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Evaluating Intelligent Casing for HPHT & Ultra Deepwater Drilling Applications to Maximize Drilling Investment Dr.
Evaluating Intelligent Casing for HPHT & Ultra Deepwater Drilling Applications to Maximize Drilling Investment Dr.
Evaluating Intelligent Casing for HPHT & Ultra Deepwater Drilling Applications to Maximize Drilling Investment Dr.

Evaluating Intelligent Casing for HPHT & Ultra Deepwater Drilling

Applications to Maximize Drilling Investment

Dr. Harold Stalford, Professor, AME, Univ. of Oklahoma

Dr. Ramadan Ahmed, Assistant Professor, PE, Univ. of Oklahoma

Victor Hugo Soriano Arambulo, GRA, PE, Univ. of Oklahoma

1 RPSEA Funded Project

2 Gulf of Mexico Ultra Deep HPHT Reservoirs Basin Modeling, Drilling & Completions 2013, American Business Conference, Houston, TX, Nov. 20-21, 2013.

Reservoirs Basin Modeling, Drilling & Completions 2013, American Business Conference, Houston, TX, Nov. 20-21, 2013. 1
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LEGAL NOTICE This presentation was prepared by The University of Oklahoma as an account of
LEGAL NOTICE This presentation was prepared by The University of Oklahoma as an account of
LEGAL NOTICE This presentation was prepared by The University of Oklahoma as an account of
LEGAL NOTICE
LEGAL NOTICE

This presentation was prepared by The University of Oklahoma as an account of work sponsored by the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America, RPSEA. Neither RPSEA members of RPSEA, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy, nor any person acting on behalf of any of the entities:

MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH RESPECT TO ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, OR USEFULNESS OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS DOCUMENT, OR THAT THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, OR PROCESS DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT MAY NOT INFRINGE PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, OR

ASSUMES ANY LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF, OR FOR ANY AND ALL DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF, ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, OR PROCESS DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT.

THIS IS AN INTERIM PRESENTATION. THEREFORE, ANY DATA, CALCULATIONS, OR CONCLUSIONS REPORTED HEREIN SHOULD BE TREATED AS

PRELIMINARY.

REFERENCE TO TRADE NAMES OR SPECIFIC COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS, COMMODITIES, OR SERVICES IN THIS REPORT DOES NOT REPRESENT OR CONSTIITUTE AND ENDORSEMENT, RECOMMENDATION, OR FAVORING BY RPSEA OR ITS CONTRACTORS OF THE SPECIFIC COMMERCIAL PRODUCT, COMMODITY, OR SERVICE.

Outline  Intelligent casing concept  Impact on existing operations and technologies  Benefits and
Outline  Intelligent casing concept  Impact on existing operations and technologies  Benefits and
Outline  Intelligent casing concept  Impact on existing operations and technologies  Benefits and
Outline  Intelligent casing concept  Impact on existing operations and technologies  Benefits and

Outline

Intelligent casing concept

Impact on existing operations and technologies

Benefits and challenges in Ultra Deep-water (UDW)

Early detection and early forecasting

Cost-effectiveness and key performance indicators

Health, safety and environmental issues (HSE)

Conclusions

Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions  A well that combines a series of components that
Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions  A well that combines a series of components that
Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions  A well that combines a series of components that
Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions  A well that combines a series of components that

Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions

A well that combines a series of components that collect, transmit and analyze completion, production and reservoir data, and enable selective zonal control to optimize the

production process without intervention.

[http://www.welldynamics.com/technology/smartwell_definition.htm]

A well equipped with monitoring equipment and completion components that can be adjusted to optimize production, either automatically or with some operator intervention.

[http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com]

Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions (Cont’d)  A well with implementation of fundamental process control
Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions (Cont’d)  A well with implementation of fundamental process control
Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions (Cont’d)  A well with implementation of fundamental process control
Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions (Cont’d)  A well with implementation of fundamental process control

Smart or Intelligent Well: Definitions (Cont’d)

A well with implementation of fundamental process control downhole, enabling surveillance, interpretation and actuation in a continuous feedback loop, operating at or near real-time.

[ “Introduction to IWS”, Baker Hughes]

Intelligent Well Reliability Group (IWRG): A well equipped with means to monitor specific parameters (e.g., fluid flow,

temperature, pressure) and controls enabling flow from all zones to be independently modulated from a remote location.

