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Introduction to Enterprise Resource Planning

Semester - VI

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


1.
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9.

Identification of the needs for implementing an ERP


package.
Evaluating the As-Is situation of your business.
Deciding upon the desired Would-Be situation of our
business.
Re-engineering of the business processes to achieve
desired results.
Evaluation of various ERP packages
Finalizing of the ERP package.
Installing requisite hardware and networks
Finalizing the implementation with consultant.
Implementation of ERP package.

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 1
Identification of the needs for implementing an ERP
package
Why should I implement an ERP package?
Will it significantly improve my profitability?
Will it lead to reduced delivery times for my products?
Will it enhance my customers satisfaction level in terms
of cost, delivery time, service and quality?
Will it help reduce the costs of my products?
Will it enable me to achieve the same business volume
with reduced manpower?
Will it enable me to reengineer my business processes?

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 1 - Contd.

The other factors that should be taken into


consideration are:
Need for quick flow of information between
business partners.
Effective management information system for
quick decision-making.
Elimination of manual preparation of various
statutory statements.
Need for a high level of integration between the
various business functions.

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 2

Evaluating the As-Is situation of


your business
The various business functions should be
first enumerated.
For example, procurement, production,
sales, etc. Now the processes used to
achieve the business transactions should
be listed in detail. The technique of
process mapping can be used here.
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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 2 Contd.
The process map should give you the following details for
any business process:

The total time the business process takes to


complete.
The total number of decision points involved.
The number of departments/geographical
locations that the business process involves.
The flow of information.
The number of reporting points.

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 3

Deciding upon the desired Would-Be


situation for your business
In this step, we decide on what we want our
business processes to finally look like. Here we
use the techniques of benchmarking to ensure
that the targets set are comparable to the best in
the industry. Benchmarking can be done on
various aspects of the business like cost, quality,
lead time, service, etc.

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 4

Re-engineering of the business


processes to achieve desired results.
In order to achieve the new business processes,
we reengineer the existing processes in such a
manner that:
The business process cycle time is reduced significantly.
The number of decision points is reduced to the bare
minimum.
The flow of information is streamlined, i.e., there is no
unnecessary to-and-fro flow of information between
departments.
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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 5

Evaluation of the various ERP packages


Global Presence
Local Presence
Investment in R & D

Target Market
Price
Modularity
Obsolescence
Ease of Implementation
Cost of Implementation
Post-Implementation Support

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 6

Finalizing of the ERP package


After a thorough evaluation of all the ERP
packages vis--vis the key factors of your
business, the package best suited to your
business needs is selected. The process
of finalizing can be simplified by making a
matrix of the key factors. You can then
rate all the packages under these heads.

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 7

Installing the requisite hardware and networks


In this step, one has to install the hardware and
networks required for the chosen ERP package.
The installation of the hardware has to be wellplanned because generally the hardware arrives
in time and lies idle due to the delays in
implementation. Also, the induction of the
hardware should be in a phased manner to
avoid blocking of capital.

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 8
Finalizing the Implementation Consultants

The factors which go into the selection of the


consultant are:

Skill-set available with the consultant


(application area)

Installation base of the consultant

Industry-specific experience (knowledge of the


various industry-specific business processes)

Finances involved in hiring the particular


consultant.
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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 9
Implementation of the ERP Package
The broad steps involved in the implementation of the ERP
package are:
Formation of Implementation Team
Preparation of Implementation Team
Mapping of business processes on to the package
Gap Analysis
Customization
Development of User-specific reports and
transactions
Uploading of data from existing systems

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GENERAL ERP IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY


Step 9 Contd.

Test runs
User Training
Parallel run
Concurrence from user on satisfactory
working of the system
Migration to the new system
User Documentation
Post-Implementation support
System Monitoring and Fine Tuning

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Formation of Implementation Team


Implementation Team consists of:
IT personnel
Implementation consultants
Project Manager, Project Leaders and the
Module Leaders
Steering committee

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Functions of the Steering


Committee
To monitor the progress of the
implementation
To see to it that the schedule of the
implementation is adhered to
Resolve any problems that come up in the
due course of the implementation
Allocation of resources for implementation

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Preparation of The Implementation Plan


The implementation plan should have clear components
and should include the schedule for the following:

Training of the Project Team


Mapping of business processes onto the software
Function-wise implementation
Customization
Uploading of Data
Test Runs
Parallel Run
Cross-Over

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Mapping of Business Processes on to the


Package
This is a crucial step where the re-engineered
business processes are mapped on to the
software. In mapping, the implementation team
tries to fulfill the user requirements by making
use of the standard functionality available in the
software. However, if the requirements cannot
be covered fully by the standard system, then
the next step of implementation, ie, gap analysis
comes into picture.

