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11 (de) vizualizări7 paginiIOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) Volume 9, Issue 6 Ver. III

Dec 18, 2014

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IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) Volume 9, Issue 6 Ver. III

© All Rights Reserved

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IOSR Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IOSR-JEEE) Volume 9, Issue 6 Ver. III

© All Rights Reserved

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e-ISSN: 2278-1676,p-ISSN: 2320-3331, Volume 9, Issue 6 Ver. III (Nov Dec. 2014), PP 36-42

www.iosrjournals.org

with Valve-Point Effect

M.Narayanan1, S. Siva2, D. Velmurugan3

1

M. Narayanan is currently working as Assistant Professor in Electrical & Electronics Engg. Department, Info

Institute of Engineering, Coimbatore.

2

S. Siva is currently working as Assistant Professor in Electrical & Electronics Engg. Department, Info Institute

of Engineering, Coimbatore.

3

D. Velmurugan is currently working as Assistant Professor in Electrical & Electronics Engg. Department, Info

Institute of Engineering, Coimbatore.

Abstract: Scarcity of energy resources, increasing power generation cost and ever-growing demand for

electric energy necessitates optimal economic dispatch in todays power systems. The main objective of

economic dispatch is to reduce the total power generation cost, while satisfying various equality and inequality

constraints. Traditionally in economic dispatch problems, the cost function for generating units has been

approximated as a quadratic function which doesnt provide accurate results. Moreover, to obtain accurate fuel

cost, valve-point effect in thermal power plant has to be taken into account. The inclusion of valve-point effect

makes the modeling of the fuel cost functions of generating units more practical. In this paper a new

evolutionary algorithm called Pattern Search Technique, has been employed to solve economic dispatch

problem with the valve-point effect. Using this technique the non-linear cost function is solved for three unit

system and the results are compared with the traditional PSO and GA method. These results prove that Pattern

Search method is capable of getting higher quality solution including mathematical simplicity, fast convergence,

and robustness to solve hard optimization problems.

Keywords: Economic Dispatch, Valve point effect, Pattern Search Method.

I.

Introduction

Economic dispatch is one of the most important problems to be solved in the operation and planning

of a power system. The primary objective of the electric power generation is to schedule the committed

generating unit outputs so as to meet the required load demand at minimum operating cost while satisfying all

unit and system equality and inequality constraints. In the traditional ED problem, the cost function for each

generator has been approximately represented by a single quadratic function and is solved using mathematical

programming based on the optimization techniques such as lambda-iteration method, gradient-based method,

etc. These mathematical methods require incremental or marginal fuel cost curves which should be

monotonically increasing to find global optimal solution.

The fuel cost functions of generating units can be modeled in a more practical fashion by including the

valve-point effects. The valve-point effects result in the ripples in the fuel cost function; thereby the number of

local optima is increased. Thus, the practical ED problem is represented as a non smooth optimization problem

with equality and inequality constraints, which cannot be solved by the traditional mathematical methods.

Dynamic programming method can solve such types of problems, but it suffers from so-called the curse of

dimensionality. Over the past few years, in order to solve this problem, many salient methods have been

developed such as genetic algorithm, evolutionary programming, tabu search, neural network approaches, and

particle swarm optimization.

Considering stochastic search algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm GA[3], Simulated Annealing

(SA),etc., Direct search methods[5], may prove to be very effective in solving nonlinear EDP problems without

any restrictions on the shape of the cost curves. The first one dont guarantee in discovering the globally optimal

solution in finite time, they often provide a fast and reasonable solution (sub-optimal near globally optimal). The

SA method is a powerful optimization technique and it has the ability to find near global optimum solutions for

the optimization problem. SA is applied in many power system problems. However, appropriate setting of the

parameters of the SA based algorithm is a difficult task and the speed of the algorithm is slow when applied to a

real power system.

Direct search (DS) methods are evolutionary algorithms used to solve constrained optimization

problems. DS method do not require any information about the gradient of the objective function at hand, while

searching for an optimum solution. This family includes Pattern Search (PS) algorithms, simplex methods (SM)

(different from the simplex used in linear programming), Powell Optimization (PO) and others. The Pattern

Search method is a technique that is suitable to solve a variety of optimization problems that lie outside the

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36 | Page

A Direct Search Method to solve Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect

scope of the standard optimization methods. Generally, PS has the advantage of being very simple in concept,

easy to implement and computationally efficient. Hence Pattern Search algorithm is used to solve power system

economic load dispatch problem (ELD) with valve-point effect. The convergence characteristics and robustness

of this method proves efficient when compared to other methods.

