Sunteți pe pagina 1din 11

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


UNIT 1 CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 5 CHEMICALS IN ACTION
5.1 Chemicals and Chemical Change
Pure Substance:
Element or compound
Particles same
Constant properties
Properties of Matter:
Physical
Chemical
5.5 Elements and the Periodic Table
def. chart of elements that combine into
compounds
metalsnon-metals
(from left to right)
Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Transition
Metals, Metaloids (staircase), Halogens, Noble
Gases
Elements and Atomic Structure
Carbon
6P
2
4
6N
(Bohr-Rutherford diagram)
ions lose/gain electrons
isotope neutron # is different
new substance lose/gain protons
ionic bond donate/gain electrons
covalent bond share valence electrons
5.6 How Elements Form Compounds
ionic compound nonmetal w/ metal
molecular compound nonmetal w/ nonmetal
5.8 Ionic Compounds
Be+N Be3N2 Berylium Nitride
Naming IDE (end of 2nd element)
Names of formulas for atoms w/ more than one
ionic charge
(cilt)
copper Cu
1+, 2+ I, II
iron
Fe
2+, 3+ II, III

lead
Pb
2+, 4+ II, IV
tin
Sn
2+, 4+ II, IV
(ie. Cupric, cuprous; lower is IC)
5.9 Polyatomic Compouds
nitrate
NO3
charge; 1hydroxide
OH
charge; 1bicarbonate
HCO3 charge; 1chlorate
ClO3 charge; 1carbonate
CO3
charge; 2sulfate
SO4
charge; 2phosphate
PO4
charge; 3Oxyacids
nitrate
nitrite
chlorate
carbonate
sulfate
sulfite
phosphate

NO3
NO2
ClO3
CO3
SO4
SO3
PO4

HNO3
HNO2
HClO3
H2CO3
H2SO3
H2SO3
H3PO4

nitric acid
nitrous acid
chloric acid
carbonic acid
sulfic acid
sulfurous
phosphoric

5.11 Molecular Compounds


Naming
Mon(o)one
tetrafour
ditwo
pent(a)five
trithree
5.12 Hydrocarbons
def. made of organic molecules, occur naturally,
contain carbon as basic building block
CHAPTER 6 UNDERSTANDING
CHEMICAL REACTIONS
6.1 Word Equations
def. rep. Of all chem reaction
set up:
all the reactantsall the products
example:
Fe+O2Fe2O3
4Fe+3O22Fe2O3
*when balancing go from metals to nonmetals
6.3 Conserving Mass
law of conservation of mass in chemical rxn:
totalk mass of reactants=total mass f products
6.5 Balancing Chemical Equations
1. change word into skeleton
2. count # of atoms in rp
3. change # of molecules not chemical formula
4. balanced eqtn. Add coefficient before
formula

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


6.6 Combustion
def. reaction of substance w/ O2 to produce
oxides (burning)
fuel+oxygenoxides+energy
Complete Combustion
Def. produces H20 and CO2
Incomplete Combustion
Def. produces CO, C, CO2 and H2O, occurs
when not enough O2 is available

The Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Collision


Model
Def. Collision Model ststes that the rate of
reaction is affected by the number of collisions
of reactant molecules
Temperature
An increase of 5 degrees celcius to 10 degrees
celcius can double the rate of rxn, increase in
temp puts collision model into effect
Concentration

6.7 Types of Chemical Reactions Sythesis


and Decomposition
Catergories:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Molecules in tiny space are more likely to collide


Surface Area

Sythesis
Decomposition
Single Displacement
Double Displacement

Sythesis Reaction
Def. two for to one
A+BAB
Decomposition Reactions
Def. one seperates to make two
6.10 Types of Chemical Reactions Single
and Double Displacement
Single Displacement Reactions
Def. element plus a compound equals an elemt
plus a compound
Double Displacement Reactions
Def. compound plus a compound equal a
compound plus a compound
CHAPTER 7 CONTROLLING CHEMICAL
REACTIONS
Rate of reactionspeed at which a reaction
occurs
7.3 Factors that Affect Rates of Reaction
4 Factors:
1. Temperature
2. Concentraion
3. Surface Area
4. Pressence of Catalyst

