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GPEC 2006 Paper Abstract #R&S16

Title: Study on the Construction of Flexible Road Using Plastic Coated Aggregate

Authors: Dr. R. Vasudevan, Professor & Head, Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai – 15 Tamil Nadu – India, S. Rajasekaran, Project Associate, Dept. of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai – 15 Tamil Nadu – India

ABSTRACT

The studies on the use of polymer-modified bitumen (PMB) for flexible pavement are being carried out by different schools. Virgin & recycled polymers are being used for these studies. Use of disposed plastics waste is the need of the hour. The studies on the thermal behavior and binding property of the molten plastics promoted a study on the preparation of plastics waste – bitumen blend and its properties to find the suitability of the blend for road construction. The blend is almost similar to PMB. But, when higher percentage of plastics waste was used, the polymer got separated from the blend. A modified technique was developed and the stone aggregate was coated with molten plastics and the plastics waste coated aggregate (PCA) was used as the raw material for flexible construction. PCA showed better binding property. It had less wetting property. Its voids were much less. The sample showed higher Marshall Stability value. The roads laid using PCA are performing well. A detailed studied is presented.

STUDY ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF FLEXIBLE ROAD USING PLASTIC COATED AGGREGATE

Paper submitted for Conference

To

GPEC

ATLANTA - 2006

Study on The Construction of Flexible Road Using Plastic Coated Aggregate

CONTENT

1)

INTRODUCTION

2)

MODIFIED PROCESS:

2.1. Preparation of Plastics Waste Coated Aggregate

2.2. Characterization of PCA Bitumen Mix

a. Stripping Test

b. Marshall Tests

i. Variation of Binder Content

ii. Variation of Plastics Content

c. Field Study

d. Water Absorption

e. Extraction of Bitumen

f. Estimation of Plastics Content

g. Study on the Uniformity of the Coating plastics

h. Time and Temperature study on Mini Hot Mix Plant

3)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4)

PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

5)

ROAD LAID LIST

6)

CONCLUSION

7)

REFERENCES

1

STUDY ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF FLEXIBLE ROAD USING PLASTIC COATED AGGREGATE

1. Dr. R.Vasudevan, Professor & Head, Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai – 15 Tamil Nadu – India

2. S.Rajasekaran, Project Associate, Dept. of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai – 15 Tamil Nadu – India

1. INTRODUCTION

The studies on the use of polymer-modified bitumen (PMB) for flexible pavement are

being carried out by different schools. Virgin & recycled polymers are being used for these

studies. Use of disposed plastics waste is the need of the hour. The studies on the thermal

behaviour and binding property of the molten plastics promoted a study on the preparation of

plastics waste – bitumen blend and its properties to find the suitability of the blend for road

construction. The blend is almost similar to PMB. But, when higher percentage of plastics waste

was used, the polymer got separated from the blend. A modified technique was developed and

the stone aggregate was coated with molten plastics and the plastics waste coated aggregate

(PCA) was used as the raw material for flexible construction. PCA showed better binding

property. It had less wetting property. Its voids were much less. The sample showed higher

Marshall Stability value. The roads laid using PCA are performing well. A detailed studied is

presented below.

2. MODIFIED PROCESS

An alternate method was innovated to find an effective way of using higher percentage of

plastics waste in the flexible pavement construction.

The aggregate coated with plastics was used as the raw material. The plastics used were

the disposed carry bags, films, cups, etc. with a maximum thickness of 60mircons. The bitumen

was not blended with plastic waste.

2.1. Preparation of Plastics Waste - Coated Aggregate:

The aggregate was heated to around 170 deg. C. The plastics waste was shredded to the

size varying between 2.36 mm and 4.75mm. This shredded plastics waste was added over hot

aggregate with constant mixing to have a uniform distribution. The plastics got softened and

coated over the aggregate. The hot plastics waste coated aggregate was mixed with the hot

bitumen 60/70 or 80/100 grade (160 °C). The mixture was used for testing Striping value and

Marshall Stability value.

