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Medierea urban ca instrument al transformrii urbane sustenabile

Prof. Asist. Dr. Arh. Ognen Marina, Facultatea de Arhitectur, UKIM Skopje
Asist. Arh. Bojan Karanakov, Facultatea de Arhitectur, UKIM Skopje

Assistant Professor, PhD Arch.


Ognen Marina, Faculty of Architecture, UKIM Skopje
Assistant, MSc Arch
Bojan Karanakov, Faculty of Architecture, UKIM Skopje

Cuvinte cheie
Tranziie, Skopje, transformare urban, mediere, dezvoltare
Key words
Transition, Skopje, urban transformation, mediation, development.

Argument Abstract
Transformrile urbane din majoritatea rilor post-socialiste din Sud-Estul Europei au
provocat acute inegaliti, declin economic i dizolvarea straturilor sociale existente. n toiul
acestor schimbri de ordin economic i social, cunoaterea fundamental a oraelor a fost
neglijat, avnd ca efect diminuarea capacitii de a nelege procesele caracteristice oraelor
noastre. Urban transformation in most of the post-transitional countries of SEE has created sharp
inequalities, economic decline and dissolution of existing social strata. Amidst the societal and
economic changes the fundamental knowledge of the nature of cities has been neglected that
restricts the potential for profound understanding of the processes that are shaping our cities.
Tranziia de la un sistem societal la altul este ntlnit frecvent n istoria oraului Skopje. O
astfel de tranziie implic o serie de negri/tergeri/anulri ale sistemului anterior, urmat de o
ideologie bazat pe justificarea necesitii nentrziate a schimbrii n ora. Aceste desfiinri i
renovri frecvente din interiorul oraului impun necesitatea unei strategii de supravieuire a
oraului.
The transition from one societal system to another has been frequently present in the
history of the city of Skopje. It has been implemented through the series of erasure of the
previous followed with ideological justification of the necessity and urgency of changes in the

city. This frequent erasure of parts of the city followed by the new and urgent renewal demands a
strategy for survival of the city.
Prin analiza tiparelor de transformare urban i de reacie a oraelor la diferenele i
inegalitile emergente din structura urban, propunem ntrzierea adaptabil ca o nou
paradigm ce poate oferi o nelegere profund a proceselor de transformare urban. Medierea
urban a fost recunoscut ca cel mai puternic instrument de dezvoltare durabil dintr-o societate
multicultural cu alctuiri hibride de practic social i structur urban rezultant. Medierea
urban nu este o ncercare de estompare a diferenelor sau de tolerare a existenei n paralel a
celuilalt, ct, mai degrab, un proces generator de creaie a unui ntreg unificator care este
ntotdeauna mai mult dect suma prilor componente. Through the research of the patterns of
urban transformation and the reaction of the city to the emerging differences and inequalities in
the urban structure we suggest the adaptive delay as a new paradigm that could provide a
comprehensive understanding of the process of urban transformation in our city. Urban
mediation has been recognized as the most profound tool for sustainable development in a
multicultural society with hybrid formations of social practice and resulting urban structure. The
urban mediation is not an attempt to level down the differences or to tolerate parallel existence of
the other, but, rather a generative process of creation of unifying whole that is always more
than the sum of its parts.
Conceptul medierii urbane la Skopje a fost explorat ca referin istoric n ora prin
investigarea noilor transformri ale structurii urbane din ultimele dou decenii de tranziie postsocialist. The concept of urban mediation in Skopje has been explored as a historic reference in
the city through investigation of the novel processes of transformations in the urban structure in
the last two decades of post-socialist transition.

