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Experiment

Using BUffers

Using Buffers
Gino A. Romeo, Jr., Ph.D.
Version 42-0134-00-01

Lab RepoRt assistant


This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. The Lab Report
Assistant is simply a summary of the experiments questions, diagrams if needed, and data tables
that should be addressed in a formal lab report. The intent is to facilitate students writing of lab
reports by providing this information in an editable file which can be sent to an instructor.

obseRvations
Data Table 1: Add 0.1M HCl
Drops

pH

Paper Color

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

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Experiment

Using BUffers

Data Table 2: Add 0.1M NaOH


Drops
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

pH

Paper Color

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Data Table 3: Add 6M HCl


Drops
0
1

pH

Paper Color

2
3
4

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Experiment

Using BUffers

Data Table 4: Add 6M NaOH


Drops
0
1
2
3
4
5

pH

Paper Color

Data Table 5: Add 0.1 M NaOH


Drops
0
1
2

pH

Paper Color

3
4
5

Data Table 6: 0.1M NaO


Drops
0

pH

Paper Color

1
2
3
4

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Experiment

Using BUffers

Questions
A. What are the similarities and differences between the data in Tables 1 and 2? Explain how the
data supports the role of a buffer.

B. What are the similarities and differences between the data in Tables 3 and 4? Explain how the
data supports the role of a buffer.

C. Explain how the data from Tables 1 and 2 are similar and different from the data in Tables 3
and 4. What does this indicate about a buffers ability to maintain pH when an acid or a base is
added?

D. What do the data in Tables 5 and 6 show about the ability of water to behave as a buffer?
Considering the definition of a buffer, elaborate on your answer.

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Experiment

Using BUffers

E. In the procedures for Part C, Adding Dilute Concentrations of Acid and Base to Distilled Water:
Do you think it would be useful to repeat procedures 2 and 3 but instead use concentrated NaOH
and HCl? Why or why not?

Optional Question for Science Majors or Extra Credit


A. One beaker contains 10.0 mL of acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer at maximum buffer capacity
(equal concentrations of acetic acid and sodium acetate), and another contains 10.0 mL of pure
water. Calculate the hydronium ion concentration and the pH after the addition of 0.25 mL of
0.10 M HCl to each one. What accounts for the difference in the hydronium ion concentrations?
Explain this based on equilibrium concepts; in other words, saying that one solution is a buffer
is not sufficient.
Ka of acetic acid = 1.8 x 10-5
Acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer
Acetic acid .1M
Sodium acetate .1M

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Experiment

Using BUffers

H 3O+(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq) HC2H3O2(aq) +H2 O


1) Convert 0.25 mL of 0.10M HCl mols HCl

2) Convert 10 mL of 0.1M HC2H3O2 mols HC2H3O2

3) Convert 10 mL of 0.1M C 2H 3O 2 mols C2H3O2

4) Stoichiometry Calculations
C2H3O2

H+

HC2H3O2

Before Reaction:
After Reaction:

5) Convert 0.00975 mol C 2H 3O 2 after reaction to concentration:

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Experiment

Using BUffers

6) Convert 0.001025 mol HC 2H 3O 2 after reaction to concentration:

7) Concentration Calculations:
HC2H3O2

H3O+

Initial:
Change:

0
+x

Equilibrium

C2H3O2

8) Solve for [H 3O+]

9) Solve for new pH:

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Experiment

Using BUffers

Alternatively, calculate pH using the following method:

The addition of the acid changed the pH by 0.02 units


Water: Add 0.25 mL of 0.1M HCl to 10 mL H2O
1) Convert 0.25 mL of 0.10M HCl mols HCl

2) Concentration of H O+ in 10.25 mL:


3) Calculate new pH:
3

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