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2.2. Characterization of PCA Bitumen Mix.

a. Stripping test ( IS: 6241-1971)

The plastics waste coated aggregate –bitumen mix prepared by the above process was immersed in water. Even after 96 hrs. there was no stripping. This shows that the plastics waste coated aggregate - bitumen mix has good resistance towards water. This may be due to the coating of the plastics over the aggregate and this polymer coating made the aggregate non- wetting. Moreover, bitumen also was binding well with aggregate through the plastics layer.

b. Marshall Stability Test

Specimen preparation The standard mixture was prepared as per the IRC specification. The aggregate mix was coated with plastics waste as described above. This polymer coated aggregate mix was then mixed with a known quantity of 60/70 bitumen. The mixture then transferred to the mould. It was compacted with 75 blows on either side. The specimens (64 mm height and 10.2 mm diameter) were prepared by 1. varying the percentage of plastics waste and 2. by varying bitumen quantity. These specimens were tested. The effect of variation of bitumen content on Marshall stability value was studied using plastics waste -coated aggregate. Table – 1: Effect of variation of Bitumen content on Marshall stability value

% of plastics waste in the

% of

Marshall

M/Q

Flow value

Bitumen in

Value (kg)

(kg/mm)

(mm)

mix

the mix

0.42

4.2

1960

478

4.10

0.45

4.5

2520

560

4.51

0.46

4.6

2540

526

4.83

0.50

5.0

2520

536

4.70

0.54

5.4

2500

515

4.85

Plastics (PE) added = 10% by weight of bitumen It is observed that the Marshall stability values obtained were generally much higher than the Marshall stability value obtained for pure bitumen mix. For an effective binding as per the IV revision (Highways Road & Bridge Construction). 5% of bitumen is to be added. From our experimental results it is observed that the addition of lower percentage of bitumen with plastics waste coated aggregate shows much higher Marshall stability value. It is also observed that the

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addition of plastics waste reduces the quantity of bitumen needed for an effective mix

composition. (Table – 1). The Marshal Quotients calculated were slightly higher than expected

value of 500. Similar results were reported in the report submitted by CRRI dt. 14.11.2002

Keeping the percentage of bitumen content as 4.6, the quantity of plastics waste coated

over the aggregate was varied and the Marshall stability values were determined for different

samples.

Table – 2: Effect of Variation of Polymer content on Marshall stability value

% of

% of Binder content in the mix

Flow value

Marshall

Marshall

Plastics

(mm)

quotient

value (kg)

waste in the

(kg/mm)

mix

 

0

4.6

3.51

327

1150

0.23

4.6

4.60

437

2010

0.46

4.6

4.81

528

2540

0.69

4.6

4.92

495

2440

0.92

4.6

5.01

459

2300

The experimental results suggests that the need of minimum quantity of bitumen for an

effective mix may be reduced if polymer coated aggregate is used. The reduction depends on the

amount of plastics waste used for coating.

c. Field study.

Using this Dry Process Technique, road length of more than 1200km were laid at

different places in Tamil Nadu both by the Department of Rural Development Agency (DRDA)

and by Highways (Tamil Nadu). At Cochin, Mumbai and Pondicherry the corporation laid test

roads using this technology. Both Mini Hot Mix Plant and Central Mixing Plant were used

wherever necessary. The roads are exposed to heavy traffic, monsoonal change, heavy rain, hot

summer, etc. The roads are functioning well without potholes, raveling and rutting. Experts’

opinions are also in agreement. These observations can form the evidence for the better

performance of the plastics – tar road.

Under this present condition, it is important to study and evaluate the suitable Marshall

stability value and the corresponding Marshall Quotient for the plastics waste modified

aggregate –bitumen mix.

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Both from the field studies and from the experimental evidences it may be concluded that

the 90% bitumen with 10% plastics waste coated aggregate can form an useful mix for a good road. The reasons are.