Introducere Introduction
Oraele din Sud-Estul Europei au trecut printr-o perioad de turbulente transformri de la
sfritul anilor 80 nceputul anilor 90. The cities in South-Eastern Europe have been through
a turbulent period of transformation since late 80s and early 90s. Tranziia societilor de la
socialism de stat la o economie de pia capitalist a fost urmat de acute inegaliti i declin
economic, ce au influenat puternic transformrile din ora. The transition of societies from statesocialism to market oriented economy has been followed by sharp inequalities and economic
decline that have heavily influenced the transformation of the cities. Specificele naionale i
reginale au condiionat apariia diferenelor din procesul de transformare urban, reflectnd
procesele i provocrile societii n general. The specifics of the countries and regions have

conditioned the emergence of differences in the process of transformation of the cities reflecting
the processes and challenges of the society in general. n unele regiuni, schimbrile au fost mai
moderate i progresul neuniform (Tsenkova, 2006), iar alte regiuni i-au revenit la nivelul
anterior de output (export?) naional sau recuperau n vitez. In some regions the changes have
been more moderate and progress uneven (Tsenkova, 2006) and others have recovered to their
previous level of national output or were catching-up fast. La Skopje, putem regsi conceptul de
transformare n dezvoltrile post-socialiste, accentund natura hibrid a realitilor post-socialiste
cu referire la coroborarea dintre elementele socialiste i capitaliste, consituente ale unei noi
societi (Sykora i Bouzarovski, 2011). In the case of Skopje we can recognize the concept of
transformation that is accentuating the post-socialist developments while highlighting the hybrid
nature of post-socialist realities with respect to the combination of socialist and capitalist
elements as constituents of a new society (Sykora and Bouzarovski, 2011). Principalele
provocri tiinifice ale acestui proces sunt transmiterea ideilor, importana tiparelor
comportamentale perpetuate i emergena structurilor/alctuirilor hibride de practic social
(Burkner, 2011). The main scientific challenges of this process is the passing-on of ideas, the
significance of perpetuated patterns of behavior, and the emergence of hybrid formations of
social practice (Burkner, 2011).
Textul de fa prezint cercetarea transformrilor urbane i schimbrilor spaiale din
Skopje, recunoscnd medierea urban ca un potenial instrument pentru schimbare urban
durabil/sustenabil. Acest proces de negociere virtual i real dintre prile interesate de
dezvoltarea urban poate fi cheia promovrii unei dezvoltri urbane sustenabile, fiind, de
asemenea, instrumental n medierea social, politic, economic i morfologic dintre factorii de
decizie politic, ceteni i dezvoltatori.
This paper presents the research of the urban
transformations and spatial changes in Skopje with recognition of the urban mediation as a
potential tool for sustainable urban change. This process of virtual and real negotiation between
the stakeholders of the urban development could be the key for promotion of sustainable urban
development serving in the same time as a tool for social, political, economic and morphological
mediation between the policy makers, citizens and the developers.
1. Oraul n tranziie
1. The City in transition
n ultimele dou secole i, mai ales, n perioada de tranziie de la socialism la capitalism,
oraul Skopje a trecut prin ample transformri urbane. Istoria produciei de spaiu urbani form
urban din Skopje este o istorie marcat de discontinuitate, schimbri rapide urmate de
chestionarea conceptelor fundamentale de transformare i re-nceputuri abordri de tip tabula
rasa din care a rezultat o structur urban fragmentat. In the last two centuries and especially in
the period of transition from socialism to capitalism the city of Skopje has experienced heavy
urban transformation. The history of production of urban space and urban form in Skopje has
been a history of discontinuity, fast changes followed by questioning the very basic concepts of

