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Loretta BATALI CALCULUL LUCRARILOR DE SUSTINERE VOLUMUL I NES | eune| cn a — me EDITURA CONSPRESS ‘ste nerediats de Constat National al Ceretiri Stine dia In | [Dar SxrALL LoRETrA Cala terror de fines; vb Lae Baal | sexe Conrese St ‘ig | SBN Siar to.om ISBN o7E7-ionam? oe ‘CONSPRESS ‘Beda Lac Tei 134, tr 2c 20996, Baceet Testy e279 PREFAT/ Lire e, susinere reeset un domenks imporant al harior tebe ee nn nace Into clsicare fate generale 5ot npr erred susie tn doud rman catia (Mei de sustnore a axcavapir, + Meri oe sutner pani ia [reentil olum constule para aur Cau rtrd suse ‘atecdumatooree tate! 1: Hine pi taut ce sore 2. Seine spl por excevet 3. ure de spin colon 4 acts elcome & werent heb cu samen te pc. 5: Lies de susinere cin prtnt amratcumate geotnete Yotena tt va opine cape descate oaks peretor Ingossh ‘srcorlr, bude. precum 1 8 altar meiua serena ni ont otra ste concoput pe baza eat curl de Staite part wrt de sone” dela spetatzaren ngrare Gouioed = Seal Aerts Facutaen 3 Consnc Ge Inaucta w Agreol a Uniereiah Sone os onsc Bucurgh rete ud x suse an UTS ia comics oe _Senetnes' Aecanice painter. Fan” ana Wa! Fass So isartenes pane crsl se unect det o j wean Care curinse ements de bezk racer iui uci de user, stitpert cle lates excavate sine aural pun ass oS pent ‘lose peru conectare vraror instal ‘tora ‘CUPRINS CARTOLUL 1 PRESLNEA MASWELOR DE PAMAKT ASUERA eRARILOR oe susyMens nto OF PAMANT ASUPRY Brn ge oa 3 12 Too Raring 121" Prunes aa BRE 3 122 Presunea aco 0 23, Revit pao 13 12. Toon Colom 1S 131" Presunea 3068. 18 132, Reatone pov 7 133. hotoda gees Cuma 10 la. Prble prt ce cal a Sean malar pan 22 4. Becta uel spraseren 2 a 1! Seaham a ery AT aa eT —— 1." Gina tonto Ranke Couns. SL — 9 ‘CAPrTOLUL . spRLNWRL SIMPLE xs Ire Genera ss M2. Nuns sin ape 2 Spun cu dlp aan 3S 1122 Spans lp vert 7 1.3" impinges pan aap Lao de apie age 4 TA, Cale spins ae inact Catal api ca dap veieal 2 M42) Gaal sper cs dap onset & M143. ‘Stain general a excavate rae a8 apro.u m.20URI DE SRN 2 Mis Gorerage i? 12, Thur eat ae st a ita” hain ce gene —s 1.3. Parr i nT RT PEI aE TT is SS 32 Clea hort ncn Fa a SSI —— 5 M33, Cael sus coma tnp cu conan ngs M3. Gazal ul comer etd cv consol sou M38, Cant isomer consi e aero 53 MMS. Gazal umolaar gure ss Wz, Bel eorgecan 0 3a, Goo pent puns cape et Fre maitre pm ap ur 9 ar 1 Caleatstuor d apn 63 iat Pesmeslnares ST Be ‘erties in areca pe pt ae ‘eras stare, 88 Vetere presto po ie cy ‘Vera spit bai a Dmeratonarea ashe 267m 7 (asa ro eu coo a laser dn gene a urea eon, fe CAPITOLUL|. _PRESIUNEA MASIVELOR DE PAMANT ASUPRA LUCRARILOR DE ‘SUSTINERE La. Princip de baz GAPTOU. 1 LUCRAM OE CONSOLDARE. A VERSANTILOR INGTABIL GU ELEMENTE PISATE MM Genel? 12) Tipurde mein ae consis co soars al 2 13, Param de cle poy ere de conidia ier V3.1 Lies do enon 33. a 18.3, Evauerea Inpngel ‘oronuror suneciioers pe Sanetine ate de congo, 0 IVS Detonta apna ie pla 9 1V55. Gotermnaren unin ce eaters aierarisor aie 110 INS8. Calcul eeuror 9 trai: por tat IV57._Anaiea amps ror se snaohe 12 18. Anslza sit pant presen err de Gaara 182 CCAPMTOLUL V. LUCRAR! DE SUSTNERE DIN PAMANT ARMAT CU MATERIALE GEOSINTETICE a Ye Genera ‘a7 V2" Tun de ct da usar dn para ama 38 Vi. Thane amit emer de a. = VAL Partelr ale eva impiget psGnaiasaupe aaa de “pein npr arto SU ON NN a Cal rasan as sajoar a pa aL ts ‘vst Mecanlame os wareta, set ‘V52. Pina generale 3 cls a suai de sin ln pa v3 18 vse 34 V8 Srucan de son supose 78 ‘VE. Susu de sprin gorene (bak 6 Backwaik]_——— 177 pouocrare Fo tals exerts de meso de pam aupr ero de stb ‘sprain un pares turdamann_prowrneafoator tun 2 ort Sgowegh fe nat desir» mune For snl waa Pe ck mao retin parla 0 ect mpl deplaseor masa de ptt. nate ea ana 98 sedene rapt cra de care sa apa Th ae Iafrate atari creel Mot ~ Coulomb, ‘nparagrafle oe umear4 vor pecans pinciplle tor ulate Tn IMecanca parantnr,dr io eed aor Nat itoetstoa ctu pe care masvle de pana o wx supra luexaaor ge aunfnere dopnae oo, poste. Se sepaare @ aeomate ae ‘ements espn. On ast pune Severe apart cru ince ots ste carl struct fata, ce de exempt glare de maton. In coat az tunes vectra Ge part septa elem de susie se meet isu sate deat PP QU 1) a Te gue. reste neta drapes Incest caz masiul cn spate elonentiul de susie +0 destin, Impngrea meqorand-e fa ce suabeanorcas, Se vpau La un mame al arin anumia weer, 4 sepaeic elements de nose, ne proses Betis man 3st ano vee ean espinorea nel pt in math ning tal erat de as in ase, ‘moment pout none Ge essa a a seta ura 2). Fgura 2. Preslaea act a pindens Jn areas stuste mas de pita ate compat, exit 2 maar & resus acess aeupra samen da suse. an momar at na 50 Stnge o snumta acre 2 depts, © poqune dn mas se coapinde cos ‘a igs seh dec ponies sg le as, a suai ae gua 1) Piura 3. Retna pas a pans nl nin, an cna a fe cs =e se Sica om pring, cr 6 mia tt (presiunea activa, ct gl rezistents cae nore ‘on many nbs er i pose act rca pind prep ena cond ‘Deplasse necesare peu Indien condor de mobizce a recs pasv sont muta ra geet ol part cae apa preatnea sce. Do sl al ‘rt of al J Sopa se pot singe ena, Se none n prot Rt ‘Das delat seme de snore sane Indep de asi mu ‘unt soBoars,presnespamantul se va sta undewa inte Pag Pe ‘Peru oraluren acai valor so png! paren so pot wa ate ‘sor cre care cle al ut sunt aia Ranta facala pe cones st tr do ofr noe nia Cou, Baral pe coneceraes ecru ‘Tura pom coder, 12. Teoria Rankine 124 Prosines instar de epaus ‘cu notaile dn Flue, presune nse de epsue ao enura ea, 2| poste cts ou oma hy, (peuata vote a pam, et adncine, ar ys nunoqo aes eld aS ee exe th restr, Pa dae 2 proshine. Ase, pantuun pert Ghali eth ttn wey Poet ’ Costs k apne de natu paar tora do increas. Pere spa en al oral cnc, hp cam mans eae ohio ures ong eo unde te ung ect de frcar rt Cooter ky post detarninat experiments os guar meet d compra tase, Jar teous belt apc, dat find retour Slo ‘forun dh mast ih tpl leet Yrhau gi plead probe, et ont ‘npomaisrecrara si ra Se conan de stra eon ‘Se pot uanza ffl empien de delornar, fue. de exemple ‘nscale de lest, fo 9 do apo de spracnaolor, RSC. eine muna pn au oe wa Deoarco, In sare 42 repoue,sefomaroe th cheese orzontald ext ‘ela de ror an ur eto aon, poate alt cya a ‘usa rear parr umatoarea wre! nde ete coats a Polson. t22—Presiunen acti In tora Rankine, so face potza cd inprgere exerctal de un mat etal doo srt lng, aeons au ict, alps oa prea vor fete parle cuore tren Ace lpt vee a tonne et all focnea cine pects tre pee rate) "Se comer cal d scare parc n macivl de pné Pew un aamdatneseai so eb tua dn Figura. lo vee ‘amine cosa oga cu yz pe asi co prea depasoaa, ht ‘ttona el gal su prestnen Save Se rope ence pn lavas. gue -4.Teona Rankine pent presunes active. Pama reco ‘Serna conaia de rupee, spect cna de tangent a crt efor: lactoapia ose recut the. fone ce kate easel preci active eps: etc ‘Sas nao ene mee stn oe ae as Fon ezine unites dung a prt ste Sth, ee Tn cazul uu pint pany coc store est cada Figura. gua. Tearie Rankine pan presubes activa. Pama cosa Rezats as Adsocmas le cre posunea acivs se euleazs se deems punts coi 0 22 Wie i mea pnt sn ore sre lor natimaa orate cre pamantl er mene nespiint aver te cine punted sonata P= 0 We erm Teor Rankine poate spot panto suns a Ietenu anata uname fata de otis Ih acest ca, pes ac parse cu sus ‘ero, penta ur pamant neces et 8c Fue our 8. Teos Rank pet presne tv Pama nscsen, fren inna ec Penrose, aun lta Ce eee inet Se gun cs en nr up an. al Path cen soap afer beet ae cosp+ Yoor" pcos Pent pina cee esp acsealomul ca mes. ‘a marci a ree 23 —_Rosatnta pat In Fw LY extn fourth schematic atueie unl lament de sina vocal neta, ov te depuseacd sre masial assed let feo are ‘efonaazlcsupre un element se pana’ ey, ih po sforta eral ne {Whetrs La un momant dt cere forte Seino tangents rapt nach, resunee lta stad hess real ezsara gon Figur 7. Tera Rann pant restora pais Pint ecceziy Redtonia pas, paca zoo opal cu Bo hy ens nde kote costa eens pas, gal cu rou Fo ental pe untts de ng a part ete: Pandy wun In carl un pint comm, cecal otoruror esta colin agua 8 gua 8. Tess Rann pant retonfe pashe Pamant coer ens pont 200% ete ppalinth, 20h aun ty ce tl no on wo ymca comet aces nee ie el = I Figure 9. Tea Renin antes pas Tern econ, fn ‘nce! oreo cmt as mane rd a ie oe Potty ian ign cxap SHB REDO ess coop oos"B cos? 13.