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Gap Analysis
The user requirements that cannot be directly mapped
on to the standard system from the basis of gap
analysis. Here, all such uncovered requirements are
compiled into a gap analysis report. The gaps are then
classified into the following three heads:
Gaps which can be taken care of with a little
programming effort.
Gaps which involve an extensive programming effort and
hence require extra resources.
Gaps which cannot be taken care of in the system.

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Customization
Once the process mapping and gap
analysis have been done, the actual
customization starts. In this step, first the
customizing needs are chalked out and
then the actual job is handed over to the
respective functional teams.

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Development of User-specific
Reports and Transactions
As part of gap analysis, any user
requirements not covered by the standard
system need to be provided by extra
programming effort. In this step, the
required reports and transactions are
created.

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Uploading of data from Existing


Systems
With customization in place, the system is now
ready to receive the master and transaction data
from the existing system. In this step,
programmed transfer of data takes place from
the existing system to the new system. In order
to avoid wrong tabulation of master data, the
transfer process needs to be thoroughly
checked in the trial runs. At times it too involves
a lot of programming effort.
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Test Runs
In this step, the test runs on the system
are started. Sample transactions are tried
to see whether the customizing and
master data uploading has been errorfree. The result of the sample transactions
is evaluated and any changes required in
settings to get the desired results are
incorporated.

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User Training
The training of users can be started along-side
the test runs. Users belonging to different
functionalities are trained in their respective
functions. Normally use training includes:

Logging In and Logging Out


Getting to know the system
Navigating through the various menu paths
Trying sample transactions in respective
functions

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Parallel Run
With the successful test runs and user
training in place, the parallel run of the
system can be now started. In parallel run,
the business transactions are carried out
both through the existing system as well
as through the new system. The
implementation team then takes care of
any lacunae which come to light during the
parallel run.
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Concurrence from User on satisfactory


working of the System

If the parallel run is satisfactory and errorfree, or errors that may have come up
have been resolved, the users may be
asked for their final approval.

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Migration to the New System


When the parallel run has been
successfully tried for a reasonable length
of time and when the users and the
implementation team feel absolutely
confident, it is time to Go Live.

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User Documentation
User documentation includes the details
on how to carry out the various
transactions. It is different from the regular
ERP package documentation in the sense
that it is more specific in nature than
general documentation. It only covers
alternatives that are being used in the
particular business so as to make it easy
for the user to understand and use them.
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Post-Implementation Support
Post-Implementation support generally
involves queries from the user, minor
changes in the report formats, as well as
small changes in layouts of various printed
formats like purchase orders, etc.

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System Monitoring and Fine Tuning


In this phase, the IT people monitor the
system closely to see the performance
aspects and fine tune the database and
other administrative aspects of the system
so that the user can derive the best
performance from it.

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VANILLA IMPLEMENTATION
A Vanilla implementation is the decision to
implement an ERP As-Is and modify
business processes to match the ERP
system. It is fundamental to make this
decision prior to starting an
implementation. A Vanilla implementation
is when the company chooses not to
modify (i.e., customize) the ERP system,
but instead to change business practices
to fit the ERP system.
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Need for Vanilla Implementation


Businesses with relatively straightforward
business practices that are not unique should
consider a Vanilla implementation.
Businesses that are not skilled or experienced at
building or changing systems should consider a
Vanilla implementation.
In Vanilla implementations all of a company's
branches are running the same system in a
single instance, and entering and retrieving data
in a similar fashion, thereby reducing hardware,
software licensing, implementation, and training
and support costs. This is a cost-control factor.
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Need for Vanilla Implementation


