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Merceologie
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Imperiului Roman.
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, Ed    "! #$! %&! '(! )+* ,  -+.   )+/0!1 74
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Vassilakis Sp. A. Crete, history, museums, archaelogical sites and monuments, Athens, 1998, p. 174-178;

Merceologie

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Bustacchini G. Ravena, mosaics, monuments and environment, Cartolibreria Salbaroli, Via Gamba, Ravena,
Italia, p. 3-71;

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5
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Quednau W. Prizonierii din Murano, Editura '? 5- - <   )*,6 
Serra V. - Venice together, Benechu Edizioni, 1999, p. 93

-.   , 1957, p.70-71

Merceologie
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Mariacher G. Il vetro europeo dal XV al XX secolo, Instituto geografico de Agostini, Navara 1964,
pag 94-121;

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8
SHSULPXOSODQDVWLFO ULHLLWDOLHQH .
Anii 1960 s-au caracterizat prin dezvoltarea SH SODQ QD LRQDO L
LQWHUQD LRQDO D XQHL SURGXF LL GH VWLFO DWkWFRPHUFLDO  FkW L de DUW  DUWLWLL
SODVWLFL IRORVLQG VWLFOD OD FUHDUHD GLIHULWHORU RELHFWH VWDWXHWH HWF L IRORVLQG

tehnici de decorare noi.

1.2 0DWHULLSULPHLDX[LOLDUHIRORVLWH vQRE

LQHUHDVWLFOHL

0DWHULD SULP  GH ED]  vQ RE LQHUHD VWLFOHL HVWH VLOLFHD SURYHQLW  GLQ
QLVLS FXDU  VDX VLOH[ FUHPHQH  3HQWUX D IL WRSLW  VLOLFHD QHFHVLW 
WHPSHUDWXUL IRDUWH vQDOWH L  WRFPDL GH DFHHD HD WUHEXLH FRPELQDW  FX DOWH

PDWHULLSULPH vQSURSRU LLGLIHULWH SHQWUX DVHUHGXFHWHPSHUDWXUDGHWRSLUH


LYkVFR]LWDWHD

CompR]L LD
SURSULHW

FKLPLF  D VWLFOHL HVWH IRDUWH YDULDW  L GHWHUPLQ 

LOHHL$VWIHOSULQFLSDOLLFRPSRQHQ LVXQW

oxizi acizi (RO2): bioxidul de siliciu (SiO2  DQKLGULGD ERULF 


(B2O3 DQKLGULGDIRVIRULF  32O5);
oxizi bazici (oxizi ai metalelor alcaline) (R2O): oxidul de sodiu
(Na2O), oxidul de potasiu (K2O), oxidul de litiu (Li2O);
oxizi ai metalelor alcalino-S PkQWRDVH L DL PHWDOHORU JUHOH 52 
oxidul de calciu (CaO), oxidul de magneziu (MgO), oxidul de zinc
(ZnO), oxidul de plumb (PbO), oxidul de bariu (BaO), oxidul de
cadmiu (CdO);
VXEVWDQ H FX FRPSR]L LH FRPSOH[  FDUH FRQ LQ doi VDX PDL PXO L
oxizi utili9.

&RPSR]L LDFKLPLF DVWLFOHLSUHFXPLPRGXOGHUHDOL]DUHDWRSLWXULL


LQIOXHQ HD]  JUDGXO GH RUGRQDUH L FRQWULEX LD HOHPHQWHORU VWUXFWXUDOH

impULPkQG VWLFOHL R DQXPLW

 VWUXFWXU  L DQXPLWH SURSULHW

L 3URFHVXO GH

VWUXFWXUDUH D VWLFOHL vQFHSH GLQ ID]D GH WRSLWXU  vQ FDUH VWDELOLWDWHD
DJUHJDWHORU GH SDUWLFXOH YDULD]  vQ IXQF LH GH WHPSHUDWXUD DWLQV  2 GDW  FX
U FLUHD WRSLWXULL DX ORF PRGLILF UL DOH VWUXFWXULL IRUPHL L GLPHQVLXQLORU
DJUHJDWHORU GH SDUWLFXOH FDUH GLIHU  vQ IXQF LH GH GLIHULWHOH WHPSHUDWXUL

8
9

     
         
D -= -.?#< ! 9E F 5FGH! 9I JK<  LHM! 9I   65L>!

Miller J.

, Editura "! ! #$! %0! '(! )+*(,  -+.   )+@ AA A )+/&! 1BC -199;
Merceologie)N?  F#$! %&! >(! )*(,  -+.   1980, p. 79-80;

Merceologie
DWLQVH vQ IDEULFDUHD VWLFOHL L FDUH SHUPLW DVWIHO VXEU FLUHD WRSLWXULL GH VWLFO 

10

I U FULVWDOL]DUH

.
Tipurile de materii prime folosite la fDEULFDUHD VWLFOHL GHWHUPLQ  L
denumirea acesteia.
Astfel, sticla de plumb este RVWLFO GHFDOLWDWHVXSHULRDU , FXQRVFXW 
VXE QXPHOH GH FULVWDO L DUH OD ED]  VLOLFDWul GH SRWDVLX L R[LGul de plumb.
$FHDVW  VWLFO  HVWH PDL JUHD L SRVHG  R FDSDFLWDWH VSRULW  GH D UHIUDFWD
OXPLQD

SURSULHWDWH

FDUH

GHWHUPLQ 

IRORVLUHD

FULVWDOXOXL

OD

IDEULFDUHD

OHQWLOHORU L D SULVPHORU SUHFXP L OD LPLWD LLOH GH SLHWUH SUH LRDVH

DaWRULW
inerea

IDSWXOXL F  SOXPEXO DEVRDUEH UDGLD LLOH FULVWDOXO HVWH IRORVLW L OD RE

scutXULORUSHQWUXSURWHF LDSHUVRQDOXOXLGLQLQVWDOD LLOHQXFOHDUH


Sticla borosilicat DUH OD ED]  ERUD[XO FD PDWHULH SULP

 SULQFLSDO 

DO WXUL GH VLOLFH L DOFDOL )LLQG FDUDFWHUL]DW  SULQ GXUDELOLWDWH L UH]LVWHQ

 OD

DWDFXULOH FKLPLFH L OD WHPSHUDWXUL vQDOWH DFHVW WLS GH VWLFO  HVWH IRORVLW OD
IDEULFDUHD

DUWLFROHORU

GH

EXF W ULH

D

VWLFO ULHL

GH

ODERUDWRU

L

OD

HFKLSDPHQWHOHGLQLQGXVWULDFKLPLF 

Sticla calco-VRGLF SH ED] GHVRG FDOFLQDW  LR[LGGHFDOFLX este


GHDS  Ea este folosiW ODIDEULFDUHDDPEDODMHORUGHVWLFO D

QXPLW LVWLFO

veselei

O PSLORU

L

D

JHDPXULORU

$FHDVW 

GHQXPLUH

SURYLQH

GH

OD

SURSULHWDWHD VWLFOHL GH D VH GL]ROYD vQ DS  vQ FD]XO XQXL FRQ LQXW PDUH GH

carbonat de sodiu.
Q IXQF LH GH UROXO ORU vQ IRUPDUHD SURSULHW LORU VWLclei, materiile
prime se mpart n:
materii prime principaleYLWULILDQ LIRQGDQ LLVWDELOL]DQ L
materii
prime secundare: DILQDQ L RSDFL]DQ L FRORUDQ L L
GHFRORUDQ L
9LWULILDQ LL DX UROXO SULQFLSDO vQ RE LQHUHD VWLFOHL

. Din DFHDVW 
categorie fac parte: bioxidul de siliciu (SiO2  DQKLGULGD ERULF  %2O3),
DQKLGULGDIRVIRULF  32O5).
5ROXO SULQFLSDO vO GH LQH VLOLFHD FDUH VH J VHWH vQ QDWXU  vQ QLVLS

FXDU RVFXDU LWvQFULVWDOXOGHVWkQF HWF&HOPDLXWLOL]DWHVWHQLVLSXOFXDU RV

(dHRDQXPLW

JUDQXOD LH vQFDUHFRQ LQXWXOGHELR[LGGHVLOLFLXSRDWHDMXQJH

OD &ULVWDOXO GH VWkQF  FXDU XO  VHIRORVHWH vQ VSHFLDO SHQWUX RE LQHUHD
VWLFOHL GH FXDU  L DO WXUL GH FXDU LW HVWH PDL SX LQ IRORVLW  GDWRULW 

GLILFXOW

LORUGHP FLQDUHSkQ ODJUDQXOD LDGRULW 

$QKLGULGD ERULF  %2O3), sub forma acidului boric (H3BO3  L D


boraxului (Na2B4O7  VHIRORVHWH FD LQJUHGLHQW SHQWUX VWLFO ULD GH ODERUDWRU

10

D -= -+.7# l ! 9?I0-  -+JK,6PO$! 9 D =,65 RQK! 9?I0< -+.-TS$!

p. 277-278;

6+  V0 W X+Y6  

, Editura

>[Z  ,+ -5 )\* ,  -.  M16BB B )

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

L FHD FX GHVWLQD LL HOHFWURWHKQLFH GDWRULW  VWDELOLW


ULGLFDWHLDSURSULHW

LL WHUPLFH L FKLPLFH

LORUPHFDQLFHLRSWLFHVXSHULRDUHSHFDUHOHFRQIHU 

$QKLGULGDIRVIRULF  32

L FHQXD GH RDVH vQ FDQWLW

O5 LQWURGXV

vQFRPSR]L LDVWLFOHLSULQDSDWLW

L PLFL VH IRORVHWH FD RSDFL]DQW DO VWLFOHL L

drept constituent principal n fabricarea sticlei cu SURSULHW L FKLPLFH L


electrice deosebite.
)RQGDQ LL au UROXO GH D UHGXFH WHPSHUDWXUD GH WRSLUH D YLWULILDQ LORU
&DIRQGDQ LVXQWXWLOL]D LR[L]LDLPHWDOHORUDOFDOLQH: oxidul de sodiu (Na2O),
oxidul de potasiu (K2O), oxidul de litiu (Li2O). Pentru introducerea acestor
oxizi la fabricarea sticlei,VH XWLOL]HD] FDPDWHULLSULPHFDUERQDWXOGHVRGLX
VRGD FDOFLQDW -Na2CO3  L FDUERQDWXO GH SRWDVLX .2CO3  FDUH DX UROXO L
GHDvPEXQ W LOXFLXlWUDQVSDUHQ DLFXORDUHD
8OWLPD JUXS  D PDWHULLORU SULPH SUincipale este cea a VWDELOL]DQ LORU
FDUH DX UROXO GH D P UL VWDELOLWDWHD FKLPLF  L GH D vPEXQ W

L SURSULHW

LOH

PHFDQLFH WHUPLFH L HOHFWULFH DOH VWLFOHL 'LQ DFHDVW  FDWHJRULH IDF SDUWH

oxizii metalelor alcalino-S PkQWRDVH L DL PHWDOHORU JUHOH: oxidul de calciu


(CaO), oxidul de magneziu (MgO), oxidul de zinc (ZnO), oxidul de plumb
(PbO), oxidul de bariu (BaO), oxidul de cadmiu (CdO) etc.

2[LGXO GH FDOFLX UHSUH]LQW  PDWHULD SULP  GH ED]  OD PDMRULWDWHD

sticlelor calco-VRGLFH L HVWH LQWURGXV VXE IRUP


(CaCO3) sau de calcar.

de carbonat de calciu

2[LGXO GH PDJQH]LX FDUH DUH UROXO GH D P UL VWDELOLWDWHD FKLPLF  L

rezisteQ D PHFDQLF  D VWLFOHL HVWH LQWURGXV GH FDUERQDWXO GXEOX GH FDOFLX L
magneziu (calcarul dolomitic).
Oxidul de zinc, introdus sub foUP  GH DOE GH ]LQF VH IRORVHWH OD
IDEULFDUHDVWLFOHLRSDODVWLFOHLRSWLFHLDVWLFO ULHLGHODERUDWRU

2[L]LL GH EDULX L GH SOXPE  FDUH LPSULP  VWLFOHL XQ OXFLX L R

WUDQVSDUHQ

GHRVHELW GHQVLWDWHPDUHLVXQHWSUHOXQJODORYLUHVXQWIRORVL L

la IDEULFDUHDFULVWDOXOXLLDVWLFOHLRSWLFH
$ILQDQ LL au rolul de a conferi sticlei limpezimea GRULW  prin
degajarea unor bule de gaze de dimensiuni mai mari care, prin ridicarea lor
OD VXSUDID D VWLFOHL WRSLWH DQJDMHD]  VSUH VXSUDID  EXOHOH PLFL GH JD]e

H[LVWHQWH vQ PDVD GH VWLFO  WRSLW &DDILQDQ L VHIRORVHVF WULR[LGXO GH DUVHQ

(As2O3), azotatul de sodiu (NaNO3), azotatul de potasiu (KNO3), sulfatul de


sodiu (Na2SO4  L VXOIDWXO GH FDOFLX &D624  2 FDQWLWDWH LQVXILFLHQW  GH
DILQDQ LYDGHWHUPLQDPHQ LQHUHDEXOHORUGHJD]HvQPDVDVWLFOHLL, implicit,
DSDUL LDXQRUdefecte n produsul final.
,PSXULW

LOH PDWHULLORU SULPH LQIOXHQ HD]  FXORDUHD VWLFOHL 1LVLSXO

FXDU RVPDLFRQ LQHLR[L]LGHILHUR[LGGHFURPIHOGVSDWSUHFXPLRVHULH

de resturi

FDQWLW

RUJDQLFH UHVWXUL YHJHWDOH  2[L]LL GH ILHU L GH FURP FKLDU vQ

LPLFLLPSULP VWLFOHLRFRORUD LHJDOEHQ

efectul acestora se folosesc

GHFRORUDQ LL 

-verzuie. Pentru a contracara


Decolorarea se poate realiza pe

FDOH FKLPLF  VDX IL]LF  3H FDOH FKLPLF  SHQWUX RE LQHUHD XQHL VWLFOH

Merceologie

incolore, clare, VH SRDWH DG XJD PDJQH]LX SHQWUX D VH QHXWUDOL]D HIHFWXO
imSXULW LORU GH ILHU FDUH LQGXF vQ VWLFO  R FXORDUH YHUGH-DOE VWUXLe sau
maron, amestec de trioxid de arsen (As2O3  L D]RWDW GH VRGLX 1D123),
sulfat de sodiu etc.
3HFDOHIL]LF GHFRORUDUHDVHUHDOL]HD] SULQGLVSHUVDUHa, ca particule
PLFURVFRSLFH vQ FRPSR]L LD VWLFOHL, D XQRU FRPSXL FDUH FRORUHD]  VWLFOD vQ
FXORUL FRPSOHPHQWDUH FXORULORU R[L]LORU GH ILHU URX SHQWUX YHUGH JDOEHQ

pentru albastru, violet etc.  $FHWL FRPSXL SRW IL VHOHQLX PHWDOLF R[LG GH
cobalt, oxid de nichel, bioxid de mangan11.
&RORUDQ LL IRORVL LODIDEULFDUHDVWLFOHLSRWIL

FRORUDQ L PROHFXODUL R[L]L DL GLIHULWHORU PHWDOH FDUH VH PHQ LQ vQ

masa sticlei sub forma ioniloU PHWDOHORU UHVSHFWLYH  Q PRG WUDGL LRQDO
SHQWUX RE LQHUHD FHORU PDL GHV vQWkOQLWH WLSXUL GH VWLFO  FRORUDW  VH folosesc
R[L]LL XUP WRDUHORU PHWDOH cupru, pentru DOEDVWUX FHOHVW L WXUFRD] cobalt,
pentru albastru nchis; ILHU L FURP SHQWUX verde; urDQLX SHQWUX JDOEHQ L
galben-verzui; mangan, pentru SXUSXULX UR] J OEXL L YLROHW FRPELQD LL GH
GRL VDX PDL PXO L R[L]L PHWDOLFL vQ GLIHULWH SURSRU LL SHQWUX RE LQHUHD XQRU

culori intermediare (ca de exemplu, sulfat de cadmiu cu seleniu pentru


oranj) etc.
FRORUDQ L FRORLGDOL

FDUH

VXQW

PHWDOH

GL]ROYDWH

DJORPHUDWH vQ SDUWLFXOH FRORLGDOH FX VWUXFWXU  PLFURFULVWDOLQ 

vQ

VWLFO 

L

aur coloidal,
pentru UR] SkQ  OD URX UXELQLX argint coloidal, pentru galben; seleniu
coloidal, pentru rubiniu de seleniu etc.