1. The Marshall Stability value is high

2. Addition of plastics waste within the short time of 30seconds is possible.

3. Addition is also easy.

4. There is a saving of bitumen to the extent of 10%.

5. Good amount of plastics waste is available from the various sources.

6. Marshall Quotient is also in the tolerance range.

d. Water Absorption Test

A known quantity of aggregate was taken, dried at 110deg.C and cooled. The weight of the aggregate was determined. It was then immersed in water for 24 hrs. Then the aggregate was dried using dry clothes (IS: 2386 part 3) and the weight was determined. The water absorbed by the aggregate was determined from the weight difference. 500 gms of the aggregate was taken and heated to around 170deg. C. It was then coated with plastics at that temperature. The plastics coated aggregate was cooled to room temperature. It was immersed in water for 24hrs. Then it was removed, dried and the weight of the aggregate was determined. This process was repeated three times for each sample. The values were recorded. The experiment was carried out for different aggregate samples coated with different quantity of plastics.

Table- 3: Water absorption

% of polymer coated over aggregate

Wt. of added plastics in ( gm)

 

Water absorption (%)

 

Sample I

Sample II

Sample III

Average

-

-

0.56

0.57

0.55

0.56

0.5

2.50

0.44

0.40

0.42

0.42

0.75

3.75

0.32

0.28

0.28

0.29

1.0

5.00

0.24

0.22

0.20

0.22

Model calculation:

Preparation of 10% coating of plastics waste over aggregate:

As per HRS specification, 500gms aggregate needs 25gms of bitumen. Hence 2.5 gm of plastics waste was coated over the aggregate.

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It is observed that the absorption of water had decreased with the increase in the percentage coating of plastics over the aggregate. This shows that the coating of plastics reduces the voids. Aggregate having an absorption of water more than 2% is not suitable for pavement construction. Hence coating of plastics over aggregate helps to improve the quality of the aggregate.

e. Extraction of Bitumen:

The studies on the extraction of bitumen from 1. aggregate coated with bitumen 2. plastics waste coated aggregate mixed with bitumen (Dry Process) and 3. aggregate mixed with plastics waste -blended bitumen (Wet Process) were studied and the results are tabulated( 4 & 5). The extractions were carried out using benzene as a solvent. The weight of the residue was determined at various time intervals after proper separation of solvent from the mixture. Table – 4: Plastics waste coated Aggregate + Bitumen (Dry Process)

 

Plastics

 

% of

5 Minutes

10 Minutes

15 Minutes

Aggregate

PE

Bitumen

Plastics

Bitumen

Bitumen

Bitumen

(gm)

(gm)

(gm)

added

Removed

Removed

Removed

(gm)

%

%

%

50.01

-

2.5

-

96.0

98.0

99.0

50.13

0.61

2.5

24.2

63.5

88.7

92.3

50.33

0.80

2.6

31.4

63.2

86.7

90.7

49.82

1.01

2.55

39.7

61.3

76.7

83.6

The results show that the removal of bitumen is slow in the case of plastics waste -coated aggregate compared to plain bitumen coated aggregate. This may help to conclude that the bonding strength of bitumen with the aggregate has increased in the Dry Process. The experiments were repeated using plastics waste blended bitumen prepared as stated earlier (P.5) and the results are tabulated.

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Table – 5: Aggregate + Plastics waste blended bitumen

 

Plastics

 

% of

5 Minutes

10 Minutes

15 Minutes

Aggregate

PE

Bitumen

Plastics

Bitumen

Bitumen

Bitumen

(gm)

(gm)

(gm)

added

Removed

Removed

Removed

(gm)