Def. amount of visible area which can react


Catalyst
Def. increases the rate of chemical rxn without
being consumed
Enzymes protiens (keys) that fit into
molecules (locks) which help in reactions
7.11 Endothermic and Exothermic
when a reaction occurs and heat is:
given off Exothermic
absorbed Endothermic
CHAPTER 8 ACIDS AND BASES
8.2 Properties of Acids and Bases
common acidsformulas begin w/ hydrogen
(ex.sulfuric acid is H2SO4)
basesmost contain hydroxide ions (OH-)
(ex. Sodium hydroxide is NaOH)
8.3 The pH Scale
def. numeric scale, ranging from 0 to 14, used to
measure how acid or basic a solution is
(basic) pH 1410-14 0.00000000000010
(acidic) pH 110-1 0.1
8.6 Elements and Oxides
Reactions of Metals:
React in oxygen to form metal oxides
Metal oxides are always solids
Reaction of Nonmetals
React in oxygen to form nonmetal oxides
Nonmetal oxides are often gases or liquids

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


8.7 Air Pollution and Acid Precipitation
pollutantschemicals in air that cause harm to
living things
Acid Precipitaion
Def. precipitaion that has a pH of less than 5.6

8.10 Neutralization Reactions


def. special case of double displacement rxns.
Neutralization rxn:
The hydrogen ion from the acid reacts with the
hydroxide ion from the base
H+OHHOH or H2O
Antacids
Stomach (Gastric juice)pH 1.5
Antacid contais mild base that neutralizes acid

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


Speed is determined from the slope of
the line best-fit straight line of a distance-time
graph
CHAPTER 10 DISTANCE, SPEED AND
ACCELERATION
10.3 Defining Acceleration
def. the rate of change in speed (a scalar
quantity) or velocity (a vector quantity)

UNIT 2 MOTION
CHAPTER 9 DISTANCE AND SPEED
Distancethe amount of space between two
objects or points
Timeduration between two events (seconds,
minutes, hours)
*distance and time must be measured in order to
determine speed
9.2 Measurement and Calculations
Certainty and Significant Digits
Counted or Defined Values
Certainty Rule for Multiplying and Dividing
Rounding
Precision Rule for Adding and Subtracting
Conventions of Communication
Solving Equations
Converting Units
9.5 Relating Speed to Distance and Time
Average Speed
Def. (Vav) is the total distance divided by the
total time for a trip
Instantaneous Speed
Def. speed at which an object is travelling at a
particular instant, not affected by previous speed
or by how long it has been moving
Constant Speed
Def. when the instantaneous speed remains the
same over a period of time, constant speed is rare
because of friction
9.7 Distance Time Graphs
time = independent variable x-axis
distance = dependent variable y-axis
Slope and Speed

constant acceleration a rate of change in speed


or velocity that does not change during the
acceleration
average acceleration(aav) is the average rate of
change in speed of an object
Refining the Acceleration Equation
Aav=v2-v1/t2-t1
Acceleration While Slowing Down
Same procedure as finding acceleration but
the acceleration you obtain or use will have
a negative sign
10.4 Speed-Time Graphs for Acceleration
acceleration(change of v/change of t)
The units of the slope of a speed-time graph
are the units of speed divided by the units of
time
Type of Slope vs. Type of Acceleration
Positive slopepositive acceleration
Negative slopenegative acceleration
Straight lineconstant speed
Area under the Line on a Speed-Time Graph
*the area under the line in a speed-time graph
equals the distance traveled during the time
interval
change in distance=Vav(change in time)
10.7 Instantaneous Speed
def. is the spped at a particular moment in time
tangent a line that just touches a curve at one
point, used to find the slope of a curve on a
graph
Average Speed
Same as constant speed
Classifying Speed as constant, non-constant
(changing), instantaneous, or average is useful

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


for organizing and presenting our knowledge
about the motion of an object
10.8 Analyzing Distance-Time Evidence
Analyzing Graphs
Distance-time graph:
Slopespeed
Area under Linenone
Speed-time graph
Slopeacceleration
Area under Linedistance traveled

Join each vector by connecting the


head end of one vector to the tail end of the
next vector
Then:
Find the resultant by drawing an arrow from the
tail of the first vector to the head of the last
vector
Resultant displacement single displacement
that has same effect as all the individual
displacements combined
11.5 Adding Vectors at an Angle
ex. If direction is not exactly N, E, S or W
11.7 Velocity (vector quality)
def. speed along w/ a direction

