously through accurate timing. Using this data, the equation for calculating the 3D laser coordinate is [33] :

x

z

y

S cos

cos

S

S

cos

sin

 

sin

 

 

2.2. Cavity Auto Scanning Laser System (C-ALS)

Having a small cross-sectional profile and accurate, integrated orientation system, MDL‘s C-ALS laser scanner was selected to carry out the detection of cavities under the open pit under investigation. C-ALS scans the cavity by using the ―time-of-flight‖ laser measurement technique described above. The C-ALS probe, which incorporates the laser. is just 50mm in diameter. The unit is designed to be deployed down boreholes up to 300

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m long, as well as to be deployed uphole and along horizontally holes up to 100 m long. Due to the mechanical rotation of the laser head on the probe, a 3D scan can cover the entire void up to a range of 150 m with an accuracy of ±5 cm. The scanned data in its raw form of a 3D ‗point cloud‘ can be processed into a 3D model, and then exported & integrated into most current mining software packages such as SURPAC, VULCAN, AutoCAD, DATAMINE etc [34] .

2.2.1. System’s composition and application

The complete C-ALS system is composed of hardware and software. The full hardware

system includes:

the main probe which houses: the laser scan head, the motors which rotate the scan head horizontally and vertically, and the pitch & roll sensors which monitor the orientation of the probe, allowing the software to automatically align the scan appropriately;

the nose cone infra-red camera (Figure 2 (a)) which is also integrated into the scanning head. This is used to check the condition of the borehole during deployment, as well as to gauge exactly when the probe enters the cavity;

Boretrack rods (Figure 2 (b)) for deploying the probe at fixed, regular intervals and to prevent the probe rotating in the borehole which would cause the orientation of the data to be compromised;

Toughened, load-bearing cable for power, data transmission and to assist deployment and recovery;

the surface unit (Figure 2 (c)) which manages power & data transmission & which remains on the surface.

The software includes a module for controlling the C-ALS during operations (Figure 3 (a)), a module allowing real-time viewing of the scan as it is carried out (Figure 3 (b)) and 3D modelling software (Figure 3 (c)) for creating surfaces, models & calculating volumes.

for creating surfaces, models & calculating volumes. (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. (a) Ore pass survey;

(a)

for creating surfaces, models & calculating volumes. (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. (a) Ore pass survey;

(b)

creating surfaces, models & calculating volumes. (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. (a) Ore pass survey; (b)

(c)

Figure 2. (a) Ore pass survey; (b) Underground space detection; (c) Underground void measurement.

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Underground Cavity 3D Detection Using Laser System 691 (a) (b) (c) Figure 3. (a) CavityScan software

(a)

(b)

Cavity 3D Detection Using Laser System 691 (a) (b) (c) Figure 3. (a) CavityScan software during

(c)

Figure 3. (a) CavityScan software during deployment; (b) CavityScan during a scan; (c) 3D modeling software.

Due to the flexibility of the equipment and various customised deployment methods which have been devised, the C-ALS is capable of many different types of cavity scanning operations, including stope surveys, abandoned mine workings, orepass surveys, pillar recovery areas, backfilling areas, silo or ore bin surveys, tunnel profiling, structural monitoring, and surveys of any inaccessible location etc.

2.2.2. System detection procedure and data processing

The procedure for using the C-ALS involves the following three steps:

1) Deploying the scanner into the cavity while measuring the deviation of the borehole;

2)

3) Processing the measured data using modelling software to obtain a 3D cavity

Carrying out the scan through the remote control software module;

model.

Figure 4 shows the detecting procedure of C-ALS.

control software module; model. Figure 4 shows the detecting procedure of C-ALS. Figure 4. Detection procedure
control software module; model. Figure 4 shows the detecting procedure of C-ALS. Figure 4. Detection procedure

Figure 4. Detection procedure of C-ALS.

control software module; model. Figure 4 shows the detecting procedure of C-ALS. Figure 4. Detection procedure

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Liu Xiling, Li Xibing, Anthony Comber and Liu Kewei

3. C-ALS Detection of Cavity under Open Pit Limit in Luanchuan Mine

3.1. Present Situation and Problems of Luanchuan Mine

Sandaozhuang mine of Luoyang Luanchuan Molybdenum Co. LTD. is an active mine with 5.29×10 8 tons molybdenum and tungsten geological reserves. The average geological grade of molybdenum and tungsten is 0.11%. There are 6.725×10 5 tons of metal reserves, with the verified molybdenum reserve comprising 2.52% of the world‘s total. Sandaozhuang is an open pit mine with 30kt/d production capability and an annual production value of 2 billion RMB. The mine experienced unreasonable underground mining for more than 20 years since the 1980s. There have massive cavities left by sublevel open stope mining and large numbers of unmapped and abandoned cavities have been left by private mining. There are in total more than 100 cavities of various shapes and sizes, with a combined volume of around 1×10 7 m 3 under the open pit. This has left the ore body in a perilous state. Since being excavated, these cavities have suffered ground pressure, weathering and blasting vibration. The rock mass around the cavities is in a fractured and distorted condition, with the cavities‘ location, size and shape already having altered. As Sandaozhuang open pit continues exploiting the minerals present, the layer between the bench surface and the cavities is becoming thinner. Both workers and their equipment are directly threatened by these underground cavities, and it is possible for fatal accidents to occur at any time due to surface collapse. The major aim of the mine is to deal with those cavities under the open pit, and, for this purpose, it is first vital to accurately detect the shape, location and size of the cavities. Thus, this situation presents a good stage to investigate the suitability of the C-ALS.

a good stage to investigate the suitability of the C-ALS. Figure 5. Present Sandaozhuang open pit.

