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MATRICESMATRICES
ANDAND
DETERMINANTSDETERMINANTS
Examination corner…
1 one mark question in part A
1 two mark question in part B
-
1 five mark question in part C
1 four mark question in part D
1 two or four mark question in
part E
Important 5 mark question’s
area:
Finding the inverse of a matrix.
Solving the simultaneous
equations.
Problems on determinants ; etc.
Solve by matrix method:
xyz++= 6
x −+=y z
2
xz−
=−2
Given system of equation can be
written in the matrix equation as
AX = D
Where
A is coefficient matrix,
X is variable matrix and
D is constant matrix.
⎡ 11
1
⎤⎡ ⎤
x
6
⎢ 1
⎥⎢
11
y
=
2
⎥⎢
⎣ ⎢ 10
− ⎥⎢
1z
− 2 ⎦ ⎥
⎦⎣ ⎦
Constant
Coefficient
Variable
matrix
ma r x
t
i
matr x
i
Now we can write the matrix
equation as
1
=
Here A has its inverse only
when it is non singular matrix.
11
1
A
=− 1 1
1
= 11
(
+
0 )(
− −− +
1
1
1
)( +
10
1
) = 4
10
−1
Hence A is non-singular, its
inverse exists and is given by
1
1
A
=
(
)
A
CCC
⎤ T
11
12
13
C
C
21
22
23
CCC
31
32
33 ⎦
i+j
Here
C
= -
( 1)
M
ij
ij
⎡11 1 ⎤
M
11
M 12
M 13
A
=
1
11
⎢ 10
1
C
= 2
11 = M 11 = 1
C 12 = - M 12
C
= M
= 1
13
13
C
= 1
C
= 2
C
= 1
11
12
13
C =− −10−
(
)
= 1
C
= 112+
=
21
31
C =−11− =−2
C
=−(11− )= 0
22
32
C
=− 01− = 1
(
)
C =−11− =−2
23
33
⎡ 11
C
C
2 ⎤
11
21
C 31
2
2
0
C
C
C
12
22
32
⎢ ⎣ 11
C
C
C
−⎥ 2 ⎦
13
23
33
1
1
X
==
A
D
(
)
D
A
⎡ 11
2
1
X
=−
⎢ 2
20
⎤⎡ 6 ⎤
4
⎥⎢
1
2
=
8
=
2
⎥⎢
4
4
1
1
2
⎥⎢− ⎥
2
12
⎦⎣ ⎦
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
⎡ 1 ⎤
⎣ ⎢ 3 ⎦ ⎥
There fore
x = 1,
y = 2,
z = 3.
CaCayyleleyy HamiltonHamilton TheoremTheorem
State Cayley Hamilton Theorem
1
2
and verify for the matrix ⎡
3
4
⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
hence find its inverse.
Every square matrix satisfies its
own characteristic equation.
CaCayyleleyy HamiltonHamilton TheoremTheorem
Let A
3
4
= ⎢ ⎣
⎡1 2⎤
⎥ ⎦
Its characteristic equation is
1-
λ 2
= 0
A −λI0=
3 4- λ
2
(1 −λ)( 4 −λ)− 60=
⇒λ − 5λ− 20=
CaCayyleleyy HamiltonHamilton TheoremTheorem
1
2
⎤⎡
1
2
7
10
2
2
A
∴− 5 − 2
=
A
AI
=
⎥⎢
3
4
3
4
15
22
⎢ ⎣
⎦⎣
⎦ ⎥
⎢ ⎣
⎦ ⎥
7
10 ⎤⎡ 1 2 ⎤⎡ 1
0 ⎤
=
−−
5
2
15 22
3
4
0
1
⎣ ⎢
⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
⎦⎣ ⎥⎢
⎥ ⎦
0
0
0
0
= ⎢ ⎣
⎥ ⎦
Hence Caley Hamilton theorem is
verified.