Intelligent Technology in Oil & Gas  Intelligent Well ( IW ), Intelligent Well Systems

Intelligent Technology in Oil & Gas

Intelligent Well (IW), Intelligent Well Systems (IWS), Intelligent Well Technology (IWT), Intelligent Well Completions (IWC), SmartWell, SmartWell completions, etc.

Components of Intelligent Technologies

- Permanent downhole systems

- Remotely monitored and controlled from surface

- Monitor and control without physical intervention

- Real-Time

- Zonal isolation, multi-zone, field-wide deployments

- Field Optimization for ultimate recovery

ICIF Technology 1  Pushing boundaries of well “Intelligence” to casing and beyond . 

ICIF Technology 1

Pushing boundaries of well “Intelligence” to casing and beyond.

Exploiting Advanced Technologies

- Wireless (as well as wired)

- Passive sensors (as well as active) [e.g., SAW, fiber-optic]

- Distributive sensors (as well as discrete) [e.g., DTS, DSS, DPS, DAS, DCS ]

- HT/HP materials [e.g., piezo-electric, fiber-optic]

- Permanent downhole monitoring

Intelligent Casing Design  Intelligent casing(IC) and intelligent formation (IF) designs created to maximize drilling

Intelligent Casing Design

Intelligent casing(IC) and intelligent formation (IF) designs

created to maximize drilling investment.

Two-way communication (surface transmission.

Casing string: Data highway from surface to bottom hole (BH).

Permanent downhole sensors (discrete / distributive).

downhole) and power

sensors (discrete / distributive). downhole) and power Enabling a new era of advanced downhole measurements and

Enabling a new era of advanced downhole measurements and telemetry

ICIF Techniques  Sensors placed inside/on/outside casing/in formation, monitoring:  Formation and fluid

ICIF Techniques

Sensors placed inside/on/outside casing/in formation, monitoring:

Formation and fluid properties, Drilling dynamics and hole cleaning,

Bottom hole pressure,

Undesirable flow through cement annulus, etc.

Sensor data to surface; commands to downhole actuators , all via intelligent casing network & system.

Lab Prototype ICIFT System (iBITS) Note: a lot of elements have been intentionally left out

Lab Prototype ICIFT System (iBITS)

Note: a lot of elements have been intentionally left out of this cartoon.
Note:
a lot of elements have
been intentionally left
out of this cartoon.
elements have been intentionally left out of this cartoon. Two-way communication between surface command and UDW

Two-way communication

between surface command and UDW

wellbore elements

(continuous, real-time, high data rate)

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Fiber Optic Sensing

Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS)

Fiber Optic Sensing Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS) Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) 11
Fiber Optic Sensing Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS) Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) 11
Fiber Optic Sensing Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS) Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) 11
Fiber Optic Sensing Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS) Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) 11

Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs)

Fiber Optic Sensing Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS) Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) 11

11

Fiber Optic: Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs)

Writing FBGs:

Fiber Optic: Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs)  Writing FBGs : 12
Fiber Optic: Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs)  Writing FBGs : 12
Fiber Optic: Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs)  Writing FBGs : 12

Fiber-Optic Sensors

(Permanent Well Monitoring Systems)

Distributive sensing; Well-developed technology High-bandwidth; Low-loss transmission medium

High information transmission rates (1x10 12 bits/s)[real-time data] Absence of downhole electronics

Installation from surface to bottomhole (any length)

Freedom from electrical interference (immune to electromagnetic radiation)

Flexible configurations; Greater sensitivity Cheap; Very thin (e.g., human hair)

Wireless Passive SAW Sensors • Temperature, Pressure, etc. • Low Power • Ultra Small Size

Wireless Passive SAW Sensors

Temperature, Pressure, etc.

Low Power

Ultra Small Size ( 1 mm diameters)

HT Ranges

Piezoelectric Material

Pressure, etc. • Low Power • Ultra Small Size ( 1 mm diameters) • HT Ranges
Pressure, etc. • Low Power • Ultra Small Size ( 1 mm diameters) • HT Ranges

Design Factors Considered (Permanent Downhole Sensors)

Minimize: downhole electronics and number of parts Minimize: number of moving parts Use appropriate coatings, packaging technology, & housing Non-electronic sensors (i.e., fiber optic) “Right” mix (electronic, fiber optic, electrode array) Materials for HT/HP UDW applications (e.g., quartz, fiber optic)

Fiber optic sensor issues:

-must be appropriately coated and protected (otherwise, ingression of OH - molecules into fiber)

-drifting (changes of zero offset)