Contd.
For a company using a purchased ERP system where
the financial component is critical for reporting, a Vanilla
system will more than likely pass the financial audits in a
timely fashion.
Last, for a competitive advantage, it is important to know
the ability of what and where things are around the world
with your business in terms of parts inventory,
maintenance agreements, and processes. Again, and as
an example, if everyone is entering and retrieving the
same information, the ability to know inventories and
what is needed in a timely fashion without needing to
contact others around the world creates a competitive
advantage for a business that needs to react to
information in a timely manner.
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Need for ERP Customization


Even though there are many reasons to
implement a Vanilla ERP, many businesses
choose to customize or modify the system to
meet business needs (i.e add-in some
Chocolate) and are very successful. Businesses
that have highly skilled IT developers and a
proven process for managing modifications can
certainly choose to change the system in areas
where a business already has a competitive
advantage. In a situation like this, an ERP
system is too generic to fit the specialized
business or specialized process.

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GUIDELINES FOR ERP IMPLEMENTATION


Very few companies succeed in the first instance after implementing
ERP.ERP is not a fortune but a technology that delivers results only
after effective execution of the laid down procedures.
ERP is not an answer to the errors in business plans and tactics. In
fact ERP consultants are reluctant to attend to it because they don't
want it to disturb the purpose of ERP. It should therefore be
understood that ERP is an I.T. tool that assists and facilitates the
business process by being a part of it. On the contrary it is
misunderstood that ERP can rejuvenate the business. The answer
to the popular question "What companies use Enterprise Resource
Planning?" will help in clearing this trouble.
ERP gap analysis and business process reengineering should be
performed properly. This will ensure that other steps are followed
systematically and in accordance to the company's need. They are
otherwise referred as enterprise resource planning phases.

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GUIDELINES FOR ERP IMPLEMENTATION


Contd.
IT facilities in the organization should be at par with market
standards and international reputation. This will enable the operation
people to constantly modify and update as and when it is necessary
in order to stay in tune with the competition. Research on enterprise
resource planning will reveal this.
The process of ERP implementation should be carried on by a team
of competent personnel so as to ensure perfection, accountability
and transparency.
Readiness for change and the capability to implement that change
will be the first step towards successfully choosing the right ERPbased business solution. The top management team along-with the
various departments must be prepared to accept that change, and to
implement the ERP package.

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GUIDELINES FOR ERP IMPLEMENTATION


Contd.
The organization should first use the ERP implementation process
to identify the changes in business processes and in skills and
attitudes that must be made. It will be useful for the organization to
engage in a brief business process redesign exercise prior to the
implementation.
Obtaining support from executives is the key criterion for success.
Successful feedback and a forum for top management are required
to address their concerns and is also vital. Employees at all levels
who are affected by the new system need to be informed by a
rigorous communications program. The key to success in this effort
is repetition and a realistic setting of expectations.
It is very crucial for a successful project manager to appreciate and
apply strong Leadership. The difference between informal support
and active leadership can be the difference between success and
failure. It is imperative to develop a steering team which must be
capable of change management and the process of redesign and
integration.

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GUIDELINES FOR ERP IMPLEMENTATION


Contd.
Ideally, the project team must include members of the IT
department, sales, materials, manufacturing, plant maintenance and
finance. Additionally, the company may hire and outside consultantfrom an ERP consulting / implementation partner firm to provide
knowledge in the concerned modules and in the project
management.
It is not necessary to follow every step of the General ERP
Implementation methodology. But, it is extremely helpful to have a
road map. It is advisable for the project leaders to set out clear,
measurable objectives at the very outset, and review the progress at
intervals, as the implementation progresses.
An ERP implementation should not be looked upon as a short
distance run. It has wide implications, and will impact the future of
the company for many years to come. All the above factors have to
be kept in mind for successful implementation.

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING


Business process is defined as "a set of logically related tasks
performed to achieve a defined business outcome."
A process is "a structured, measured set of activities designed to
produce a specified output for a particular customer or market. It
implies a strong emphasis on how work is done within an
organization."
Re-engineering is now a business process or set of processes that
essentially dismantles existing processes into individual activities
and puts them back together in a new set of business flows or sets
of business flows. This is done to increase efficiencies and improve
services with greater returns. When ERP systems are built to apply
best practices you can easily understand how BPR is likely to occur
during the ERP implementation.