__ Teoria Coutom Teor Coulos conier aclu pam decade co par a spate ‘steal ao spn, ain ana eplasare asta one suit dears pee bred stares sm seed stupas ‘Sefacumttosele oie: prt zorop yomogen. Spas ao cocaro para ‘Spats frat pa (otonald 2 int) 1 ade coare ete conscerat un cor aa 1 Sue fecae Ines prete #1 pimare eprnat cu jt np wecares 5 at Prestunes acta In Figura 1-10 srt prezenate ole ipete a et prema de cedere ‘ABC, ltt eo surfoa fren (AC), renal cu urge supra de ‘acs (8), nna cu unghl aaa de orzo gc sural lower Jo Sisfer (AG), inna cu ung Tele aaa Lae: 6 pata ams ABC, P—pnanes pints anise ‘ir. Tera Colom. Pes act ‘tae mac dp smgr t d y Sotnd conta Ge ec 5 de maxim pein ipingorea pid, P ptt ent) AD rat ET ahs, fein ae Pent can price = = 0 = 90" (arta vera nate, eutt zonal eer, se Sofie aceey! een 8 rei! ace co eo Ramin, oepecte wi e(os-8) ee lt so, el pent ce nppwen pnd exe meen ee oa eoneet er Cll ipings active dupa Coli conduce dost detrnaea var ‘renga Deca tringesdepnce ae vaoafenadoyat pen eston sine peri 6. ‘eet Se some e& impinges vara nla cu acing, rena cn azul eoeore uel supressenl agra pres exe unghiaar (FOua co Lac actncne sprains act pa ese egald , Pushy jenn Fgura 1, Tera Colon, Disrame de pres active. ‘Anns! ctd met este cosy, nacht pm de pant ABC trie gfota de cosine, C= 6 BC (ipsa 2), ‘lure 12 Taos Could, Presins at plese 122 Resatnys pat ‘Schur fon ott cz ete reer Figura 13. a = s So Fg 8. Tona Caso. Rest pas Inmot analog urea ais a ean 7 ef ET) read, om seo Perr cal pacar = 5 0 #0» 00" (purl variant, sorts orzo 3 trout ote aeseayexposi # recta! paive ch tea arse report ein In cost car, ng y pone cae presinea paar ext masa ots wt we went es Considers o stbute wunghulad pe aléncine, i 9 stdncine +, roca pas ete eal x hy 8. econ Pent pant cea 2 procedeac ca prestinen act, pn nose ‘eno coezne, Tesria ii oul peal foxes seneu calcul presunt ace pst at saa SW rep snd de ek ‘Deoarece pacts pan de cca nu ste conscith,seanateszt ma ra rr, ecm aaa oP pepe Figur 14 Pasa act, Melos rach Cumann ute Petes marae see tr ae pe: 2s dosoreat ao sar let penty ng lean Ge sss ‘orf teen > Sovaeazs rept do rf ianat cu unghl 4a do oor. Pon pamantneccoz soos ete ungha de taluz Paral, de (ofc lan cna un ng rl mi dc fala de oor mu pote sn pin ce cosere. Pmes pote vor cause demp acess) ‘rept > Seren AC esto impart intun numa e segments, AC, CC at Pet comodiaioa eaeuel se resovanal sapere ne’ egrets coe > Se daiatazapreale ABC, ABC 5 Sa ‘Glntears gett promelr ABCy (ptt os G), ABCs (0) ot ‘ace sxeiesupresarnt rasta scesore corespunzatoe foci pam vor fetes n roti specie > Geitape oscars oor, cu aor ol 0 dolntazspe crops do ‘sort, copa ov pun 8 sogmanta egies ree, > e-toreanaeogpa de onerae,tnatd ou unghl y= 8 3a do respi de tra > Gh antemtsiea foc segment reprezertnd pre Gy, Go. sede ‘Spt paral au drepia ae ora par clnd 2 rhe poral ‘Sreepunttor (8c: > se unc puncte deine ae obine cba ting, > fanaa dolrrna vaiares making "a inpirger, ove rpreznia PPotnes ctve ce duce © tanger Ta cube, pari cu rapa oo rs > Gh pune de tangents ao cbse 0 paral a teas de ofenae, Stren objut po pari reprezetae peso st > Sarmdesora sgment rpreonsndproaures ac puna scare sea pan foe Perr ge pis oe proceed In od mato: "pont fare prem do part, ABC, ABC. se oxime pn inrbures pelgonlToqelot car’ weous st so. ich. Fone ‘rosie su cola dn Fgue (2: Renuta satel varie mpngeor Py Bhroare so ropesmia ssa ass fome sogmarier GPs, Os (Gira 15), ropazett sce surtta rn corer aad ‘ever > nid entremtile segment PCP. feta cuba inlegerto, 5 ange a cubs pari cu Ina 3 rfcoia defress sora CP ‘aa eorespands posure 2, Py ‘as mona ptr ce etre tee ‘our 15 Prsuine atv. Motos rc Cumann parr pd cos: Porry determines recs! peste, constucba Cumann est prorat ‘Foun Pur 18, Retr pes, Mood graf Culnann ue is ma en see er ws ape: 2 ne rapa ree cna unh In o, oo > Savanesat costa do ore, sinth ou wah y= 945 > Sa prope mal mute supafte peas de cedure, BC, BC, cree Creep promo ABC, ABC, > pe areata events epoch & o card alae fo, Souie praetor ABCy, ABC respect Gy, Ss > Gn Sarernstievesonor Gy se su perio deapia de eetare nal imine cs pales Seamed cedere SC, BCs > Saunas puncele de imersaco eau rezlans cuba pga 3 Si\tescus'o tangent u Gabe tnpopeior paris aeap do ‘etn > dr puncul de anges a9 cboar 9 ariel a eas de oot, biting ae un pment cr ps ahaa oe prez reco 4. __Problome practice de calcul a prestunil masivelor de amant Lt ctu une suprasaren Se cones vaabia tora Reslra elemanul do susinor cute vertel ing or sorta ‘ners onsonti Pore esha se etnge com 25 ‘ach conform eo’ spate piu Sal ‘eos pe Inveoge supra 2 trend, 2 ape o Intra unerm isnt emanate 9 pe uate Je ipa 9 seconde sua de egir Sn'care IngeapaInerafe esi petunia oe school sold 2 amar, fal ‘ecb verte! ee spot aoe aster 2 9. (Ge umer, pes une ect ose maja cu kr recstrtpsha ou a. Diageo, de detrouje. ele resume tale an Tmpngere atv $ ‘ezslent pois dalrte cesta uprsra 9 unt constr pe aeaname (0 gir PI ext dat exompul pres ace In eazu ul Tash neces) WU teptione reatars aH ose presi! oe adaugsprein acive sau reat! pate cate cantor clr poze prego aaroa t i ium 17, Presuns act «maser de pint accent ‘tna wel supra Reza cn carat general cu supatarcn 9 part un may coe, presunen av grezsonn Soon ao acme > wnt gsi Pa thy +0, 20% eis Pp thy +020 In cam pdm cee 8 ipa ace, suprasern ae crept tect ‘eaucetea dcr zonal ce ninder sn Sagrame do presi, care este Scum ous 20 Dace 4 <2ofe lagrama przit 0 20nd nnd (gure 18 ~ cau 5). araqarenitat ole st nna fa gree preuniy szve Papi 20P ein Dect a> eV, Sapam presi sural aed pate (gua 8 — cal) fa extant este opal P= Subt—zo}he Site = 5H 200)e ee gua 18, Presans acta amasvtr de pant cowave In az ‘ure uel epson 142 actu apeeubarane ‘Sb melt pei subeane se uses n for fete, Secoraidra stuse dn gua 18. 1 et “ — ir 19, Condos fest ap sblrane Sub vt ape subierane 852, -u= Hey) tty “Yate EF) seas V2 lar ea orzntl xt ops: Frets meet dt ong rer ss hh +a = hl Eu) + Thake Tale ene Unde be ee presunes heroes spin adic 29 sub nil hose wn. 143 Caleutlprestuni masiaor satiate Cn trent eat constut in mi mute satin, gral de pes setv sau pave ns ma sur cont custiore came, Peseta ‘ide spare spre, a pao an sats hn do cscs ir'Fgura 120 ate prezariat czal pein tne » ul macy stent, campus dinar nosonzve, easupre ral heros, rd supeserch asst (es) ein Peru calcul stu spe oft stats, agp ny, oat covert ao supasarans Resi ty tan?