the process of transformation and new starts with tabula rasa approaches which resulted in
fragmented urban structure.
Skopje a fost dezvoltat ca o capital naional, economic, social i cultural cu noi zone
industriale, urmnd n general modelul de dezvoltare al oraelor socialiste (French i Hamilton,
1979) cu unele diferene cauzate de fondul istoric specific i de metoda aleas de planificare i
dezvoltare urban (Sykora i Bouzarovski, 2011). Skopje has been developed as a national,
economic, social, and cultural capital city with new industrialized areas and generally followed
the model of development of socialist cities (French and Hamilton, 1979) with some differences
emerging from the specific historic background and urban planning development path (Sykora
and Bouzarovski, 2011).
Perioada de tranziie post-socialsit a fost marcat de pustiirea marilor complexe
industriale finanate/deinute de stat, explozia omajului, creterea inegalitilor i rspndirea
srciei. Creterea asociat sectorului privat n condiiile existenei aproape n paralel a
instituiilor ambigue i a legislaiei din perioadele socialist i post-socialist, precum i un nou
ritm al macroeconomiei i reformelor economice, coroborat cu influena negativ a unei regiuni
devastate de rzboi au avut ca efect rezultate amestecate din punct de vedere al performanelor
economice, serviciilor sociale, rapida polarizare social i degradarea mediului (Tsenkova, 2006).
The period of post-socialist transition has been marked with devastation of large industrial and
state sponsored complexes, boost of unemployment, rise of inequality and spread of poverty. The
private sector driven growth in the conditions of almost parallel existence of ambiguous
institution and legislation from the socialist and post-socialist period as well as different pace of
macroeconomic and social reforms and the negative influence of a war troubled region has
delivered mixed result with respect to economic performance, social services, rapid social
polarization and environmental degradation (Tsenkova, 2006). Dominaia domeniului public i a
interesului colectiv au avut un rol crucial n dezvoltarea contemporan a oraului Skopje de pn
n 1990, caracterizat printr-o serie de schimbri spaiale i sociale n domeniul proceselor
planificate i controlate de stat. Domination of the public domain and collective interest had a
crucial role of the development of contemporary Skopje until 1990 with spatial and social
changes in the domain of planned and state controlled processes. Din cauza schimbrilor din
sistemul politic i social, la care s-a adugat transferul i re-examinarea proprietilor
reglementate de principiile comercializrii i privatizrii, oraul i, implicit, peisajul social al
oraului, au devenit cu att mai fragmentate (Marina i Pencic, 2009).With the shift of the
political and social system, followed by the transfer and re-examination of the property regulated
by the principles of the commercialization and privatization, urban and social landscape of the
city has became even more fragmented (Marina and Pencic, 2009).
2. Oraul ntre teritoriu i form
2. The City between territory and form
Conceptele i imaginile utopiei socialiste din secolul al 19-lea ofer o viziune a construirii
unei lumi mai bune prin progres i tehnologie. Singurul ei scop a fost de a extrage ordinea i