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BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING


Business process re-engineering is the analysis and
design of workflows and processes within an
organization. Business process re-engineering (BPR)
began as a private sector technique to help
organizations fundamentally rethink how they do their
work in order to dramatically improve customer service,
cut operational costs, and become world-class
competitors. A key stimulus for re-engineering has been
the continuing development and deployment of
sophisticated information systems and networks.
Leading organizations are becoming bolder in using this
technology to support innovative business processes,
rather than refining current ways of doing work.

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BPR and ERP


BPR within a single unit is difficult and requires efficient
and effective change management. BPR with an ERP
implementation will require crossing organizational
boundaries and require a much more extensive change
management process. Resistance to change will be high
and require a significant level of change management to
succeed. This resistance to change comes from several
areas, including loss or change in job and change in the
power structure. In addition to that, BPR has been
equated to downsizing, new technology, and quality,
therefore increasing anxiety of staff both involved and
not involved in an ERP implementation. The creation of
teams and development of good teamwork is essential to
making BPR changes work for the organization.

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BPR METHODLOGY

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BPR METHODLOGY
The BPR Methodology, as shown in Figure below,
includes:
Preparation - set goals and vision, identify teams, and
develop an inventory of processes that need to be
evaluated.
Define the "As-Is" process and evaluate crossorganizational issues
Map out "To-Be" processes based on best practices
(i.e., related to ERP)
Test and measure new processes based on meeting
goals and vision
Re-evaluation - revise, adjust to improve processes
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BPR Methodology Step 1 Preparation


Here are some of the drivers behind the need for BPR:
Implementing a current purchased ERP system
Automating current manual or error prone processes
Improving service to customers
Streamlining current processes to decrease time to
market
Participating in or conducting e-Marketplaces
Reducing costs
Addressing accountability
Conducting e-Procurement

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BPR Methodology Step 2 As-Is


Working with the vision and goals, the
functional teams must define the existing
processes. The processes will need both a
written description and graphical depiction
of each and every process. Each process
will likely have predecessors and
successors linking processes together for
future analysis in the "To-Be" phase.

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BPR Methodology Step 3 To-Be


This phase must address timing of processes
and the changes needed to meet the original set
of goals. This phase requires much thought and
analysis. The questioning of current processes is
a must. A team member will often say things
similar to, "we've always done it like that." The
understanding of why a process does what it
does need to be uncovered, irrespective of who
does it. Some processes will even be eliminated
and all new processes must have estimates of
timing and who is responsible. This sets the
stage for the measurement phase.
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BPR Methodology Step 4 Test &


Measure
The testing and validation of each process is
necessary to ensure that a step was not missed
or that a process not achievable. It is essential to
set up measurement processes that are
meaningful and measure the goals set out in the
preparation phase. It may take a couple
iterations of BPR to realize the goals fully, but
continuing to examine processes and to make
adjustments creates a sustainable ERP system
environment.
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CURRENT BPR TOOLS


Corporate Modeler, CASEwise Systems,
Waltham,M A: The software is comprised of six
diagramming modules that enable organizations
to depict: Organizations, Locations, Processes,
Technologies, Applications, and Data from
different perspectives.
iGrafx, iGrafx, Tualatin, O R: Features process
modeling, simulation, and reporting capabilities.
Designed for the front end of re-engineering
projects. Teams can quickly create and edit
presentation quality process maps.

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CURRENT BPR TOOLS Contd.


iThink, ISEE systems (formerly High Performance
Systems), Lebanon, NH: Powerful tool for
communicating interdependencies between processes
and problems. The entire business team will understand
the variables that impact business processes. A shared
insight enables teams to work together, further ensuring
that decisions are fully implemented and mitigating risk.
Visual BPR, ProcessModel, Inc., Provo, UT: The
product capture and design process allows for trying the
process first on the computer, tracks process
performance statistics, shows where things will
bottleneck and why, and hunts for best solutions.

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General Model of ERP

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General Model of ERP


The General Model of ERP as given in the figure
above is assumed to consist of four quadrants.
The circle at its centre represents the entities
that constitute the central database shared by all
functions of the enterprise. The border
represents the cross-enterprise functionality that
must be shared by all systems. The most
important part of this cross-enterprise border will
be known as multi, representing the capability
required by it to compete and succeed globally.
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Multi-lingual
Must be flexible enough to have customer
service representatives in different
countries taking orders in different
languages and at the same time on a
single host platform. Orders must be
printed or returned to customers in their
native languages.