%

%

%

50.0

0.8

2.62

30.5

88

92.8

115.1

50.0

1.03

2.61

39.36

87.3

97.4

126.0

The results again show that removal of bitumen in this case is easier compared to plastics waste-coated aggregate –bitumen mix. It is also observed that during the extraction of bitumen, the weight loss was more than the weight of bitumen used. This suggests that the polymer (dispersed with bitumen) was also removed along with bitumen. This was confirmed by the following experiments. The benzene extracts from both the Dry process and Wet process aggregates were separated and evaporated to dryness. The residue obtained from the Wet process contained both bitumen and plastics whereas the residue from the Dry process contained only bitumen. The polymer remained with the aggregate. These results add evidence to show that the Dry process (plastics waste coated aggregate and bitumen) is better. To throw more light on the nature of binding between Dry process and Wet process the Marshall Stability values were again determined under the two different conditions. Table – 6: Polymer coated aggregate

% of plastics waste added in the mix

% of Bitumen added in the

Marshall

Flow

M/Q

Stability Value

value

(kg/mm)

mix

(Kg)

(mm)

0.10

5

1250

4.10

304

0.25

5

1910

4.70

406

0.50

5

2450

4.75

515

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Table – 7: Polymer blend bitumen

% of plastics

% of

Marshall

Flow

M/Q

waste added

Bitumen

Stability Value

value

(kg/mm)

added in the

(kg)

(mm)

in the mix

mix

0.10

5

1200

3.95

303

0.25

5

1650

4.35

379

0.50

5

1950

4.51

432

Marshall Stability values help to show that the binding in the case of plastics waste

coated aggregate (Dry process) is more compared to PMB (Wet process).

f. Estimation of Amount of Coated Plastics waste

In the case of plastics waste coated aggregate (Dry process) the removal of bitumen was

slow and the polymer was not removed. To remove the polymer, either thermal method or

solvent extraction method was needed. Techniques were developed to determine the percentage

of plastics coated over the aggregate by both the methods. The values arrived by both the

methods were in agreement.

i. Solvent extraction method:

After removing the bitumen, a known quantity of plastics waste -coated aggregate

was refluxed with solvent Decaline for nearly 20 minutes. The polymer was removed. Stone

aggregate was separated, dried and then weighed. The weight loss was calculated. This

corresponds to the amount of polymer coated.

ii. Thermal method:

A known quantity of plastics waste -coated aggregate was heated to around 750 deg. C

for nearly 30minutes to burn all the coated plastics. It was cooled and weight was determined.

The process was repeated until a constant weight was obtained. The difference in weight

accounts for the amount of plastics coated over aggregate.

g. Study on the Uniformity of the Coating Plastics

The aggregate was taken and heated to around 700deg.C to remove all volatile impurities.

It was cooled to room temperature. 1000gms of the cooled aggregate was again heated to

180deg.C. To the hot aggregate, 7gms of plastics waste (polyethylene material - size between

2.36mm and 4.75mm) was added and mixed well. The plastics melted and coated over the

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aggregate. It was cooled to room temperature. The aggregate – polymer blend was divided into five fractions. Each fraction was separately heated to around 750deg.C to burn all the plastics coated over the aggregate. It was then again cooled to room temperature and the weights of aggregate were noted. The results are tabulated below. Table - 8 : Study of Plastics coated aggregate

Weight of aggregate fraction (gm)

Different in

 

Weight

Percentage

Before burning

After burning

(gm)

(gm)

(gm)

(%)

100

99.40

0.60

6.03

200

198.65

1.35

7.30

100

99.60

0.40

4.05

300

297.80

2.20

7.40

307

304.55

2.45

8.04

1007

1000.00

7.00

7%

Average = 6.56% It is observed form the above data that the coating of plastics waste over aggregate is fairly uniform.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Preliminary studies on the use of plastics waste as a blending material with bitumen, suggest that the blends behave similar to PMB, thus having improved properties compared to plain bitumen. It is also observed that this process of blending has limitations. At high percentage of blending there is separation of plastics. Hence process modification was needed and a new product namely plastics waste coated aggregate was developed. This product is not only easy to prepare but also helps to use higher percentage of plastics waste for coating without much of difficulty. The results (table 8 & 9) also show that the Marshall Stability values are higher and there is no stripping. This shows that the mix is much better for flexible pavement. Here the mixing of bitumen with plastics waste was taking place at the surface of the aggregate and at a