II.

Problem Formulation

The objective of the economic dispatch problem is to minimize the total fuel cost of thermal power

plants subjected to the operating constraints of a power system. In general, it can be formulated

mathematically with an objective function and two constraints as follows:

N

FT = Fi(Pi)

(1)

i=1

Fi (Pi) = ai Pi2 + biPi + ci

(2)

where,

FT

total generation cost,

Fi

cost function of generator i,

ai ,bi , ci cost coefficients of generator i,

Pi

power of generator i,

N

number of generating units.

2.2. The Constraints

1) Equality or Active power balance equation

For power balance, an equality constraint should be satisfied. The total power generated should be

equal to the sum of total load demand (PD ) and the total transmission line loss (PLoss ).

N

Pi=PD+PLoss

(3)

i=1

However, the transmission loss is not considered in this paper for simplicity (i.e., P Loss = 0).

2) Minimum and maximum generation constraints

Generation output of each generator should lie between maximum and minimum limits. The

corresponding inequality constraints for each generator are

Pi,min Pi Pi,max

(4)

where Pi,min and Pi,max are the minimum and maximum output of generator i, respectively.

2.3. Valve-point effects

The generating units with multi-valve steam turbines exhibit a greater variation in the fuel-cost

functions. Since the valve point results in the ripples as shown in Fig. 1, a cost function contains higher order

nonlinearity [9]. Therefore, the equation (2) should be replaced as the equation (5) to consider the valve-point

effects. Here, the sinusoidal functions are thus added to the quadratic cost functions as follows.

Fi(Pi) = ai Pi2 + biPi + ci+|ei sin(fi (Pi,min Pi))| (5)

Where ei and fi are the coefficients of generator i reflecting valve-point effects.

www.iosrjournals.org

37 | Page

A Direct Search Method to solve Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect

Fig. 1 Cost Curve for large steam power plant with valve-point effect

III.

The PS optimization routine is a derivative free evolutionary technique that is suitable to solve a

variety of optimization problems that lie outside the scope of the standard optimization methods. Generally, PS

has the advantage of being very simple in concept, and easy to implement and computationally efficient

algorithm [11]. Unlike other heuristic algorithms, such as GA, PS possesses a flexible and well-balanced

operator to enhance and adapt the global and fine tune local search.

The PS algorithm proceeds by computing a sequence of points that may or may not approach the

optimal point. The algorithm starts by establishing a set of points called mesh, around the given point. This

current point could be the initial starting point supplied by the user or it could be computed from the previous

step of the algorithm. The mesh is formed by adding the current point to a scalar multiple of a set of vectors

called a pattern. If a point in the mesh is found to improve the objective function at the current point, the new

point becomes the current point at the next iteration.

This may be better explained by the following:

First Step: The Pattern search begins at the initial point X0 that is given as a starting point by the user. At the

first iteration, with a scalar of magnitude 1 called mesh size, the pattern vectors are constructed as [0 1], [1 0],

[1 0],and [0 1], they may be called direction vectors. Then the PS algorithm adds the direction vectors to the

initial point X 0 to compute the following mesh points:

X 0 + [1 0]

X 0 + [0 1]

X 0 + [1 0]

X 0 + [0 1]

Fig. 2. illustrates the formation of the mesh and pattern vectors. The algorithm computes the objective function

at the mesh points in the order shown.

The algorithm polls the mesh points by computing their objective function values until it finds one

whose value is smaller than the objective function value of X0. If there is such point, then the poll is successful

and the algorithm sets this point equal to X 1.

After a successful poll, the algorithm steps to iteration 2 and multiplies the current mesh size by 2, (this

is called the expansion factor and has a default value of 2). The mesh at iteration 2 contains the following points:

X1+ 2*[1 0], X1+ 2*[0 1], X1+2*[-1 0] and X1+ 2*[0 -1] . The algorithm polls the mesh points until it finds one

whose value is smaller than the objective function value of X 1. The first such point it finds is called X 2, and the

poll is successful. As the poll is successful, the algorithm multiplies the current mesh size by 2 to get a mesh

size of 4 at the third iteration.

www.iosrjournals.org

38 | Page

A Direct Search Method to solve Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect

Second Step: Now if in iteration 3, none of the mesh points has a smaller objective function value than the

value at X2 , the poll is called an unsuccessful poll. In this case, the algorithm does not change the current point

at the next iteration, i.e., X3= X2. At the next iteration, the algorithm multiplies the current mesh size by 0.5, a

contraction factor, so that the mesh size at the next iteration is smaller. The algorithm then polls with a smaller

mesh size. The PS optimization algorithm will repeat the illustrated steps until it finds the optimal solution for

the minimization of the objective function. The PS algorithm stops when any of the following conditions occurs:

The mesh size is less than the mesh tolerance.