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Multi-currency functionality
Must be capable of, for instance, receiving
invoices in Indian Rupees, splitting the
payment into German Mark and Belgian
Francs, billing in Italian Lire, receiving
cash in British Pounds, with the general
ledger stated in US Dollar or Japanese
Yen.

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Multi-mode or Mixed-mode
Manufacturing
In the enterprise of today, grown through
alliance and merger, a single manufacturing
strategy of either discrete or continuous process
is no longer practical. Enterprises now employ a
mix of approaches including make-to-stock,
highly-repetitive, assemble-to-order or design-toorder. A single integrated software solution, and
not satellite software, should handle all these
concurrently, efficiently passing data from one to
the other.

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Multi-facility
The total solution must support multiple division or
companies under a corporate banner. Multiple facilities
are logical or physical entities linked to divisions. Each of
these may or may not have independent stores,
production units, assembly lines, overhead centre, and
planning units but each usually has a set of accounts.
Each and every transaction must flow seamlessly to be
divisions or corporate set of books. The software should
also seamlessly integrate operating platforms as the
corporate database and departmental level applications
may be required to run on a variety of hardware and
software platforms.

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Electronic Data Interchange or EDI


Todays users require flexible reporting tools to
extract the information as and when they need it
without depending on an information systems
department to produce the report. And they also
need Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to
electronically accept customer information like
purchase orders, schedule amendments or cash
and electronically send data such as order
acknowledgement and invoices to customers.

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Imaging
Integration of information systems can be
further enhanced through imaging.
Imaging provides the ability to display
drawings or specifications. In addition, it
provides the ability to store original sales
orders, purchase orders, quotations,
contracts, etc.

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E-Mail
In order to reduce paperwork, e-mail
should be tied to the electronic approval
process for purchase orders and
engineering change orders. All this adds
up to the effective workflow automation.

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Database Creation
Database creation is the most significant
cross-system application, starting with
time and attendance reporting, going all
the way to machine-monitoring and control
and post-sales statistics. In between are
the critical areas of material receipts and
shipments, inventory issues and work
order completion, operational labor
collection, warehouse dispatch and
collection of money.
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ERP Modules
The key role of an ERP system is to provide support for
such business functions as accounting, sales, inventory
control, and production.
ERP vendors, including SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft
provide modules that support the major functional areas
of a business.
The ERP software embeds best business practices that
implement the organizations policy and procedure via
business rules.

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Typical ERP Modules

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ERP Modules From Three Vendors


Function

SAP

Oracle/
PeopleSoft

Microsoft
Dynamics

Sales

Sales and
Distribution, Sales
Opportunity

Marketing and
Sales, Supply
Chain
Management

Retail POS
(point of sale),
Field Service
Management

Procurement and
Supplier
Relationship
Management

Supply Chain
Management

Procurement Purchasing,
Supplier
Relationship
Management
Production

MRP, Product Life Manufacturing


Cycle Management

Manufacturing

Accounting

Financial
Accounting

Financial
Management

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Financial
Management

ERP Modules From Three Vendors (Contd)


Function

SAP

Oracle/
PeopleSoft

Microsoft
Dynamics

Distribution

Warehouse
Management

Supply Chain
Management

Distribution
Management

Customer
Service

CRM

CRM

CRM

Corporate
Performance &
Governance

Governance, Risk, Corporate


and Compliance
Performance
Management
Management

Analytics

Human
Resources

Human Capital
Management

Human Capital
Management

HR
Management

Miscellaneous

Banking

Campus
Solutions

E-commerce,
Portals

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Overview of Modules
Production
Helps in the planning and optimizing of the manufacturing capacity,
parts, components, and material resources using historical
production data and sales forecasting
Purchasing
Streamlines the procurement process of required raw materials and
other supplies.
It automates the process of identifying potential supplier, negotiating
price, awarding purchase orders to supplier, billing processes.
Inventory Management
Facilitates the processes of maintaining the appropriate level of
stock in a warehouse
It identifies inventory requirements, set targets, monitor item usage,
reconcile the inventory balances, status reports.