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temperature around 150 – 160 deg. C. At this temperature both the plastics and bitumen are in the liquid state, capable of easy diffusion. This process is further helped by the increase in the contact area (increased surface area). Both polymer and bitumen are similar in chemical nature. These factors would help to have better adhesion and better binding. Moreover the polymer molecule interact with the constituents of bitumen namely asphaltene and other similar compounds and results in a three dimensional internal cross-linked net work. The cross-linking results in strong and elastic structure. This will also add its suitability as a blend for flexible pavement. The Marshall Stability values are fairly high. Such observations were also made in the case of PMB 19 yet the Marshall Quotient is around 500. It is to be stressed here that with the use of plastics waste modified aggregate, it is also important to study and evaluate the suitable Marshall Stability values and Marshall Quotient. The data (Table 8 & 9) also suggest that with the use of plastics waste coated aggregate, the quantity of bitumen needed for a good mix can be reduced to the extent of 10 to 15%. This helps to reduce the quantity of bitumen needed for road laying and to save nearly 10% bitumen. This saving is a great national savings extends to several hundred cores. This has been experimentally carried out at all places where the plastics tar roads were laid. The performances of these roads are good. (Tested over the period of 2.5 years. The coating of molten plastics over the aggregate reduced water absorption (table- 3). This shows that the voids at the surface were reduced. Generally voids should be less than 2%. Lesser the voids better the quality of the aggregate. Otherwise, the air entrapped in the voids would cause oxidation of bitumen resulting in stripping, pothole formation, etc. Moreover, the presence of water in the voids is detrimental to adhesion between aggregate and the binder namely bitumen. Hence the aggregate with lesser voids is considered to be good for better road construction. These observations help to conclude that plastics waste coated aggregate can be considered as more suitable material for flexible pavement construction. The results of the studies on the extraction of bitumen (table- 4 & 5) from both Dry

process and Wet process showed that the bonding in Dry process is stronger compared to Wet

process. This may be explained by the following structural models. Using these models the

extraction pattern is explained.

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A structural model for the Plastics waste coated aggregate bitumen mix

6 1 2 3 4 5
6
1
2
3 4
5

1. Aggregate

2. Plastics bonded with aggregate (polymer coating)

3. Bitumen–plastics blend (due to diffusion between molten plastics &

hot bitumen)

4. Loosely bonded bitumen with dispersed plastics

5. Plain bitumen layer

From the experiment results (table- 4) it may be concluded that the order of extraction of

bitumen from the plastics waste coated aggregate (Dry process) is as follows.

Loosely bonded bitumen (5) <Bitumen bonded with plastics (4) < Bitumen Plastics

blend(3) < Plastics bonded with aggregate(2)

Benzene first extracted the loosely bonded bitumen. Then bitumen bonded/blended with

plastics was removed. After a prolonged refluxing, the bitumen diffused with plastics got

extracted. The polymer, bonded with aggregate was not extracted by benzene.

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Structural model for PMB coated Aggregate

Structural model for PMB coated Aggregate Aggregate Plastics waste – Bitumen Blend Here most of the

Aggregate

Plastics waste – Bitumen Blend

Here most of the bitumen is directly bonded with the aggregate and a small

quantity of plastics, is supposed to be bonded with aggregate. This may help to increase the

binding strength. Yet the bonding or binding in this process is weak. This is clearly evidenced

from the observed data (table- 5).

The extraction after 10minutes is about 95% and after 15

minutes it is more than 100%. This shows that

1. Bitumen binding strength in the Wet process is less compared to Dry Process

2. The benzene, which cannot otherwise remove plastics, removes both the bitumen and

the plastics as shown by the higher percentage of removal. This again shows that the

plastics is more blended with bitumen and less bonded with aggregate.

Though in general the mix of the above process is able to improve the quality of the road,

the mix prepared by Dry Process is much superior in quality as the bonding is very strong as

evidenced by the resistance towards the removal of bitumen.