Design, Development and Testing  Prototype designs based on state-of-the-art technology : • Sensors (RFID,

Design, Development and Testing

Prototype designs based on state-of-the-art technology :

Sensors (RFID, SAW-based, Fiber optic-based)

Power supply (e.g., 1-10 mW power)

Rock formations & Fluids (drilling/completion)

Wireless EM transmission frequencies

Wireless (Mobile) Hub: SAW Sensors  Bluetooth Low Energy  Mobile Network  Mobile SAW
Wireless (Mobile) Hub: SAW Sensors  Bluetooth Low Energy  Mobile Network  Mobile SAW
Wireless (Mobile) Hub: SAW Sensors  Bluetooth Low Energy  Mobile Network  Mobile SAW

Wireless (Mobile) Hub: SAW Sensors

Bluetooth Low Energy

Mobile Network

Mobile SAW Sensor Hub

Sensor/Control/Communication via bluetooth devices

ICIF Features  ICIF system concept: Advances for drilling automation, completion, production, well intervention

ICIF Features

ICIF system concept: Advances for drilling automation,

completion, production, well intervention operations, etc.

After well completion: ICIF provides continuous monitoring, early

forecasting of production needs, all without well intervention.

Minimizes costly wire-line operations.

Impact on Existing Operations and Technologies  System Installation :  During casing runs, normal
Impact on Existing Operations and Technologies  System Installation :  During casing runs, normal
Impact on Existing Operations and Technologies  System Installation :  During casing runs, normal
Impact on Existing Operations and Technologies  System Installation :  During casing runs, normal

Impact on Existing Operations and Technologies

System Installation:

During casing runs, normal drilling operations.

Targeted casing string (permanent sensors needed for optimal/ultimate field recovery).

Successfully tested in 100s of wells in the last 5 years.

2013 SPE 163694 Rahman, et al., Aera Energy LLC

Cable Sensors
Cable
Sensors

Adopted from drillingcontractor.org

Impact on existing …. Cont’d  System Installation-Fiber Optic Cable:  While additional time in

Impact on existing …. Cont’d

System Installation-Fiber Optic Cable:

While additional time in casing run is expected, field applications indicates non-issue. Average running time should not be less than 15

jts/hr.

Cement quality is not affected by the system (challenging or micro-

annulus problems did not occur).

Wellhead sections are not affected because wireless connection made just below wellhead.

Impact on existing …. Cont’d  System Installation (Cont’d):  Allows use of conventional techniques

Impact on existing …. Cont’d

System Installation (Cont’d):

Allows use of conventional techniques to close well

without problems in case of kick while running casing

(The BOP can be closed hard or soft / no additional components placed between the BOP and the casing).

Impact on existing …. Cont’d  System in service:  No affects on other telemetry

Impact on existing …. Cont’d

System in service:

No affects on other telemetry systems used during normal drilling activities (e.g., MWD, Wired Pipe, acoustic, EMWD).

Complements all other downhole technologies of drilling and well completions.

No concerns: cement drilling out operations, rat-hole, etc.

Drilling is conventional without complexity; will not reduce the performance of deeper hole sections (NPT = Zero).

Impact on existing …. Cont’d

System in service:

Clearance or drift of a casing-not reduced.

Downhole measurements performed during well control activities.

Monitor casing run and cementing job.

Perforation operations are combatable.

Conventional completions are combatable.

Well intervention procedures are combatable.

Fiber-Optic DTS Deployed Outside Casing 2013 SPE 163694 Rahman, et al., Aera Energy LLC Over

Fiber-Optic DTS Deployed Outside Casing

2013 SPE 163694 Rahman, et al., Aera Energy LLC

Over 70 wells with DTS permanent installations All challenges met with 100% success

Fiber deployed outside casing, cemented in place, no damage

Perforations completion without fiber damage

Control line/fiber pulled through wellhead mandrel

Integrated into “lean” drilling

Cheap enough for “low-cost” 20 BOPD environment

wellhead mandrel  Integrated into “lean” drilling  Cheap enough for “low - cost” 20 BOPD
Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications 1. Well intervention not required to get data  Once

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications

1. Well intervention not required to get data

Once well completed and deep water rig moved: very expensive well intervention campaign not required.

Data, power, control lines part of production casing.

Performs in low temperature and high pressure conditions at sea bed.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications 2 . After installation, onsite personnel not required.  Automation

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications

2. After installation, onsite personnel not required.

Automation enhanced. Labor force and potential accidents reduced on location.

