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Psychoanalysis Today

„ Although popular for decades,

Origins of Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis is rarely practiced in
its classical form today
„ Much of Freud’s initial theoretical
Chapter 2 framework has been modified, some
has been discarded
„ Psychoanalysis represents the
foundation of what we today know as
the science of Psychology
„ Rise of “brief” therapies

Origins of Psychoanalysis Origins of Psychoanalysis (cont.)

„ Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) „ Trained in Hypnosis (Joseph Breuer)

„ Originator of Psychoanalysis „ Became interested in Breuer’s
„ Favored son “talking cure”
„ Ambivalent towards parents „ Breuer and Freud collaborated, later
„ Initially trained as a Physician separated owing to conceptual
„ Began research career studying
animal biology, cocaine „ Freud’s emphasis on the role of

Emphasis on Unconscious
Forces The Case of Anna O.
„ Hysteria „ Originally a patient of Joseph Breuer
„ Greek for “wandering uterus” „ Twenty-one years old at the time
„ Believed to occur in women „ Experienced “glove anesthesia” of her
„ Manifested by paralysis in a limb, loss of feeling, right arm and, partial paralysis of right
amnesia, etc. leg, impaired vision, nausea, difficulty
„ “La belle indifference” understanding her native language,
„ Terminology reflects the long history of sexism “absence” – dissociation?
in medicine „ Breuer noticed she often muttered same
„ Now uncommon, called Hypochondrias or words during her “absences”
Conversion Disorder „ Breuer repeated the words to Anna O.
under hypnosis

The Case of Anna O. (cont.) Psychoanalytic Terminology
„ Under hypnosis, Anna O. recounted stories of „ Freud used hypnosis to assist patients in
her father’s death, etc. remembering repressed traumatic memories
„ Emotional retelling of storied Æ paralysis lifted „ During “trauma” a wish is evoked that goes against the
ego ideal
„ Breuer concluded that the hypnosis had a
„ Rendered unconscious to render them less threatening or
cathartic effect painful
„ Catharsis defined as an emotional release
„ Freud supposed that unconscious forces were at
„ Breuer terminates therapy, Anna responded with a play since patients consciously wanted to change
“phantom pregnancy” „ Forces of which the individual is unaware
„ Breuer avoids cathartic method in future „ Coined the term “resistance” to describe

Psychoanalytic Terminology
Free Association
„ Most memories not available in consciousness However, because Freud found that not all
„ Freud asserts they are “repressed” by unconscious patients could be hypnotized, he developed
forces an additional technique
„ Repression not necessarily harmful
„ Can be protective and functional
Free Association
„ Patient verbalizes whatever comes to mind
„ However, too much of a good thing can cause „ No matter how trivial, unpleasant, etc.
problems „ Eventually will lead to thoughts, feelings, etc. associated
„ Repressing painful memories difficult and energy with unconscious conflict (follow chain of associations)
intensive „ Analyst will help patient interpret content of free
association Æ reflect the associations back to client
„ Takes away from available energy pool „ Pauses or flood of material may imply presence of
„ Still, tension escapes in an altered form important content
„ “Freudian” slips offer important meaning

Dream Analysis Dream Symbols

„ Freud believed dreams represented “unsatisfied House = Human body
Smooth fronted house = Male body
„ Wishes that may be unacceptable to the conscious
House w/ledges = Female body
mind, society, etc.
King and Queen = Parents
„ Patient describes the “manifest dream”
„ The part that can be remembered in consciousness
Little animals = Children
„ Analyst assists patient to access the “latent dream” Children = Genitals
„ True meaning Playing with children = Guess?
„ Manifest dream masks meaning of latent dream Going on a journey = Dying
because of the threatening nature of the latent Clothes = Nakedness
content Going Up Stairs = Having sex
Bath = Birth

Drive Two Main Drives
„ Drive refers to an instinct or impulse
„ Eros
„ Implied an innateness
„ Refers to life impulses, reproduction
„ Attempted to avoid pure reductionism to „ Survival instincts
physiological forces (mind has drives as well as the „ Tied to sexual drive libido
body) „ Freud’s term for psychic energy derived from sexuality,
a biological drive
„ Unity of mind and body (vs. Cartesian duality) „ Emphasized the role that sexual gratification plays
„ Source (stimulus or need) throughout the lifespan
„ Impetus (amount of energy/intensity of need)
„ Aim (goal or purpose) „ Thanatos
„ Object (person/object in environment needed to satisfy „ The death impulse
need) „ The source of aggressiveness
„ Our ultimate resolution with our tension with