( as 42) te Hay ravi) Pura Be +83 nna De otc, nce evar npr al ot onc aaa gue 20, Cle resin ace carl un mas att at in Inmate Baza th rater 48-82) fH a= 8809 eH pun +ratstent{ 512) 1) us =a rasta 42) © In azul sare cove, n fina de vole paraetirgetaoi pat spire Zane deinen in agra de rsh. LAA Etsctlsoletrtor slamice |n unpul caver, mas de pamant da spate loner de sri ‘xeetdopresure nls aa o resurea aca condi ate, Py, I Impnget Sout nai seme nd tt Par In pus, slemanal do suri ast sus url fre de are In echo 6 ene Soins mana esti ano ut eas ands ate groiatea suc de spin ary cool om In recta In cazl erro pie, elle pote at ga by 05%, enn onde kote eoatsetl oem Coco a iping psn in condi namie et calcu roots onan. = Okabe bac pe no te Cour: (1 )eoe*(p-2 90-0) saseoas(00-d)eols+90-07 0) ‘i at coacentulsosic in deste vera E oat aea van peatve sau regen eazul sturiot ce si poate hs. scope, oa eu ze sau {Svabprea sa nepal (de trae sel rege dn flay formule Se al St aan carers costa vara #50 poate us acs 03m ‘are ung ut do Surtes e conact to elerant do spin mas in spate su fora, "Sesto unghl acu de surat rel cu oor, ‘Sete ung do fear pe la ge cont sive eleant o susp seronln spate Rezatant impinge active slic vn sal pnt necoan gia ipa oor ren nay su, a azul pamanta cosa es Port a cau se aapinantfrrle poze pent ca sor In cazul esse unal suas norm dstibute, 9 80 sont 0 ‘mpage sapien Pag eae cas general, els 8 ans Pups aplat alot! Paso ctomin ast “Semsoreaimpnges reg sau, P ae punch de slate °| ‘ree rae at de az ‘Smponata Slory = PP, ae punt de aca fauna dn ‘naire dobar nc api alos Pa 8 Stari nl um Tempoenta Sle, Pu a pun de soe unite dn aie aio bea fomeenata sears, Inti fe az. a Figur 2+ et prorat carl rsunt active una mst racozl, cd sxpratta een ofzrtals, lena de ap vere! 9 oso supaswrena 9 (3 aoes0, 320), 08 punt plates 056 én oan 1 = eC ETERT our 2, seemulasypraprosun pmént) Penru call restenph pase se procdeact smi, eupreie ‘coals estna pase nun namie de seo thd tc Sens nae str nz ctr (thos 80-0 4m” aagsoe G0 aleodS-90+87) In parmgfatle 122 9 13.1 sau ded, In tole Rankine gl Coulenb, ‘exrolis cre permt cull proshnl actve @ masvalr coos, oben se ‘Sdsenj une tone de ener a pos supeons'@ aslo Praca, saan fwatce prosinoe sc fal deena sul memes, 0 pane eIplnget isd Presi i ecues re Inzane dono ete apepltd spas de fu cae 2 pt up a ap ou 122 Presuna acta a pimanturor ooze Inpracios nu ete ecomandat linea in gre de cus zone nana gua. su recor deyraale Go cae pai tua rt opt {@) av aphin tu @) lh ant vein ooze in acl scope oh ‘Snfiserare greats soe! an mas sunusa sore Ge rangers (pe names ‘yn og fra f mation ok Boo I gua 123. Oisrame calcu pent masive coszie Inajes pe car, sora, se poe mantine la vera un au nse, > (paragrail|22) ros ca eal oaraos rl nu se formeaza pe oat adincmen Za Pamnunia covzve pst dn cone tone ctnd sunt epune Ja 3° {stort aber de oa pls err de cont + Siprasbrnior dle de woe cae eect hep, te dot ecomandat picrea un facto do gua, F Bue 48 Paramet utlay! pau ealculpreslunl pian Pen ctu presi pamanuse wane four tte «Garr ipso ares valores # forts pamanaun cove remale Sau uforsupraconslae se uzeza ‘howe cocci neon. oe + par manta oes supreconsoldeo oe poste ules a paramet lt #6 {Teoria a oecare recent, {in ong de fcare ra ct, cui rt alae dev ea eisai (cnmserind metre sc aepuete) Prana ape! napus ge apn ete de neon dearce ee yeutata vous 9 presioee train goraal a read ite ce eel patel suctror de spin, Oa oui extn vel Moti pide eps 2, Parere ‘Un ct edo al paz aps ote net Ung de tecare dave elemental de spf ren, 5 copie at do roots een de mses 9 dro doparé sch et ‘ns mao shri a wont se ‘Se presupune ot tecaen mand pe pertiale de spin nu poste spare seta crear manna la osar a ang sprte 2 uere. n-Tapeul aunt dle vt cette ae unbikd dehecae “Teoria Rankine conser 5 9, ca os diel aor mal ma le pred ‘act nte Cour neal wor pre dessins do Inara mao, esl cu Seat nace Soothe sac pac cats In Tabet 12 sun dle ets inet pan valores ung 3 up Bena (987 Adesunga dea unl poeta oa dec i earl psu coeahe \atarea scons ee hala nb 0 #0 Teco valaremaxma Ge 50 KPa abt! 1, Valo ont lo ngs de hocarepertere,& oem - ara a ae Fj ie ema, me — as (Re Se eee ae eee {et ees NEA pa a eS Et Sicha yeti | fan ire a gel aaa a—| ae ee z ee te ey f Se eremeas— Fee ee eS So eee > ‘ins mh pi ane ere er abel 2, Valo erantade ae ung deca pertatern, 5 (Bron 187) ‘Spats aaaSu caine ar Tae Ba pina [ran ae Spa aes Eo Seba fob aT Ga waa] —FeTay | are | Sipratats rgeaed(o_ aromas bea | —5=0R9 WeEas ete oat olan on) erat eRe oe LS. Critica teortlor Rankine i Coulomb ‘Tega Bann, to stra for co deca din cir tert aces, eure pesos Mintel, Sepiaate slovenia de susare nu poste produce wares Ira atv sau pass inspira nvegus mai Se pnt Ah ‘lz sul mach dertt o supra ania, sre rato ‘owe prodie nual supa! un prim art deo aa do ‘dae ete pn lr preted spr ans 2 A» 92 a8 ie onze (48-4 carl rote! peal). * perme atomiarse pteaunr lawle sume pent susie tit. ‘nd cepted. poss sunt suerte mar penou pera ‘Stngeree condor de cedar. ‘Ate. ind” deplseiia ean ‘nares, prosunle roo sur cupans ne penne av sons back Sst pr st er ec. cae et {soos sasia, lr pesanie ttle ptf coneerte ca propria etcepsare. ‘eos Cou: ‘SEONG supa de cadre plant. Datos oct re greta 9 mint supra de cedar ie Cull spre pares ricead © Bert tr expos cov, ot 9 cela reas pase ent imngeres aco curtura evi est do rocusd atl ch eearea ‘roaued pin conrres ute aut Pane Ge oar exo ich. i {on cau rezstere pave, pent = 63. Peta valet Smal ma ‘sroarea dou mparant Rania 9 wot’ subectnare 9 presnt [eve io supaesmar ez pase, CAPITOLUL I. — SPRWINIRI SIMPLE Goneralitit Spine simple sunt Merk de eujnee cu crater tampon, toate pant sprites oxcsatioy ain! te ‘nce sepa sts are, 1 feataea une spin lea ‘Sepon au noone. 1 empoebi a rata do pas |Aufonna unr pee vera ning eran pencil uel sis snp ata cont eg care set cat care in cota aoc u parma pot feral au orca. prul (Se, lol arzontal sunt mont supa ces for estat xcavapa e toner). ‘Ersatz sun! cna parce poste mare le vortca rasp ps ‘tinea unl hereon do excavete(panantst eu coezune see), Bape ‘risa st vod! trentaen Yeast spi. nd sea tae ‘nara noscoze "Bamnise spit snple sunt relzsts de regu dn rns ata Aantal zest spi st dt do Semple exacuel 3! cost lay ‘mous. Dato fap can sant lange pot Fone se apt 11.2. Tipur de spin simple 1124 Spent eu dal orzontal Sprescu up orzo eet seus dn rst lente (Fis or > dup zona. ipl jon neazu panto ou cotsina edu ‘Satu mrepataacs paral are» coezune ma mare > ‘ihn semen vor de colunrane 9 Sls, epuse daconin penaline > all elements despre fet, depuse orzo sou cna, ‘rate pn Irtrare, Fir 1. Spike cu dla erent Dupe sunt ratte in gine de Sern, ar spatula ene retunsle) su eloments eta. ln cazl uel sist de tie mare, pest 8 m, grr ozone vet cantata pin gir 9 state In ben arora eps pe oral ‘rot nau (cu alomeriemurte pooh pent ea cadre pn Mb \neorowre au gesuiie pope gua a) gua 1-2. Spi cu cp orzontt cu fra contort Tot pent tps deme mare ae pot ula gpa nena (Fre 9. ur 3. Spjne cua oncom cu spar Innate Un at sistom de sori a exer do cenansin ma st rez n raven Figur ih, Sista de susie cu pote mete i orzo cu Cont cal Dezavarsul acest stor este obcuaes supra de ou de ce convle. Poa implica surecre pa gre oars precincts ‘Sceoore, covtratgleeoule 68 abt nclnare rain ace orzonia In une sus ete nscets ca eof ocupat de pitt spac de sora so it mae. haces ca loseae peru serie gins netics {Bre ne ba in ren ato do 15-20 rm, pe cre se spa dp ono ‘eeu pene seu cu dopenie metas pure). Fgura 5. Sprite cu cul orzntal— sprit pe ga mtaco In cam sdpiturioe satires ginzlo mates se ancorsars le pares superoar. pero aan de excatab c manmurn 3-4 m