2 DOW  JUXS  D PDWHULLORU SULPH VHFXQGDUH HVWH UHSUH]HQWDW  GH

i, FDUH VXQW IRORVL L OD RE LQHUHD  XQHL VWLFOH RSDFH FH GLIX]HD] 
lumina. n aceaVW  FDWHJRULH VXQW LQFOXL FRPSXL DL IOXRUXOXL FULROLW
RSDFL]DQ

IOXRULQ  IRVID L ELR[LG GH VWDQLX L WDOFXO 2SDFL]DUHD VH GDWRUHD] 
WHQGLQ HL GH FULVWDOL]DUH D DFHVWRU FRPSXL R GDW  FX U FLUHD VWLFOHL L GH

formare a unor cristale submicroscopice repartizate uniform n masa sticlei.


Cu ct dimensiunea acestor cristale va fi mai mare, cu att sticla va fi mai
RSDF , iar gradul de difuzie a luminii va fi sporit.

&D PDWHULLSULPH DYkQGODED] SURSULHWDWHDVWLFOHLGHUHYHUVLELOLWDWH

DVW ULLVDOHGLQVWDUHVROLG vQ VWDUHOLFKLG L LQYHUV ODIDEULFDUHD VWLFOHLVH


PDL SRW IRORVL L FLREXUL

le GH VWLFO  GH FRPSR]L LH VLPLODU  $FHVWHD VH SRW
folosi n cadrul procesului tehnologic ntr-R SURSRU LH GH -30%. Avnd
GHMD FRPSRQHQ LL R[LGLFL JDWD GR]D L L vQJOREkQG R PDUH FDQWLWDWH GH

HQHUJLH QHFHVDU  GH]YROW ULL UHDF iilor din formarea sticlei, prin topirea unui
kg de cioburi n locul unui kg de oxizi, la fabricarea sticlei pentru ambalaje
se economisesc cca. 1.000Kwh (aproximativ 20% din consumul de
energie)12.

11
12

D - = -.[#7< ! 9E0F 5FGHM! 9I J <  LHM! 9I   5L>(! Merceologie)N?  F#4! %0! >! )*(,6  -.  \16B]A )+/&!]+B -97;
D -= -+.7# l.; I0-  -+JK,6PO$! 9 D = ,65 RQK! 9?I0< -+.-TS$! U 6+  V0 W X+Y6   , Editura >[Z  ,+ -5 )\* ,  -.  M16BB B )

p. 282;

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

1.3 2E

LQHUHDSURGXVHORUGLQVWLFO

3URFHVXO WHKQRORJLF GH RE LQHUH D RELHFWHORU GLQ VWLFO  HVWH DOF WXLW
GLQXUP WRDUHOHHWDSH
 3UHJ
PDWHULLORU

- figura nr.1:

WLUHD PDWHULLORU SULPH SUHVXSXQH GR]DUHD SULQ FkQW ULUH D

SULPH

FRPSRQHQWH

GXS 

UH HWH

ELQH

stabilite),

P FLQDUHD

FRPSXLORUODJUDQXOD LDQHFHVDU LPDOD[DUHDORUvQYHGHUHDRPRJHQL] ULL

5HFHS LDPDWHULLORUSULPHLDX[LOLDUH

'R]DUHDPDWHULLORUSULPHLDX[LOLDUH
LUHDOL]DUHDDPHVWHFXOXL

Topirea amestecului de materii prime:


RE LQHUHDPDVHLWRSLWH

limpezirea (afinarea);
omogenizarea masei topite
Fasonarea sticlei prin: suflare presare,
tragere, laminare.

Recoacerea produselor fasonate

Finisarea produselor din sWLFO

SULQ

OHIXLUHPDWLVDUHOXVWUXLUHPHFDQLF



cizelare,gravare, pictare, emailare,


perforare, pulverizare, decalcomanie
Figura nr. 1 Principalele faze ale procesului tehnologic
GHRE LQHUHDRELHFWHORUGLQVWLFO
6XUV 5HGH$O3HWUHVFX95 GXFDQX,3OHHD'
0HUFHRORJLHLQGXVWULDO S

Merceologie
 2E LQHUHD VWLFOHL WRSite,  vQ VHFWRUXO LQGXVWULDO VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ
furnale-WDQFXUL LQWURGXVH SULPD RDU  vQ DQXO   D F URU FDSDFLWDWH VH
ULGLF  OD  WRQH L FDUH VXQW vQF O]LWH HOHFWULF FX JD]H VDu petrol.
Artizanal, topirea se UHDOL]HD]  vQ UHFLSLHQWH GLQ DUJLO  UHIUDFWDU  FX
capacitate ntre 0,5-1,5 tone. Topirea sticlei este un proces complex, care are
loc la temperaturi de peste&LFDUHSUHVXSXQHGHVI XUDUHDVLPXOWDQ 
D PDL PXOWRU UHDF LL FKLPLFH L PXOWLSOH WUDQVIRUP UL IL]LFH L FKLPLFH
7RSLWXUD UH]XOWDW  HVWH WUDQVSDUHQW  I U  LQFOX]LXQL GH PDWHULDOH QHWRSLWH
GDU FX XQ FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH JD]H 1HUHVSHFWDUHD GXUDWHL VDX D WHPSHUDWXULL
GH WRSLUH FRQGXFH OD PHQ LQHUHD vQ PDVD VWLFORDV  D XQRU LQFOX]LXQL GH
PDWHULDO QHWRSLW FDUH YRU DIHFWD WUDQVSDUHQ D VWLFOHL SUHFXP L UH]LVWHQ D HL
PHFDQLF SURYRFkQGDSDUL LDXQHLVHULL GHGHIHFWH FXPDUIL

pietre, noduri

etc.;
3. Limpezirea (afinarea) sticlei UHSUH]LQW

 SURFHVXO GH HOLPLQDUH D

EXOHORU GH JD]H GLQ PDVD GH VWLFO  WRSLW  U PDVH GH OD WRSLUHD PDWHULLOR

SULPH$ILQDQ LLFDUHVXQWLQWURGXLvQPDVDGHVWLFO ODWHPSHUDWXULULGLFDWH


GHJDM EXOHPDULGHJD]HFHVHULGLF ODVXSUDID
DSDUL LDXQRUFXUHQ LF WUHVXSUDID

$FHVWIHQRPHQFRQGXFHOD

PDVHLVWLFORDVHLFDUHDQWUHQHD] EXOHOH

mici de gaze exiVWHQWH vQ WRSLWXUD GH VWLFO

 3URFHVXO VH FRQVLGHU  vQFKHLDW

FkQG vQ WRSLWXU  QX PDL VXQW YL]LELOH FX RFKLXO OLEHU EXOH GH JD]H
7HPSHUDWXUD

QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

1400-& 

GR]DUHD

D

DILQ ULL

QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

DILQDUHD
D

DUH

DILQDQ LORU

ORF
VDX

vQWUH
GXU

ata

LQVXILFLHQW  D DFHVWXL SURFHV GHWHUPLQ  PHQ LQHUHD vQ PDVD VWLFOHL D XQRU
LQFOX]LXQL JD]RDVH GHQXPLWH vQ IXQF LH GH GLPHQVLXQLOH ORU PXVFXOL H
E

LFX H E

LFL VSXP

 DOFDOLQ

 DJORPHUDUH GH E LFX H RSDOHVFHQWH SODWH

sau alungite), cruste alcaline DVHP Q WRDUH VSXPHL DOFDOLQH, dar care
SUH]LQW Lincluziuni microscopice solide) etc.
4. Omogenizarea masei sticloase are loc n intervalul dintre topirea
VWLFOHL L DILQDUHD HL 2PRJHQL]DUHD HVWH QHFHVDU  GDWRULW  FRPSR]L LHL

chimice variate a sticlei L VH UHDOL]HD]


PHFDQLF 

necoresSXQ]

WRDUHFRQGXFHODDSDUL LDXQRUGHIHFWHQXPLWHD HYLQHVWULXUL

YDOXULSLF

5.

OD

 SULQ EDUERWDUH FX JD]H VDX SULQ

EDUERWDUH

WHPSHUDWXUL

ULGLFDWH

2PRJHQL]DUHD

WXUL

etc.

FLUHD

PDVHL

VWLFORDVH

WHPSHUDWXU  FXSULQV  vQWUH 

SHQWUX

-1300C

L

SUHOXFUDUH

va determina

are loc la o

RE LQHUHD vQ PDVD

sticlei a unei vVFR]LW LFRUHVSXQ] WRDUHSUHOXFU ULLDFHVWHLD


6. )DVRQDUHD VWLFOHL vQ IRUPD VD SODVWLF  VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ FLQFL
metode principale: turnare, suflare, prHVDUHWUDJHUHLODPLQDUH
Turnarea HVWHSURFHGHXOFHOPDLYHFKLFXQRVFXWvQF GLQDQWLFKLWDWH
ce presupune turnarea sticlei topite ntr-R IRUP  n care va DYHD ORF U FLUHD
L VROLGLILFDUHD DFHVWHLD $VW ]L SURFHGHXO V-D SHUIHF LRQDW DSOLFkQGX-se o

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

tuUQDUHFHQWULIXJDO  WXUQDUHDvQIRUPHURWDWLYH ,FDUHSHUPLWHRE LQHUHDXQRU


forme LDXQRURELHFWHSUHFLVH$FHDVW PHWRG HVWHDSOLFDW Lla fabricarea
tuburilor de televizor.
2E LQHUHD RELHFWHORU GLQ VWLFO  SULQ suflare HVWH SRVLELO  GDWRULW 
tensiuniL VXSHUILFLDOH L D YkVFR]LW LL ULGLFDWHD PDVHL VWLFORDVH 3ULQ VXIODUH
VH RE LQ RELHFWH GH IRUPH YDULDWH FX SHUH L VXE LUL L FX FDYLW

L LQWHULRDUH

8QLL VSHFLDOLWL vQ LVWRULD VWLFOHL FRQVLGHU  F  DSOLFDUHD SHQWUX SULPD GDW  D

acestei metode se plasea]  vQ VHFROXO , v.Chr., n Orientul Mijlociu, de-a


lungul coastei fHQLFLHQHvQWLPSFHDO LLvLFRQVLGHU SHURPDQLGHVFRSHULWRULL
DFHVWXLSURFHGHXvQDFHHDLSHULRDG 3URFHGHXOVXIO ULLVWLFOHLV-DU VSndit
rapid n ntreaga lume, devenind tehnica prLQFLSDO GHIDVRQDUHDVWLFOHLSkQ 
n secolul al XIX-lea, prin acest procedeu putndu-se RE LQH GRX  FDWHJRULL
de produse:
SURGXVH VXIODWH OD

HDY  I U  DMXVW UL VDX DG XJLUL FXP DU IL

articolele de uz casnic sau de uz industrial;


SURGXVH VXIODWH OD HDY  FDUH QHFHVLW  R SUHOXFUDUH OD FDOG vQVR LW 
GH DGDRVXUL GH VWLFO  VDX GH DMXVW UL FXP DU IL SURGXVHOH GH
FRPSOH[LWDWHPDLULGLFDW SURGXVHDUWLVWLFHFXIRUPHIDQWH]LVW

e etc.
,
de lungime ntre 1,5-2 m, cu ajutorul c reia se culege din cuptor o cantitate
GH VWLFO  L FDUH, GXS  GHVSULQGHUH VH UXOHD]  SH R SODF  GH QHWH]LUH GLQ
IRQW  GkQGX-i-VH XQ IRUPDW WURQFRQLF L U FLQGX-VH SkQ  OD YkVFR]LWDWHa
QHFHVDU  VXIO ULL Prin suflare, VH RE LQH R IRUP  VIHULF  D F UHL P ULPH
$FHDVW PHWRG QHFHVLW R HDY GHVXIODW FRQIHF LRQDW GLQR HOWUDV

YDULD]  vQ IXQF LH GH FDQWLWDWHD GH VWLFO  FXOHDV  GLQ FXSWRU $FHDVWD VH
IDVRQHD] 

apoi

FX R OLQJXU  G

e lemn, dndu-i-VH

R IRUP  FLOLQGULF 

WURQFRQLF VDXRYDO &RQFRPLWHQWVWLFODUXOVXIO SULQ HDYDGHR HOF UHLDvL


LPSULP LRPLFDUHGHURWLUHLGHVXVvQMRVUHSDUWL]kQGX

-se astfel uniform

PDVDGHVWLFO vQSHUH LLSURGXVXOXL8OWLPDRSHUD LHSUHVXSXQHLQWURGXFHUHD


EDORQXOXLGHVWLFO vQWU RPDWUL

sticla fiinG IRU DW

GLQOHPQVDXPHWDOXQGHVHVXIO SXWHUQLF

 V  LD IRUPD LQWHULRDU  D PDWUL HL $UWLFROHOH FDUH QX

QHFHVLW  DMXVW UL VDX DG XJLUL VXQW GHVS LQVH GH SH HDY  L WUDQVSRUWDWH vQ

FXSWRUXO GH UHFRDFHUH 3URGXVHOH FDUH QHFHVLW  DMXVW UL VDX DG XJLUL SRW
VXIHUL PRGLILF UL GH IRUP  D XQHL S U L D
XQHL FDQWLW

semifabricatului, lipirea la cald a

L GH VWLFO  L PRGHODUHD HL FX GLIHULWH VFXOH DG XJDUHD GH

SLFLRDUHYD]HORUVDXF QLORUGHPkQHUHHWF

).