Figure 5. Present Sandaozhuang open pit.

3.2. Detection Results

The cavities underneath Sandaozhuang open pit will be a source of risk throughout the exploitation of the mine. To illustrate the problem, in Table 1 below are listed the details

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of some of the cavities already detected. We know from various surveys that safe mine production is increasingly threatened by those cavities under the open pit boundaries, as the bench blasting continues to progress. The potential danger from these cavities, situated at various depths and with various shapes and volumes, is extremely severe. This is especially true of the largest cavities with complex shapes and which are often interconnected with other adjacent voids.

which are often interconnected with other adjacent voids. Figure 6. Deploying the C-ALS to detect cavities.

Figure 6. Deploying the C-ALS to detect cavities.

Table 1. Detected cavities under various bench

Cavity position

Borehole depth /m

Cavity height under borehole /m

Cavity volume /m 3

Bench 1330

15.2

4.2

647

Bench 1414

14

2.4

174

Bench 1438-1

29.4

70.3

157078

Bench 1438-2

17.8

8.1

2722

Bench 1450

21

7.8

3198

Bench 1462-1

16

5.9

2177

Bench 1462-2

16

5.4

2087

After each cavity was fully surveyed, the scanned data was edited in CavityScan processing software and a 3D modelling package to form an oriented, geo-referenced point cloud (Figure 7(a)) and 3D solid model (Figure 7(b)), either of which can be exported into SURPAC and CAD. The projective ichnography of the cavity was of most use on-site. This data can be transformed into exploitation ichnography in CAD to outline the cavity boundary (Figure 7(c)).

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694 Liu Xiling, Li Xibing, Anthony Comber and Liu Kewei (a) (b) Bench 1438 Boundaries of

(a)

694 Liu Xiling, Li Xibing, Anthony Comber and Liu Kewei (a) (b) Bench 1438 Boundaries of

(b)

Bench 1438 Boundaries of detected cavities under bench 1438 Bench 1450 (c)
Bench 1438
Boundaries of
detected cavities
under bench 1438
Bench 1450
(c)

Figure 7. (a) Oriented laser point cloud under bench 1438-1; (b) 3D solid model of cavity under bench 1438-1; (c) Cavity boundary under bench 1438-1 in exploitation ichnography.

1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365

1370.431

1363.365

1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365
1370.431 1363.365 1383.000 1384.083 1372.736 1385.832 1360.784 1358.251 1369.048 1377.452 1396.121 1392.297
1383.000 1384.083 1372.736 1385.832 1360.784 1358.251 1369.048 1377.452 1396.121 1392.297 1400.462 1391.027
1383.000
1384.083
1372.736
1385.832
1360.784
1358.251
1369.048
1377.452
1396.121
1392.297
1400.462
1391.027
1365.976
1377.400
1367.010
1374.199
4800
4800
6100
6050
1393.965
1411.385
1408.296
1398.778
1375.451
1378.300
1376.5
1385.483
1367.010 1374.199 4800 4800 6100 6050 1393.965 1411.385 1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3
1408.296 1398.778 1375.451 1378.300 1376.5 1385.483 Borehole in bench 1438 S=8683.63 m2 V=157 thousand m 3

Borehole in bench 1438

S=8683.63 m2

V=157thousand m3

the area circled by this curve in

elevation about 1384 maybe the

interpenetration part between this

cavity and the cavity under it

 

1412.447

1402.738

1386.168

1394.288

   

4750

4750

6050

1407.56

6100

1389.055

 

1406.579

1403.5

 

1402.380

 

1379.340

4750 6050 1407.56 6100 1389.055   1406.579 1403.5   1402.380   1379.340
4750 6050 1407.56 6100 1389.055   1406.579 1403.5   1402.380   1379.340
4750 6050 1407.56 6100 1389.055   1406.579 1403.5   1402.380   1379.340
4750 6050 1407.56 6100 1389.055   1406.579 1403.5   1402.380   1379.340
4750 6050 1407.56 6100 1389.055   1406.579 1403.5   1402.380   1379.340

Figure 8 Cavity ichnography with roof and floor elevation of grid intersection point.