gihale metals Pt ‘blossom enor a paea spur igus). uae Sram 1122. Spr cu lap verdea Spies cu dlp versa eae stats in umnowee laments (Fgtca > usp vericat putea > fist seers onanins © solarzare s cuapor, depuee dconsnas pe nage: > SBIR slomente de apie a atl, capuse oor ate pn frearare Fura 7. Spr cu ep vertat Dulap vertical sunt incon fren pin ttre, rept pe mda avant sipiut, dovanstnd-c po aeesta” Vid per tse ‘stoning ste ‘intima. oe a canted n pon enor (ua). Figur I, Spi cu cp verte cake contavatuta Ponty axeavat de adincnd marco utlzeeza metosa tescones” secjunea spit so reduce pit perbu ase cig spaful debater peta ‘auresuecsive de Gull (gua 7D) Ooch pamanl be evacuszs mana, te emansjsza platonre pene copataes paral — — a ou 1.0, Spe cu ei vercah- metodateoscpicd toda tapi duce a conaum mare de matt! onnos gia vole de cate mai man deo nacarer Ponty 9 seen aeoe Sessvars se pe Utes Solent" mela marta gre, 113. Impingorea piméntulul asupra lucrarllor de sprint ple Ingingeree pirartul repre. rv ‘ese spine sip e'uburca diagram de restun webu out in vere tpt ok spent ‘sot uct de sshrre exe selec depacre 9 detrmare sr its ‘etimup modulo ae setae pez orator, aca, a area 2) ‘Acura os raat capt prececat pen eblzwres. pest ‘cine 2 ptr eta econ singwren ne! ano depasar Dac scot foe produ sau ato Toute rest (oun sale cal punceicr es ‘pnpeea poss sont al ma Mnclcarea agra! de presi zu sir sil a fot oni de masirsoieefocuste d-aungaltmpula Pure 12), telcos iris mtue ak ¥ gue I-12. Modcares degree depres sure ul ert de sini npc wo ueacd diagrame sioieats, com arf col labore oo ‘Taaneoteon gue") 9 Pos gual Su Seay oom a a rf LN fe FY i " Nine Fgura I-12. Diegrame sine de presse a pant cpt i JEDE ‘ur 1.14, Digrame snpteat de presune epamantu upt ot 7808) Presunle aus pe bara acest daprae siroiet sunt upeestni. dsr pe eon au aa area dagranel Tecebolio cs a ‘ezutate mal prep do reals pri excavate 8 Pert eel restr cate deep sau pani conven gona ‘ste india bees parretor each i recta Ta Yoscare (fo) acd ‘ico ene eet encima rut en Perry objeres paramo exter a frfecar ete inet routes ‘wowedelo Was sates cy cou in cat prestnes larald one Todied po Parcs ooreah In carl terenuior conzve osteo aytepiat apriia do fer a pares ipeicard a excovat aus care pe up Sp, webuna ancestor ‘of rosa spimrtrs (ves nae). Penru adancin! de excavate oo panda $ m se pot adopt dmnsin consrcive pen slamarti seni ‘gouineaauuplo: $7 on fcjuna Rar 8 18 ch au 12 18 om penta dla ona 18 ‘Gen sau 20 20 om pont dlp vera {pram bcs dame de 10 2 seu 1214 om Perry mera In pln gi adtncin mas pete 5 ~ 6 m), ca de rexeteni al spi sto oblpra Claud etn epi’ compona umetare pe ‘etermnare siearor (migarea paar = Sotoem canto |g peopel, etoranarea efoturior (nemente, foe tics, foqe sxe) In serene soi ‘erates secur elamone sprint. ult ate 91 geal castor se consieré spl ezeate inte Sout unc svsnve deze. LAA Cale spinor x aula vera ls etal aunt cca ca gin! spl ezanate pe deta | dace ous la carsecuive sb cara po vertal re orn (Pure 8), owe .15, Schema decals cuspor vertical ee Sone Pert un dlp debe nese ilom truth 9 ate aa amp, eon nde presteineingerea pant detest canton paragrat Moment never main In dap ot i rah a wat ena Peru vercre sectunl dupe esq ret Mt oe, once {=m de eit al sett dap, a geomoe cussula. ibm slsoc 1 —rosora eal a emul a cool, cone STAS 858 ~ 71, ote Sunt ropoduce Tabet Ie Dn scat rela eu gosimea, da sulapl Cate tates rntzacs om pent gre snp ama pe Geta dw geet pin orzo Fgura) Frat pia reach dela di fri ued lua 1-8) rezuindo esr unto dbo gregh ei Coue t8, y= bal ene omen ncovlc msn nat ete St our, Seema de cael tr drt sri cud ete ‘hederep Pon veicarea secur eta do iime of rosime fo utieaz8 alah: ah aE 20m as Valorie usu date n Tab I, Clalul gpraturor se sfecuesct la conpresune cu far peru ¢ Inescre a care epreain ole ogra de prunes ul pa oun \Vestzaeaa compresine cu faba profuse foe cu ela: ease, 7 Hu ene ‘A secre sa (contort e fark eno ‘uganda, ee (fat sen, tu = reer amis compredine tn gulf emul (Ted . a contac eral = at le ves ev apa: ome ist (arrears tie naralé pa ore (Taba I+), Tabet, Reztterfe amit at mato ne i tere spect enh acu consi provton (STAS 636-71) [Tian soe [Seo STS Ws | Si. | Fag) | PB ‘wed_| gore ae a | Campresune mhungal] ex] 12d] 185] 130} 95 a sete Beate leap —| ag | 88 ‘ore ‘aed ae utenarh slamento metlee se vor ula val coespunasiare priests eemabie "442 Caleta spinor eu Cab usp, Ato gprs fae tm sigh med ce poreu serine su sip wereal Shusp su enous om oe sips rezamate pe stars | abe dove ‘ine ewe), +R Eto a sae pe st ora ae mm st cat a anpeine ctor ‘contact sprat— flat $0 verficd la strive, : NO ‘ur 17. Schema de cael capi aon SS -— soso / | \ ta Figura I-18. Schema cael attr nto spin ap ozonta "143. Stabitatea general excavation spate (2 erepiroctrsncose math nose tps go aren ve avn loco depiaare spr ror» perlior Aca depinene eal asl e eae ‘Sipe een ge xcs ‘tpt aie exit in ic spirrtar de refuare fund Ineo tasre mporari supa rors Tarsagh Pek av saan ‘ocaneral efile arpisr ml stemsteatn Fira ei. ‘wa 1-9. Stabitataexcevaitr sprout (Tomnson, 1869) ale cout t,o. a nl baz excrete! proiau 0 sworsacing ‘gat su grutntos ross So gi brent de Septunghrie abcd 9 sy. Dark ‘rents berate Se acesta mace ae pandntSopdene capactaas peta 9 {tren role cd, pal va coon, ca Th cal ne onal Spd & ‘pf cub de aunecare:Taagh Pook au art cle od sso “one 9/7, Dac ae repack acezunes ire sams 9 ssn, edi de asian nos 0 1 conta de le de cone C= cH dentate de ting sovetjor or 9 Ca umar, heave Wal pe eC wv Peet po LEO -oH ema Decarace paren pi fr ate axbum de porous ebule Scop! on couse de square minenum 1, “Capactatn por nt» pr pe Mle cy eee 72, rents pesaea tebe s8 depapenea 330, CAPITOLULII, —ZIDURI DE SPRUJIN IL4.Generalitag Zeke despite de snore ceive, tate pan 2 seura twcrea lve dot aot, sue! cand spel hu esta scat pen Sapa [Smt pre stabran manele do paar Ia er ce drum cl ert n $e de doa ge munis ‘rls de srg aunt Work de snore os caracer cord, care tnpoeres pins Foams ea pe ald er de cette “Zauna de sprin sort reaiznte sn sided pa, been, elon armat eerie tarot ip sone), Tipuri idurl de spin ‘in pone evade al omalor const se at dose 24 Zidur de grout Zula. de amitate suture de snore masve, cai de patra sau fur Ih na bec ctor conte Se ut do sr de routs an btn, ‘uta de cause da bon sunt uses pent nim) co pn a3, peso Sas valour ate fur de 2d find ma esoramice, Pen be fs ‘Earemie do aur oe opi sec! hops au inate (Powe lt «9. Secjonen spit cin gun i 2)eate naar party nai lk, od Zita de lar nesmat st las pet ral ic: penty ni ral mt co 6 ao ponte acpl o secure spl ca ena dn Figura.) ar ri rir monn bop snc orator (iar 2). Fir. Inbundiren siti cr de gute “Totin catego aturor de grouse cle eat in aaloane (ut «nla de sama urate cu psa) - Fgura I.E cpt reaea Dee sre ‘tnorte sav spre ava Eso ele Incinare scr caveameta cu x36 igure. 