8OWLPD RSHUD LH HVWH FHD GH GHFDORWDUH FDUH SUHVXSXQH vQGHS UWDUHD
FDORWHL FH U PkQH GH OD VXIODUH 6H UHDOL]HD]  FX GLVFXUL DEUD]LYH VDX SULQ

procedee termice.
Principalele defecte ce pot ap rea vQ FD]XO VXIO
SHUH L QHXQLIRUPL FU

WXU

ULL PDQXDOH SRW IL

 SH IXQGXO RELHFWXOXL ILVXUL SH SHUH L PDUJLQL

Merceologie
VODEFRQWXUDWHFU

WXULODORFXOGHOLSLUHD

toartelorWRDUW

VDXWDOS

FDUH

se deslipesc etc.
QFHSkQG FX DQXO  R GDW  FX LQYHQWDUHD PDLQLL

semiautomate

GH VXIODW RELHFWHOH GLQ VWLFO  VXIODW  DX vQFHSXW V  ILH SURGXVH SH VFDU 
LQGXVWULDO 

Presarea DIRVWFXQRVFXW

vQF GLQDQWLFKLWDWHFkQ

d sticlarii foloseau
cu

SUHVDUHDPDQXDO SHQWUXDVHDVLJXUDF VWLFODUHDOL]HD] XQFRQWDFWIHUP


IRUPDvQFDUHIXVHVHWXUQDW  SDVWDGHVWLFO VHLQWURGXFHDGLUHFWvQPDWUL

L

VH DS VD FX XQ SRDQVRQ GH IDVRQDUH OD LQWHULRU VDX GHDVXSUD SH XQD GLQWUH

fH H /DSUHVDUHDPDQXDO
VDXGLQPDLPXOWHEXF

IRUPDVHUHDOL]DGLQIRQW GLQWU RVLQJXU EXFDW 

LvQIXQF LHGHFRPSOH[LWDWHDRELHFWXOXL

Anul 1827 a marcat inventarea, ntr-un atelier american (New


England Glass Co.), a XQHL PDLQL GH SUHVDW SULQ FDUH VHH[HFXWDXIRUPH L
PRGHOHGHVWLFO W LDW ,ODXQFRVWGH]HFLGHRULPDLUHGXVGHFkWVWLFODW LDW 
PDQXDO 7HKQLFD D IRVW FRSLDW  GH R FRPSDQLH ULYDO  %RVWRQ  6DQGZLFK
*ODVV &R D F UHL SURGXF LH D GHYHQLW DWkW GH PDUH

, nct sandwich a

devenit

WHUPHQXO JHQHULF SHQWUX VWLFOD SUHVDW  DPHULFDQ  3ULQ DFHVW

SURFHGHX VWLFOD WRSLW  HVWH LQWURGXV  vQWU XQ PXODM GLQ IRQW  FHQXLH FH

SUH]LQW  PRGHOXO GRULW L DSRL SUHVDW  FX DMXWRUXO XQXL SLVWRQ FDUH SHUPLWH
RE LQHUHD XQXL LQWHULRU QHWHG L D XQXL H[W

erior modelat. Apoi obiectul este

VFRV GLQ PDWUL

 SULQ U VWXUQDUH VDX FX FOHWHOH UHvQF O]LW IRUPD GHILQLWLY 

ILLQG GDW  SULQ OXVWUXLUH WHUPLF  L IDVRQDUH 3URGXVHOH RE LQXWH DX IRUPH
VLPSOH FX FDYLWDWH LQWHULRDU  L SHUH L JURL 0XFKLLOH L FRO XULO

e sunt

URWXQMLWH GDWRULW  FUHWHULL UDSLGH D WHQVLXQLL VXSHUILFLDOH L D Y VFR]LW

LL

VWLFOHLvQWLPSXOSUHV ULL
3H OkQJ  PDLQLOH DXWRPDWH SHQWUX SUHVDW H[LVW  L PDLQL DXWRPDWH

pentru presat-VXIODW SH FDUH VH IDEULF

 SURGXVH FX JXUD ODUJ  ERUFDQH 

SULPD ID]  VH UHDOL]HD]  IDVRQDUHD JXULL SURGXVXOXL SULQ SUHVDUH SUHFXP L
R SUHIDVRQDUH D FRUSXOXL LDU DSRL vQ ID]D D GRXD SULQ VXIODUH VH RE LQH
IDVRQDUHDFRUSXOXLvQIRUPDVDILQDO 

Principalele defecte ce pot ap rea sunt: RQGXOD LL VDX YDOXUL PDWUL D
sau poansonul au fost prea reci), DVSHFW PDW DO VXSUDIH HL vQF lzire
LQVXILFLHQW  EDYXUL OD JXU

 JURVLPH QHXQLIRUP

GHIRUPDWILVXULODIXQGVDXODFRO XUL

etc.

 D SHUH LORU DUWLFRO

13

3HQWUXF DWkWVWLFODW LDW  OHIXLW PDQXDO FkWLFHDSUHVDW SUH]LQW 


UHOLHI vQ H[WHULRU PXOWH GLQWUH PRGHOHOH VSHFLILFH GH W LHUH PDQXDO  ILLQG
FRSLDWH SULQ PDWUL H GLDPDQW F SXQ  SULVP  ERE GH KDPHL HYDQWDL  GH

13

Nestor M.; Scumpu I. Cartea sticlarului,


p. 11-33;

Y  66 P_`+  Y6 6 aY   +

)?>?=    b'[-c 5 , )?*,6  -.  71Bdd)

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

multe ori ele pot fi confundate. Indiciile de deosebire a sticlei presate de cea
W LDW suntXUP WRDUHOH
9 SLHVHOH SUHVDWH DX R IRUP  PXOW PDL UHJXODW  GHFkW FHOH W LDWH

manual;
9 FDOLWDWHD VWLFOHL vQ VLQH W LHUHD PDQXDO  QX VH SRDWH UHDOL]D GHFkW

ntr-R VWLFO
VXSUDID

 FX XQ FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH SOXPE JURDV  JUHD FX R

 OXFLRDV  UHIOHFWRUL]DQW 

(cristal), pe cnd piesele din

VWLFO  SUHVDW  VXQW H[HFXWDWH GLQ VWLFO  LQIHULRDU  FX R VXSUDID

QHXQLIRUP GHVHRULPDW LXRUSXQFWDW

GHSRUWRFDO

, cu un aspect de FRDM

9 RELHFWHOH GLQ VWLFO  SUHVDW  VXQW PDL XRDUH GHFkW FHOH GLQ VWLFO 
W LDW 
9

mDUJLQLOH GHFRUD LLORU vQ UHOLHI DOH OLIXOXL  VDX DOH W LHWXULL
incizate (intaglio) realizate manual sunt precisH FD W LHUH DVFX LWH
OD SLS LW L UHIOHFW  OXPLQD pe cnd la presare marginile sunt
URWXQMLWH QHWHGH OD SLS LW QHPDLDYkQG DVFX LPHD L SUHFizia
ntOQLWH OD VWLFOD W LDW  FHHD FH IDFH FD OXPLQD V  QX VH PDL
reflecte,LDURELHFWHOHV QXILHWRWDWkWGHVFOLSLWRDUHFDFHOHW LDWH
manual;

9 RELHFWHOH RE LQXWH SULQ SUHVDUH SUHVXSXQ XQ PXODM IRUPDW GLQ XQD
GRX  VDX WUHL S U L IDSW SHQWUX FDUH O

a mbinarea acestora, va
ap reaROLQLHGHXQLUHYL]LELO SHSURGXVXOILQDO
Tragerea HVWH SURFHGHXO IRORVLW OD IDEULFDUHD WXEXULORU GH VWLFO  D
ILEUHORUDILROHORUGLQLQGXVWULDIDUPDFHXWLF LDDOWRUSURGXVHFDUHQHFHVLW 
R VHF LXQH FLUFXODU  XQLIRUP  GDU L D VWLFOHL SODQH L D RJOLQ]LORU $FHDVW 
PHWRG  GH IDVRQDUH VH SRDWH UHDOL]D vQ LQVWDOD LL FX WUDJHUH YHUWLFDO  VDX
RUL]RQWDO  7UDJHUHD vQ LQVWDOD LL YHUWLFDOH SUHVXSXQH LQVXIODUHD GH DHU

comprimat ntr-RGX]

FXIXQGDW vQVWLFO LLQWURGXFHUHDXQHLSO FLVROLGHvQ

VWLFOD DIODW  vQ VWDUH YkVFRDV  7UDJHUHD OHQW  D DFHVWHL SO FL DQWUHQHD]  SH
VXSUDID D HL L R FDQWLWDWH GH VWLFO  D F UHL JURVLPH VH UHGXFH R GDW  FX
ULGLFDUHDSO FLLUHDOL]kQGX VHWRWRGDW LU FLUHDILOPXOXLGHVWLFO 

La tragereDRUL]RQWDO

WRSLWXUDGHVWLFO RE LQXW vQFXSWRULDIODW vQ

VWDUH VHPLIOXLG  FXUJH SH XQ PDQRQ FLOLQGULF FX vQFOLQDUH YDULDELO  L

, n

WLPS FH DFHVWD VH vQYkUWHWH VH VXIO  DHU SULQ LQWHULRUXO V X $VWIHO VWLFOD
FXUV  SH PDQRQ IRUPHD]  XQ vQFHSXW GH HDY  FDUH HVWH DSRL WUDV  PDQXDO
GHF WUHRSHUDWRU
6WLFODSODQ RE LQXW SULQWUDJHUHHVWHFXQRVFXW FXSHVWHGHDQL

nainte de Christos /D VIkULWXO VHFROXOXL DO ;,;-OHD vQ 6WDWHOH 8QLWH L vQ
Germania se introduce procedeul de suflare mecanic D FLOLQGULORU GLQ FDUH
SULQW LHUHLGHVIDFHUHODFDOGVHRE LQHDXVWLFOHSODQH

Merceologie

Laminarea VWLFOHLGDWHD]

GL

n anul 1688 cnd Louis Lucas de Nehov

D WXUQDW VWLFO  WRSLW  SH VXSUDID D XQHL PHVH PHWDOLFH SHVWH FDUH D WUHFXW XQ
YDO  PHWDOLF U FLW Q SH

rioada anilor 1914-1916, procedeul s-D SHUIHF LRQDW


-

VWLFOD WRSLW  ILLQG GHSXV  vQWU XQ UH]HUYRU SODVDW vQ ID D D GRX  UXORXUL
ODPLQRDUH vQ PLFDUH  LDU IRDLD GH VWLFO  HUD GHSXV  SH GRX  VDX WUHL PHVH

DIODWH vQ PLFDUH VXE UXORXULOH ODPLQRDUH (WDSD XUP W

oare a fost aceea de


, care

RE LQHUH D JHDPXULORU RUQDPHQW FX DMXWRUXO XQXL UXORX LQIHULRU JUDYDW

imprima continuu modelul dorit

SH VXSUDID D JHDPXOXL 3ULQ ODPLQDUH VH

RE LQHVWLFO ODPLQDW OHIXLW VWLFO RUQDPHQWDO LVWLFO DUPDW  vQLQWHULRU


H[LVW  R SODV  GH VkUP  FDUH L FRQIHU  UH]LVWHQ

grosimi modificabile n limite largi.


7. Recoacerea HVWH R RSHUD LH GH vQF

mecanic superioar ), de
O]LUH D RELHFWHORU IDVRQDWH

XUPDW GHRU FLUHOHQW 5HFRDFHUHDDUHUROXOGHDHOLPLQDWHQVLXQLOHLQWHUQH


DS UXWH FD XUPDUH D U FLULL VWLFOHL GH OD WHPSHUDWXUD GH IDVRQDUH OD
WHPSHUDWXUD PHGLXOXL L FDUH DX FD HIHFW VSDUJHUHD RELHFWHORU GH VWLFO 
WHQVLXQLOH

LQWHUQH

VH

SUH]LQW 

VXE

IRUPD

XQHL

UH HOH

GH

]JkULHWXUL

LQILQLWH]LPDOH SH VXSUDID D RELHFWHORU GH VWLFO  L

nvizibile cu ochiul liber).


, unde

5HFRDFHUHD VH UHDOL]HD]  vQ FXSWRDUH WXQHO FX EDQG  WUDQVSRUWRDUH

RELHFWHOH GLQ VWLFO  VXQW UHvQF O]LWH OD R WHPSHUDWXU  VXILFLHQW  SHQWUX

eliminarea tensiunilor interne, LDU DSRL VXQW U FLWH WUHSWDW SHQWUX D VH
mpiedica formarea unor noi tensiuni.
8. 'HFRUDUHD RELHFWHORU GLQ VWLFO  ILQLVDUHD  se poate realiza prin
multiple metode, dintre care cele mai importante sunt prezentate n cele ce
XUPHD] .
Sculptarea HVWHFHDPDLYHFKHIRUP GHGHFRUDUHDVWLFOHLDSOLFDW GH
eJLSWHQL vQF  GLQ VHFROXO DO 9,,,-lea .Chr. 5RPDQLL DX SHUIHF LRQDW WHKQLFD
SULQ DGDSWDUHD WHKQLFLL GH W LHUH D SLHWUHORU SUH LRDVH VWLFOD HUD LQXW  vQ
GUHSWXOXQHLUR LGHSLDWU VDXGLQILHUFXDMXWRUXOF UHLDVHRE LQHDXGLYHUVH
FDQHOXULLID HWH6

ingurul neajuns era prezentat de caracteristicile sticlei de

VRGLX SHUH LL VXE LUL L XRU FDVDQ L DL RELHFWHORU QHSHUPL kQG GHFkW R W LHUH
VXSHUILFLDO FXPRGHOHVLPSOH
2GDW FXVHFROXODO;9,, OHDvQ%RKHPLD  DDS UXWVWLFODGXU 

LVWU OXFLWRDUHGHSRWDVLXFDUHVHSUHWDIRDUWHELQHODUHDOL]DUHDXQHLW LHWXUL


DGvQFL FX UHOLHIXUL ELQH FRQWXUDWH QXPLW  L

Descoperirea

Hochschnitt (relief nalt).

FULVWDOXOXLGHF WUH *5DYHQVFURIW vQ $QJOLD VWLFO  GH SOXPE

JURDV  VWU OXFLWRDUH L JUHD FX

corp neted, perfect pentru aplicarea

OLIXULORU  D PDUFDW H[WLQGHUHD DSOLF ULL DFHVWXL SURFHGHX GH ILQLVDUH /D
MXP WDWHD VHFROXOXL DO ;,;

-lea, sticlarii bohemieni au aplicat pentru prima


reflectarea
OXPLQLL L RE LQHUHD XQHL VWU OXFLUL GHRVHELWH, FL VFRDWHUHD vQ HYLGHQ  D
FXORULORULDPRGHOHORUvQUHOLef.
GDW SURFHGHXOGHW LHUHDVWLFOHLFRORUDWHFDUHDYHDGUHSWVFRSQX

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

0RGHOHOH GH W LHUH VXQW QXPHURDVH SXWkQG IL GHFRUD LXQL vQ UHOLHI

adnc  W

LHWXUD GLDPDQW GLDPDQW F SXQ  GLDPDQW VXSHUILFLDO

la care

GHFRUD LXQLOH VXQWGHVHRULJUDGDWHIHOLLLFDQHOXUL vQFDUHVHFRPELQ LQHOH


FHvQFRQMRDU RELHFWXOFXFDQHOXULYHUWLFDOHWUHSWHLIHOLLVFRLF LHYDQWDL
vQ FDUH VH vQWkOQHWH XQ HIHFW GH GUDSDUH FRPELQDW FX XQ GHVHQ GH HYDQWDL
GHVI FXWOHQWLOHEULOOLDQWW LHWXULLQFL]DWH LQWDJOLR HWF/DVWLFODFRPXQ VH
DSOLF FRPELQD LLGHOLIXULFLUFXODUHRYDOHLOLQLDUHSX LQDGkQFLLDUSHQWUX
FULVWDOLVHPLFULVWDOOLIXULOHVXQWDGkQFLFHHDFHFUH D] XQMRFGHOXPLQL

e
Modelele sunt realizate cu ajutorul unor discuri rotative, din diferite
PDWHULDOH DEUD]LYH GH GLPHQVLXQL L IRUPH variabile, n ID D F URUD RELHFWXO
W LDWHVWH LQXWVXEXQFXUHQWGHDS /DvQFHSXWVHGHVHQHD] PRGHOXOGRULW

apoi areORFW LHUHD EUXW LDUSHQWUXRE LQHUHa unui luciu puternic, polizarea
LOXVWUXLrea cu materiale abrazive fine.
Gravarea D IRVW LQWURGXV  SHQWUX SULPD GDW  GH VWLFODULL URPDQL vQ
secolul I .Chr. 'HVHQXO HUD JUDYDW LQL LDO FX XQ YkUI GH GLDPDQW FX XQ DF
PHWDOLF VDX FX UR L GLQ FXSUX 3H cristallo YHQH LDQ VWLFO  GH VoGLX  L SH
sticla VWLOYHQH LDQ (faon de Venice),SURGXV vQ ULOHGH-RVJUDYDUHDVH
UHDOL]D FX GLDPDQW ILLQG PXOW SUHD ILQ  L GHOLFDW  SHQWUX JUDYDUHD FX
SROL]RUXO & WUH MXP WDWHD VHFROXOXL DO ;9,