Remotely monitored and controlled from central control room.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 3. Measurements during installation & casing runs. 

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

3. Measurements during installation & casing runs.

Casing “filling up” is monitored.

Detects float equipment failure.

Drag model updated continuously; detects abnormal

restrictions, locations and causes.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 4. Not affected by weather conditions:  Because

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

4.

Not affected by weather conditions:

Because major system components are at the sea floor, sea weather conditions will

5.

not affect the operation of the system.

Permanent well monitoring through the life of the well

Downhole sensors and system designed to last well lifetime.

Monitoring formation stresses and properties with time; assessed for forecast and

early prediction purposes.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 6. Early forecasting: well integrity and downhole problems

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

6. Early forecasting: well integrity and downhole problems

Casing status: monitored continuously during the life of the well.

Cement conditions/degradation modeled and monitoring to enhanced future cementing designs.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 7. Provide advanced planning; detect failure patterns: 

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

7. Provide advanced planning; detect failure patterns:

Future casing and cementing design improved using real-time data from intelligent casing wells (e.g., off set). Failure types identified and minimized for future well applications.

Workovers and/or well intervention jobs can be scheduled in advanced due to permanent well integrity monitoring of the wells

and therefore reduce costs of production and down time (Workover

will be more pro-active than reactive).

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 8. Update 4d seismic, fluid levels, pore pressure,
Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 8. Update 4d seismic, fluid levels, pore pressure,
Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 8. Update 4d seismic, fluid levels, pore pressure,

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

8. Update 4d seismic, fluid levels, pore pressure, stresses and

MEM:

Intelligent casing design provides invaluable information about

mechanical formation properties changes with time.

Helps Geologist, Geophysicists and reservoir engineers with more accurate data for calculations: changes in fluid levels, pore pressure, stresses for enhanced Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) for future in- fill drilling.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 9. Designed for difficult environments (high pressure and
Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 9. Designed for difficult environments (high pressure and
Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 9. Designed for difficult environments (high pressure and
Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 9. Designed for difficult environments (high pressure and

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

9. Designed for difficult environments (high pressure and

high temperature).

Intelligent formation (sensors, readers, cables, etc.) designs for

HPHT wells (e.g., 30,000psi and 400C).

Special coatings and placement improves operation life.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 10. Well control monitoring during cement setting 

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

10. Well control monitoring during cement setting

Sensors can be placed in the cement.

Able to detect equivalent circulating densities during pumping cement in the annulus and therefore prevent high picks of pressure that can cause loss of circulation and reduction of hydrostatic.

Able to detect equivalent fluid densities after pumping and while the cement is setting.

Able to detect any flow in the annulus after the cement sets.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d 11. Proper care exercised in casing run conditions.

Benefits in Deep-water (UDW) Applications - Cont’d

11. Proper care exercised in casing run conditions.

Special care plans for handling ICIF system. Centralizers positions and designs re ICIF system.

Running procedures plans provide integrity of ICIF system.

Challenges in Deep-water (UDW) Applications 1. Cementing Job: Intelligent casing designs to allow  Rotations

Challenges in Deep-water (UDW) Applications

1. Cementing Job: Intelligent casing designs to allow

Rotations (minimized).

Reciprocations (minimized).

2. Learning Curve:

Rig floor personnel with special training re intelligent casing run.

Create confidence with contractors appreciating value of intelligent casing design.

Early Detection and Forecasting 1. Early detection allows operator to plan interventions in advance (maximize

Early Detection and Forecasting

1. Early detection allows operator to plan interventions in

advance (maximize planning and resources).

Early detection of cement, casing, formation failures; helps forecast

patterns/future work over jobs. No Surprises Everything expected.

System installed during drilling: Utilized during completion, well testing, well intervention and production operations.

Maximize global investment and increase rate of return on investment.

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d

2. Early forecasting allows operator to modify current casing

and cementing designs.

Statistical analysis performed after Intelligent Casing system installed in several field wells: design improvements prevents failures in future wells.

Offset well data useful in future drilling programs, reduces costs, improves safety.

3. Minimizes probability of well suddenly shut down.

Today: production wells receive attention after something goes wrong.

Future: technology eliminates unexpected well shut down and side effects.

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d 4. Workover campaign structured years in advance! 5. Reduce

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d

4. Workover campaign structured years in advance!

5. Reduce future “in-fill” drilling problems:

4D Seismic updated from offset wells.

Formation tops and fluid level changes.