2 de svn cn gaiosne Pemecbiistea 9 exblinesgabcanl ear dentate peau mas de cates rorera sate. Zura do grout pot raat lament prefabricated i asain, Cctsoite st conaett ses dn Sap sa gr de lr seam 5h ‘Ske daring ines pao su oclanguls Creve umpls co pata spe ‘Su pamartnaroei (Fur Is). Pn Inocurs elmer de kr ou borers Srombreats i bln armat (gu IL) sept tesa sin den are bese 107m (Pawel). Tpul ca coo staat pone tu cn Fgura 1.7 ee ‘deat per stain care rw supraar, ure 2, Zero rua cn ii de ts nearmat ‘Zeure” Ge spdin ‘dn close” unt sta stuns! cid teen este ‘xpos pidnd ss edantace anor ogee, do aeerared co saptaed Pere mounien sabstai ce pote dopa o op Intnat (Figur. ‘porfomel suse. 2) saun pet gus). Figure, Zt spin in eBeoie de arn » Fire 7. Zi do siin in esaae oe Bton 1.22 Zur corior ‘Zita cama sunt cr de sr ratzt ngonra in boton ama, sired oval ave leas par at deaspe Conese sorte peas ruarea mpage redoing fel grunts propre «zou. Emeriele [Shmponente te 2d wobu eau hneoare ‘In Figura 8 suntprezoriae ctea tps de sch de com Ponty mijorarea cour do amit, i nin do pote 6 m 50 rocomarda ulleares se conta (gua Td 2) In poze, pon aceans Er ‘uae ete mal ssonorcs sdoyarea une salu de pm mat ou goer ‘Stbittea sor de spin pst inbuntata prin provedere da consla tector (Fg). Figure Zea de sin comer = Ls f | | Zz [ gua 9. Zur de sin tp comer cu consol de desir iculartati ale evaludril Impingeril_paméntului pra zidurilor de sprijin 3.4 Cazu paramentul int lncaz uni de son cu parser anon rt, mpngeea pinata ‘sn catecssseparat pat hear ara» seta (Fgura IN 0). Figura. Diagrame depres pe paramant an 113.2 Cezul peas incite sau te 2 tarenulat Supa trenl i pala sd de spin poste nna un ung ‘posta reat gu I) Se dang Yo ata pe Figur HLT, Rt de geometiaaneanbl seve oo sorn = unputwa Insta 2) gc) Se neediest! pean ‘ett aes a8 dear azo 2h In goneal ose utaasn er Rankine sau e262 Coun, ito panels nu bebe irterem cpl aca ‘In cnzl zi corr (cau 8) vor consora dou sus ‘A pei cal tment ga el ies pena i XC pnt voriicarea Sbitap globe estimere Sec ko) 8 bran aha yl ca: a ee ‘eqnras‘Pamais ce cso ws ha. Pmt fu anes PPh ‘SERRE oti" See oct tt res nin ‘Fioua i1.Cazl supa ereul ica (Bowes, 1988) Inca supra rite oe poate tna schema Fgura 12. —. ‘gure 12 Can spate rte 9 oan (rnd 867) Eee Par ka ar =) eu) Pas =YPakaskys =f) ene a3 anu sul comin cu tp ex conto tng Presupunind 8 copa data ning pid sot mis post ses sor a Ran Ir Figura 13) ot rezniat ris decodare cares ermoun in acest, az, 1 tau 8) ole caro asboesea, lar fgura 2) un oats. ‘Seeilordna un plan ftv se actune © prestunl paar In sows um car, fresunea cbr Py este Icuts ce‘ care aofoneash parle oi spits (Sen Renova exte table cai op) soeeg! doch con os font ing deep presvps e cofoe se denotacempl nan ur 13. mpingeree prt peu 2d comb cu consol urge ‘anh 198) 1.34 Caza sill corre tap cu conaol sur In cau sdll comin, cu coo seurth laure teraco de care ‘teroaanrs session carta ina) oat Po zone AS wa dares Iisare de fpaos ar po AA prstnea sci (Figure is). Dac plore de cxcare ns erecta neva ul, presiuoa in slate de pao, Py scneant 11346 Caza! ump nguete i noaps nine. ‘acd spat in spate zl care se roatzoanunplutua, ets exe Ings pal Wort do cosare nu aoe sf sm Semoto, crea 99 10a 2 fofvsres pigenn mod amar usec aie (igus i) 4 wa M4. inpingeree ptm pe un zd come cu consol scr (Bron 187) tera ree” owe 6 Inpingeee pent eu 2 eu amps guts 1.5 Cazul idl comiar eu consol de deachreare ‘iron 387) In acest az proslunes print poste ® evatustéfcknd schema on Contom ere loz, ten vericalao adancine zee 92 =a = 1eal-2*], eo 3) ee, 5 natal in ir 8: aE ane ‘te edincinea ta cae presunes gslge este egal cx valores maxiné & Prosi an son ade Pram" ems en un ai ung (2 >) gue. Inpingeee parila po un zd cu consol de descacare 0) au Se Pre = Hn. enn ‘-yutaton volumes url {2p pos (eal ose in stare de epee, ‘engi de rear teria (ere anes nz) acd se adaugto supasrcnt,g pesunes supimenia vriald cate spre et ig = pen ena mpngeoa total va ga: Pe 8p ens) 1137 Etec compact ‘Aun! ctnd se pune in oped umputura pa compacta, impinges pimaraul post cope coricrab.deoapnd chiar valarea Ty sae Ge rps oun igure. 17. Micros cotentl rostun prt iu compost Corfe stems da Figs IL, cetera presunt my aca pn ie ‘aloaea iy Mano ca 9 aur dndta fe aired Oacd oe con ‘Sree cnet es cup cad mpnge pra eon vale he ‘practic au exist stuah de cedare a suc! de spin daria ‘compacts scene spa ngs. re a 1.3.8 Capupanttorupuce i curgere nth ‘acd sbuctura de sin eee utes penny snare pansor supe ‘sramereo: de cue ln, ea peta supus ual peau Psa depatone {lowes monger seve sain sede rapaur, ones precans post eras ‘efor some in Frei (Sand. Toa) gue 8 Prasines pmo in cen penta svpuse urge te Se prospune 0 supa de cafe AB care pei, chic 9 n oa ‘sane cue de apt, conuare Geno anand ser ‘Supa crea AB posto f ersmaté cso eoapl, AB. Mose Je part do Geos spall A on etal cu o wpa ‘imrort prs Ge pant ABC, av sooner dec pl sof, tebun chores 8 dou spt de cocare care defrns apa Pot Pe Acta poste facut onederand pra Do ups Batra aces sores, pardnas dn wecnetteg Ul de spin oc erprnat Marmea , vara nunc de ncnaroe 5 (08, =4) pager wwe reamiinn, aoe unde mje un costsent de mutipicare epost Hust a Fg 9, Fgura 20 Factor de multiple (9 tinct de Rett rack (art 7987) Sse sege Penny un pant pace necoei9f = ¢ Ps devine un cz parca al | | | | | .4.Caleululzidurtor de spin ur 19, Ft de muta m9 tne de ung de car ints (Braet 1987) Calo asl, eee Una, a zr de spn cupinge umstoare espe Brand (1987) rapoeaca rez to wor ncerci pe tren care au erat 1, protimonsionare rerun sesso ANT = fracas aaa 2 Earn Otro, tongewe pants, supa, fra ‘Valearea esefelenta de mute, ms) szade 9 sat cu crepes ‘esas (ur 20), ‘Sales gern de ncaa, ec cnirco cutout en co TAS 10100 a eco ‘otfearea sense. Cake a ec its resipune colalres utr faced de suns ‘gota pant fcare an recone osble e aca care Woods 8 eal ‘men cect acm, Foe Fe Fee tem \Vericarea zur de spr prosupune: estar is secre pip ‘orfearesla ester, {otters penton tee, ErB Se = veraren abit otal, Cota face pan mature 2 LA Predimensionaressdutor de spin Pony tre cascade tun de spi, respect de ovis coi, n gua 21 sunt date dinstn onartave peu tara de peccnannanae, (| | our 21. Predinensonars crore spain 14.2 Verieares a alurecae po talps Vestal necaea pe tap pretupune cle un ecor dosnt Fegan: une ve Figure 22) "Fondo car deci pe apa sul egal cu: Few, ems u safle de ocaretrantaga slg —rezutania feslor nome 36 faze not, extn ee -rwautant for eons cate produ stinecaan pe ta eres [ ‘our 22, Veeares latina pte spn Peng cau grea pst nF 22 eurasrena union outa pe serfs ronal ‘eeutantasupracrci pe es corso rane ieingrea aca FL Ve componente cznt respec vertcal ale mpingel active fea de fecare peas N=G+a+arv em Coston de Nacre, 1 et tngerta unghie recor ores, § aie ‘leu valor au fst prcaisoIh capo Ih Tabet sunt preset ae ‘toa valor ual al coetoertl da Meare u per crac Stone, Vows Feu sstel cata exe compart cy factions de sigan eis Fa ca st 1318, ———saen ——— Fie OLA — | epic 045 cl «075 — B25 S075 230 nies, aba SIS 7 EEA O30 Nise fe. ‘a Nisan iia ma a8 atu goon 08 Tere tresses Dat De oil, vertiarea i auracare pe apd ota cea mal sever. Dac ea ms ‘ne aque ota smftoaree men pony moonatatres stoi Sareea stl Sh 8 trae i naval pre sont, cu un ng ado mas ‘ura 23), rm LL Figura 1.23. Innre pent muni tbs In acest cz, expen acto de sigur alinecare, Fa dvi ec Man ~ pene suri de nahine mar, de epuld de comer, revedoen ur ren pura 28. lenin ure 24. Folate iter pent imbunsires stabi ‘roasaea pital poste face ca In Figur i.24 a), In rouge in ul stub comes pert cxesibe deourace porte etnane amd ph aes i pon. Aga cum eats arith fou pote spare 2 supa de cde ‘ute Ie sporul de stabitats ese prac nesrieeaty. Lunges pe ce 5 Sees foe tose or sen 9 sean) on soe op Este ma afr amplaaren petal capa amon ap o8 exe i240) Inge pt sisi ee rtd denen esd 1.43 Vertesrn in rbtumare 2 are tenga de as r2etuma i ju punt (gu 125) Aen pu .25,Vriicoe a rtctimare a uror po Fecal de slp artim, aa as! ov: Moment do tbitts Maye Fae Ponts cama goer prezenat gua 1.25 cu note in acoost feu 605 +6, doy + . ae he eomn ‘Valoare Fuel cleat eo samparat cu factor de Surana aii, Fscamcare at on 8-20, r Sra Redcind tole fers mos! basa sdl pune 0), spose ela ingame do prep teen in iptza veer nates presto Pa 28). lish — (am Fgura 28 Vartcare presunior pe een N-rensanta foal verte 1 fexuant fel reat, fname tareroar ntde punto a Poss eo Powe 5 Bia tm 76 eon Verona pest pe en pen pao nda sen ine ber Pon 12 a ema peeo Sere Sn ~_penrugupaea speci dean: Pee iad Pad ewan pret Poe cenvenonalé 8 trend, detains conto STAS soni Conlon 20 exrina conaa ca reat hr foo, see Invinea mane ah rupee etcetoan, #2 nsepneaacs co A ean AS Vorfcaren stabi late Veritas stabitati gobsle pesupune vercarea sible ze i ‘masvliaainecare pe spe reuse (gua 27), / [7 Fgura 27 Vicar sai global adr de onin estar se face c pan ohice anal de stabi, fend une eve ‘rata ‘care nocpia tuple co cade crelar~ clnscn eet Folens) ncuzana in eae geuies aldo spr, G i supaneena: ‘Stratos de codae anaate Web 68 feard pon exerts arnt 2 ace oe Facto de sabia isin a cb, Fn bul compart cu acon so sabitate mim ats, Fc an egal eu cu 13. pent grparea ‘ncbmenai osu e oot pant gpa speci Behn Fame? Foam eee WAS Dlmensionses arms dur come ue corr vai prez cu ams I Figura 28. iu 28, Amar tutor mir Porta call aot nocessre do. armiturd se caluessé momar ‘neovoltrn chun es acre mapa sea reaped 9a, 92 $9.9, con sohemelo nF 20, Irena idl ext acfonata de presures sc 2 pamanuul Gn cazu ‘secant in Fira 28 peu surfs aorta a erorl 9ara suprastrond, BE omentuh sechunee 0 ete ota uM our 29, Cale ams ror comer Pon nai rls mi a st, 1 se uanaah scene sctine oe suman e ans Iares de sacs oa sufent aoe stale ra neh Srna etapa morons Se nbasa nr, Mt Perry val mai mar al ui H a0 post fos 0 sechuno vara do svat ca in ete robuueavlit momecal ncaa In ort sesh ie Ine (nampa tocar 8). Reuter vera nia ui, pe met re Amaia ong (orzo) te core | Pont tla cub se anaiznza sore 9 2.6. | Const ain singe Secunia. cra acjonatd de tus In or de 0 sarod ner caibita ata cu gy ade grote Se pamant depose Oy ay =10r-1) amen lard an aus de agree de rst corspunzsowe (Figur 29. ‘Se ticuete paren dn ceapin a Wt co rlvrtond Vi un moment Send ecb ge os pe veal ecu ae moment In sctuea = ‘ecu valerie V9 ‘Se caus ara racesrt de ernst pert a prelua moments sneoritr Consol dn crap sou b> ete aconat de sus in js do sarc nfo cebu naa 9 de grata se pura de osma =e ayy e029 lard oe nase diagramed pres espionage 20). “Se rlooueyta patos sang a cu ofr vrtcal, Vs un mame us Serind eb de foe pu verteals seu de mars In sclunea feb aloe VM So. cleuaza aa necesard eam peniu a prelus mamen ‘neo ack reat oa noctea amare pe 0 sigu dese port ambele sect emdlra deo fetta dn Mn soctuneso-) xt pe oa abs Si Acalngors pot aaa desu, resus dn Mn sctunea 2. ‘Des este necnaramatee pe aod areca ochde Po toa ines sida ms ent oe Sou Sacun Se ca A7 Cale iturtor eto Dimensunes bce: conta 0, de regu, apa cs (05 - 0.74, ar console sont salou cera ca pay al oe ase, ‘tari cv conver vara ve (0.3~ 0.) ar groxmea rene a 200mm "Vente la aunecare pe alps, rastumare i presun pe teense be a panty seul cei ‘npr calcul unc tel de urs ease computer cy met emt tint “Du post considera co lac hai p 9 tt icluatsproxiaty ans tcnats sonoma Po baza Testa ob a eto smart {ine storm efor tangerine n rac ele care cava groaes ‘Sevens pecum 3 omar incovoeoare pa bezs cio se Gein tt cesar de amature. Sit necesre mame oars perv 2 ope {Feomos ei el Pe era tortor largentale da nodule arent contrib se ‘etemina amature recoart prt rareacoaforln 26 Pen conelsamonte a spt oe cpa 6 schema mld do cc, co es tp tat ‘Pen conse aval is rocdeard ca pert itu comlr dase. Conrsrisunt slsinhca gal Armature cotatror Wound prea fecute de indore dre cara cosa enon, resecty ante hia ‘suis coma, sbi pe tara anal neler roe Cota stu oegrouite dn gbiare se foe aatzin ‘lalate exer pr vrceoa Slt fa seca pe apa, le ‘Storr, respon vis perven coer HDR 8 ah bias ied, pin ericarea_ In fesaresectune oreo dace Fenton esr cad nara sameurla cota Perr vera Ia stbitatns a anacare pe tb (tine exten) 28 connor oa ung deca. baa bah do hs nem rerio ‘neare Pera vecarea stabi 12 cuncate a contact ke gaioane (stabutate mera), sa eo rena porn ‘ote eecia oreonse do eaten ava sul teve concers ung ao fears m8 put $6 ‘tan gabioane rt soe sora mun fe sma (eu pole net ‘cnet Preston irl sau wer aft epee du dn gebeane 22 ‘alculazt pe un pan vital cares ote nnd cf! moro sus a pl {ebon des. co ramon on umd pion So Pent call zd do sri renal coi td dos ator 1 nmade ment 2 mete lela In aa mona lot dinars a un 2. rut ou nes ‘6 anve ete exorcre ae grater wnghudal (gu 30), ssn ogre Volumed media. Se apis prinplle decal pecnitepeu dure de eas, ‘Figure 30. Delores ii efectve eit ‘Spite a slnecare bul vert a Focre nla abut (el 9 ‘Pua 3) Coed este preva ce bezh covtmua ge bot. sun Bl r Sassen foal tt coun af de rout lets nse umpluara arc. In {See can ae recom un factor se sabitate mn in alinecie 1 “Sobitaee I clviecv pons mbuna pn icinrea baz sau pin treveerea uni pion. Daca ou ree prover cc bazaar de etn, (Gorse sopra re dus ga bogs ut acai, nn prs ‘in masa mpl tance evarworatl orc oon. Vefaten site Stiezretebue st cont de aes asp ade contort oar ‘spec baer gurgraeren, ‘Stabitatns a tearare Yes velit pany srucun n ansambl, ca fecafe salune azole pin 2a Expats aaa ca dose dn cio su ‘tal wall 2eumare dot se cbhe an wea mrellud Flxbitsee seit ‘Secu purmieranafoalnestsror den moieties sla pote. Baral (1987) ropune i sos uzun facto de slate ie a sara Ma me cect pen rl Se ret, respec 1 act se oresupune o dtu Ineard a presunior ino sochne, gant 3 ‘a snue caine sve alomerie nose dent, ota soconen rere ‘abue sf anon le conpresneyresstena onscreen rouse cata! a8, ‘coast metad oss conservators, supradknanstntnd seve, Pon melo soz se api aedees! praca cle prezeite panty eure turpatra equ pratt 3.8). ovale de rear devctte nfo Umpluure dh lose stale asses ‘esuepesunea verticals spd! ao alae roars presuntgotgen, = (Fgura 3}, Acct oct ein cunosct sub druroa do eect do bat Sa aot se slr” 6 waraora 9 pares gies unpub Scelks cari ‘nour sabia, ‘Seypresupune © sstibufe unilomd a pretuior versa In riod urs ‘Aste pene ump sab coe, se post se, confom ere Jenson: gua 31. Disb pros vera n cla hance de ancine ‘he setoprosuna vertical nce ‘grates volmes «unpaid close, G-Spermatl arr acl, ‘A Seatnes cole. ‘ces socjunt veneers In cares fae alu ft de rv super au, --costiants impinge ines 2 pinot arp), LS snp feces ta re spars roa send ans st dont param soz Coeztunes este de oie nepita ncleus, ‘Vatoree asin pres: Pome 5 Fan ee mae © suprasrcn ampiasld la pata supeoard a ikcu au va dice Ss cepaea val mane 8 presunl versal, dar va proses Vena ‘cate veld super a ul Pato t-0* +90. fenam Ipteza dati wore presi Intent Brana creo doscopar vere -Rowa .32, Disb prasunor erica n colut Brac, 867) Deschdene an faada adil rue petunes din couldn veces acorn dr roprarorania pea. dalale Unplsu tepals hl ‘rpnge pont vau de pesute spre ea aaa cu tinted cope, cu at presnea veal In cold cog fa Ge valarae cetarinata ci twora Janeen Expat I fap oa ga de Semper rit steerer, ca 9 concur pres ntl. tg de rosa, & Le nels iforoae le su umpuura intricard este de bie supracompscat raisins sate fecal Jo aloz Panta be cor de aeoss “net, sa poste vara parame ge sce cu aancimea: sand este oath Terma 281-27 oo and nde etm co rade (ga.3), Sep Pir 32, Fetal de rover, x Bran 1980) sen pena prciatre acai ale ca propel cleo ee tl net 8 nave foc esos Pale 4). Figura 34 Dette actor fom’ Facto om met, e039 ct 2 angina cal Geta odontal ne pc waneerae) 91 iran ‘li (Sein ezortals re nse plus). Se ocomara aoe 1 \Coeteunas pres arco 8 umplsur ela ce cba! ht salu ka ool pres sar de repeoe ‘Pon ung se Recare ave urea hedows 9 leant solo Brand recomands valcses 24, unde 4 ete gil Ge ecare int efecr a umplit ‘Slabitates I lune le un anit ela zal epinde de exindoren T Eira in fect de soe In acs! az ete ecomandat shore bart pvt utero valor mad pert supraettnescs resto foc De coe, tebe conor separa sabia aunecare 8 mpl oars fa slonerisorscheohe suonieor NU aa ian sonra nde Se Benen. 