-lea, gravura a devenLW R DUW

IRDUWH VRILVWLFDW  JUDYRUXO JHUPDQ /HKPDQQ FDUH D OXFUDW OD FXUWHD


vPS UDWXOXL5XGROSK,,GLQ3UDJDIRQGkQGRFRDO GHJUDYRULVSHFLDOLWLvQ

gravuri cu desene complicate. Modelele erau realizate prin aglomerarea de


puncte, executate cu un vrf de diamant SULQ FLRF QLUHD XRDU  D VWLFOHL
crendu-se astfel ]RQHGHOXPLQLLXPEUH
Secolul al XVIII-OHD D DGXV JUDYDUHD FX UR L GH JUDYDW DF LRQDWH
hidraulic,GDU LLQYHQWDUHDXQXL QRXWLSGHVWLFO PDLUREXVW FDUHDSHUPLV
att gravarea Hochschnitt vQ FDUH PRGHOXO LHHD vQ UHOLHI FkW L JUDYDUHD
TiefschnittvQFDUHPRGHOXOHUDGHFXSDWvQVXSUDID DVWLFOHL
n secolul al XIX-lea (1857, n Anglia), tehnica gravurii a fost
UHYROX LRQDW SULQIRORVLUHDDFL]LORUSHRJDP YDULDW GHRELHFWHGHVWLFO  vQ

decorarea intaglio, HIHFWXO VH RE LQH FX DMXWRUXO DFL]LORU  $FHDVW

 PHWRG 

SUHVXSXQHD DFRSHULUHD VWLFOHL FX XQ VWUDW UH]LVWHQW OD DFL]L FHDU  SDUDILQ 

sau mastic), care apoi era decupat sau zgriat n modelul dorit. Ulterior,
piesa era cufundaW vQWU-o baie de acid fluorhidric sau clorhidric, care coroda
VWLFOD vQ PRGHOXO QHDFRSHULW L H[SXV DFLGXOXL DGkQFLPHD GHFRUXOXL FRURGDW
GHSLQ]kQGGHGXUDWDDWDFXOXLFKLPLF&kWHRGDW JUDYDUHDFXDFLGVHH[HFXWD

n mai multe trepte: sticla era la ncepuWJUDYDW DSRLVXIHUHDXQSULPDWDFDO


DFL]LORU RE LQkQGX-se un efect de polizare L DSRL HUD UHH[SXV  DF LXQLL
DFLGXOXL L UHJUDYDW  vQ VFRSXO RE LQHULL VWUDWXULORU GH GHWDOLL PDWH L

Merceologie
OXFLRDVH $FHVW SURFHGHX G GHD QDWHUH XQXL HIHFW WH[WXUDWWULGLPHQ

sional14.
2ELHFWHOHVHSRWPDWLVDFKLPLFLvQWRWDOLWDWHRE LQkQGX-se astfel un efect de
RSDOL]DUH D VWLFOHL *UDYDUHD FX GLDPDQW L FX DFLG DX FRQWLQXDW V  ILH

utilizate separat pe sticla camee.


Secolul al XX-lea D UHvQYLDW WHKQLFD JUDY ULL SXQFWDWH L, treptat,
JUDYDUHD FX DFLG D IRVW vQORFXLW  FX sablarea (jetul de nisip). Sablarea
presupune proiectarea SHVXSUDID DRELHFWXOXLGLQVWLFO FXRYLWH] ULGLFDW ,
a unor particule fine de nisip, particule de cremene sau de pulbere de fier, n
15
.
XUPDF UHLDVHRE LQHRILQLVDUHPDW LJURVLHU
7HKQLFLOH

GLIHULWH

GH

JUDYDUH

LPSULP 

DQXPLWH

FDUDFWHULVWLFL

obiectelor decorate. Gravarea cu roata creeD]  ]RQH PDWH JUDQXORDVH OD


SLS LWFDUH, ulterior, printr-RSROL]DUHFDUHGHILQHWHPDLELQHPRGHOXOGHYLQ
mai ILQH /D JUDYDUHD FX YkUI GH GLDPDQW VH UHDOL]HD]  VXWH GH ]JkULHWXUL
VXSHUILFLDOH SHQWUX RE LQHUHD PRGHOXOXL GRULW /D R H[DPLQDUH DWHQW  Sot fi
observate zgrieturile, iar ODSLS LWVHVLPWW LHWXULOHVXSHUILFLDOH/DJUDYDUHD
FXDFL]L VHREVHUY FXXXULQ

DQ XULOHOXFLRDVHGLQ ORFXULOHvQFDUHDFLGXO

DFRURGDWVXSUDID DVWLFOHL

Pictarea sticlei se poate face manual


SXOYHUL]DUH L IRORVLUHD XQRU DEORDQH

L

VHPLDXWRPDW

SULQ

'XS  SLFWDUHD FX R[L]L PHWDOLFL

SHQWUX IL[DUHD GHFRUXOXL SH VXSUDID D VWL

clei, obiectele sunt revQF O]LWH IDSW


SHQWUX FDUH PHWRGD SRDUW  QXPHOH GH pictare prin decor ars. n cazul
IRORVLULLXQRUFXORULSHED] GHXOHLXUL FRORUDQ LRUJDQLFL , desenul este fixat
prin aplicarea unor lacuri, nemaLILLQGQHFHVDU IL[DUHDWHUPLF LDr procedeul
SRDUW  QXPHOH GH pictare prin decor rece.  $FHVWH GHFRUXUL VH GHJUDGHD] 
UHODWLY XRU IDSW SHQWUX FDUH IRORVLUHD lor la articolele de menaj este
DFFLGHQWDO  ILLQG IRORVLWH mai mult la ornamente ocazionale (globurile de
&U FLXQ  VDX OD RELHFWHOH GH DUW  ELEHORXUL HWF

Q IXQF LH GH QDWXUD

FRORUDQ LORULGHPRGXOGHDSOLFDUHSLFWDUHDVHSRDWHUHDOL]DFXHPDLOXULVDX

cu

PHWDOH SUH LRDVH FXP DU IL DXUXO SODWLQD L DUJLQWXO IRORVLQGX

-se

XUP WRDUHOHSURFHGHH

procedeul cu metale lustruite, n care metalul, IRDUWH ILQ P FLQDW,


a metalului,
GDWRULW DVSHFWXOXLV X mat, VHDSOLF  o periere sau o lustruire cu nisip foarte
finVDXFXSLHOHGHF SULRDU , SHVXSUDID DF UHLDVHDIO GLVSXV  o suspensie
9

HVWH DPHVWHFDW FX XQ IRQGDQW L FX WHUHEHQWLQ  'XS  DSOLFDUH

IRDUWHILQ GHFUHW 
9 SURFHGHXO FX PHWDOH VWU

OXFLWRDUH IRORVHWH R VROX LH FRORLGDO  GH

PHWDODPHVWHFDW FXXOHLGHODYDQG LEDOVDPGHVXOI3ULQDUGHUHEDOVDPXO

de sulf dispare,LDUVWUDWXOPHWDOLFU
14
15

(  6   
  K 6      

  K 6      

Miller J. (  6  


Miller J.

PDVHVWHVWU OXFLWRU

, Editura M..#$! %&! '(! )+*(,6 


, Editura M..A.S ! '(! )+*(,6 

-.   )+@ A AA )/0!1BB


-.   )+@ AA A )+/&! 1BC -199

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

procedeul cu lustre /XVWUHOH VXQW VROX LL, de diverse culori, ale


lor RUJDQLFL DL PHWDOHORU RE LQXWH SULQ WRSLUHD XQRU V UXUL metalice

9
FRPSXL

FX U LQL FDUH DSRL VXQW DPHVWHFDWHFX GL]ROYDQ L RUJDQLFL L XOHLXUL HWHULFH
'XS DSOLFDU

eaSHVXSUDID DRELHFWHORUGHVWLFO , prin pensulare, n straturi de


diferite grosimi, OXVWUHOHIRUPHD] RSHOLFXO GHODFFarHSULQDUGHUHODV SH
VXSUDID D VWLFOHL XQ VWUDW VXE LUH GH R[LG WRSLW 'LIHUHQ D GLQWUH LQGLFHOH GH
UHIUDF LHDODFHVWXLVWUDWLDOVWLFOHLG QDWHUHXQXLHIHFW

deVWLFO

LUL]DW 

3LFWDUHD VH UHDOL]HD]  SULQ DSOLFDUHD GHFRUXOXL FX SHQVXOD SULQ


SUL XLUH FX DEORQXO FD YDULDQW  VH DSOLF  VLWRJUDILD  VDX SULQ DSOLFDUHD GH

decalcomanii.
Decalcomaniile UHSUH]LQW  GHVHQH FRORUDWH FX FXORUL IX]LELOH VDX FX
amestecuri dHPHWDOHSUH LRDVHLHPDLOXULSHVWUDWXULVXE LULGHODFRUJDQLF
GHSXVH SH XQ VXSRUW GH K UWLH 7UDQVIHUDUHD GHFRUXOXL VHIDFH SULQ XPH]LUHD

hrtiei, ceea ce

SHUPLWH GHVSULQGHUHD L DSOLFDUHD GHVHQXOXL SH SURGXV

$SOLFDUHD DFHVWRU GHFDOFRPDQLL QHFHVLW  R QRX  DUGHUH SHQWUX IL[DUH


RE LQkQGX VH GHFRUXUL GH FDOLWDWH VXSHULRDU  vQ FRQGL LL GH SURGXFWLYLWDWH

VSRULW 

Emailarea

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URPDQ vQV HOHDXIRVWIRORVLWHFDWHKQLFLFRPELQDWHSHDFHOHDLRELHFWH

din
, ncepnd din secolul al VII-lea L SkQ  vQ
secolul al XV-lea d.Chr. n secolul al XV-lea, L VWLFODULL YHQH LHQL DX
VWLFO  GH F WUH VWLFODULL LVODPLFL

vQFHSXW V  IRORVHDVF  HPDLODUHD SHQWUX GHFRUDUHD VWLFO ULHL FULVWDOOR VWLFO 


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secolul al XVI-lea, sticlarii bohemieni (care au inventat emailurile colorate


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aurite) au folosit pe larg emailarea pentru decorarea FXVLPEROXULSROLWLFH L


imperiale a pocalelor. Emailurile transparente aplicate pe diverse obiecte, n
special pe suveniruri scumpe, FUHDX VHQ]D LD XQHL SLFWXUL vQ DFXDUHOH
PRWLYHOHILLQGvQVSHFLDOSHLVDMHFLWDGLQHLSURYLQFLDOH.
O tehniF  DSDUWH D IRVW LQYHQWDW  GH F WUH sticlarii germani la
nceputul secolului al XVIII-OHD WHKQLF  QXPLW  Zwischengoldglas, care
FRQVWDvQDSOLFDUHDSHXQSDKDUGLQVWLFO WUDQVSDUHQW DXQHLIRL HGHDXUVDX

de argint, Q FDUH VH JUDYD XQ DQXPLW PRGHO L care era apoi acoperit de un
16
PDQRQSURWHFWRUGHVWLFO VLPSO FUHkQGX-se astfel un sandwich de aur.
Ludwig Moser, sticlar bohemian, a introdus tehnica de emailare n
relief  9DVXOGHVWLFO VLPSO HUDSLFWDWODvQFHSXWvQHPDLOFHQXLX n
specLDO FX DQLPDOH L S V UL GXS  FDUH VH reSLFWD vQ FXORUL YLL L VH DUGHD
$VWIHOSULQVXSUDSXQHUHDPDLPXOWRUVWUDWXULGHHPDLOGHFRUD LXQLOHDS UHDX

ntr-un relief nalt.


16

Miller J.

(  6   
  K 6      

, Editura 8! #4! %0! '(! )+* ,6 

-.   )+/0!1B@

-195

Merceologie

Aurirea n relief nalt D IRVW LQWURGXV  GH VWLFODUXO IUDQFH] -XOHV


Barbe, n 1880 L FRQVWD vQ DSOLFDUHD SH XQ YDV GH VWLFO  FRORUDW  D PDL
PXOWRUVWUDWXULVXFFHVLYHGHSDVW GHDXUFDUHQHFHVLWDGRX VDXSDWUXDUGHUL
SHQWUX GHILQLWLYDUHD GHFRUXOXL )RUPD FXORDUHD L WLSXO GHFRUXOXL LPLWDX

stilul japonez.
0DWLVDUHDFKLPLF

permite WUDQVIRUPDUHDXQHLVXSUDIH HWUDQVSDUHQWH

D DUWLFROHORU GLQ VWLFO  vQ VWDUH WUDQVOXFLG FX DMXWRUXO XQRU UHDF LL FKLPLFH
Q JHQHUDO PDWLVDUHD VH IRORVHWH OD DUWLFROHOH GH LOXPLQDW SUHFXP L OD

DUWLFROHOH GH PHQDM vQ YHGHUHD RE LQHULL XQRU HIHFWH DUW

istice. Pentru

PDWLVDUH VHIRORVHWHXQDPHVWHFGHDFLGIOXRUKLGULFFXDGDRVXULGHIOXRUXUL
LVXOID LDOFDOLQLLGHDPRQLX

 VH UHDOL]HD]  WRW FX DFLG IOXRUKLGULF L DUH GUHSW

/XVWUXLUHD FKLPLF

VFRS HOLPLQDUHD DVSHFWXOXL PDW GH SH VXSUDID D VFXOSWDW  D DUWLFROHORU L

17

RE LQHUHDXQXLOXFLXFkWPDLLQWHQV

/D IHO FD RULFH ID]  D SURFHVXOXL WHKQRORJLF  L ILQLVDUHD SURGXVHORU

GLQ VWLFO  SRDWH LQWURGXFH R VHULH G

,
e defecte ale produselor finite. n

FDWHJRULDDFHVWRUGHIHFWHVXQWLQFOXVHXUP WRDUHOH

defecte de decalotare: onduOD LL


GHFDORWDUHREOLF 

SH

PXFKLH

EDYXUL

DVFX LWH

GHIHFWH GH OHIXLUH OHIXLUH LQFRPSOHW  QHXQLIRUP  WLUELWXUL


OHIXLUHREOLF OLIVWU SXQV

defecte de lustruire

GHIRUP ULFDXUPDUHDX

DVSHFW PDW GDWRULW  DUGHULL LQVXILFLHQWH

nei temperaturi prea ridicate;

DSOLFDUHDQHXQLIRUP DVWUDWXOXLGHHPDLOVDXGH

GHIHFWHGHSLFWXU

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ODVIkULWXODFHVWXLFDSLWRO

3URSULHW

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sive. Gradul de aranjare, mai mult sau mai

SX LQ RUGRQDW  D DWRPLORU GLQ VWLFO  HVWH UHVSRQVDELO vQ XOWLP  LQVWDQ
SURSULHW

LOH GLIHULWH DOH VWLFOHL ID

PDL LPSRUWDQWH SURSULHW

L DOH VWLFOHL HVWH LVRWURSLFLWDWHD FDUH SUHVXSXQH FD

UH]LVWHQ DODWUDF LXQHSURSULHW


LQGLIHUHQWGHGLUHF LH

17

Nestor M.; Scumpu I.