CHAPTER 11 DISPLACEMENT AND


VELOCITY
11.1 Vectors Position and Displacement
reference pointthe point from which position
is measured, usually the origin or starting pojnt
direction must be indicated:
North [N]
East [E]
South [S]
West [W]
Position
Def. separation and direction from a reference
point
Vector quality quality that involves a direction
such as a position, has both size (w/units) and
direction; eg.73m[N]
Scalar quality quality that involves only size,
but no direction, mass is a scalar quality
Displacement
Def. the change in position
(change in d with above arrow)
positive numberforward
negative numberbackwards
Drawing Vectors
Def. line segment that represents the size and
direction of a vector quantity
11.3 Adding Vectors Along a Straight Line
Vector Diagrams:

constant velocity rep by quantity symbol, an


actual quantity, labeled vector arrow, both the
size (speed) and the direction stay the same.
Average Velocity
Def. the overall rate of change of position from
start to finish
Comparing Average Speed and Average
Velocity
Average Velocity is the resultant
displacement from start to finish, divided by the
total time taken. Average velocity does not
depend on the speeds throughout its path.
CHAPTER 12 DISPLACEMENT,
VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
12.1 Position-Time Graphs
def. looks very much like a distance-time graph
straight line=equal distance in equal intervals of
time
*the slope of a position-time graph in the rise/run
or the velocity of the motion
instantaneous velocitychange in position over
an extremely short period of time, like a
instantaneous speed plus a direction
12.2 Velocity-Time Graphs
accelerationcalculated as the change in
velocity over time
*now velocity has a direction associated with it,
and so is a vector quantity

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


12.5 Acceleration and Velocity
acceleration can be calculated as change in speed
in a given time
VECTOR acceleration is change in velocity in a
given time
12.6 Displacement from Velocity-Time
Graphs
To calculate the resultant displacement from
velocity-time graph, first you must calculate the
total area under the line
12.7 Acceleration Due to Gravity
Acceleration due to gravity describes the motion
of an object falling towards a large body, such as
a planet

UNIT 3 WEATHER DYNAMICS


CHAPTER 13 GLOBAL WEATHER
DYNAMICS
13.1 A Closer Look at the Earth
weatheris the set of environmental conditions
encountered from day to day
climateis the set of environmental conditions
averaged over many years
13.2 Earths Energy Balance
4 methods of energy transfer:
1. radiation
2. conduction
3. convection
4. advection
13.4 The Atmosphere
def. blanket of air and moisture that surrounds
the earth
Atmospheric Layers:
1. troposphere
2. tropopause
3. stratosphere
4. mesosphere
5. thermosphere
6. exosphere

Atmosphere Pressure
Def. the pressure the air exerts as gravity pulls it
towards the center of the earth
Pressure gradientmeasure of the amount the
atmospheric pressure changes across a set
distance, can be vertical or horizontal
13.6 Prevailing Wind Patterns
def. winds that affect large areas
The Coriolis Effect
Def. apparent change of direction of a moving
object in a rotating system
Major Prevailing Winds:
At equatorair rises
At 30degreesair falls
At 60degreesaire rises
At the poles air falls
Jet Streamoccurs at about 30degrees latitude, a
high-altitude, east-ward flowing wind
13.8 The Hydrosphere
def. all of earths water, both fresh and salt,
liquid and ice, the hydrosphere makes up around
70% of Earths surface
The Water Cycle:
Three types of evaporation:
1. sublimation (ice)
2. evaporation (water)
3. transpiration (land)
13.9 Major Ocean Currents
def. vast volume of water at the equator where
radiation from sun is direct, oceans spread
around the world by ocean currents and absorb
all this direct energy
13.11 Clouds and Fog
convective cloudsair near surface absorbs
energy (oceans, lakes, asphalt and dirt), becomes
warmer and rises in atmosphere carrying vapour
w/ it, expands, cools and loses energy, vapour
cools and condenses, forming clouds
fogcloud that forms close to the ground

temperature gradientchange of temp. over a


distance, temp. gradient of troposphere is about
6 degrees Celsius per 1000m, above troposphere
temp. gradient uniform

Classifying Clouds
2 general types of clouds:
1. Cumulus Clouds (round)
2. Status Clouds (flat)