The number of iterations performed by the algorithm reaches the value of maximum iteration number.

The total number of objective function evaluations performed by the algorithm reaches the value of

maximum function evaluations.

The distance between the point found at one successful poll and the point found at the next successful poll

is less than the specified tolerance.

The change in the objective function from one successful poll to the next successful poll is less than the

objective function tolerance.

All the parameters involved in the PS optimization algorithm can be pre-defined subject to the nature of the

problem being solved.

5.1.2.4 Flowchart of Pattern Search Method

Fig. 3. PS Flowchart

www.iosrjournals.org

39 | Page

A Direct Search Method to solve Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect

IV.

Implementation of PS Algorithm

Step 2: Set the starting or initial point X0.

Step 3: Create mesh points using direction vectors.

Step 4: Calculate the value of objective function for each mesh point.

Step 5: Check whether a stopping criterion occurred or not. If occurred goto step 8.

Step 6: Check whether the value of objective function using mesh point is than the starting point. If yes, double

mesh size and goto step 3.

Step 7: If no, reduce mesh size to 0.5 and go to step 3.

Step 8: Stop.

V.

To verify the feasibility of the proposed PS method, three unit power systems were tested. The results

obtained from the Pattern Search Method are compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic

Algorithm (GA).

This system comprises of 3 generating units and the input data of 3-generator system are given in Table

I. Here, the total demand for the system is set to 850MW.

Table I: Data For Test Case (3-Unit System)

Unit

1

2

3

ai

561

310

78

bi

7.92

7.85

7.97

ci

0.001562

0.001940

0.004820

ei

300

200

150

fi

0.0315

0.0420

0.0630

Pi,min

100

100

50

Pi,max

600

400

200

The obtained results for the 3-generator system using the Pattern Search Method are given in Table II

and the results are compared with PSO and GA.

Table II: Comparison Of Simulation Results Of Ga, Pso And Ps Method Considering Valve-Point Effect (3Unit System)

PARAMETERS

Pg1(MW)

Pg2(MW)

Pg3(MW)

Total fuel cost($/Hr)

VI.

GA

396.61

253.81

199.59

8295.3243

PS

498.9324

251.2

99.86655

8240.6593

Best Function Value: 8240.6593

8240.705

8240.7

8240.695

Function value

8240.69

8240.685

8240.68

8240.675

8240.67

8240.665

8240.66

8240.655

10

20

30

40

Iteration

50

60

70

www.iosrjournals.org

40 | Page

A Direct Search Method to solve Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve-Point Effect

Current Best Point

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2

Number of variables (3)

Total Function Evaluations: 384

8

10

20

30

40

Iteration

50

60

70

The plots obtained using Pattern Search technique by solving the cost function taking valve-point effect into

account is shown in the Fig. 4, 5 and 6.

VII.

Conclusion

Pattern Search method for solving the economic dispatch problem with valve-point effect was

presented. As the method is sensitive to starting point, it cannot find the required optimal solution in the first

run. Therefore, to obtain optimal solution the program is made to run assuming the starting points randomly.

Whenever there is an improvement in the solution in the PS run that will be taken as the starting point. The

Pattern Search method is capable of dealing directly with load demand at various intervals of time in the

scheduled horizon with no restrictions on the shape of the input-output cost function of the generating unit. It is

very fast compared to other evolutionary techniques in exploring the search space. The result shows that the

convergence property was not affected based on the shape of the incremental fuel cost function. The advantage

of this method is its ability in finding high quality solutions reliably with fast converging characteristics.

The transmission loss is not considered in this work for simplicity. To improve accuracy, programming

can be done by including the transmission losses.

References

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

Aruldoss Albert victorie, T. and Ebenezer Jeyakumar, A. (2004) "Hybrid PSP-SQP for economic dispatch with valve point effect",

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Aug and Zwe- Lee Gaing (2003) Particles swarm optimization to solving the Economic Dispatch Considering the Generator

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Bentley, P. and Blackwell, T. Dont push me! Collision-avoiding swarms, in Proc. IEEE Congr. Evol. Comput., May 2002, vol. 2,

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Transactions on antennas and propagation, vol. 52, n. 3, pp. 771-779, March 2004.

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Chowdhury, B.H. and Rahman, S. (2001) "A review of recent advances in economic dispatch", IEEE Transaction on Power System,

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