p. 110-129;

 GH

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LOHHOHFWULFHLGLODWDUHDWHUPLF V ILHHJDOH

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0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

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, DSDU R VHULH GH PRGLILF


asupraSURSULHW LORUHL
VWDUH VROLG

3URSULHW

UL IL]LFH L FKLPLFH FX HIHFWH GLUHFWH

LOHVWLFOHLSRWILWUDWDWHVHSDUDWLDQXPHSURSULHW

LOHVWLFOHL

WRSLWHLFHOHDOHVWLFOHLULJLGH
3URSULHW

LOH VWLFOHL WRSLWH DX R PDUH LPSRUWDQ

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SUHOXFUDUH L SHQWUX FDOLWDWHD SURGXVHORU ILQDOH $FHVWH

a sunt: vscozitatea,

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Vscozitatea SUH]LQW  R PDUH LPSRUWDQ  vQ SURFHVXO GH RE LQHUH D


sticlei rigide,GHRDUHFHDQXPLWHID]HDOHSURFHVXOXLWHKQRORJLFGHWRSLUHLGH
prelucrare a sticlei nu pot avea ORF GHFkW OD DQXPLWH YDORUL DOH YkVFR]LW LL
9kVFR]LWDWHD HVWH GHILQLW  FD ILLQG SURSULHWDWHD IOXLGHORU GH D RSXQH
UH]LVWHQ

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VH GHSODVHD]  XQHOH ID

 GH DOWHOH 9kVFR]LWDWHD HVWH GHSHQGHQW  GH

WHPSHUDWXU GHFRPSR]L LDLGHVWUXFWXUDVWLFOHL

La temperaturi mai mari (1250-&  YkVFR]LWDWHD HVWH PLF ,


vQV

, SH SDUFXUVXO U FLULL VWLFOHL YkVFR]LWDWHD FUHWH WUHSWDW SkQ  OD


solidificare. THPSHUDWXUD QHFHVDU  FD R SUL]  GH VWLFO  V  SRDW IL SUHOXFUDW 
SH R PDLQ  HVWH WHPSHUDWXUD HFKLYDOHQW  XQHL YkVFR]LW L GH 107,65 poise,
LDUSHQWUXUHFRDFHUHDVWLFOHLYkVFR]LWDWHDRSWLP HVWHGH1013 poise.
2[L]LLDOFDOLQLR[LGXOGHSOXPELR[LGXOGHEDULXUHGXFYkVFR]LWDWHD

sticlei, n timp cH ELR[LGXO GH VLOLFLX L WULR[LGXO GH DOXPLQLX GHWHUPLQ
FUHWHUHDYkVFR]LW

LL

Structura sticlei, care la temperaturi ridicate are un grad redus de


RUGRQDUHDSDUWLFXOHORUGHWHUPLQ RYkVFR]LWDWHPDLPLF vQWLPSFHRGDW 
FXVF GHUHDWHPSHUDWXULL

avnd loc o reordonare a particulelor, vscozitatea

FUHWH

.
7HQVLXQHDVXSHUILFLDO

DVWLFOHL QIOXHQ HD] SURFHVXOGHSUHOXFUDUHL

HVWH GHWHUPLQDW  GH FRPSR]L LD FKLPLF  D VWLFOHL $VWIHO vQ WLPSXO WRSLULL
VWLFOHLFDXUPDUHDXQRUGLIHUHQ HGHFRPSR]L LHFKLPLF VHSRWIRUPD]RQH

cu tensiuni superficiale diferite, care, atunci cnd sunt mai mari dect n
restul sticlei, conduc la formarea unor mici sfere sau cilindri ce se constituie
n surse ale unor defecte din produsele finite.
Capacitatea de cristalizare (devitrifierea) UHSUH]LQW  SURFHVXO GH
VHSDUDUH D XQRU FULVWDOH FDUH VH IRUPHD]  vQ PDVD GH VWLFO  WRSLW  n timpul
U FLULL OHQWH D WRSLWXULL (VWH R SURSULHWDWH QHGRULW  VWLFOD pierzndu-L
SURSULHW LOHVDOHVSHFLILFHLQHPDLSXWkQGILSUHOXFUDW FRUHVSXQ] WRU.
3URSULHW
LOH
VWLFOHL
ULJLGH.
3URSULHW
Lle
fizice: UH]LVWHQ HOH
PHFDQLFH GHQVLWDWHD L GXULWDWHD Q IXQF LH GH FRPSR]L LH XQHOH WLSXUL GH
VWLFO  VH WRSHVF OD WHPSHUDWXUL MRDVH GH

temperaturi de 1650C.

500C, iar altele numai la

Merceologie

RezisWHQ D OD WUDF LXQH FDUH YDULD]  vQ PRG QRUPDO vQWUH  L
100 N/mm2 , poate FUHWH SULQ WUDWDUHD VSHFLDO  D VWLFOHL iar UH]LVWHQ D OD
compresiune SUH]LQW  YDORUL IRDUWH PDUL FRPSDUDWLY FX FHOH DOH DOWRU
materiale (500-2000N/mm2  $FHVWH UH]LVWHQ H PHFDQLFH VXQW LQIOXHQ DWH
DWkWGHFRPSR]L LDFKLPLF DVWLFOHL R[L]LL GHDOXPLQLX PDJQH]LXL ]LQFOH
ULGLF  YDORDUHD  SUHFXPL GH WUDWDPHQWHOH WHUPLFH VXIHULWH VWLFOD F OLW DUH
RUH]LVWHQ

PHFDQLF VXSHULRDU FHOHLUHFRDSWH 

Masa VSHFLILF este cuprins

 vQWUH  L  JFP  HD YDULLQG vQIXQF LH

dH FRPSR]L LD VWLFOHL UHVSHFWLYH VWLFOHOH SH ED]  GH R[L]L GH SOXPE L GH
EDULX DX FHOH PDL PDUL GHQVLW L) 'H DVHPHQHD GHQVLWDWHD YDULD]  L vQ
IXQF LH GH WHPSHUDWXU  VWLFOHOHF OLWHDYkQG R GHQVLWDWHPDL PLF  GHFkWFHOH
U FLWHOHQW$FHOHDLYDULD LLDSDULvQFDGUXOSURSULHW

Duritatea

LORURSWLFHLHOHFWULFH

VWLFOHL HVWH FXSULQV  vQWUH   SH VFDUD 0RKV &RPSR]L LD

FKLPLF  vL SXQH DPSUHQWD L DVXSUD GXULW

LL VWLFOHL R[L]LL DOFDOLQL L GH

plumb reduc duritatea, pe cnd oxizii de fier FREDOW QLFKHO L ]LQF P


duritatea sticlei.
3URSULHW

UHVF

LOH FKLPLFH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  FRPSRUWDUHD VWLFOHL OD DF LXQHD

GLYHULORU DJHQ L FKLPLFL $SD L DFL]LL UHDF LRQHD]  vQ VSHFLDO FX FRPSXLL

bazici ai sticlei, pe cnd VROX LLOH DOFDOLQH VROXELOL]HD]

 vQWUHDJD PDV  D

VWLFOHL 3ULQ FRQWDFWXO FX DSD VXSUDID D VWLFOHL VH YRDOHD]  DFHVW HIHFW ILLQG
PXOWPDLUHGXVODVWLFOHOHFXXQFRQ LQXWULGLFDWGH3E=Q&D%L$O
3URSULHW
WHUPLF

LOH WHUPLFH FRQGXFWLELOLWDWHD GLODWDUHD L VWDELOLWDWHD

&RQGXFWLELOLWDWHD

WHUPLF

D

VWLFOHL

FXSULQV 

vQWUH



L

 .FDOPK& YDULD]  vQ IXQF LH GH FRPSR]L LD VD FKLPLF  SULQ FUHWHUHD
FRQ LQXWXOXL

GH

R[L]L

DFL]L

FRQGXFWLELOLWDWHD

&RPSR]L LD FKLPLF  D VWLFOHL LQIOXHQ HD]  L

WHUPLF 

VH

P UHWH 

dLODWDUHD WHUPLF : sticla de

FXDU DUHFHOPDLPLFFRHILFLHQWGHGLODWDUHWHUPLF SHFkQGVWLFODFXPHWDOH


PRQR L ELYDOHQWH SUH]LQW  XQ FRHILFLHQW GH GLODWDUH WHUPLF  ULGLFDW
6WDELOLWDWHD WHUPLF

a sticlei (cDSDFLWDWHD GH D UH]LVWD OD YDULD LL ULGLFDWH L

EUXWHGHWHPSHUDWXU I U DVHGLVWUXJH HVWHPDLPDUHODRFXOGHvQF O]LUH


ID

 GH cea la RFXO GH U FLUH L HVWH LQIOXHQ DW  GH JURVLPHD SHUH LORU
obiectului (cX FkW SHUH LL RELHFWXOXL VXSXV RFXOXL WHUPLF VXQW PDL JURL FX
DWkW UH]LVWHQ D OD RF WHUPLF HVWH PDL PLF ). Sticlele tratate superficial cu
DFLG IOXRUKLGULF vL P UHVF VWDELOLWDWHD WHUPLF  GH -3 ori. Cea mai mare
VWDELOLWDWH WHUPLF  R SUH]LQW  VWLFOD GH FXDU  vQF O]LW  OD URX LLQWURGXV  vQ
DS UHFHQXFUDS ODIHOFDLVWLFOHOHSHED] GHERURVLOLFD L
3URSULHW

LOH HOHFWULFH

&RQGXFWLELOLWDWHD HOHFWULF

 &KLDU GDF  VWLFOD

FRQ LQH LRQL PHWDOLFL FDSDELOL V  FRQGXF  FXUHQWXO HOHFWULF PLFDUHD L


DFWLYLWDWHD HOHFWULF  D DFHVWRUD VXQW vPSLHGLFDWH GH YkVFR]LWDWHD ULGLFDW  D
VWLFOHL'HDFHHDVWLFODIDFHSDUWHGLQFDWHJRULDL]RODWRULORUHOHFWULFLDFHDVW 

proprietate varLLQG GHFL vQ IXQF LH GH YkVFR]LWate, care, la rndul ei, depinde

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

GH

WHPSHUDWXU 

FX

FkW

WHPSHUDWXUD

HVWH

PDL

ULGLFDW 

FX

DW

FRQGXFWLELOLWDWHD HOHFWULF  D VWLFOHL FUHWH LDU OD WHPSHUDWXUD PHGLXOXL VWLFOD

este izolatoare electric)

$FHDVW  SURSULHWDWH GHSLQGH L GH FRPSR]L LD

FKLPLF  D VWLFOHL ILLQG FX DWkW PDL ULGLFDW  FX FkW FRQ

inutul de alcalii este

mai mare.
3URSULHW

LOH RSWLFH WUDQVSDUHQ

 RSDFLWDWH L FXORDUH 3HQWUX F 

HOHFWURQLLGLQPROHFXOHOHGHVWLFO SUH]LQW QLYHO

uri particulare de energie, ei


-

QX SRW DEVRUEL L HPLWH IRWRQL SULQ WUHFHUHD GLQWU R EDQG  GH HQHUJLH
OXPLQRDV  vQ DOWD L LQYHUV 'UHSW FRQVHFLQ

 HQHUJLD OXPLQRDV  WUHFH SULQ

VWLFO vQORFGHDILDEVRUELW LUHIOHFWDW DVWIHOvQFkWVWLFODHVWHWUDQVSDUHQW 


5DGLD LD

XQRU

DQXPLWH

OXQJLPL

GH

XQG 

SRDWH

PROHFXOHORUGHVWLFO VWLFODGHYHQLQGDVWIHORSDF ID

FRQGXFH

OD

YLEUDUHD

GHOXQJLPLOHGHXQG 

UHVSHFWLYH FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQWUH R[L]L VXQW EXQL DEVRUEDQ L L GHDFHHD
VXQW RSDFL OD UDGLD LLOH XOWUDYLROHWH FX R OXQJLPH GH XQG  PDL PLF  GH

350 nanometri)

$FHVW WLS GH VWLFO  SRDWH GHYHQL WUDQVSDUHQW vQV  SULQ

FUHWHUHD FRQ LQXWXOXL GH VLOLFH 7UDQVPLVLD GH OXPLQ

 VH H[SULP  SULQ

coeficientul de transmisie-T. Cu ct acesta este mai mare, cu att


WUDQVSDUHQ D VWLFOHL HVWH PDL EXQ  SHQWUX VWLFOD RELQXLW  7 -87%, iar
SHQWUX VWLFOD ODPLQDW  L OHIXLW  7 > 90%). Inversul coeficientului de
transmisie este opacitatea.
6WLFOD DSDUHLQFRORU FkQGDEVRUE LDQXYDULD] FXOXQJLPHD GHXQG 

a luminii incidente, iar, FkQG DEVRUE LD HVWH VHOHFWLY

 VWLFOD DSDUH FRORUDW 

VWLFODFXXQFRQ LQXWGHDQXPL LR[L]LPHWDOLFLYDDEVRUELOXQJLPHDGHXQG 


FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHXQHLDQXPLWHFXORULGHYHQLQGDVWIHOFRORUDW 'HH[HPSOX
FREDOWXO LPSULP  VWLFOHL XQ DOEDVWUX LQWHQV FURPXO FRQIHU  VWLFOHL FXORDUHD

verde, iar magneziul, purpuriu18.