controlul din haos-ul amorf. The concepts and the images of the socialist utopia from the 19
century in the core of their ideology have the belief in building a better world through progress
and technology. Its sole purpose was to bring ordering and control out of formlessness and
chaos. Aceste convingeri vor influena puternic istoria transformrii urbane a oraului Skopje i
vor fi proprii ideologiilor i conceptelor planurilor urbane care vor oferi imaginea dorit a
oraului Skopje din ultimii 100 de ani. ??????????? This believes will highly influence the
history of urban transformation in the city of Skopje and will be inherent to the ideologies and
urban concepts of the urban plans that will plan the desired image of the city of Skopje in the last
100 years. Desigur c va fi, de asemenea, un proces n care planurile nu vor fi realizate integral
sau materializate n realitate, ci dimpotriv ceea ce vom vedea i resimi vor fi discrepanele i
diferenele acute dintre ce a fost planificat i ceea ce chiar s-a construit. Of course it will be also
a process where plans will never be completely realized and materialized in reality, on the
contrary what we will see and experience is the discrepancies and sharp differences between
what has been planned and what has actually been build.
Planurile urbane din 1929, 1948 i 1963, dei se difereniaz prin imaginile conceptului, au
n comun credina n puterea progresului i dezvoltarea tehnologic ca principalele fore n
crearea unei lumi mbuntite. The urban plans from 1929, 1948 and 1963 although very
different in their conceptual imagery share the same believe in the power of the progress and
technological development as the main driving forces in providing and building a better world.
Planul din 1929 a fost fondat pe ideile neo-clasiciste ale oraului asemntor celor din Europa
secolelor 18 i 19, dar a fost deja influenat i de micarea modernist.The plan from 1929 has
been based on the neo-classicist ideas of the city following the concepts of the European cities
from the 18th and 19th century but was already influenced by the modernist movement. Planul din
1948 s-a bazat pe o tergere complet a conceptelor anterioare i a structurii urbane existente i a
introdus noi concepe urbane printr-o abordare de tip tabula rasa. The plan from 1948 has been
based on complete erasure of the previous concepts and existing urban structure and have
introduce a novel urban concepts through the tabula rasa approach. Planul complet din 1963 a
neglijat din nou structura urban existent i a imaginat noul ora pentru noua societate baznduse pe progres tehnologic i pe un sistem societal mai drept i mai bun socialismul. Total
design plan of 1963 has once again disregarded the existing urban structure and has envisioned
the new city for the new society based on technological progress and better and more rightfull
societal system as socialism was marketed.
Dup cutremurul devastator din 1963 viziunile pentru refacerea oraului Skopje situau
oraul sub controlul deplin al arhitecilor. Cu toate acestea, procesul de dezvoltare urban din
ultimele patru decenii a fost clar determinat de coexistena a dou concepte de planificare
dominante. Primul se manifesta preponderent ca un cadru de dezvoltare i se baza puternic pe
ideea c oraul se poate dezvolta i modifica prin intermediul unor tipare dinamice i recurente
crend spaiu deschis, sau, mai degrab, teritoriu urban pentru construcie liber i cretere
urban; iar al doilea prezenta intenia clar de a crea o imagine integral urban n jurul creia
oraul devastat putea fi revitalizat (Lin, 2010). The visions that followed the recovery of city of

Skopje after the devastating earthquake in 1963 have seen Skopje as a planned city under an
architects complete control. Nevertheless, the process of urban development in the last forty
years has been clearly determined by the ambivalence of two dominant planning concepts. The
first acting more as a frame for development and leaning strongly toward the idea of the city that
can grow and alter in dynamic and recurrent pattern creating open space, or rather urban
territory for free construction and urban growth; and the second with clear intention to create a
total urban image around which a devastated city could be resurrected (Lin, 2010). Dei
abordarea din urm a fost aleas n cazul planului pentru Skopje ntocmit de Kenzo Tange,
dezvoltarea urban a oraului din ultimele cinci decenii a dovedit c, n pofida inteniei de a crea
forma definitiv pentru ntregul ora, nsui oraul s-a dezvoltat ca un amalgam de teritorii
urbane, fiind mai mult un cadru general n care pot fi recunoscute programe i funciuni urbane,
dar fr o morfologie urban clar, fr granie formale care s determine n mod ferm caracterul
urban al locului. Although the latter approach prevailed as a dominant planning concept in
Kenzo Tanges plan for Skopje, the urban development of the city in the last fifty years has
proven that besides the initial intention of creation of ultimate form for the whole city the city
itself has been developed as a mixture of urban territory, serving more as a general frame for the
recognition of urban functions and programs but without clear morphological emanation and
urban form with clear morphological and formal boundaries that strongly determine the urban
character of the place.
ns oraul, plasndu-se ntre teritoriu i form i fiind construit n jurul conceptului de
continu i complex dezvoltare, nu accept echilibre n interiorul su. But the city between
territory and form, built on the concept of continuous and complex development does not accept
equilibriums within it. Doctrina modernist i planificarea urban socialist au euat aici prin
ncercarea de a ordona n mod static haosul, n loc s-i permit valorea i aspectul dinamice. The
modernist dogma and the socialist urban planning failed here because it tried to order chaos as a
static value rather than allowing it its dynamic aspect and value. Aceasta a marcat finalul
credinei necondiionate n puterea progresului i a dezvoltrii tehnologice prin intermediul
tipologiei i structurilor arhitecturii, precum i prin conceptele i planurile de dezvoltare urban
axate pe ideea de ordonare. It was the end of the un-conditional faith in the power of the progress
and technological development utilized though the typology and structures of the architecture
and order-bringing centralized urban concepts and plans of urban development.
3. Amnarea fertil a oraului
3. The Citys fertile delay
n general, Socialismul a fost ca o ntreag instalaie, fr a face distincia dintre public i
privat, nsi cauza ideologic a acesteia fiind dizolvarea diferenelor, o societate eliberat de
diferene. The Socialism in general was like a total installation, without distinction between
private and public, without any differences as an ultimate ideological cause, a society freed of
differences. Astfel, a ncercat s reglementeze, s supun prin norme i s controleze nu doar

