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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

LAB REPORT
HEAT TRANSFER
EME 4016

Experiment 2 : Tubular Forced Convection


Heat Transfer

Name:

Tam Zhuang Sheng

ID:

1102702234

Experiment date:

19/12/2013

Due Date:

2/1/2014

Lecturer:

Dr. Tio KK

Objective
- To determine the heat transfer coefficient of a tubular duct.

Introduction
Convection heat transfer is a process whereby heat is transferred by means of
moving fluid. According to the Newtons Law of Cooling, the heat flow for an
area A with wall temperature, Twall and environment temperature Tfluid can
described as
(

where h is the convection heat transfer coefficient. In this experiment, the heat is
transferred through an externally heated, air ducting tube as shown in Figure 1.
The air channel is mounted on the main unit and electrically connected to it.
Forced convection is the type of heat transfer that occurs in this instance. The
fluid to be heated is ducted through a conveying pump past the heat exchange
surfaces. The length of the duct subject to heating is 500mm.

Calculation Method
Method A: Experiment Evaluation
(
with

and

Method B: Theoretical Evaluation


The Nusselt number can be calculated accordingly if
For turbulent flow, 104 < Red < 106

and

Nud = 0.0235Red0.8Pr0.48f6f3

With f3 taking into consideration the fact that the Pr number is slightly affected by
temperature and f6 corrects the case of short turbulent path where increase of the Nu
number at the entrance path is observed. Take
(

and

( )

Where d = diameter and L = length of the air channel. Eventually the heat transfer
coefficient can be calculated from Nu number

Procedure

1.
2.
3.
4.

The outlet valve of the ventilator is ensured to be fully shut before running the pump.
The pump on the main switchbox is switched on.
The operating and display unit for the thermocouples on the rear is switched on.
The outlet valve is gradually open fully while ensuring there is no manometer fluid
entering into the air channel.
5. The heater control unit and the heater is switched on.
6. The heater output is set to 200W on the operating and display panel.
7. The pressure gauge connection for the measuring nozzle at the air inlet is connected to
the inclined tube manometer to obtain the differential pressure of the measuring nozzle.
8. The initial diameter of the pitot tube is set at 3cm. The temperature and the differential
pressure are recorded after the device was left for 5 minutes to stabilize.
9. Experiment was repeated for 10 times with the decreasing interval of 0.20cm each
time.
10. All data are recorded into a table.
11. The cross-sectional temperature and velocity profiles are plotted according to the data
recorded.

Results
Position, x
(cm)
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2

T1
26.7
26.8
27.2
27.4
27.6
27.7
27.6
27.6
28.1
27.8

T2
50.4
51.1
51.4
51.6
52.0
52.0
52.2
52.3
52.3
52.4

Temperature, T (oC)
T3
T4
T5
T6
60.8 67.9 65.2 66.4
61.5 68.8 66.6 68.0
62.1 69.4 67.3 68.9
62.2 69.5 67.8 69.6
62.5 70.1 68.3 70.4
62.5 70.1 68.3 70.5
62.7 70.4 68.6 70.8
62.9 70.5 68.7 71.1
62.9 70.4 68.7 71.2
63.0 70.6 68.9 71.3

T7
32.0
33.0
33.3
33.4
33.5
33.7
33.8
33.8
33.9
40.0

Calculations
In the calculation, we only consider the data at x= 2.0cm,
Method A:
Q = 200W
(
)(
= 0.03142 m2

= 29.4 oC

= 64.68 oC

)
(

= 180.4244 W/m2 K

T8
29.7
29.3
29.8
29.9
30.2
31.1
31.0
31.3
32.4
33.7

Differential
Pressure, (kPa)
1.015
1.055
1.045
0.995
1.020
0.945
0.970
0.995
0.945
0.945

Method B:
First, we must prove that the flow is turbulent flow.
To find mean velocity, with density = 1.1518 kg/m3

Velocity, v(m/s)
Position, x (cm)

Differential
Pressure, (kPa)

Temperature, T8
(oC)

3.0
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2

1.015
1.055
1.045
0.995
1.020
0.945
0.970
0.995
0.945
0.945

29.7
29.3
29.8
29.9
30.2
31.1
31.0
31.3
32.4
33.7

41.98
42.80
42.60
41.57
42.08
40.51
41.04
41.57
40.51
40.51

From the table, when Tfluid = 29.4 oC, by interpolation

Viscosity,

)
m2/s

k,

k= 0.02672 W/m K
Pr number,

Pr = 0.6953

Since the Reynolds number is between 104 to 106, it is a turbulent flow. Thus, the Nusselt
number equation can be calculated.

( )

= 1.1170

)(

= 91.6284

= 122.4155 W/ m2 K

By comparing the two method, we can find the error between the two of them :

Discussions
1. From the graph of velocity versus position, we could see that the velocity will always
increase and decrease inconsistently. However, we knew that the nearer to the wall,
the lower the velocity is. The velocity decrease as it is nearer to the wall was due to
the viscous effect. The graph we get is not some accurate due to some errors that will
state in the discussion below.
2. From the graph of temperature versus position, we could see that the temperature is
decreasing as the position increase. Theoretically, the temperature should be higher on
the wall and lowest in the middle of the pipe. However, due to some errors, the data
and graph we obtain is not so accurate.
3. The values of the heat transfer coefficient, h that we obtain by the two different
methods is different. Method B is basically is theoretical calculation which is
impossible for us to obtain it practically. The value of h from method B is 122.4155
W/m2 K. The experimental way of calculate h is using method A and the value we
obtain is 180.4244 W/m2K. The percentage error between both of them is 32.15%
which is very large. It is impossible for us to do the experimental value exactly same
as the theoretical value of h. All we can do is try out best to avoid as much errors that
we can to make the experimental value to be closer to the theoretical value.
4. The following are the errors that make our experimental data to be inaccurate :
a) The reading of either differential pressure or the temperature is on fluctuations. It
made us unable to get a accurate reading from it.
b) The air flow is still not stabilizing yet when we take down the reading, causing the
data to be inaccurate.
c) The thermocouples are not totally insulated so the surrounding temperature will
give an effect on the temperature.
d) Although we recorded the mean data but sometimes it is not so accurate because
some of the range is huge and some of them are small. The range should also be
taken into consideration when doing the calculation.

Conclusion
The value of the heat transfer coefficient from the experimental data is determined as
180.4244 W/m2K which is a lot different from the theoretical data we calculated (122.155
W/m2K). The huge different was due to some errors that occurs throughout the
experiment.