Sticla HVWH SHUPHDELO  ID  GH UDGLD LLOH LQIUDURLL SHUPL kQG DVWIHO
distrugerea vitaminelor B2L&GLQSURGXVHOHDPEDODWHQFD]XOVWLFOHLDOEH
YLWDPLQD&HVWHGLVWUXV vQWU-RSURSRU LHGHvQGHFXUVGHPLQXWHLDU
vitamina B2 VHGLVWUXJHvQSURSRU LHGH vQGHFXUV GHRUH'DF VWLFOD
are o culoare brun-aurie, vitamLQD & HVWH GLVWUXV  QXPDL vQ SURSRU LH GH
45%, iar vitamina B2 DSURDSH GHORF 6WLFOD EUXQ  vPSLHGLF  vQ WRWDOLWDWH
DFHDVW GLVWUXJHUH

Reflexia luminii R DOW  SURSULHWDWH RSWLF  HVWH H[SULPDW  SULQ


coeficientul de reflexie-5  FDUHUHSUH]LQW UDSRUWXl dintre fluxul luminos
UHIOHFWDW L IOX[XO OXPLQRV LQFLGHQW 5HIOH[LD OXPLQLL HVWH XQ IHQRPHQ
QHGRULW vQ VSHFLDO SHQWUX VWLFOD RSWLF  SHQWUX F  LQWHQVLWDWHD OXPLQLL HVWH
PLFRUDW  SLHUGHULOHGHOXPLQ SRWDMXQJHSkQ OD 

18

Narottam P. Bansal, Doremus R.H. Handbook of Glass Properties, Enciclopedia Britanica, 1994-2001

Merceologie

1.5 TipuriGHVWLFO coPXQ


3ULQFLSDOHOHWLSXULGHVWLFO
6WLFOD VXSUDSXV

LGHDUW

 &DPHH *DOOp 'DXP 1DQF\

FXQRVFXW vQF GLQDQWLFKLWDWH VHFROXO,v

Sticla Camee era


.Chr.); pentru fabricarea ei sticlarii

DX DSOLFDW SHQWUX SULPD GDW  WHKQLFD IRORVLW  GH JUDYRULL GH SLHWUH SUH LRDVH
RE LQkQG SLHVH GLQ GRX  VWUDWXUL GH VWLFO  VXSUDSXV  GLIHULW FRORUDW  Q
JHQHUDO VWUDWXO GH ED]  HUD IRUPDW GLQWU R VWLFO  GH FXORDUH DOEDVWU  LDU FHO

exterior, de culoare alb-O SWRV Hra sculptat manual sau mecanic,


imprimndu-i-se un mRGHO vQ UHOLHI 7HKQLFD D IRVW UHvQYLDW  vQ $QJOLD
secolului al XIX-lea FkQG VFXOSWXUD PDQXDO  D vQFHSXW V  ILH FRPELQDW  FX
gravarea cu acizi FDPHHIDOV  FHQWUXOSULQFLSDOHUDFRQVLGHUDW6WRXUEULGJH
n Worcester).
6WLFODULL ERKHPLHQL DX SHUIHF LRQDW tehnica, folosind n decorare
PRGHOHWLSLFHJHQVFHQHGHYkQ WRDUHvQFDUHVWUDWXOH[WHULRUHUDPDLVXE LUH
LW LDWPHFDQLF

Tot secolul al XIX-OHDD PDUFDW LDVFHQVLXQHD VWLFODULORU IUDQFH]L vQ


SURGXFHUHD VWLFOHL FDPHH IDOVH UHDOL]DW  vQ IDEULFD %DFFDUDW GH F WUH ILUPD
IUD LORU'DXPGLQ1DQF\SUHFXPLGHIDLPRVXO(PLOH

obiecte din opt VWUDWXUL GH VWLFO

Gall, care a realizat

 VXSUDSXV  vQ FDUH JUDYDUHD L VFXOSWXUD

PDQXDO HUDXFRPELQDWHFXDWDFXODFL]LORU
2ELHFWHOH GLQ VWLFO 

Gall VH RE LQ DVWIHO vQ SULPD ID]

 VH RE LQH XQ

EDORQ GH VWLFO  DOE  L  vQ SDUDOHO R SkOQLH GH VWLFO  FRORUDW  FDUH VH OLSHWH

SHVWHEROXOLQL LDOSULQVXSUDSXQHUH2SHUD LDVHUHSHW vQIXQF LHGHQXP UXO

dorit

GH VWUDWXUL GH VWLFO  FRORUDW

HDY  vQWU R PDWUL

, n final, obiectul fiind suflat manual, la

 8UPHD]  DSRL R UHFRDFHUH L GHFDORWDUHD FX DMXWRUXO

XQXL DU] WRU FX IODF U  SODW  )LQLVDUHD FRQVW  vQ OHIXLUHD GXU  L SLFWDUHD
PDQXDO  FX XQ ODF SH ED]  GH ELWXP 'XS  XVFDUHD SLFWXULL ]RQHOH

neacoperite de stratul protector al lacului sunt corodate chimic, iar lacul este
19
vQGHS UWDW SULQ VS ODUH  9DORDUHD RELHFWHORU GH VWLFO  Gall HVWH GDW  GH
QXP UXOGH VWUDWXULFRORUDWHGHYDORDUHD DUWLVWLF DGHVHQXOXL LGHP ULPHD

obiectului.
n Romnia, n diverse fabrici SULQWUH FDUH VH QXP

U  FHD GH OD

%X] X VDX GH OD &XUWHD 6WLFODULORU GLQ %XFXUHWL VH H[HFXW  IUXPRDVH SLHVH
O PSL YHLR]H YD]H IUXFWLHUH HWF  GLQ VWLFO  GHFRUDWLY  GH WLS *DOOp

,
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romni este att de mare nct piesele executate de ei au fost subiectul unui
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19

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p. 290-292

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L GH GLYHUVH RELHFWH

, Editura

w? y +y z v&{6{ |  z y , 1999,

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ulterior articolele fabricate n Romnia drept piese autentice OD SUH uri
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sticlarilor romni20.

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berfang,

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a stratului exterior HVWH SXV vQ HYLGHQ

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20

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21

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p. 297;

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n ultimii ani a fost adRSWDW

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inute prin metodele

anterioare.
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VWLFO

poate fi:

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elemente), cu un coeficient de dispersie mai mare de 50. Din acest


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sticla flint FX XQ FRQ LQXW ULGLFDW GH R[LG GH SOXPE  DO F Uei
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n domeniul electronic.
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n prezent multiple

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tragerea sticlei topite, fibrele putnd avea diametre de zeci de miimi de cm


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masele plastice, fibrele optice pot fi folosite L la fabricarea materialelor
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accesibile. $O

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22

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erau la nceput fabricate prin turnarea sau prin suflarea unor cilindri de
22

Schwind Palmer A. Glass, Enciclopedia Encarta, 2000;

Merceologie
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n prezent

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cunoscut sub denumirea twin. Treptat, acest procedeu nu a mai fost


dezvoltat, fiind nlocuit de un altul, acela al geamurilor float.
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1959, reprezentnd cel mai ieftin procedeuGHRE LQHUHDJHDPXULORUMetoda
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23

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ect, la fel

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sunt produse printr-un proces automat, prin care se FRPELQ  SUHVDUHD FX
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23

Nestor M.; Scumpu I.


p. 211-226;

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it mai

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uzat, cu att valoarea obiectului scade.
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de stiFO

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a cupei cu piciorul sau formarea XQRU PDUJLQL ]LP DWH OD FXSHOH UHVWDXUDWH
De aceea, zona de mbinare a piciorului cu cupa se va examina atent, pentru
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Merceologie
PDUJLQLORU GH FXSH FDUH WUHEXLH V  ILH DFHODL cu cel de pe restul corpului.
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pe doSWUHEXLHV VHUHvQWkOQHDVF vQWRWGHDXQD pe corpul sticlei respective24.
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vizual vQ ID D XQRU HFUDQH OXPLQRDVH, iar SODQHLWDWHD UH]LVWHQ D PHFDQLF  L
GLPHQVLXQLOH VH YHULILF  SULQ LQVWDOD LL DXWRPDWH, montate pe benzile
transportoare ale acestor articole.
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baza prevederilor nscrise n standardele de produs, a normelor interne, a


caietelor de sarcini sau a clauzelor contractuale.
Pentru articolele de menaj, accentul se pune pe aspectul lor, la
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6XSUDIH HOHLQWHULRDUHLH[WHULRDUH

aleRELHFWHORUGLQVWLFO WUHEXLHV 
e prin presare nu se admit

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striuri sau adncituri.


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FX XQ YkUI GH DF ILVXUL FU S WXUL VDX WLUELWXUL 1XP UXO GH GHIHFWH DGPLVH
HVWH SHQWUX VWLFO  VXIODW

, articole mici-4, articole mijlocii- L DUWLFROH


mari-7, iar n cazul sticlei presate, articole mici-5, articole mijlocii- L
articole mari-10.
1) Un prim pas vQ YHULILFDUHD FDOLW LL RELHFWHORU GLQ VWLFO  l
UHSUH]LQW VWDELOLUHDGHVWLQD LHLLDWLSXOXLGHVWLFO Sticla poate fi:

VWLFO FRPXQ 

semicristal;
cristal.

'LIHUHQ LHUHD

DFHVWRU

WLSXUL

VH

VWLFO 

VH

SRDWH

VWDELOL

SULQ

determinarea:
9
masei;
9
sunetului;
9

RUQDPHQWD LHL

VWU OXFLULL

FODULW

LL

Masa obiectelor GH DFHHDL IRUP  GLPHQVLXQL YROXP L PRG GH


prelucrare este mai maUH SHQWUX FULVWDOXUL GDWRULW  FRQ LQutului ridicat de

24

Miller J. (si l m6 l i

l p rfrhK fh6jfl ji fn l fi

, Editura 8 4 & ~( v+{ 6{ |

 z y v0

-173

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

oxid de plumb, de

SkQ  OD   PDL UHGXV  OD RELHFWHOH GLQ VHPLFULVWDO L

PDLPLF ODRELHFWHOHGLQVWLFO FRPXQ FDUHQXFRQ LQR[LGGHSOXPE

Sunetul,

RE LQXW SULQ ORYLUHD XRDU  D PDUJLQLL RELHFWX

lui cu o
EDJKHW  GLQ OHPQ HVWH FODU L SUHOung la cristal, limpede, clar, dar scurt la
25
.
RELHFWHOHGLQVHPLFULVWDOLVFXUWLvQIXQGDWODRELHFWHOHGLQVWLFO FRPXQ
2UQDPHQWD LD OD FULVWDO L VHPLFULVWDOHVWHIRUPDW  GLQ OLIXUL DGkQFL

intersectate n XQJKLXUL GH  FX GHVHQH L detalii complicate, pe cnd la


aUWLFROHOH GLQ VWLFO  FRPXQ  GHVHQHOH VXQWIRUPDWH GLQ FRPELQD LLVLPSOHGH
OLIXULGHVXSUDID

LuciulHVWHSXWHUQLFODFULVWDOLVHPLFULVWDO LQGLFHOHGHUHIUDF LHHVWH


mare), FD XUPDUH D OLfurilor care creeD]  MRFXUL GH OXPLQL SH FkQG VWLFOD
FRPXQ DUHXQOXFLXRELQXLW
&ODULWDWHD VDX WUDQVSDUHQ D

sunt superioare OD FULVWDO L VHPLFULVWDO

vQFRPSDUD LHFXVWLFODFRPXQ 

2) 6WDELOLUHD PHWRGHL GH RE LQHUH D RELHFWXOXL GH VWLFO  YHULILFDW


AUWLFROHOH RE LQXWH SULQ VXIODUH DX SHUH LL VXE LUL L, deci, L R PDV  PDL
UHGXV  SUH]LQW  FHD PDL YDULDW  JDP  GH IRUPH L DX R YDORDUH HVWHWLF 
GHRVHELW  SH FkQG FHOH RE LQXWH SULQ SUHVDUH DX vQ JHQHUDO SHUH L JURL FX
RUQDPHQWD LH vQ UHOLHI SH SDUWHDH[WHULRDU  VXQWPDL JUHOH L OD R H[DPLQDUH
DWHQW VHSRDWHREVHUYDOLQLDGHvPELQDUHDIRUPHL

3) Dimensiunile VH GHWHUPLQ  FX ULJOD L FX XEOHUXO XUP ULQGX-se


diametrul, n O LPHD L JURVLPHD SHUH LORU L produsele se vQFDGUHD]  n
categoria articoOHORU PLFL FX GLPHQVLXQHD SULQFLSDO  SkQ  OD  PP
mijlocii, ntre 121-PPLPDULSHVWHPP
4) Capacitatea VH YHULILF  OD SDKDUH L F QL FX DMXWRUXO XQXL FLOLQGUX
gradat.
5) &RUHOD LD GLQWUH PDV  L FDSDFLWDWH VH VWDELOHWH SULQ FkQW ULUH OD
baODQ D WHKQLF  L SULQ P VXUDUHD YROXPXOXL FX XQ FLOLQGUX JUDGDW
exprimndu-se n g/ml.
 0RGDOLWDWHDLFDOLWDWHDILQLV

ULL6HH[DPLQHD] ILHFDUHSURGXVvQ

SDUWH L VH SUHFL]HD]  GDF  OHIXLUHD HVWH XRDU  OLIXUL VXSHUILFLDOH  VDX GH
DGkQFLPH OLIXUL DGkQFL  GDF  SURGXVXO D IRVW VXSXV XQHL SROL] UL L
OXVWUXLULGDF DIRVWJUDYDWSLFWDWVDXGHFRUDWSULQDSOLFDUHGHGHFDOFRPDQLL

7) StabLOLWDWHD

VXSUDIH HL GH VSULMLQ VH YHULILF  SULQ DH]DUHD

SURGXVHORU SH R VXSUDID

parteDVXSHULRDU

25

 SHUIHFW SODQ  L SULQ DS VDUHD

lor, cu mna, la

/LSVDEDODQVXOXLLQGLF RSODQHLWDWHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

&| }MM6 } - e(fl ji jMn om6h hl fK?n l m6f i l jn f$Wj6hmjrn r&l f([h6r o+k6jn rhji f n l mjpjn jmi h6l mjtlml 7l mj
y z x $g 
& w v{ { |  z y\6 v+& 

Merceologie
 9HULILFDUHDRYDOLW

LLVHUHDOL]HD] SULQP VXUDUHDDGRX GLDPHWUH

SHUSHQGLFXODUH L VWDELOLUHD GLIHUHQ HL GLQWUH DFHVWHD /D SDKDUH

SkQ  OD  FP

, se DGPLWH R GLIHUHQ

le mici, de

 GH  PP LDU SHQWUX UHVWXO SDKDUHORU

26

GLIHUHQ DGLQWUHFHOHGRX GLDPHWUHQXWUHEXLHV GHS HDVF PP

9)

Verificarea

LQWHUPROHFXODUH

tensiunilor

U VSkQGLWH

neomoJHQLWDWHD FKLPLF

interne.

QHXQLIRUP

vQ

&DX]D

PDVD

DFHVWRU

VWLFOHL

R

.
IRU H

UHSUH]LQW 

 D VWLFOHL VDX QHUHVSHFWDUHD FXUEHL GH UHFRDFHUH

3UH]HQ D ORU DIHFWHD]  UH]LVWHQ D PHFDQLF  L WHUPLF  D VWLFOHL UHVSHFWLYH


7HQVLXQLOH LQWHUQH SRW IL GHWHUPLQDWH FDQWLWDWLY FX DMXWRUXO SRODULPHWUXOXL L

calitativ cu polariscopul. DetermiQ


ELUHIULQJHQ

GXEO 

UHIUDF LH 

ULOH VH ED]HD]  SH SURSULHWDWHD GH

D

VWLFOHL

vQ

FD]XO

XQHL

UHFRDFHUL

QHFRUHVSXQ] WRDUH

Polariscopul este format dintr-R VXUV

 GH OXPLQ  XQ SRODUL]RU R

RJOLQG  GH VWLFO  YLROHW  XQ DQDOL]RU L XQ RFXODU 3RODULVFRSXO VH UHJOHD] 

astfel nct,

SULYLQG SULQ RFXODU V  DSDU  R FRORUD LH YLROHW  Q ID D

DQDOL]RUXOXL VH DD]  SURGXVXO GLQ VWLFO  L VH URWHWH WUHSWDW FX 
SHUSHQGLFXODU SH GLUHF LD OXPLQLL SRODUL]DWH 0RGLILFDUHD FXORULL YLROHWH vQ
SRUWRFDOLX URX JDOEHQ DOE VDX vQ DOWH FXORUL LQWHUPHGLDUH LQGLF  SUH]HQ D

tensiunilor interne n zonele respective. Pentru articolele de menaj, pot fi


DGPLVHYDULD LLVODEHGHFXORDUH
'HWHUPLQDUHD FX SRODULPHWUXO VH ED]HD]  SH P VXUDUHD GLIHUHQ HL GH

drum a razei de lumin

FHWUHFHSULQSURGXVXOFDUHVHFHUFHWHD] 