1 notaile cin Fgura 35, fa de cece pe bach ora de focae) one o fe nal ne Four 1.35, Vritcoes stab a nacre Prowler +620¥5) eauon Fy =(6,+020;+¥4+086tag, unde: = cowed asa nbs elaanile seul coalr(betonbeton srowrol, “Gre grouse scheltl cdeosir, 5) guttea ump arate a= Sepa vec etn se wre mp dps {unghie tecre tad eft al unpre, Perry sabia Ia Sounare, rand propune 0 border baz pe esehderes iainarior taser, Ciaea Unputul meroar® nu eal Drone ol wits porns cteminarea fete! i Geum, al Cuts fren‘. gausio antral ache coaler pr fel Je fecae. Figjune de peintevonsfert sca, Gy poate ela morons nse (Fovtatn fo prosurl dint reauasVericld meio su are secu cut rae Detect ners produce tel de slz epost cont doar pe 20% anos ‘Cu natal an Fgura. 36: hh who he gua 36. Vetoes i ristenare Facond de iguana, Fe ese el aol i) vce 14 fona nine potriar daca ict vera ‘Nevo In mpi ponerere carte ntresiar orale, Se nya S0 BE s0,% o Gr FroyM ems 6, ~ rut clans de unpl \ostcarea presi: p ren sfc afl aa ure de govt Subitaioe gonrla vel vrais pen sural Se seca cae ree pe sub seu er fara pm svat Prosunie dete 40 umpire introa de trent in spate sd har one ne de tacne, se nensern de foecare foetrons ‘Semel cess. Valea seat oe depind In rare maura se xrneres ‘Seon ae ste Pony call alenantaar sconces se elosae ecerle e For 7 (ca Bar, Lag Fir 37, Fre teal peoanil sce cAssior Cale vaneverslo sunt consis 2 ncireate smotis fu sunt Calodsn port's prea Inc ata cesta aeazs oreo rane ‘Swot care ptt tba ne coil sclacone. bac roustea UTP aro toring. Sect deaaunra gasir longuanale foils ene nega se Detupure ed elect descr dnte ginal Tengudrale ete maxim, eure {toroid restate de umpteen dn spat este pesipss & ‘Sreunts mega ae insipid oscars, Deca du td oe dopesoerd g tu ae celeemears, ots prunes iran detrta aan spall vi va crospude rl de opus: 9 ‘Gren suit loc de bata dn semen oe Plesea apusetee tend Dev'aasetginale opens potrcars wetua encase pent rae Destine n tar de rept rer Sin spte ach Din rate de econore, sural einpifcae 8 execu gine ‘orginal Povae 5 poseoar sunt Hone, proresfcanase cic ‘i peamit respect pen nese de pe ge fein, Prose di ceule nde so de inl 9 do foe in gine ‘ravi. De seemenea, grin rannseale Yor tune nel dere Jstomte mpnged ung imeteare snare giao’ lngluanel ae eee ‘nwo eave pa vorrei pin cao lsu non. “Gunetata a Pua Wa ens fora de waste in gne worsens fy conponenia earl ete dn ot iter ong, ‘2 atrsvedens de gra ongtorae, ene a determina incre ps olmeriele soa Bran respune cf fect Se tals nmol ump pare sel Trot pestis Ste 36 tmolue deve ginzie fngtudale eareeet stupa gras inghial. ‘ire maal ce sot ape cs 204 enon \alrietpce ale aces apo sunt n gona ne 0.3 9108, Deoarce Inari cn umes nu ptf deernate erat petra ce {aca po baz velo imouto Coa al pesmitscambnebe se newest ln able uratare sunt prezerae lr Inia conform nomelr gomane, combine donor tind precettes Pou 38. * oh wus, ey OE ‘ire .3. Schame Ge ncaa ae elament ssi ep, eee Tube 2 Vator i gen eke pe gira ngtudnle ‘woroae Eee Ta a a 5 Pas | Sogpanet | c= Pie =haPee | Pax = 2 ponry pi 2d okt pete dn cui | Sena | Siecle sy-~onttns, | (de cam ent loses asin roi cis “sat se) = =e ae bet i. Valo ita per ners pe gira npn ovale f EB a aT, a a | om n=? components zor 3 ons0 (unto cw 90 valores | Sree cota rand pent gral lengrsinas partooar) = ty =on 5, congner verte - nde mee vares do ‘esa din ol ea) co co co rns gine raneveraie ae vor considera soa fame os pany gra orgtuanale poslarcre, der peu dmensuniecorespureatoare "rue scorn stone fag 28 sere in smoni coal de stv tana pt a an Geet oe nex Ft in mbit: rand» descopert pin earners fre nv ‘nbotor varie the vo tomate cn prsunea versa, by anes) # © prsinevertcals egal cu 0.5 2). Valle meme ae for di mbna Fol eterna meds mona pet imide one (Fu IAC) Sere So Soy N Figur 40, Cle eran iin eu fot mont saya) 1 toga nomalé in setunes conser ‘y-fonsnomals In iors fol a nora n orn poser, 0 incinare spre spate ui oe lao cca mai mar a Intnl toc de aorta Farle maxire In imbngt oper ature cind tooth ruttee urplrt inert ranaforss ware y= 88a Has ene j= St8t. Hey, amen nae titans des grr ngtunla ntl porter esata a raat inn, care oe opune andl de akin, va zea excenttcat once cease decedent hair vars, 2 (Fou 41), Aosta in umd tebe prlcate 3 resets moment (Fe), nde ste ezuteta ot dn moe gure 41, Exeanotatee frst in mink Dinanghn Tscbebotarot (1852) propune un raport de 21 Ie atcinas| ler onan ata pe verona ct le, ery str cu apo Se Te at dat recut. Stone! rapune 2. Satara pe vercla rte. pale Joratale (in btn 8 fn 00mm 489 rm apa ca inte inet pent suc eu an rina Soa ste 3m, pon ‘nana: ma find recomend col cu 2 na de call, Ne eta scones ‘irtnuteasoohr mutans san la paren sopesonrs 9 Rds Zc pote f febleat in vopo spre amos Sau sr ava gual 2) fd ure 42. Zi mito nate Per acu dots du ete portant gern aru ca nage spatial iu I) SO Fgura 43, Alegre pata a ue mat cots Pon ure cu topo spre arent, tt preshnes tron in spat. cts presses cll va al are heathen cu aie parila etn nace ‘donate toi nines (gue. Figur 4, Pracans in caus pont ut pl Secu ite pent cul sun cle dea schnbare satu iedat ease baa sucht, “ure meen st mal pt exe, ect mal pu adapta a aso teorat ‘Sokuh ziuror én close ulead esl doud lect prezenae poste ‘ezuat crf share maton Soe siae + Seen sien opie ead vere i Fe ait conic" pert real din pte 2, > Gotomneres ung de Foc la aa pen spa uu, 5 emaeass ora monet, 2 Voricarea stabi nacre >" anatzons coarea sb undabe(p bcs te bcs 9 tbe, ‘issn eora mono, > ‘So caalea recsona a shineare ia fcaresecune ‘Sling eee sez mete cu vale 5. Vata presunor pen > "te utlzeaea tacra ‘monoid gi se presgure 0 dette apezndalse pesiorpe ten 4, Venteaea sii gbale "Senda plane Je codar caro ts pin 2d ‘5, Vertareacapsctiamental cso de a prot foe "ta amt conshie 0 ena” ponty ren spate > $a Gacanspresuo an clas ulna tora shana 6. Versa capacity elements inoue de pris fe dea ‘noni 2a eect tora ment gent a cleo in bin, > Se iu in corsicrare restnie mn puncte decors) moneriae ‘emilere simone ita reat vaca sean CAPITOLUL IV. _LUCRARIDE CONSOLIDARE A VERSANTILOR INSTABILI CU ELEMENTE FISATE WA.Generaltits ‘Stites paris pote inbunaats pn dete metde, ade exp mote gsometice, cate zea poles pant pen nccren [tans mrosuere de borne abu bance ‘mate hafogen, cre au ca abecyoimnaes «8 caren “pec subtrane stu ce supa (seal de or) ‘mate mecanca, are fees erosucores anor smart 2 ‘Sinelr sv pose tes npirgers amar - feted fe, cmon. sau Dologoe care aU ce" obec” Troundses ecster een © sites a surorconsuctve pole este poze In Fgura N- pa Manos, 198. ‘lemons macenico de consaliare pot eatests, de © mar forte eri conn cur sar zi Capt i, pre nop a care Srengeea pana se Vaart integral a ures de salar, pe toa tupaaa decorate ucrare gtr gue V2) luc paral contrue: reno ie atta, coloane sau chesoane cs ‘trae ds coninuzare, a ce Inpigeoe pamdruhi so vansmta| ara 9 wren nav pn gore ike eemeriee