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


CHAPTER 14 FORCASTING WEATHER
14.2 North American Weather Systems
weather systemset of temp., wind pressure,
and moisture conditions for a certain region,
weather systems (mostly air masses) more from
west to east
Air Masses
Def. a large body of air which the temp and
moisture content at a specific altitude is fairly
uniform, air takes moisture and temp properties
of the surface
Cold polar airbrings dry, cold weather
Warm moist airbrings wet, warm weather
Low Pressure System:
Bring cloudy skies and stormy weather
Cyclonelow pressure, counter-clockwise
swirling air
Stationary Front
Def. occurs when a boundary between warm and
cool air masses remain fairly till for some time
High-Pressure System
Anticyclonea high-pressure system that rotates
clockwise and brings clear skies
14.4 Regional Weather
Sea Breezes
Land Breezes
Lake-Effect Sniw
Chinook Winds
14.5 Precipitation
def. wather that reaches the ground either as
liquid or solid form, stage which follows
condensation freezing or sublimation
14.6 Humidity
def. measure of amount of water vapour in the
atmosphere, afects the weather as well as how
comfortable you feel
Dew and Dew Point
Def. forms when air reaches the saturation temp.
meaning when the humidity is 100%, temp at
which dew forms is called the dew point
14.8 Weather Heritage and Lore-Indian
Summer

Weather Satellites and Aircraft


Weather satelliteorbiting spacecraft, regularly
gathersweather related data
Ground-Based Technology
Thermometermeasures max and min temps.
Anemometermeasures wind speed and dirction
Rain gaugemeasures rainfall
Hydrometermeasures humidity
Aneroid Barometer measure atmospheric
pressure
CHAPTER 15 EXTREME WEATHER
EVENTS
15.1 Weather Records and Events
Reported in media
15.3 Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
thunderstormstorm w/lightning, thunder and
heavy rain
3 main stages:
1. developing stage updrafts occur
2. Mature stage updrafts and downdrafts
cause unstable circulation cycle, heavy
precipitaion
3. Final Stage reduced precipitaion
Tornadoessevere storm, rotating funnel of air
extends from base of storm cloud to ground
15.4 Floods and Droughts
floodexcess water from rain, rivers/oceans
overland that cant soak up any more water
droughtlong period w/much less rainfall than
average
15.6 Hurricanes, Typhoons and Tropical
Cyclones
hurricanesevere cyclone that occurs in west
Atlantic Ocean, Carribean Sea and Gulf of
Mexico
typhoonsevere cyclone that develops in NW
Pacific Ocean
tropical cyclonesevere cyclone that develops
in Indian Ocean and area around Australia
15.7 Blizzards
def. a severe snowstorm w/ strong winds and low
temps.
15.9 Extreme Heat and Cold

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


heat waveperiod of more than 3 days at or
above 32 degrees
temp inversionwarm layers of air in a highpressure system move over and push down
cooler air

2 factors will affect weather: natural events


(hurricanes, volcanoes) and human activities
(cars, pollution)

Extreme Cold and Wind Chill


Def. Measure of the cooling effect of wind on a
body
15.12 El Nino and La Nina
def. extreme weather events around world were a
result
El Nino
Shift in ocean currents
Temp gets warmer
La Nina
Opposite of El Nino shift to colder than
average temps. In eastern pacific
Hurricanes develop more easily
CHAPTER 16 FORCASTING THE FUTURE
16.1 Evidence of Change
Temperature is one factor
16.2 Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Depletion
def. Suns energy being reflected off the surface
of the Earth and reflecting back through
atmosphere where CO2 and othe gasses (low%)
molecules absorb this energy and re-radiate it
back to the earth
16.5 Microclimates
def. set of atmospheric conditions that differ
from those of surronding areas
16.7 Our Disapearing Forests
deforestationthe removal (cutting down) of
trees
effects:
Increased CO2
Moderate temps
No flood stoppers
16.8 Canadas Fragile North
The Nothern Habitat
Tundravast treeless region where the ground
beneath is frozen with little precip. And windy
conditions
16.10 Weather of the Future

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


Classifying
Extincta species no longer found anywhere
Endangeredclose to extinction in all parts
Extripatedno longer exists in one part
Threatenedlikely to become endangered
Vulerableat risk
1.3 Extinction in the Modern World
early years of 21st century, est. one every 30
minutes
biodiversity# of species in ecosystem and
variety within those species
Domino Effectremoval of one part from
ecosystem can cause collapse of entire chain
1.5 Ecology
abioticnot living
bioticliving
populationall members of the same species
living in the same ecosystem
communitycollection of all populations
ecotonesboth ecosystems interact with
eachother
1.10 Energy in Ecosystem
source of all energy for all ecosystems is sun
photosynthesisprocess by which green plants
use sunlight energy to produce carbohydrates
UNIT 4 SUSTAINING ECOSYSTEMS
CHAPTER 1 DIVERSITY IN ECOSYSTEMS
Ecosystemrelationship between populations of
species and abiotic (non-living) factors in their
environment
Food chainstep by step sequence linking
organisms that feed on each other
Producersstarting food source (ie.grass)
Consumersanimals and other living organisms
that feed on the plants and each other
Decomposersorganisms that break down
detritus to get nutrients for own use
Herbivoresanimals that eat plants
Carnivoresanimals that eat other animals
Omnivoresanimals that eat both plant and
animals
1.2 Canadas Endangered Species