sfera public, ci i producia de spaiu public. Din acest motiv, spaiul public produs n perioada
socialist era foarte bine planificat, ordonat i fr conflicte. A influenat modul n care spaiul
public este perceput, dar realitatea i design-ul sunt opuse, design-ul fiind o creaie a diferenelor.
For that reason it tries to regulate, norm and control not just the public realm but the production
of public space, too. Therefore the public space created in socialist period was very well planned,
neat and without any conflicts. It influenced the way that public space is perceived. But the
reality and the design is exactly the opposite, the design itself is a creation of differences.
Ptrunznd n Utopie i apoi prsind-o, n cuvintele lui Boris Groys, este o concluzie
asupra Utopiei n sine, procesul creativ n care nsi substana oraului este creat (Groys,
2004). Entering the Utopia and then leaving it, in words of Boris Groys, is a sort of conclusion of
the Utopia itself, the creative process when the very substance of our city is created (Groys,
2004). Prsind Utopia, ncepem s nelegem c semnificaia, mai ales n spaiul public, provine
din complexitatea tuturor fragmentelor existente i a straturilor create de-a lungul procesului.
Along the way out of the Utopia, we start to understand that meaning, especially in public space,
comes from the complexity of all existing fragments and layers that have been created in process
as such. i doar prin contientizarea coexistenei simultane a acestor diferene putem vedea
imaginea de ansamblu a oraului Skopje, nu pentru c reprezint un colaj din imagini diferite, ci
datorit apartenenei acestei coexistene simultane la natur, fiind totodat o strategie de
supravieuire a oraului Skopje And only through acknowledging the simultaneous coexistence
of those differences we are able to see the whole picture of the city of Skopje. Not because it is a
collage of different pictures, but because this simultaneous coexistence is part of the nature and a
strategy of survival of the city of Skopje.
Aadar, n locul perioadelor de tergere a ceea ce este anterior, politic ce poate fi foarte
popular, sau a perioadelor de inactivitate urmate de cte-o perioad de abrupte construiri sau reconstruiri n Skopje, vom discuta mai degrab n termenii pe care Stefano Boeri i numete o
fertil amnare (Boeri, 2004). So, instead of periods of erasure of the previous, the policy that
can be very popular, or periods of inactivity that is followed by a period of abrupt construction or
re-construction of the city of Skopje, we should rather speak in terms of what Stefano Boeri calls
a fertile delay (Boeri, 2004). Este o condiie care i permite oraului s se adapteze i s
integreze toate schimbrile ce au avut loc. Acesta este modul prin care oraul supravieuiete
dincolo de modificrile frecvente, nu doar din punct de vedere fizic, ci i la nivel de idee, de
concept al oraului. It is a condition that enables the city to adapt and to integrate all the changes
that has happened. This is the way that city survives besides frequent shifts not just in a physical
matter of the city but in the very idea or a concept of a city. Este timpul de care oraul are nevoie
pentru a integra n mod semnificativ toate acele fragmente printr-un creativ proces de adaptare.
Este nsi natura oraului, i, totodat, strategia sa de supravieuire. It is the time of the city to
put all this fragments into the meaningful whole though a creative process of adaptation. It is the
very nature of this city and it is the strategy for its survival.
(Tradus de stud. arh. Andrei Ardeleanu)