  5H]LVWHQ D OD RF WHUPLF UHSUH]LQW  FDSDFLWDWHD SURGXVHORU GLQ


VWLFO  GH D UH]LVWD OD YDULD LL EUXWH GH WHPSHUDWXU  3URGXVHOH VXQW vQF O]LWH
ODRWHPSHUDWXU VXSHULRDU LDSRLVHLQWURGXFvQDS UHFHRF

ul termic fiind

GDW GH GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH FHOH GRX  WHPSHUDWXUL 3URGXVHOH GH VWLFO ULH GH X]
FXUHQW VXQW VXSXVH XQRU GHWHUPLQ UL FX GLIHUHQ H GH WHPSHUDWXU 

de sub

&LHJDOHVDXPDLPDULGH&
'HWHUPLQDUHD ODRF WHUPLF VXE&SUHVXSXQHFD SURGXVHOH V ILH

introduse ntr-REDLHGHDS

FDOG XQGHVHPHQ LQPLQXWH$SDWUHEXLHV 

S WUXQG  vQ LQWHULRUXO SURGXVHORU L V  OH DFRSHUH $SRL RELHFWHOH VXSXVH


YHULILF ULL SOLQH FX DS  VH WUHF vQWU R EDLH FX DS  UHFH OD WHPSHUDWXUD

mediului, astfel ca aceasta V

 QX S WUXQG  vQ LQWHULRUXO ORU 6H JROHVF VH

WHUJLVHH[DPLQDH] 
3HQWUX GHWHUPLQDUHD OD RF WHUPLF

introduc ntr-R HWXY

de peste 100C, produsele se

 XQGH VH PHQ LQ FFD  PLQXWH $SRL VXQW VFRDVH FX

DMXWRUXO XQXL FOHWH L LQWURGXVH vQ DS  UHFH I U  FD DSD V  S WUXQG  vQ

26

&| }MM6 } - e(fl ji jMn om6h hl fK?n l m6f i l jn f$Wj6hmjrn r&l f([h6r o+k6jn rhji f n l mjpjn jmi h6l mjtlml 7l mjp
y z x $g 
& w v{ { |  z y\6 v+& 0

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

LQWHULRUXQGHVXQWPHQ LQXWHFFDPLQXWH,QGLIHUHQWGHPHWRG SURGXVHOH


QXWUHEXLHV SUH]LQWHFU S WXULWLUELWXULVDXILVXUL
  5H]LVWHQ D PHFDQLF

 OD ORYLUL

se verifiF  la paharele RELQXLWH L

la cele pentrX FHDL 3HQWUX DFHDVWD vQ LQWHULRUXO XQHL W

YL PHWDOLFH FX SHUH L

vQDO L VH DD]  SDKDUHOH XQXO OkQJ  FHO ODOW DVWIHO vQFkW vQWUHDJD VXSUDID
W YLLV ILHRFXSDW QLQWHULRUXOILHF UXLSDKDUVHLQWURGXFHFkWHROLQJXUL

 D


7DYD HVWH DSRL VXSXV  XQHL PLF UL SH RUL]RQWDO  DOWHUQDWLY FX R PLFDUH
FLUFXODU  DVWIHO vQFkW SDKDUHOH V  VH ORYHDVF  vQWUH HOH OD H[WHULRU LDU
OLQJXUL HOHV ORYHDVF SDKDUHOHGLQLQWHULRU3DKDUHOHQXWUHEXLHV VHVSDUJ 

la 10 cicluriILHFDUHFLFOXDYkQGRGXUDW

GH

5 minute.

  'HWHUPLQDUHD UH]LVWHQ HL FKLPLFH ID

 GH GHWHUJHQ L

Pentru a se

YHULILFDPRGXOGHFRPSRUWDUHDGHFRUXOXLRELHFWHORUGLQVWLFO ODVS ODUHDFX


PDLQD DXWRPDW  GH VS ODW YDVH VH IRORVHVF GHWHUJHQ L FX XQ FDUDFWHU PDL

pronun DW DOFDOLQ GHFkW FHL RELQXL L 1X VH DGPLW GHWHULRU
GXS de cicluriGHVS ODUH.

UL DOH GHFRUXOXL

Merceologie
6FKHPDQU0DWHULLSULPHIRORVLWHvQRE LQHUHDSURGXVHORUGLQVWLFO

Materii prime principale:


YLWULILDQ L:
bioxid de siliciu, trioxid de bor, pentoxid de fosfor;
IRQGDQ L:
R[L]LDOFDOLQLGHQDWULXLGHSRWDVLX
VWDELOL]DQ L
oxid de magneziu, oxid de bariu, oxid de plumb, oxid
de zinc, oxid de zirconiu, trioxid de aluminiu, cioburi
GHVWLFO 

Materii prime secundare:


DILQDQ L
trioxid de arsen, azotat de sodiu, azotat de potasiu,
sulfat de sodiu, sulfat de calciu;
GHFRORUDQ L:
fizici: dioxid de mangan, oxid de nichel, oxid de
FREDOW FRPSXL GH VHOHQLX HWF VDX chimici: amestec
GH WULR[LG GH DUVHQ LD]RWDW GH QDWULX VXOIDW GH VRGLX

FRORUDQ L

etc.;
oxizi de: fier, crom, cobalt, mangan, cadmiu,
VHOHQLXQLFKHOFORUXU GHDXUHWF

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

6FKHPDQU3ULQFLSDOHOHWLSXULGHVWLFO

1)

6WLFO

 SHQWUX DUWLFROH GH PHQDM L DPEDODMH FRPXQ 

(calcoVRGLF LQFRORU VWLFO FXFRHILFLHQW de transmisie de 87-L


VWLFO  FX FRHILFLHQt de transmisie de 70-87% L FRORUDW 
WUDQVSDUHQW  L QHWUDQVSDUHQW  WUDQVOXFLG  L RSDF  cristal: cu
plumb: XRU -18% PbO), semigreu (18-30% PbO), greu (303E2 LIRDUWHJUHX !3E2 I

2)

6WLFO

 SHQWUX RELHFWH GH DUW

Daum Nancy, berfang;


 VWLFO

PDUPRUDW
UHWLFXODU

3)

6WLFO

 ILODW

 VWLFO

VWLFO

 VWLFO

SOXPE

 VXSUDSXV

 FRORUDW
 JLYUDW

: camee, Gall,
e


 vQ GHJUDG  VWLFO

 VWLFO

 LUL]DW

 VWLFO

etc.;

SHQWUX

FRQVWUXF LL

pentru

geamuri:

RELQXLW



WUDQVSDUHQW  L GLIX]  VWLFO  RUQDPHQW JLYUDW  PDW  RSDO 


SHOLFXOL]DW 

FX

HPDLO

VDX

PHWDOL]DW 

HWF 

WHUPRDEVRUEDQW L]RODQW WHUPLFLDFXVWLFDUPDW


HOHPHQWHGH]LG

4)

6WLFO

ULH

:F

VSRQJLRDV

U PL]LGLQVWLFO SURILOHGHVWLFO HWF

 SHQWUX ODERUDWRU UH]LVWHQW

UH]LVWHQW

VSHFLDO

 FKLPLF UH]LVWHQW

 WHUPLF

FKLPLFLWHUPLF

5)

6WLFO

RSWLF



tip crown; tip flint; UH]LVWHQW

ODUDGLD LL

6)

6WLFO

 SHQWUX DUWLFROH HOHFWURWHKQLFH SHQWUX O

PSL HOHFWULFH L

tuburi electronice; semiconductoare; pentru izolatori electrici:

7)

GH MRDV

 WHQVLXQH L GH vQDOW

FHUDPLF

SHQWUXVXGXU

 WHQVLXQH VWLFO

6WLFO

 SHQWUX FRUSXUL GH LOXPLQDW

RSDO

 PDW

 HWF L

 FX PHWDOH L

etc.;

tehnice:

casnice: LQFRORU

VWLFOD WHUPRUH]LVWHQW

FRQWUDGLIHUHQ HORUGHUDGLD LL

FRORUDW



 GH SURWHF LH

etc.; pentru semnalizare FRORUDW

FXFDGPLXLVHOHQLX HWF

8)

6WLFO

SHQWUX

WHKQLFD

QXFOHDU

UDGLD LLORUQXFOHDUHDEVRUEDQW

9)

6WLFO



UH]LVWHQW

GRPHQLXOLQIUDURX

DF LXQHD

GHUDGLD LLQXFOHDUH

 GH SURWHF LH FRQWUD UDGLD LLORU DEVRUEDQW

XOWUDYLROHW DEVRUEDQW

OD

 vQ GRPHQLXO

 vQ GRPHQLXO YL]LELO DEVRUEDQW

 vQ

Merceologie

10) 6WLFO

 GH VLJXUDQ

 F OLW  securit (la spargere, cioburile au


semisecurit; VWLFO triplex (VWUDWLILFDW 

PXFKLLQHW LRDVH L

11) 6WLFO

IRWRVHQVLELO

12) )LEUHGHVWLFO SHQWUX


izolare (fibre izolante);
13) 6WLFO

HV

WXULGHVWLFO

 GH DFRSHULUH SHQWUX FHUDPLF

LQFRORU  L FRORUDW  L QHWUDQVSDUHQW


WUDQVSDUHQW : LQFRORU  L
pentru metale: emailuri;

14) 6WLFO

VROXELO

 ILEUHWH[WLOH L

(glazuri):

pentru

WUDQVSDUHQW

 RSDF  SHQWUX VWLFO

FRORUDW  L QHWUDQVSDUHQW

 FXVROXELOLWDWHULGLFDW ODDS 

:


 RSDF 

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

7DEHO'HIHFWHDOHSURGXVHORUGLQVWLFO

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

Wpoate
+ $ap
07 rea
[ defectul
0

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +

a. 6\ +0 ? &7 

 
-

vine;

- valuri (ape, unde);

\ &? [+ + 

[ \ &[\K K 4
04K 
[

+\
aspectul unor dungi cu grosime
0& 0  K0& T



masa
sticlei;
[ \ &[\K K 404K  467[

palpa sau nu, sub forma unor fascicule


R 0[0[0$& 7&6 0&
0 +& 7 K&& W
P


sticlei;
 \ 70[0
0&0& L
-
K0& &&[K\ [P & 0 [
0&  + $   
[ \ &[\0$  [ \& 0 
T  [ 6
terminate uneori printr64 6
+  [0 K+  $

&

0 
[ $6 
\
7P
-

b.Incluziuni de gaze n
-

[  +\

-
-


[+ 

? 0 0[\  $0$K
K+

cu dimensiunea max. de 0,3 mm. Apar


076 \  [+& 7[L 0


 &

[ \ &[\  40$K
&
& \ & [
? W0 +?6 [

+\

le
-

maxime de 0,3-0,8 mm;


- incluziuni gazoase cu forma

 6
  6&  
+? &\ [04 40
& \?0L a \PK 6$ 0 b 
W& 6 +  \g K
[ 
\

$ 
ici care nu se sparg.

c. Incluziuni de corpuri

 & [ T 

- pietre;

- noduri etc.

[ \ &[\ 0& K \+ [  7
  [ 6 +   
a

0P  (6 +  + && [\ [ ( 


+6 706
K0 [+ [ 4
P

fragmente de material refractar etc.;


[ \ &[ \ \ 

anslucide
sau opace, de culoare verde sau brun&  gK 0[ 6 \+6  

Merceologie

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +
poate ap rea defectul

d. Incluziuni de cristale

T 

- pietre de devitrificare

[ \ &[\0$ [+  \ &0


K \0 +[ 0 [\0 +6 &0
\  00 0?$ K+ [

sticlei;
e. Defecte de culoare:
  +T0
+

  +T0
6 [

  +T0
&

  +T0

6 &

  0 +[M 
;
  \6\K  +0
 

- dungi colorate etc.

2. Defecte de fasonare

& b 0 L& 0 

- ovalitate;

- conicitate;
- abatere de la planul
gurii;
- abatere de la
verticalitatea
produselor;
- abatere de la
planeitatea fundului;
- fund concav sau
convex

$  & 6 [ \6\K  +0
&0  $b& 6
decol
[ 6 && 6 $&  6\0

6K+
  400 $0 0
6K+ 6 & K+
6 [  40 W 0\\ \ 
0 6 [? & &6 [40$ &
0[ + \ ? R0M \
&K 0 [
b


decolor
0 6 [? & 0&
[0

7P
0decolorant
6 [(seleniu);
 & &06
6\0

7R
 
0 6 [? & &6 [40

colorantul
  \0 indicat;
 R0  & 0
& +6 [04& 4 6
\ [ K+ 4+ \ 6 &
inte
6\ 0&[0\ 0+[
[ & [ [ & 6 K  0 [ 0

+$0$  &[  6\
- [
0&\  & 6 \  + & 0\
+ 7 0  40P + 6
+
perpendiculare;
[[ 6 60 6 \
0&\   0 $K
 ?

- abatere de la planeitatea marginilor


gurii produsului;
 +   0\ [ [ \ \

0&\ 

+
7

- abateri de la planeitatea marginilor


fundului produsului;
- fund bombat n exterior sau n interior,

 \W 06[+

 $

capacitatea produsului;

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +
poate ap rea defectul
-

0[T&M R
K 6

- fund nclinat;

- deformare;

\[& $
 7[ $

sub dimensiunile prescrise. Se


6
+  & [
[
b 6 [ ( W 0\ \ [7+ R\
ui (la
K[ 6  0 
6& 0[ & [a
0& 60 ?K\ \0& &
W+6 + 7 6+0  [ [+

negativ aspectul produsului;


+$
0L 
06& ?K\ [
- [
 0+ & ?0+  006a [ 40[
04K[ g R 7[$ K& [ K &?0
+\

-

0[

fasonare a produsului care nu s-a


rigidizat suficient;
- abatere de la
paralelismul planului
fundului cu planul
gurii;
& 0

- gt strangulat;

g+

+?0$K
\ K g
0 +\+ 6 $0[
\ 0 a

- defect al sticlei plane (geamuri),


concretizat n abaterea de la planul
orizontal;
+ K&? & +6 \ \ [&06+ &

- +
ngustare, mpiedicnd nchiderea cu

0 g00  K
0$& &K
0 4 [K P
6 & 0


0g K[  + &
+ K&? & +6 \ \ [&06+ &
- +
0 7[$ & \ 0[
[  ?$ 6 6 + 

? &

-

interi

\[ 0&& +

- defecte de imprimare
etc.

nchiderii cu dop;
- pasul filetului este prea mare sau prea

& + 00600 ?
+6
6 &\P [  6[0K + [P 
\   $ [+ M0 R 
?+ 6 6 K+6 L 

produsului, marca fabricii etc.)

b. Defecte de
dimensiuni:
- dimensiuni

[ 6 0&0  

c. Defecte de capacitate:
- capacitate
[ 6 0&0 

- nerespectarea dimensiunilor prescrise


n limitele abaterilor admise.