Sexual Repression and Hysteria And Yet…

What do you know about Victorian
Austria? „ Cultural renaissance in philosophy, music,
Non-reproductive sexuality
(masturbation/homosexuality) are perverse literature
„ Repression of fundamental drives „ More and more, people were questioning
„ Sexual act “beastly”
prohibitions against sex and sexuality
„ Tolerated because of shortcomings of men, need for
reproduction „ Freud proposes pleasure as an important
„ Natural excretory functions viewed with shame underlying function of sex

Prohibition of sexual behaviors leads to

anxiety, fear, worry, repression, and

Psychosexual Stages of
Oral Stage
„ Freud said that we possessed multiple „ From birth to Age 1
erogenous zones „ Breast-feeding with mother
„ Body areas that provide pleasure „ Crying to meet needs
„ The importance of various erogenous „ Babies put everything in their mouths
zones changes as we grow and „ The mouth is source of pleasure or conflict
develop „ Source of understanding/discovery of the world
„ Prohibited behaviors (biting, thumb sucking)
„ Move from autoeroticism to
reproductive sexuality

Anal Stage Phallic Stage
„ Age 1 to Age 2 „ Between Age 3 and Age 6
„ Pleasure derived from the anus „ Focus on genital
„ Greater focus on defecating „ Pleasurable physiological sensations
„ Children begin potty-training „ Conflictual feelings arise
„ Conversion of involuntary to voluntary behavior „ Children notice differences between girls
„ First attempt controlling instinctual impulse and boys
„ Derive praise from parents for completing „ May fantasize about sexual acts and
potty training masturbate
„ Punishment often targets buttocks

Phallic Stage (cont.) Phallic Stage

„ Oedipus Complex „ Oedipus Complex
„ Greek tragedy written by Sophocles „ Boys experience castration anxiety or fear
„ Oedipus kills his father and weds his mother that affection for Mom will be met by
„ Oedipus unaware of the taboos he has transgressed emasculation by Dad
„ Oedipus blinds himself upon learning of his deeds „ A mixture of love and affection for father, but also
„ Children have unconscious desire to possess fears father’s reprisals
the opposite-sexed parent and do away with „ Girl version called Electra Complex
the same-sexed parent „ Not Freud’s term, considered Oedipus complex as
„ Not literally sexual universal

„ Boys are fond of mothers „ Girls experience penis envy where they feel
inferior to males for lack of a penis
„ Girls are “Daddy’s little girl”
„ Not having a penis is their castration anxiety

Phallic Stage (cont.) Latency Period

„ Oedipus Complex „ Sexual forces driven dormant by psychic
„ Boys identify with their Fathers to overcome forces
wishes for Mother „ Culturally unacceptable sexual
„ Eventually girls identify with Mothers to thoughts/behaviors are channeled into other
overcome anger at not having a penis activities (sports, intellectual interests, peer
„ Both boys and girls are then prepared to later relationships)
seek out members of the opposite sex for „ Preference for same-sex peers
marriage and procreation
„ Modern critics say that children simply
learn to “hide” their sexuality at this point

Psychosexual Stages of
Genital Period
„ Around the age of puberty „ According to Freud, this developmental
„ Return of overt sexual and aggressive trajectory was not negotiable
desires „ It is inevitable that we all must negotiate
„ Emergence of interest in the opposite sex these stages of development despite the
„ Sexual needs satisfied through socially obstacles presented in each stage
acceptable means „ Individuals who experience problems along
„ Lieben & arbeiten the way will have adult personality
characteristics represented by that stage
„ To love in an appropriate way and to
contribute as a productive member of society

Fixations Fixations (cont.)