Accurate Geomechanics model (MEM).

Non unexpected Drilling events and surprises regarding Mud window.

Low NPT (Non-Productive Time).

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d 6. Time to react and plan: Assists industry in

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d

6. Time to react and plan: Assists industry in pro-active

plans and managements.

7. Improve distributions of the resources of the company without affecting other projects.

Better planning improves project management of the Operator

Investments less affected by sudden problems (expected in advance).

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d 8. Minimize risk and improve operation confidence  Annual

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d

8. Minimize risk and improve operation confidence

Annual budgets: better estimated; Supplementary AFE’s eliminated.

Greater Investors’ trust in Operators performance and proficiency.

9. Good technology to increase Governmental trust on the operator

Technology provides government with facts about operation control, comply current standards and improvements.

Increases confidence between Operator and Government.

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d 10. Low investment – High Results  Costs of

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d

10. Low investment High Results

Costs of the Intelligent Casing design: expected to be less than 10% of overall casing tubular costs.

Results observed during casing run to bottom hole, before and after cementing job.

Continuously monitoring wellbore status Better than ever before!

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d 11. Performance  Several Key Performance Indicators established to

Early Detection and Forecasting – Cont’d

11. Performance

Several Key Performance Indicators established to monitor Intelligent Casing Design performance (Premature shut down wells, workovers, sand production, water production, drilling NPTs, well control problems, etc.).

12. No significant change: casing & cementing costs

Casing and cementing designs are not affected substantially by introducing intelligent technology.

Health, Safety and Environmental Issues (HSE) 1. Minimize personnel in location  Less Man-Hours of

Health, Safety and Environmental Issues (HSE)

1. Minimize personnel in location

Less Man-Hours of work.

Less time in boats and helicopter. Fewer frequency of exposure.

Improve drills and evacuation response.

2. Improve Drilling automation

Downhole sensors and data can be send to driller for better response.

Intelligent casing design can be combined by current automation technology

Health, Safety and Environmental Issues (HSE) – Cont’d

3. Minimize unexpected downhole problems.

Quick information Better analysis Better response No injures.

4. Environmentally friendly technology (industry proven).

Avoids environmental contamination.

5. Reduces unexpected blow out risks

Monitors “casing-formation” annulus in real time 24/7

Monitors cement setting and well control barriers performance

(Hydrostatic and downhole valves).

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Health, Safety and Environmental Issues (HSE) – Cont’d 6. Reduces failures/wireline jobs (less human hrs.

Health, Safety and Environmental Issues (HSE) – Cont’d

6. Reduces failures/wireline jobs (less human hrs. exposure)

Wireline jobs minimized.

Wireline BOP procedures are risky and complicated (replaced here with common drilling BOP practices).

7. Minimizes oil or gas leakage into sensitive environments

No blowouts No oil spills

ICIF Conclusions:  Intelligent casing design: pushes the boundaries of downhole “intelligence” to maximize
ICIF Conclusions:  Intelligent casing design: pushes the boundaries of downhole “intelligence” to maximize
ICIF Conclusions:  Intelligent casing design: pushes the boundaries of downhole “intelligence” to maximize
ICIF Conclusions:  Intelligent casing design: pushes the boundaries of downhole “intelligence” to maximize

ICIF Conclusions:

Intelligent casing design: pushes the boundaries of downhole “intelligence” to

maximize return on drilling investment and optimize field recovery.

Incorporates into the current drilling and completion practices.

Installable in almost all scenarios.

Provides great advantages with minimal cost installation.

Reduces risks and improves safety.

ICIF Conclusions (cont’d)  Combatable with HP/HT or bad weather conditions.  Potential to eliminate
ICIF Conclusions (cont’d)  Combatable with HP/HT or bad weather conditions.  Potential to eliminate
ICIF Conclusions (cont’d)  Combatable with HP/HT or bad weather conditions.  Potential to eliminate
ICIF Conclusions (cont’d)  Combatable with HP/HT or bad weather conditions.  Potential to eliminate

ICIF Conclusions (cont’d)

Combatable with HP/HT or bad weather conditions.

Potential to eliminate wire-line operations

Improves planning and project management in the field.

Creates more confidence investors and authorities.

Lifetime of well (20 to 30 years).

1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48
1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48
1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48
1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48

1 st in Oklahoma

1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48

Thank you

Questions?

1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48

1 st in Cushing

1 s t in Oklahoma Thank you Questions? 1 s t in Cushing 48

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