Ge sabia owetvay: " Inererior se beznard pe efedul de boll, efcenia sepnzind (Snare cee elarente PUN, com | Sonne gent ee Ee] TAU) lem) SE ee | eu 2. Tenants pg pnt ri en ==) a] — ee a] (= Fou, Shea mss anette do conskdae» pans ntabie ‘wanes 959) Freer vncstuy arr re cate e In aoa captal vr # sbole pincpaee aapecte do cael penn eine paral commun acorn anise rei ate el pli, sect Hoeetsor 1V.2. Tipurl de lucri de consolidare cu clement fgate Eerarise tte sur worn suche de asinine ou oe onsale seu de nar, car ant naan teen pes Stan uri, Din aceasta ctor nc pate plo calcanel au bare lt ur lore fate careceiztepntun apt O18 (yaad sau sara) mare 20 Saloaneta sunt vari do ple execu pe le, do ama mare, cracls en opt O'S hal mate de 10 Bartle sunt element sin beton arma cu capac mare de rect care otsee e funs do adnare seu cals de conecaares auracror oo en, Sort alate prin excavarea uel go gusta cu secute cvaahocanguars ‘sar oe maneans creas do dur 2 foun ton Plt tucteass a ements supite i src ner, cing cous Sor deeper nde mod ct puna sor lot woe Wana sarin ears ast cz arn ‘reorsl a plolr cote causa, ar ceplacie orzo ae {wren apar-ca fect Plop care lcoazd i aoaet od sunt ‘én potas lof sont tap Inofrtr laaale pr migela aaa le {Grenul Acne depts repre cairn, arsorenie Ssoisle ‘Ship plclor apr cafe Aap po sun nuns eka Uizarea poor ca lene de cnsliar a aluneedor de een pests muti sans, pe care ‘Eu posbilates de realea numa sine mecanich 2 ‘eran, cir In cuz pecan unl omplow de ‘cuzn cae permit evtares amenayiré unui sistem de srenaj compicat,pilojt {ay ralmpbeletnd ore 2. lama este considera oxi 133 Determinare coetclontu de petal renal Cosfiotl de pat, Ky sa clevaen 2 reat: Kynke, em Ky onftot a pt in) Sele opontne p en Tn nd Cosfcenu K se detmins pany statnie de phan ata pind actrees tI clas #384, +1805 eo! gua 32), fom cy ~aetrl salauraseul tneversie aril cu plan de ane ‘note vaavrel ml inf oun) ‘ean anet ean hci ft Tabet 3. Vl court de roprianatae, Kis nce de ota [Devas sl areirarasaaris —| CoRRSRTR ae popaTaNa] [Re gata poorer ware Basie 002006 {argos d= 0.025) - ‘ig 91 ate piloese W 9B Fa 0-0 momo (e025, 08) Pra nispoase cu Nisa pata cu __ ‘al arg fone uf 5 a Retiioonse >) ‘ale garg etooe to (> 17 a= TOT | Nspur man | NMat naupessu ySobvrn]| To 2000——) Sump de is N= Figwa 1-12 Defies paromeor de call lamentable aca in nts rosin se nate msi mute stats caractraae pon eencen de proportional K, der (a peste 50%) fade eda pends inear cy genie saree se closets covfeentl ectnlen Raw G2 saa (gre 135 a witht a unde ly sant goss clor Souk sar ar KK Sut content de Poporenait cle Sous srt ‘our 13. Sema de cael coors de proportionate ecient ‘ene at tau (igura 1: 1h + Ay + Kay 2h) Kul Kw ens) unde: hy Sun ron clr let fy ga lyme“ +h enn ar KK Ks costa de roporinatate cert sai, H => 1 0 mt xa roan rshane a vrs nc ean V4, Caleulul elemento figaterigide ‘Aue cand tga 0dusa, F< 25 cement se canaied nt il 56 caleba ox fond nensba, Schema de cle esto preceit In Figur 18 Sub ajo fol orzorisle H, lament de fundre corto ca un dss ‘cu ugh nal ul pe stats sabre Po jl irl (vrei) fe iba Soren acfonesz8 faq do Sub aurea una fore ozone H,deplasares oor yi edéncnes 2 sa cleuoazd oli: yoy wens [J fo ' f Figura 1118, Share dec a laments Sgt Ase Proshmenotzotla 3 @ parsnip sup er a tomer poste ‘determin, contr otc Wire, teas seehaelacavati sem ct Sere asaya semen uc a hy sun coon do pata ci 2 Prsimen mani pe baz meni, ies egal ashy Bt, omen snare gt cof pt te lc 0 sci vat esata oom get praia rat tasoa olen mages seta Nocanoectl 9s determin pin xpirarea condi de acini foarte yah ene bins 2 a ome Base tem Se -0 oi om fas wey pote , eos tel ec ea es toate, pclae gemma paneice moe esis t= HE ge ote omen Deteminrea presnirorznie pe fej verticals ae elmer ii calseee foun rel demas pert ance $13 =! xi de ret» vary rt cena “ern jul element a vec a tava ii de capac oars (61), respect Incpiniea armas co (ae +036) au wash, ‘my cost, al onsior Wea, opel cu 1, cu xcopbefudaior ‘Srcraior impinge, cd one ogo 9107 Im ect al condor de er cafe ne Seema do cota pate 6 ‘ncarciner permanerio dreds le Mom ea26 ‘M,-momen aban sleet dh net permanente decal IMi, et minimal dr (4+ 32) 4, {este egl cu nea banca, {pest opel cd 15002 tan ‘Epateasancmes Sone Stes nae 8. veieame améunoc.cnere Se carga ck ala dr, T fo ne dn ‘armaturd calculaté anterior: i tet. v9 © Vedtisare amacrine ‘Se ves umteaes rea: 7 <28t0n8, ‘Joy(ebe evs Teste oa into coamiick, 2 eat aoa amatut, ste engmea mis aon, {eso urge arate in 2a eters, nels dele de aide rmauind nase "2: et efor vertzlin nga mst, tanga 2, eeiave bit ashlee beac cocoate pce ves SNS pe sane ash (Sru'rmcn perl ner. © \ectors steel soir Sony te tate Es ost, Ta ont cto ventas tm ga a) ur V4, Sibel intmb a com een Fatal de race te doc Ta “Toe “Tre ey In coniuar se ec tbls itm aga cm a fost pect ma su. Peri vecaren amar In smagere csefsenl So facie tune imeustv20% V6 Structure spriinsuprapuse Pent proctareasrucuror de sin supapise so vr epca umatoale inp gu Va: Pent 0» Hite. 1, serra le, sort gla 20 In canst care DH, tin@0-6,), cle dovd suc we prolans separa conform pinior dj prezenias poeta cao spur uct cu nanos H ace 0s Ht In anata de stable eens suc ear, srr spect vf ey othe ars strat mi etn igure 42 Prices seer suoapute ent values stabil rs, 50 pt lust conierare umes sions ce intdsre evans (Pawa V-A3 V5.7 Stuer de spin gomene back -f0— back walls) creer te Pa Vt) ar rd ch sn pe ce Et ce ert Dec Dn 4) pn ptr re pa en viel ecu esd nua ke cone ees Dre eon et D> He 8). seit BIBLIOGRAFIE 1. Bowles, (1989) - Fount onaie and ces, Intamatona (Son MeSeew =P 1004 2 rand H, (190,192, 984) — Raum Sttemavem,r, 14, 208 Zot Gor Staanfowching Banaesmnaaron Tor Bouse und 5. Brand H. (1987) Relsiing wale and cher acting sructaos, Ea FB 3¢p 4 Bucur, M2004) ~ Carros matagele do prea aro de embstnesaloncirior Seon, tex do doctoral UTCS, 245 p. 1. Elabrre meta ds rica lamers vertal covsoliae a ‘Gaz2 Dac asta po care se surapun ami, Lg > 0.20 (und My ‘ernuter‘lurecsioare dn scale peer, coast nett oo ‘st ce mal rick rr nam clr dous srt), ru eo Ve i in conrar ‘Consuci Bucurg P4087 2 Sener cat cu rn nope 4. cobs pega ed pln oa Sacre) ia osc oe ey a ae es eee art mas Sean, Sita meaaeecees ee ce ee a ee rae Ser is Sem oes ae cess cok 3 1 pes & 0) tet anno ne: en soph se ae 9. Manoty, 1 (1983) ~ Fund i proceed under, Dice Peaagoges, 605 4a. Maru, A, Comeaph L. (1991) = lntumilor peneu prota ftir pe to. e847 11, Mainescu, C. (1989) ~ Achuarea steitafi ersamentaor 9 Versa, 6 Tei vo 9.2 12 Masetan GGT. Mae, A. af (1885) — A Mert and dean eve ob wal ayetoms, Tanspot Recoarc Labo report ne Saigo, 18. NP O72 - Nomaby penty utiearee matoalser gostei ls Iara de cnaroct 14. 7106-85 Instat eae pony prices axacuteebareeor Dont andor sansoucior 15. arp, (1992) ~ Coir concep clo fo teat rma sunectoare i sondlecondutn pater, masse 18. Punesu, M, Pop, V. Sle, T. (1882) ~ Gectnnes 9 nd Es Deca 9 Padegoaed 82. 17. Rk, N (198) ~ Fund de aaticine, Parameters Porshe, €6 Conese, 70 aap ‘Slope stbity 2000 (2000, £4. Gifts, OV. at al, Gasca SpedaPableton ASCE no 168 ‘REN 1051-12004 ~ Euscod Protea set fan, Poros 11. Gono. Repl came preg penn std STAS 2861-3 ~ Teron ob fndare. Plo. Prac goronie oe proectae 'STAS 3900-05 - Toran define, Princ gnarl de cau 'STAS 856-71 ~Consbuc elem, Preset pen roca Taminacn, MJ. (1969) = Prowetares gi enecutree Andi, tracer tn ina engl (1874, E, Teh, 700 Yoo

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