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Though plastics modified bitumen improves the quality of the road, the process of using

the plastics for blending decides the strength of the bonding. Coating of plastics waste

over

aggregate gives better strength than blending of the plastics waste with bitumen.

Dry Process is definitely better process than Wet Process.

On the basis of above reasoning following aspects regarding the plastics waste coated aggregate Bitumen mix road are being discussed below:

Leaching test Polymers are not soluble in water or acids and even in most of the organic solvents. The polymer waste is tested with 5% acetic acid solution and it is observed that there is no dissolution of polymer. Therefore it may be concluded that polymer will not leach out after laying the road using plastics waste coated aggregate bitumen mix. Dioxin formation The fear about the formation of Dioxin, the toxic compound, during the heating of polymers is always in the mind of the people. Dioxin may be formed under the following condition. 300 - 400°C

Carbon + Oxygen + Chlorine

condition. 300 - 400°C Carbon + Oxygen + Chlorine Dioxin Copper Catalyst Presence of chlorine, copper

Dioxin

Copper Catalyst

Presence of chlorine, copper and appropriate temperature are needed to form the Dioxin In the process of the preparation of plastics waste coated aggregate bitumen mix, the maximum temperature used is only 170°C and no chlorine or copper is present in the system. Because, the polymer materials used are polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene only and we do not use polyvinyl chloride. Hence, there is no possibility of presence of chlorine in the system. Hence Dioxin does not form during the use of plastics waste for road construction. So it is a safe disposal of plastics waste.

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4. ROAD – LAID LIST (The technique and the process are patented) Using plastics waste coated aggregate bitumen mix; roads have been laid at different

places at Tamil Nadu using different surface area and different composition. The conditions of

roads are under observation for the past two years and they are performing well.

A scheme for laying plastics waste– Tar road in Rural area for 1000 km was launched on 16 th

July 2003 at Namakkal by the Honourable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu Dr .J. Jayalalithaa.

a. Plastics Waste Mixed Roads laid by DRDA TamilNadu

Table - 9

   

Taken Up

S.No

Name Of District

Length in

Cost Rs. In Lakhs

KM

 

1 Kancheepuram

41.165

120.480

 

2 Coimbatore

63.250

432.750

 

3 Cuddalore

43.00

146.410

 

4 Dharmapuri

34.191

150.660

 

5 Dindigul

36.670

121.780

 

6 Kanyakumari

28.021

123.422

 

7 Karur

30.190

155.060

 

8 Madurai

54.500

268.460

 

9 Nagapattinam

31.071

138.857

 

10 Namakkal

53.780

232.477

 

11 Perambalur

34.850

220.460

12 Erode

 

60.110

295.760

 

13 Pudukkottai

22.930

73.920

 

14 Ramnad

13.500

54.845

 

15 Salem

31.685

120.810

 

16 Sivaganga

22.405

94.800

 

17 Thanjavur

37.604

199.340

 

18 The Nilgiris

6.900

34.250

19 Theni

 

25.000

72.000

 

20 Thiruvallur

15.000

50.000

 

21 Thiruvarur

32.705

139.120

 

22 Trichy

43.000

171.300

 

23 Tirunelveli

32.890

179.500

 

24 Tiruvannamalai

39.100

172.000

 

25 Tuticorin

37.000

205.650

 

26 Vellore

52.770

211.260

 

27 Villupuram

54.100

282.940

 

28 Virudhunagar

25.200

102.800

 

Total

1002.587

4571.110

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b. Road Laid At Other States

Table - 10

State

Place

Process

Pondicherry

Pondicherry

Central Mixing Plant

Maharastra

Mumbai

Central Mixing Plant

Kerala

Cochin

Mini Hot Mix Plant

5. CONCLUSION Polymer Modified Bitumen is used due to its better performance. But in the case of

higher percentage of polymer bitumen blend, the blend is more a polymer dispersion in bitumen,

which gets separated on cooling. This may affect the properties and quality of the blend and also

the roads laid using such blend.

