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Vectorsand

TwoDimensionalMotion

In one-dimensional motion, vectors

were used to a limited extent

For more complex motion,

manipulating vectors will be more

important

All physical quantities encountered in

this text will be either a scalar or a vector

A vector quantity has both magnitude

(size) and direction

A scalar is completely specified by only

a magnitude (size)

Chapter 3 Vectors

Physical parameters that can be

completely described by a number

and are known as scalars.

Physical parameters can be

completely described by a number

and additionally direction and are

known as vectors .

temperature

mass

time

displacement

velocity

acceleration

Vector Notation

When handwritten, use an arrow:

When printed, will be in bold print with an

arrow:

When dealing with just the magnitude of a

vector in print, an italic letter will be used: A

Italics will also be used to represent scalars

Properties of Vectors

Equality of Two Vectors

Two vectors are equal if

they have the same

magnitude and the same

direction

Movement of vectors in

a diagram

Any vector can be

moved parallel to itself

without being affected

An example of a vector is the displacement vector which describes the change in position

of an object as it moves from point A to point B. This is represented by an arrow that

points from point A to point B. The length of the arrow is proportional to the

displacement magnitude. The direction of the arrow indicated the displacement direction.

The three arrows from A to B, from A' to B', and from A'' to B'',

have the same magnitude and direction. A vector can be shifted

without changing its value if its length and direction are not

changed.

Method 1:

Method 2:

(using bold face print)

Adding Vectors

When adding vectors, their directions must be

taken into account

Units must be the same

Geometric Methods

Use scale drawings

Algebraic Methods

The resultant vector (sum) is denoted as

Polygon Method)

Choose a scale

Draw the first vector with the appropriate length and

in the direction specified, with respect to a coordinate

system

Draw the next vector using the same scale with the

appropriate length and in the direction specified, with

respect to a coordinate system whose origin is the end

of the first vector and parallel to the ordinate system

used for the first vector

(continued)

Continue drawing the

vectors tip-to-tail

The resultant is drawn from

the origin of the first vector

to the end of the last vector

Measure the length of the

resultant and its angle

Use the scale factor to

convert length to actual

magnitude

This method is called the

triangle method

s a b

Vector addition is commutative

a b b a

but opposite direction

Vectors obey the Commutative Law of Addition

The order in which the vectors are added doesnt affect the

result

Section3.1

(continued...)

When you have many

vectors, just keep

repeating the tip-totail process until all are

included

The resultant is still

drawn from the origin

of the first vector to the

end of the last vector

Negative Vectors

The negative of the vector is defined as the vector

that gives zero when added to the original vector

Two vectors are negative if they have the same

magnitude but are 180 apart (opposite directions)

Vector Subtraction

Special case of vector

addition

Add the negative of the

subtracted vector

vector addition

procedure

d a b

We write: d a b a b

vector addition which we know how to do

Note: We can add and subtract vectors using the method of components.

For many applications this is a more convenient method

The result of the multiplication or division is a

vector

The magnitude of the vector is multiplied or

divided by the scalar

If the scalar is positive, the direction of the

result is the same as of the original vector

If the scalar is negative, the direction of the

result is opposite that of the original vector

Multiplying a Vector by a Scalar

The magnitude b of the new vector is given by: b | s | a

The Scalar Product of two Vectors

The scalar product a b of two vectors a and b is given by:

The scalar product of two vectors is also

a b =ab cos

known as the "dot" product. The scalar product in terms

of vector components is given by the equation:

a b =axbx ayby azbz

Components of a Vector

It is useful to use

rectangular

components to add

vectors

These are the

projections of the

vector along the xand y-axes

The x-component of a vector is the projection

along the x-axis

along the y-axis

Then,

The previous equations are valid only if

is measured with respect to the x-axis

The components can be positive or

negative and will have the same units as

the original vector

The components are the legs of the right triangle

whose hypotenuse is

The value will be correct only if the angle lies in the first or

fourth quadrant

In the second or third quadrant, add 180

It may be convenient to

use a coordinate system

other than horizontal

and vertical

Choose axes that are

perpendicular to each

other

Adjust the components

accordingly

Choose a coordinate system and sketch the

vectors

Find the x- and y-components of all the vectors

Add all the x-components

This gives Rx:

