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STAT

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Introduction

What is Statistics?

Statistics is a collection of methods for obtaining data, and then analyzing, interpreting and drawing

conclusions based on the data

1. Descriptive Statistics

a. Exposes the basic characteristics or summarizes the data

Frequency distribution table

Bar Graphs

Measures of central tendency

Measures of variation

2. Inferential Statistics

a. Group of statistical measurements or methods that functions or aims to infer or to make

interpretations

b. Makes concluding statement about the population based on the result from the sample

Inference of means

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Non- parametric test (i.e. Chi-square test)

Variable set of observable values or characteristics

Data values that the variables can assume

Classifications of data:

A. According to nature

1. Quantitative data data in the form of numbers

Age

Financial ratios

2. Qualitative data data in the form of categories, characteristics, etc.

Status

gender

B. According to source

1. Primary data original source/ first information

a. Direct method interview

2. Secondary data information gathered from primary data

Information from business journal

Data from government or agencies

C. According to measurement

1. Discrete data data obtained through the process of counting

Number of respondents who agreed

2. Continuous data data obtained through the process of measuring

Minutes in studying

Inflation rates

Bank deposits

D. According to arrangement

1. Ungrouped data refers to raw data/ data without arrangement

2. Grouped data refers to arranged or tabulated data

Population complete and entire collection of elements to be studied

Sample subset of population. Sometimes, a population is very large. To save time and money,

statisticians may study only a part of the population which is called sample.

Closely related to the concepts of population and sample are the concepts of parameter and statistic.

Parameter numerical measurement describing some characteristics of a population

Statistic numerical measurement describing some characteristics of a sample.

Aside from being classified as qualitative or quantitative, variables can also be classified according to

how they are categorized, counted, or measured.

1. Nominal level

Lowest level of data measurement

Does not signify any quantitative value

Example:

Bank account number

Gender

Area codes

2. Ordinal level

Data arranged in order/ rank

Example:

Ranking in class

Managerial positions

3. Interval level

Has all properties of ordinal scale

Quantitative differences can be determined

Does not have true value of zero (i.e. meaningful differences in one degree between

each unit such as 80 and 81 degrees, but zero degree temperature does not mean there

is no heat)

Addition and subtraction of measurements can be performed

Example:

IQ test scores

Fahrenheit scales of temperature measurement

4. Ratio level

Highest level of measurement

There is absolute value of zero

Multiplication and division of data can be performed

Example:

Sales in ust canteen

Volume of gas in liters

Sampling Technique process of selecting sample elements.

Note! : For detailed info about data collection and sampling techniques, refer to last chapter.

A. Probability Sampling

In this method, each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected in

the sample. It requires the complete list of the members of the population.

1. Random probability sampling where actual selection of sample elements requires

no particular order or system.

2. Non-random Probability sampling which samples are chosen without regard to

their probability of occurrence.

a. Systematic sampling using kth system

method involves selecting kth element of population where the first

sample is chosen at random, and the rest is obtained by selecting

every kth item.

b. Stratified Sampling Technique

predefined characteristics.

Sample are selected proportionate to the homogenous groups of

population.(for more info, refer to last chapter)

The homogeneity of groups aims to avoid the selection of sample

units coming from one group or category.

Sample units are selected from an area or cluster where heterogeneity

among elements is already considered.

d. Multi stage sampling Technique

Complex form of cluster sampling

This is hard to explain, so the procedure on how to do so is written

below:

In a multistage random sample, a large area, such as a country, is first

divided into smaller regions (such as states), and a random sample of

these regions is collected. In the second stage, a random sample of

smaller areas (such as counties) is taken from within each of the

regions chosen in the first stage. Then, in the third stage, a random

sample of even smaller areas (such as neighbourhoods) is taken from

within each of the areas chosen in the second stage. If these areas are

sufficiently small for the purposes of the study, then the researcher

might stop at the third stage. If not, he or she may continue to sample

from the areas chosen in the third stage, etc., until appropriately small

areas have been chosen.

B. Non-probability Sampling

In this method, every member of the population do not have an equal chance of being

selected.

It does not require complete list of members of population

It is referred to as bias judgement sampling technique

1. Purposive Sampling selection of sample elements is based on criteria from the

objective of study.

2. Quota Sampling - certain number (limit) of sample elements is pre-determined

based on judgement of the researcher.

3. Convenience Sampling sample elements are selected in a process most

convenient to the researcher.

Summation Notation

The uppercase Greek letter (sigma) is used to denote the sum of all values.

is read as the summation of x sub i where i is from 1 to n. Which means the total of all variable X

starting from 1 until the last variable or n.

However, it is not always the case that it starts with 1 and ends with the last data.

Example:

1. Let

x1 = 8

X7 = 10

x2 = 9

x8 = 5

x3 = 12

x9 = 2

Evaluate:

Evaluate:

x4 = 15

x10 = 1

x5 = 6

x6 = 3

Formulas of Summation:

Formula 1:

Formula 2:

Formula 3:

Note! Always remember that this is only applicable when with parenthesis

Formula 4:

Note! Always remember that this is only applicable when with parenthesis

Exercises

Classify each variable as discrete or continuous.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Loan

Electric consumption

Air temperature in a city yesterday

Size of a family

Dollar exchange rate

Capacity of water in a swimming pool

7. Based on the survey conducted by National Statistics Office, it is estimated that 24% of

unemployed people are women

8. Cigarettes were associated with 31% of the 4700 civilian fire deaths in 2000.

9. A recent study showed that eating garlic can lower blood pressure

Indicate which of the following examples refer to population or sample

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

The number of subscribers of telephone companies

The total machines produced by a factory in one week

The yearly expenditures on food for 10 families

The average number of hours in studying by 25 students

Classify each of the following as nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level data

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

The per capita income

The dollar exchange rate

The test scores in writing ability

The ranking of oil companies in the Philippines

The time required to produce iron bars in foundry plants

21.

22.

23.

24.

Supervisors are selected using random numbers in order to determine annual salaries

A head nurse selects 10 patients from each floor of a hospital.

Every 12th customer entering a shopping mall is asked to select his or her favourite store

In a university, all teachers from three buildings are interviewed to determine whether they

believe the students have higher grades now than in previous years.

Evaluate

( )

Answers to exercises:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

Discrete

Continuous

Continuous

Discrete

Continuous

Continuous

Inferential

Descriptive

Inferential

Sample

Population

Population

Sample

Sample

Nominal

Ratio

Interval

Interval

Ordinal

Interval

Random

Cluster

Systematic

Stratified

26. 1.2

27. 16

28. 4

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