In the modified process (Dry process) plastics waste is coated over aggregate. This helps

to have better binding of bitumen with the plastics waste-coated aggregate due to increased

bonding and increased area of contact between polymer and bitumen. The polymer coating also

reduces the voids; this prevents the moisture absorption and oxidation of bitumen by entrapped

air. This has resulted in reduced rutting, raveling and there is no pothole formation. The roads

can withstand heavy traffic and show better durability.

The Dry Process thus helps to

1. Use higher percentage of plastics waste.

2. Reduce the need of bitumen by around 10%.

3. Increase the strength and performance of the road.

4. Avoid the use of anti stripping agents.

5. Reduce the cost to around Rs. 5000/ km of single lane road.

6. Carry the process in situ.

7. Avoid industrial involvement.

8. Avoid disposal of plastics waste by incineration and land filling.

9. Generate jobs for rag pickers.

10. Add value to plastics waste.

11. Develop a technology, which is eco-friendly.

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6. REFERENCES:

1. Gokhale, Y.C, Sunil Bosae, and Jain, P.K, “Engineering Evaluation of polymer Rubber- Bitumen Blends for use in Road Construction”, IRMRA, 13 th Rubber Conference, Bombay, 1985, pp, 213-225

2. Sunil Bose, and Jain, P.K,” Laboratory Studies on the Use of Organic Polymers in Improvement of Bituminous Road Surfacing”, Highway Research Bulletin 38, 1989, New Delhi

3. Sunil Bose, and Jain, P.K, Sangita, and Arya, I.R., “ Characterization of Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders for Roads and Air Field Surfacing, Polymer Modified Asphalt Binders”, ASTM:S.T.P:1108, American Society of Testing Materials, Philadelphia, USA, 19923.

pp.331-355

4. Nabil Mustafa, “ Plastics Waste Management “ Canadian Plastics Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Marcel Dekker, Inc 1993.

5. A Support Manual for Municipal Solid Wastes, Central Pollution Control Board, July 2003

6. S.K.Garg, Environmental Engineering, Vol.II Khanna Publishers, 1999.

7. Shuler,T.S, Collins J.H., and Kirkpoatrick,J.P, “Polymer Modified Asphalt Properties Related to asphalt concrete performance”, Asphalt Rheology Relationship to Mixture, ASTM:STP:941, O.E, Briscoe Ed ASTM, Philadelphia, 1987.

8. Zoorab S.E, and Suparma L.B, “Laboratory Design and Performance of Improved Bituminous Composites Utilizing Recycled Plastics Packaging waste”, Presented at technology Watch and Innovation in the Construction Industry, Palais Descongres, Brussels, Belgium 5-6 , April 2000, pp. 203-209

9. Denning,J.H, and Carswell.j., “ Improvements in rolled Asphalt Surfacing by the Addition of organic Polymers “, Department of the Environment Department of Transport. Report LR 989. Transportation Road Research Laboratory (TRRL), Crow throne, 1981.

10. Salter, R.J., and Rafati-Afshar, F., “Effect of Additives on Bituminous Highway Pavement Materials Evaluated by the Indirect Tensile Test”, Transportation Research Record 1115, 1987. pp 183-195

11. Dallas, N. Little : AN Additive of Asphalt Additives to Reduce Permanent Deformation and Cracking in Asphalt Pavements: A brief Synopsis of On going Research”, Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists(AAPT), Vol. 55, 1986, pp 314-320

12. Walter j. Tappeinier , “ Performance and Economical Advantage of Polymer Modified Asphalt”, Richard Felisinger, Vienna, Austria 1999

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13.

King, G.N., Muncy, H.W., and Prudhome, J.B., “ Polymer Modification: Binder’s Effect on Mix Properties”, Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists(AAPT), Vol. 55 , 1986 pp 519-540

14. Sunil Bose, and Jain, P.K,” Laboratory Studies on the Use of Organic Polymers in Improvement of Bituminous Road Surfacing”, Highway Research Bulletin 38, 1989, New Delhi

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