„ Lingering effects of a psychosexual stage is called
a fixation in that stage „ Oral Fixation
„ Dependent on others
„ Optimism, trusting, possibly gullible
„ Anal Fixation
„ Possibly orderly, miserly, and obstinate

Freud believed that all “abnormal” sexual

behaviors were at one time acceptable for
children but represent fixations on early
stages of development

Psychoanalytic Structure of
Personality Id
„ Freud’s terminology of id, ego, and „ First personality structure that develops
superego came relatively late in his „ Characterizes our instinctual, “hard wired”
career responses, reactions, drives, etc.
“I am hungry” etc.
The personality is a single entity
„ Primary process thinking
comprised of these three facets
„ Hallucinating or forming a mental representation
„ Not divided, separate, or fragmented of an object to satisfy its needs
„ Rather, they are different processes „ Never known to us directly in consciousness
that regulate and manage our „ Operates on the “pleasure principle” or a
thoughts feelings and actions desire for immediate tension reduction

Ego Superego
„ The “referee” „ Representation of our societal rules,
„ Structure that balances the needs of the id morays, taboos, etc.
against the demands and expectations of
„ Consists of two components
„ Conscience or capacity for self-evaluation,
„ Secondary process thinking
criticism, and reproach Æ scolds ego,
Cognitive and perceptual skills that distinguish
creates guilt when social codes are
fact from fantasy, allowing the ego to satisfy id
needs in an appropriate manner violated
„ Functions on reality principle „ Ego-ideal or an idealized self-image in the
„ Satisfy tensions id needs at times it is safe and eyes of societal rules
adaptive to do so in an appropriate manner

Psychoanalytic Structure of
„ Life is a constant juggling act between
needs of the id and the dictates of society
„ Human Development creates the
opportunity for the emergence of superego
and ego
„ Life experiences lead to the degree that ego
can keep the balls in the air between the
instinctual needs of the id and the
internalized societal demands represented
by the superego

Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms (cont).

„ When the ego can’t effectively manage the Mechanism Characteristic Example
demands of the id and superego
Repression Blocking wish or desire from Being unaware of
„ The ego has many defense mechanisms in its consciousness deep-seated anger
Denial Refusing to believe reality Unwilling to admit to
„ Short-term solutions having illness

„ Over-utilization leads to problems in the

Reaction Expressing an impulse by Killing an enemy with
long run Formation
its opposite kindness

Regression Returning to an earlier state Re-emergence of

(mostly in children) bedwetting

Defense Mechanisms (cont). Defense Mechanisms (cont).
Mechanism Characteristic Example Mechanism Characteristic Example

Rationalization Dealing with an emotion Making the excuse that Sublimation Re-channeling an impulse Becoming a
intellectually to avoid the “everybody does it, so into a socially desirable gynecologist to satisfy
upset why feel guilty’ outlet sexual urges

Identification Modeling behavior from Modeling one’s father

someone else or mother

Displacement Satisfying an impulse with Kicking the dog after

a substitute object getting in trouble with

Projection Attributing an Assuming someone

unconscious impulse, else is frightened when
attitude, or behavior to it is actually you who
another are frightened

Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis
„ Therapeutic technique developed by Freud „ Transference was an important point in the
„ Intended to help individuals who developed psychoanalysis
„ Positive (friendly, affectionate towards analyst)
neuroses while confronting conflicts
„ Negative (hostile, angry towards analyst)
between id and superego
„ The point where a patient had transferred
„ Emotional disturbance, not necessarily
emotions for one’s parents or important
relationships onto the psychoanalyst
„ Anna O. on the extreme end of the spectrum
„ “Working through” the transference was
„ Being neurotic is not an absolute level important step
„ Gradations—a spectrum of neuroses „ Counter-transference was when the analyst
developed feelings for the patient

Criticisms of Classical
„ Seduction Theory
„ Initially, Freud held that neuroses were the
result of childhood sexual abuse
„ Later rejected this theory owing to criticism from
contemporary society
„ Today, this controversy is mirrored in the
repressed memory debate

Criticisms of Classical Criticisms of Classical
Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis
„ Gender „ Empirical validation
„ Freud’s writing focused on male development, „ Biology does not support female as castrated
implying that female development either male
mirrored male development or was inferior „ Unconscious processes are not falsifiable
„ “Anatomy is destiny” „ Difficult to operationalize constructs
„ Woman as the deficient man, lacking a penis
„ Oral and anal personality types supported in
„ Neuroses and hysteria = inadequate superego
both normal and psychiatric populations
„ “psychoanalysis is not a recommendation for a
patriarchal society, but the analysis of one”
„ Cultural construction of gender and gender roles

Analysis and Evaluation

„ Philosophy
„ Assumptions
„ Evaluation (coherence, relevance,
comprehensiveness, compellingness)
„ Science
„ Assumptions
„ Evaluation (verifiability, prediction,
compatibility, simplicity, usefullness)
„ Applications
„ Assessment, Research, Psychotherapy
„ Psychotherapy (Scholarly, Ethical, Curative)