\+6 K[ + 6  & +K 6


limitele abaterilor admise;


- nerespectarea masei prescrise, n
limitele abaterilor admise;

Merceologie

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

poate ap rea defectul

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +

& b 0 L&L

- incluziuni gazoase n masa sticlei, de


[0 +[ [[ K+ 0

ntroduse

0 \ 0+6 [
&K  (gK
\ 6$4K  b W 

cu un vrf metalic;
e. Defecte de prelucrare:

-

[&

ii optice;

6& 7[0[ 
[+ (&60[K\ \

- neuniformitatea

K0&  [+0 +6 6

0[ 0 7 [\ 0+
+ 

f. Defecte de integritate:
- lipituri;

K0& K   6& K[ +?K


[  ?  K+ [
K[  &&& & [& [  $ 6


poansonul au fost prea reci;
&6 &\ 

- var
largi, afectnd calitatea produsului.
T\   &[ \ &\ \0&

0\[R
 & [ 4 &6 
&  &6[  &  & 0
P [ 7 + K 6\K 



+
-

- zgrieturi superficiale, defecte de


imprimare (grosolane sau

00[+ K  0 L W04 K006



K [
$ + &+&?07 ?[ +6
  T [ $0\ +& &
R & K+  [ &

a
a
de suflat.
[ \0
+6 ?  0
a [+   &6 [
-
nesticlos, proemi
0L0& && \6& [

$0$ + \ 7\$0&

produsului sau deasupra coroanei,
4 W0 \ 67 [ 0
0 +  [ [&\

[

0& \6& [ W R g 6 &6


[+  + [ [  \


produselor, unele fiind rebutate;
0 0[ 40& K 

imperceptibile sau greu perceptibile cu


&\ \& +& 6 +0 L  6

 &
sau muchiile produsului. Se
6 0+& 6 \K  
6 \   \ 06 
6 \   0 67 P K
PK b
[6 + &K \+R
K [ 0

P
rme

- zgrieturi;

fost prea mic, situat prea jos sau nu a


fost
bine
0 7
[+centrat);
[ [$0&

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +
poate ap rea defectul

 [+  & [+ 6 
P
[ 6 [K

rmei la nchidere sau la


deschidere etc.
K&& W 60  + 

0 $
&6 \$ 0&

a

-

- fisuri;
 06
-

- caneluri;

&

-
6 06
-

0 4
0

+

\+ 0 6[ +[ 0

- bavuri;

0&\6& [\0$ 0 & \ 


din
0 +6forme
sau
 locuri
 arse din partea
[ RK&& &60 ?K\ \ &+
K[ g0 +[ +  [ 
&0[ 6&   


-
- rizuri la fundul produsului din cauza
 6 0& ? $  +
060 [+ 7\ 
$   [
0\ 60 0 6$

0+\? 7 [[ 0+6   


+  [4  0& 6
?  \   006
6

7R
uzurii mari a formelor pe linia de
mbinare
060 [+etc.
$K L &6 706

& \0+6
R
[ 0L6 


6 4K  + 4 0? &
b 6 [ \K+ && [K\ [ 6
\ $ R 6 \06    [

linia de mbinare;
\+6 0 [+ &[ 6


-
-

mate, avnd aspectul unor dungi


neregulate sau a unor fisuri dese;

- rizuri;

 

-
[ &[+R &[+ 
-

3. Defecte de recoacere



[ 4K&& K 0&& [ 


0LK
6 ?0 & L  

\0$  0 [+ \ 
P
\ [+6K+ 7[+6 
- b
+ & +0 ?T0 0 &\ [0

- tensiuni;

mbinare. Acest defect permite


scurgerea lichidelor.

+$0$ 

06& \6& [\ 

- [
temperaturii prea nalte din cuptorul
de recoacere;
 $ 0 + 0 +& 67 K ?

[0[ 
0$  6
[+[+  [+P0 [07  +6
[ & +[ [ \  \K \+

 K + +  [

produsului;

Merceologie

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +
poate ap rea defectul

& &[ 06+ 0



K0&  [ +\ [ &  a

plasei din cuptorul de recoacere,


6 [+ & &&  0
+ \
6 0 0 R& 6K\
b[
recoacerii;
\ +& K 6 [ \0&\ \
- K0&
&& [   W 0\

0& K\ \?07 +4 

gazelor din atmosfera cuptorului;


0 7[+[ [$0&
-
0&\  & 6  6
[+  +  P 006 &? 
+ 6 b &  M0\


- [

- imprimare;

 0 [

- [
culoare;
- afumare;

- zgrieturi;

banda transportoare a cuptorului de


recoacere;

- lipire etc.

[W+

$04 6

- deformare;
- rezisten

 0

&

 0 [

- [
culoare;
- urmele punctelor de

K[ \+6 $ 

5. Defecte ce apar la

0 [+ 6 \ +6

produselor:
a. Defecte de decalotare

0
& g
&0
P
R
localizate, rezultate n urma
 0 + \ [006& [ 
+ 6
00  \? 76  + $ [+ &K

ridicate de recoacere.
+$
0L 
06& ?6 
- [
 + [+ &  a
[ 6 && 6
6 && \ M 7
- deterio
0\&0 6 & 6 6+ K 
[  6 && 6 ?6 &\ 
+\
6 0 0 06& [K\ [0
0b\&[0 6& \ [[ 4 
0 $ 4 &0[+  40$[ [+6
-
06 + [
0 [ 4K [0

a

ndoire.
K K\ [&0 K
-
 60L& &  0 [  7&60 [\
\$T 06 6&60 [\
6  +$ b0
6 0 +[ 0[7[R 7
$& [+6 (&[ K
& K  \ \0&0&  L
 ? 
0 4 6 \
[ +64  & ? 4 \
 + K 7 & 

K  \ \

- produsul a fost suflat nclinat, neavnd


0$K? \+67[+ [+? \ [

de[ ndoire
\ etc.
& (
00 bP
& 0 0 L
a

marginea produsului;

&K  [

- [+
muchia de decalotare;

- planul de decalotare nu
este perpendicular pe
axa produsului
 $ + 

(dec

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

poate ap rea defectul


b. Defecte de finisare

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +

  [  

- deteriorarea produselor din cauza

[ & +[ [    +[ &[ 


0  +0 \ \?0$
6
P
pietrelor;
\  
de
[  [+ & Ksticlei
W06 [la+ locurile


K0& && [& [00R 7\+



are aspect matisat;
+? 6 $+&g\
06 [  7 R &&& K
K   R 0 K  + ? $0 6

+K
 $ 0 + 0 +& 67 K ?
[0[ 
0$  6
0 [+  &&&P \    6 g
+[ 0 6 L& + 
- [
0
&60  & [[? & ?+ 6L 6 (
a

6
6 [ 06& [K\ [
-
& 7 P & 7&  M $6 
-
& 0
-
& [7 rosimea
&6sticlei;
  
-
[ 6 + 0 \
 $ &0  &6 Ra[ 6
& [  7& b [ 
[\P  $ K[+ L
-
K0\ \ 0 $0L & 06& [ 

deoarece nu s-a atins temperatura


[ 7 [ +
\ a 4 [ \+& 706+ &
 & K  4
6$ [ & +
 [ 4 W[ +
[ $ 0 & 
0 6 & \ [[ K&& \ [
0 P  \ g
?07 [
 & 6  \ [
\  0\  \ 0 646 + 6 $

- 0 00L
\ ?07K+
K0&  [ 06 0  &[

- tulbureli;
- rugozitate;

0 &\$

+
locurile de lipire;
- tensiuni;

00 +[ &[

capacitate necores0&0 
0

- ureche;
- dinte;
6 0
- rebord proeminent

 &6\

-b
etc.

T+ L0  \ 6

 [

[+

\ +(

ntrerupt;

 + 

g  K

-
 \ 67[+ [ K

-
-

muchiei interioare sau


exterioare;

&
K0&     [

 \ 6

-
-

produsului;

zgrieturi;
- modificarea unghiului de nclinare a

060[\ \0 W & \  [ 

 0\ &6 6& 
 & [
-
0  \ [ 0  $
&  0
06 [ 6
+ o
\+ 6 6 &67
R

0[\ \0 W &\ [ 
R   & &\6& \

Merceologie

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +
poate ap rea defectul

[ 

- [ 6 0&$0 lifurilor


$+ 

d. Defecte de polizare

- zgrieturi;
- P
-

e. Defecte de matisare

6W + 40L [ K\ 6M +

 0&  

\+ 7 [+ 

stratul superficial, sub forma unor


pete;
& +K0\+60[[
 0& iuni
 mai
mari
sau

K0& \ & +


KP0& [+ [ 


P
- aspect
K0& de mat
6 pe

$
- deformarea
[ &[\0 Runor
00
K0&\ 0+ [+ 
\+0  [&\ K

?0 &[
[ 0 + & & K\ [

\+0  ? \ +

- prin pictare, aplicare de


decalcomanii sau sitografiere

\  [&\ K

6 \ 6 &[$

- lipsa de luciu a
decorurilor;

\  \ & K& [

& &
 +& [ 6
7P
-
\ 0

prea
tare
a
produsului
sau
li
b 0&?+\ 0 6

- neomogenizarea colorantului, lipsa de


+ [ + K& [
 \ \ g7[ +60$

0+
&K R 6  


are cnd
cantitatea de lac din vopsea este prea
\+ 0 R & 0 0+6
6 $ [K[  +&

din
cauza
?K[  +& [0  &60 [ 

nainte
de
decorare;
& +  ? 6$ R00 \?0
-
0+ K0[0+6  +
 &&g $\ ? R K \?  +6

produselor
 [K[ decorate;
+0\  \[0 60+6

-
produselor; arderea produsului decorat
[+ &
0 g
a

? 0

colorantului;
- desprinderea
colorantului de pe
produs (decor
neaderent);

-
decorurile cu aur;

 [


P
K&& K 

- temperatura de ardere a fost prea mare


sau durata arderii a fost prea

a modelului;
- arsuri de la sculptare
etc.
g. Defecte de decorare:
- prin sculptare

00 [ P

- aspectul s
neuniform;
0+$ [[  +
-

a modelului prin
sculptare;

+$0$  &[  6\


\   [

&\ 0\& R0&  [


- 0 &&a  60 70W[ + $

6 
0
0 7[ ++ [ [$0&
-
060[\ \[ &  0 \& [ 6
a
neatente;
K0& [ R  \K 
? &6++0 [40[ L\ &\

mate;
\ \& P0$ +$ 06

- [

- ovalitate;

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +
poate ap rea defectul
-

\+ 400

6

negru la culorile

deschise;
+ &[0 L


decorurile cu lustre;
- asimetria decorului;

- scurgeri de colorant;
- decor neuniform, cu

+ 6

-decor volatilizat;

- decor fisurat;

+

- decor zgriat;

- decor suprapus sau


nembinat corect;
- decor
0L\ cu
dungi
7 ?\sau
pete

- neuniformitatea liniei
sau benzii, dungi
incomplete etc.

& +  ? 6 R+00  \?

-
ardere a produselor decorate;

- praf depus pe vopsea sau pe decor,

0 $07\  \   &

[
0 K \ [

-decorul pictat nu este simetric cu


0 \?06K+6 [ +

pictorului;
- devieri ale semnelor de decor prin
scurgerea colorantului;
M 

- abateri ale semnelor de de

&6 M +&[[706&?M


unei arderi rapide;
 \?0  67  ? W g
0 6 0  & [+ &
P

indicate pentru arderea lui;


- fisurile decorului apar ca urmare a
unei curbe de ardere necores-

0&& 6 $ &[\0 +6+ &6

mari ntre coeficientul de dilatare al


   \ &06& [ 0$0 

utilizate;
 \&&+ & ? & 
0&04\ 67 [+ [ 0 
[+6[+ 6 \ +& ?0 0 +4
0 6 & \ M 0$K 

organice la prepararea produselor de
decor;
 0 6  6 \0 \ \\+

 0&6 \ &P
 W 0\ [ 0\ 

+  006& [  0R 7


cuptorul de ardere;
 \?
$0L +K
[
 & &[+[? W 6\ [ ++ \

elementelor
decorative;
\  0+&\ [[ &0 K

urmare a arderii sale


[ 6 && 6

- deplasarea produsului la trasarea


dungilor.

Merceologie

L

M&? g\ ?g0 +(
P T g ? ?

6.

poate ap rea defectul


Defecte din timpul

[ && 6 0+\ 

P

transportului

 K&& K 

produsului;

R+ 6

- spargerea
produselor;

 && + 

- zgrieturi;
-

&

acestuia;
- modificarea culorii produselor sub

- solarizare;

0[   4 


0
+ 6 ;   ?  &K 6
-
\  6  M0L 0 +6 +6+   

0+ &K+6 
K&& K 
+ +6  6 & +K\


produselor, putnd conduce uneori la
 K 06 M + &6

- irizare;

- corodare etc.

- asamblare def

+ [

- stabilitate

[ 0&&
0

 $
- 
[ 0 &&

6$

0  
6

 $ 0
[ 0 && 6 L+ 

- 

&  \?W  0K&&


0&\6& [\ +6 0 

hidrolizei sticlei;
6 6
- apar n timpul manipul
[K[ \ [[ [0+[  0

 [ 07 [+ &

[ R P
 & &  [ 
+ \ 6 0 & +  & 
0&b\[   + +6  
K& +[ 7 b 0\? +[ 6

transportului;
00 &&[ M 70

- urme pe
K g 6& [+ +
[

[&K?0 RK&& &60 ?K\ \


0 [
L [ 0 0 K&[L

W \7 7060 [+0 7P

- [
optice;

7. Alte defecte

0W0[M+?  00

Defecte posibile

+0 tehnico-economic
\ L W  aa +

fine.
-piesele componente ale unui produs

 \ T0R
 +g

0  [ & +b

[a
+    ii sau
&\
0  + [ $ 0 67 06 0 K+
R0 g+ &K   0

cantitate prea mare de alcalii,


 +R & 06 +6

actele normative;
- la contactul cu acidul clorhidric de o

0 [+0 &K  &6+ 0


0
\ + 0+
4
0

P P
R
limitele prescrise;
& + \[+T[ 6 0 \ [+

-
carbonatul
de
sodiu,
de
anumite
 [& 06  06 0 & + +6
6$ 0
0 [ 

P P
a
prescrise.

0 UIXULOHGLQVWLFO

Bibliografie
1)

BUSTACCHINI G. Ravena, mosaics, monuments and environment,


Cartolibreria Salbaroli, Via Gamba, Ravena, Italia;

2)

HAPAN R. WH]

GHGRFWRUDW&UHWHUHDUROXOXLDQDOL]HLFRPSDUDWLYH

SULYLQG FDOLWDWHD SURGXVHORU PHWDOLFH HPDLODWH SH SLD D QD LRQDO


LQWHUQD LRQDO

 L

, 1995;

3)

MARIACHER G. Il vetro europeo dal XV al XX secolo, Instituto


geografico de Agostini, Navara, 1964;

4)

MILLER J.  $QWLFKLW

L R DERUGDUH PDL GHWDOLDW



Editura M.A.S.T.,

%XFXUHWL

5)

NAROTTAM P. B.; DOREMUS R.H. Handbook of Glass


Properties, Enciclopedia Britanica, Microsoft 1994-2001;

6)

NESTOR M.; SCUMPU I. &DUWHDVWLFODUXOXL)DVRQDUHDLILQLVDUHD


sticlei, (GLWXUD7HKQLF %XFXUHWL, 1977;

7)

QUEDNAU W. Prizonierii din Murano, Editura Tineretului,


%XFXUHWL, 1957;

8)

5('(

$/

3(75(6&8

0HUFHRORJLHLQGXVWULDO

9)

5('(

$/

9

'8&$18

,

3/(($

'

(GLWXUD(ILFLHQW%XFXUHWL

)2512*$

, 1999;

&

36/$58

&

,$1

(

DIAMANDESCU E.; BRNZEI S.; OLARU M. - &DLHW GH OXFU

UL

DSOLFDWLYH OD 0HUFHRORJLD SURGXVHORU PHWDOLFH HOHFWULFH L FKLPLF

e,

/LWR$6(%XFXUHWL

, 1987;

10)

5('(

$/

)2512*$

&

6/$58

&

,$18

(

Merceologie, /LWR$6(%XFXUHWL, 1980;


11) SRBU R. Tratat privind expertizareaFDOLW
import, Editura2VFDU3ULQW%XFXUHWL, 2002;

LLP

UIXULORUGHH[SRUW

12) SCHWIND PALMER A. Glass, Enciclopedia Encarta, Microsoft


2000;
13) SERRA V. - Venice together, Benechu Edizioni, 1999;

Merceologie

14) VASSILAKIS SP. A. Crete, history, museums, archaelogical sites


and monuments, Athens, 1998;
15) ZIMMERMANN M.; WILD E.
Mnchen, 1981;

D

. Tutanchamun, Haus der Kunst

16) X X X Encyclopaedia Britannica, Microsoft 1994-2001;


17) X X X Enciclopaedia Encarta, Microsoft 2000;
18) X X X VWDQGDUGHJUXSHOH+L+.