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3.3. Special Cavity Analysis

3.3.1. Huge Cavity Under Bench 1438-1

The cavity under bench 1438-1 is huge, complex and multi-layered and has the cavity under bench 1438-2 in its cap rock, which was of the most concern in July 2007. Detailed detection was carried out through a borehole on the surface of bench 1438-1. In order to provide practical information for cavity disposal and the bench blast, the roof of the cavity and the elevation of the floor were measured at grid intersection points in ichnography taken from the laser point cloud (shown in Figure 12). The grid spacing can be altered according to the required accuracy, with the roof and floor elevation at each specified point measured from the scan data. This data enabled the creation of section charts which would be vital for a later design stage. In Figure 11 (a), there is one area of the cavity which is not covered by the point cloud data. The furthest achievable range to a good reflection surface is about 150 meters of C-ALS and considering this fact, together with an analysis of the other scanned data, we conclude that this part may interconnect with the lower cavity at an elevation of about 1384. The interpenetration part is curve circled in Figure 8.

The interpenetration part is curve circled in Figure 8. Figure 9. Collapsed surface after blast. After

Figure 9. Collapsed surface after blast.

After the cavity under bench 1438-1 was fully detected, the blast was performed on the thinner cap rock of this huge cavity. The collapsed surface (shown in Figure 9) is spectacular, with an area of 4900 m 2 after the blast. The distance between the surface and the bottom of collapsed pit is about 75 meters as shown in Figure 10. After investigating the collapse on-site, we found small cavities and laneways in its cap rock as shown in Figure 11, this is in agreement with the small cavities and laneways detected during surveys through other boreholes in bench 1438. These are visible in Figure 7 (c). As further blasting continues on, the collapsed surface is enlarging further. Accurate data collected with the C-ALS is constantly providing reliable information for blast design.

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696 Liu Xiling, Li Xibing, Anthony Comber and Liu Kewei Figure 10. Side view of the

Figure 10. Side view of the collapse.

Comber and Liu Kewei Figure 10. Side view of the collapse. Figure 11. Small cavity and

Figure 11. Small cavity and laneways in cap rock.

3.3.2. Dangerous cavity under bench 1462

Due to the fragmented cap rock, the cavity under bench 1462 was partly collapsed. We drilled two boreholes to deploy the laser probe after investigating the collapsed area. However, this cavity is extremely complex: pillars and collapses make the survey extremely difficult. The scan data showed that the height throughout the cavity is fairly constant. Also, from the point cloud it is apparent that there still have other parts of the cavity beyond the ‗line-of-sight‘ of the laser and thus beyond the extents of the point cloud. These areas are marked in the cavity ichnography-Figure 12. This illustrates that a small number of boreholes are insufficient for a full picture of this cavity. More boreholes need to be drilled, through which the C-ALS can be deployed. The location of the drilling will be based on the data already collected in previous scans. The final cavity shape will be obtained by combining data collected from deployments through numerous

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boreholes. Figure 13 is the cavity final ichnography under bench 1462 detected through multiple boreholes.

Borehole 62-2 1462.8
Borehole 62-2
1462.8

there may have

there may have

cavities away from

cavities away from

this dashed line

this dashed line

Borehole 62-1 1462.1
Borehole 62-1
1462.1

there may have

cavities away from

this dashed line

Figure 12. Detected cavity ichnography through two boreholes.

Callpsed area
Callpsed area

Figure 13. Final cavity ichnography detected through multiple boreholes.

4.

Conclusion

3D laser scanning is an advanced cavity detection method which can detect and survey cavities far more precisely than conventional methods. With a small diameter, high accuracy and unique deployment method, the C-ALS can ensure not only the accurate

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cavity analysis, but also the safety of the personnel deploying the equipment who are able to remain removed from the dangerous areas being investigated. The unit has proved to be very suitable for underground cavity detection in Sandaozhuang mine of Luoyang Luanchuan Molybdenum Co. LTD. The detected laser point cloud can be processed to obtain accurate cavity ichnography. The cavity roof and floor elevations at grid intersection points are used to provide detailed information for blast design. Minimal exploration boreholes can be located based on the scanned data which can therefore not only obtain 3D cavity information, but can also save on the cost of exploration drilling. Laser reflections from water and glass back to the receiving optics is almost zero, and the ability of the laser to measure ranges is limited by the ‗line-of-sight‘ within the underground cavity. For these reasons, the influence of water, fog (such as blasting fumes) and humidity in the cavity can have a detrimental affect on laser scanning technology and continues to be further researched. Further, although laser equipment has been used in underground coal mine, the C-ALS is not specifically rated as being intrinsically safe, the detection feasibility of C-ALS in any area where there is risk of flammable gas (such as gas in coal mine) needs to be validated. In contrast with other, conventional cavity detection methods, operators using a 3D laser scanner will need to know in advance the rough location of the cavity and this will then determine the position of the borehole to be drilled. However, the location of most cavities and voids encountered is unclear, especially if they are inaccessible. Therefore, the 3D laser scanning method described should be combined with the conventional detection methods. The location of the cavity can be determined by conventional detection methods first, and then the borehole position can be chosen, through which the C-ALS can be deployed to carry out an accurate, detailed scan of the void. Data from the C-ALS can then be used to pin-point further locations for drilling and investigation.

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34-37.(in Chinese) Cheng, Jiulong; Hu, Kefeng; Wang, Yuhe et al. Research on detecting of underground mined-out areas by using GPR. Rock and Soil Mechanics, 2004, 25(Supp): 79-82. (in Chinese)

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