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Overview of Modules (Contd)


Sales and Marketing
Revenues from the sales are the life blood of the organizations.
Implements functions of order placement, order scheduling,
shipping, and invoicing
The marketing module support lead generation, direct mailing
campaign

Finance
Can gather financial data from various functional departments and
generate valuable financial reports( p/l,trial bal, ledgers, bal sheets
etc)
Human Resource
Streamlines the management of human resources and human
capitals.
Other modules business intelligence, self services modules.
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Benefits of Key ERP Modules


Self Services
Flexible support for employees business functions
Simplified access to relevant information

Performance Management
Delivery of real-time, personalized measurements and metrics
Access to such information as business statistics and key
performance measurements

Financials

Ensure predictability of business performance


Gain deeper insight across the enterprise
Automate accounting and financial SCM
Rigorous support for financial reporting.

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Benefits of Key ERP Modules (Contd)


HR Management
Attract the right people, develop and leverage talents, align
efforts with corporate objectives, and retain top performers
Enable creation of project teams based on skills and availability,
monitor progress on projects, track time, and analyze results

Procurement and Logistics Execution


Cost savings for all spending categories by automation
Reduce costs through process automation, integration of
suppliers, and better collaboration
Improve resource utilization (RFID and bar codes)
Enhance productivity of incoming and outgoing physical goods
movements

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Benefits of Key ERP Modules (Contd)


Product Development and Production
Shorten time to market
Deliver higher quality products and ensure timely delivery
Improve visibility in real time (availability check)

Sales and Service


Higher number of sales orders processed and reduced
administrative costs
Easy access to accurate, timely customer information
Cost-effective mobile access for field employees
Reduce travel costs by using online functions
Adhere to environmental, health, and safety reporting
requirements

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Q&A
Multiple Choice Objective Questions:

1.

Customization of an ERP package is enhanced if the


ERP Package is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

2.

Modular
Inflexible
Both a and b
Either a or b

Which of the following statements is true about ERP


Implementation:
a. As-Is stage follows To-Be stage.
b. To-Be stage follows As-Is stage.
c. Go-Live stage and As-Is stage can proceed
simultaneously.
d. None of the above.

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Q&A
3.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are false


with respect to ERP Implementation
methodologies:
a.
b.
c.
d.

The emphasis on the ERP software life cycle is whether to


customize the software or to change the organizations
processes to match those embedded in the software.
The implementation strategy can be a comprehensive
one, vanilla, or middle-of-the road strategy.
ERP life cycle must incorporate traditional SDLC stages.
Rapid Implementation methodologies have been
developed by ERP consulting firms.

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Q&A
4.

The decision to implement an ERP As-Is and modify


business processes to match the ERP system is
known as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

5.

Vanilla Implementation
Business Process Reengineering
Chocolate Implementation
Generic Implementation Methodology

An implementation with considerable modifications to


the ERP software package is referred to as:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Vanilla Implementation
Business Process Reengineering
Chocolate Implementation
Generic Implementation Methodology

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Q&A
6.

Which of the following is not a BPR Tool?


a.
b.
c.
d.

7.

Visual BPR
mySAP
iGrafx
iThink

Which of the following statements about BPR is false?


a.
b.
c.
d.

The business process cycle time is reduced significantly.


The number of decision points is reduced to the bare
minimum.
The flow of information is streamlined, i.e., there is no
unnecessary to-and-fro flow of information between
departments.
It helps in duplication of inter-departmental effort for similar
processes.

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Q&A
8.

______________________ functionality of ERP makes it flexible


enough to have customer service representatives in different
countries taking orders in different languages and at the same
time on a single host platform. These orders are then printed or
returned to customers in their native languages.
a. Multi-lingual
b. Multi-currency
c. Multi-mode manufacturing
d. Multi-facility

9.

ERPs that have the capability of allowing enterprises to employ a


mix of approaches including make-to-stock, highly-repetitive,
assemble-to-order or design-to-order for manufacturing have the
following functionality built into their underlying models:
a. Multi-lingual
b. Multi-currency
c. Multi-mode manufacturing
d. Multi-facility

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Q&A
10. ________________________________
functionality of ERP makes it capable of, for
instance, receiving invoices in Indian Rupees,
splitting the payment into German Mark and
Belgian Francs, billing in Italian Lire, receiving
cash in British Pounds, with the general ledger
stated in US Dollar or Japanese Yen.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Multi-lingual
Multi-currency
Multi-mode manufacturing
Multi-facility

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