CaCayyleleyy HamiltonHamilton TheoremTheorem
Now let us find its inverse using C-H
Here you have
theorem
to write I
By Cayley Hamilton theorem we get,
2
A
− 5A − 2I = O
Multiplying both sides by A -1 we get
1
A
5I
2A
=
O
CaCayyleleyy HamiltonHamilton TheoremTheorem
− 1
2A
=
A
5I
1 ⎡
4
1
A −
=
− 2 ⎤
2
−3 1
⎢ ⎣
DeterminantsDeterminants
Using properties of
determinant, prove that
2
2
1 +−
a
b
22−
ab
b
2
2
21
ab
a
+
b
2
a
2
2
2
b
21
a
−−
ab
3
=
(
2
2
1 +
a
+
b
)
DeterminantsDeterminants
Applying
IfIf eacheach elementelement ofof aa rowrow (or(or column)column)
C
C
– bC
and C
C
+ aC
1
1
3
2
2
3
ooff aa ddeettermermiinannantt,, consconsttanantt
multipliesmultiplies ofof correspondingcorresponding
eellemenementtss ooff ooththerer rowsrows (or(or cocollumns)umns)
unaunaltltereeredd
DeterminantsDeterminants
C
Now
C
C
– bC
C
+ aC
1
1 2
2
3
3
2
2
1 a
1 a
+−
22
2
2
+−+
+ b
b
b
2b
2ab
0
− 2b
2
2
2
2
2ab
0
1a+
1 a
+ b
+
b
2a
2
2
2
2
2b
2
(
2
2
−2a +(a 1 −−a b)
a1 a
2
2
b
2
)
− 2a
(
+
+
)
1 a
b
1a+ + b
2b
b 1
−− b
a
DeterminantsDeterminants
Take out
and C 2
1 + a 2 + b 2 from C 1
DeterminantsDeterminants
1
0
−2b
2
22
=+ +
(1
a
b )
0
1
2a
2
2
b
−a 1− a −b
Apply
10
0
2
22
=+ +
(
C
1
a
C
b)
+ 2b C
01
– 2a C
0
3
3
1
2
2
2
b
a
1 ++
ab
DeterminantsDeterminants
2
(
22
1 ++ab ⎡ ⎣ 1 ++ab
)
22
=
⎤ ⎦
3
2
2
=+1
(
a
+
b
)
=
RHS
OneOne markmark qquestions…uestions…
Find x, if
matrix
⎢ ⎣
⎡1 x ⎤
⎥ ⎦
is symmetric
3
1
A matrix is said to be symmetric
matrix if its transpose is equal to
itself.
1
x
⎤⎡
13
=
⇒ x = 3
⎥⎢
31
x
1
⎣ ⎢
⎦⎣
⎦ ⎥
OneOne markmark qquestions…uestions…
Find x and y , if
⎡y x⎤
⎢ ⎣
is skew-
3
0
⎥ ⎦
symmetric matrix.
We know that, a matrix A is
skew-symmetric matrix if A = - A ’
So, y = 0 and x = - 3.
Solve by Crammer’s rule:
x
+ y = 3 and
x
– y = 1 .
Determinant of coefficient matrix
1
1
∆=
=− − =−
11
2
1
−1
1
1
∆=
=− − =−
11
2
1
1
3
1
∆ =
=− 31 − =−
4
1
1
−1
1 3
∆ =
= − =−
13
2
2
1 1
− 4
1
∴ ==
x
=
2
∆ −2
2
2
and y
=
=
=
1
− 2
TwoTwo markmark qquestionuestion
a 6
b+c
Prove that
b 6
c+a
=0
c 6
a+b
w ith
ou expan
t
di
ng a any s age.
t
t
Apply
C 3 C 3 + C 1
TwoTwo markmark qquestionuestion
a6abc
+
+
LHS =
b
6
a
+ b
+
c
c6abc+
+
Let us take common a+b+c
from 3
2 nd column.
rd
column and 6 from
TwoTwo markmark qquestionuestion
a 11
LHS=6(a+b+c)
b 1
1
c 11
=0
= RHS.
IfIf twotwo rowsrows /columns/columns ofof aa
ddeettermermiinannantt areare ididenentiticacall ththenen ththee
valuevalue ofof thethe
ddeettermermiinannantt vanvaniisshhes.es.