1.11 Following Energy Movement in


Ecosystems
tropic levelhow animals and plants get and
gain their energy
autotrophsmake own food
primary consumerrely on autotrophs
secondary consumersrely on primary
consumers and autotrophs
heterotrophsconnot make own food, rely on
autotrophs and other heterotrophs
CHAPTER 2 CHANGE AND STABILITY IN
ECOSYSTEMS
2.1 Cycling Matter in Ecosystems
Decay: process invovling cycling
2.2 Pesticides
Def. chemicals used to kill pests

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


Bioamplificationpesticides transfer throughout
the food chain and become more concentrated as
tropic level gets higher
2.5 The Crabon Cycle
see text diagram and explaination
2.6 The Nitrogen Cycle
def. movement of nitrogen throughout the
ecosystem
Converted through nitrogen fixation
2.7 Agriculture and Nutrient Cycles
Fertilizers and Ecosystems:
Def. materials used to restore nutrients, increase
production from land
Accumilation produces environmental problem

Temperature, water, wind and light are major


components of climate
Plant adaptationhow plants adapt to the
change in their climate
3.3 Soil and its Formation
Components of Soil (layers):
1. Litter
2. Topsoil
3. Subsoil
4. Bedrock
Formation of soilcaused by weathering
(breaking down of particles by snow, wind, frost
or rain)
3.7 Agriculture and Food Productions

2.9 Monitoring Changes in Population

3.10 Logging Forests

2.10 Limits on Populations


Biotic Potentialthe max number of offspring
that a species could produce, if resources were
unlimited
Limiting Factorsany resources that are short
are limiting factors on a population growth
Carrying Capacitymax number of individuals
of species that can be supported indefinitely by
an ecosystem
Law of Tolerancean organism can survive
within (tolerant) a certain range of a biotic factor.
Above or below it cannot survive

Clear Cuttingsremoval of all trees in rea for


use in timber and pulp
Selective Cuttingonly a few trees in the area
are cut down

CHAPTER 3 SUSTAINING TERRESTRIAL


ECOSYSTEMS
Sustainable ecosystema type of ecosystem that
can survive and function in the present time
3.1 Canadian Biomes
Def. collection of ecosystems that are similar or
related
Candian Biomes:
1. Tundra
2. Boreal Forest
3. Temperate Deciduas Forests
4. Grasslands
3.2 Biogeography

3.11 Acid Deposition and Forest Ecosystems


acid precipitationpollution which has
evaporated and returned to the ground
CHAPTER 4 SUSTAINING AQUATIC
ECOSYSTEMS
4.1 Abiotic Factors in Lakes

Structure of Lakes (layers):


1. Littorial Zonearea extending out from
lakeshore to point where plant rooted in
bottom of lake can no longer be found
2. Limnetic Zonearea of open lake where
there is enough light for photosynthesis
3. Porfoundal Zoneregion beneath, not
enough light for photosythesis
Oligtrophiclakes are typically deep and cold
Eutrophicgenerally shallow and warmer,
excellent supply of nutrients
4.2 Source of Water Pollution
4.7 Marine Ecosystem

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com

Jr. Genius Educational Services Inc.

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1


Costal zoneshallow water from the high tide
mark on land to the edge of continental shelf
Open Seacooler water, contains less minerals
and nutrients
Tidal Marshesperiodically flooded by high
tides, both plants and animals
Estuarieswhere river and streams flow into the
ocean
*cold water is more dense than warm water
4.8 Crude Oil in Marine Ecosystems
Oil creates a lot of pollution in out Marine
Ecosystems
Light oiloil that floats, kills many birds and
other creatures that live near surface water
Heavy oil oil that sinks, kills creatures like
mussels, crabs, etc.
4.9 Managing Fish Populations
Sustainable yeildsize of catch is balanced by
birth rate and survival rate (about 100 million
tons)
=catch must not be greater than the number of
fish that reach reproductive age
*fish population is rapidly decling

Gr. 10 Science Academic Cram Notes 1-886-9-Way To A www.JRGenius.com