Add all the y-components

This gives Ry:

magnitude of the resultant:

Use the inverse tangent function to find the

direction of R:

Using + or signs is not always sufficient

to fully describe motion in more than one

dimension

Vectors can be used to more fully

describe motion

Still interested in displacement, velocity,

and acceleration

Displacement

The position of an object is

described by its position

vector,

The displacement of the

object is defined as the

change in its position

Velocity

The average velocity is the ratio of the displacement

to the time interval for the displacement

The instantaneous velocity is the limit of the average

velocity as t approaches zero

The direction of the instantaneous velocity is along a line

that is tangent to the path of the particle and in the direction

of motion

Acceleration

The average acceleration is defined as the rate

at which the velocity changes

the average acceleration as t approaches zero

SI unit: meter per second squared (m/s)

Displacement

m

m/s

acceleration

m/s2

The magnitude of the velocity (the speed) may

change with time

The direction of the velocity may change with

time

Even though the magnitude is constant

change with time

Projectile Motion

An object may move in both the x and y

directions simultaneously

It moves in two dimensions

deal with is an important special case called

projectile motion

We may ignore air friction

We may ignore the rotation of the earth

With these assumptions, an object in

projectile motion will follow a parabolic

path

The x- and y-directions of motion are completely

independent of each other

The x-direction is uniform motion

ax = 0

ay = -g

The initial velocity can be broken down into its xand y-components

Projectile Motion

Angles

Complementary

values of the initial

angle result in the

same range

The heights will

be different

The maximum range

occurs at a projection

angle of 45o

x-direction

ax = 0

x = voxt

This is the only operative equation in the

x-direction since there is uniform velocity

in that direction

y-direction

a = -g

Take the positive direction as upward

Uniformly accelerated motion, so the

motion equations all hold

The velocity of the projectile at any point of its

motion is the vector sum of its x and y

components at that point

quadrant

Provided air resistance is negligible, the

horizontal component of the velocity remains

constant

Since ax = 0

equal to the free fall acceleration g

The acceleration in the y-direction is not zero at

the top of the projectiles trajectory

(continued)

and the displacement in the y-direction

are identical to those of a freely falling

body

Projectile motion can be described as a

superposition of two independent motions

in the x- and y-directions

Problem-Solving Strategy

Select a coordinate system and sketch the path

of the projectile

Include initial and final positions, velocities, and

accelerations

Treat the horizontal and vertical motions

independently

Follow the techniques for solving

problems with constant velocity to

analyze the horizontal motion of the

projectile

Follow the techniques for solving

problems with constant acceleration to

analyze the vertical motion of the

projectile

An object may be

fired horizontally

The initial velocity is

all in the x-direction

vo = vx and vy = 0

All the general rules

of projectile motion

apply

A rescue plane flies at 198 km/h (= 55.0 m/s) and constant height h =

500 m toward a point directly over a victim, where a rescue capsule

is to land. (a) What should be the angle of the pilots line of sight to

x

the victim when the release is made ?

tan 1 ( )

h

Horizontal motion: a x 0; v x v0

x x0 x 0 v0t x v0t

Vertical motion: a y g ; v y 0 0;

1

1

y y0 h v0 y t gt 2 h gt 2

2

2

1

500m (9.8m / s 2 )t 2 t 10.1s

2

x v0t 55.0m / s 10.1s 555.5m

tan 1 (

555.5m

) 48

500m

Follow the general rules

for projectile motion

Break the y-direction

into parts

up and down

symmetrical back to

initial height and then

the rest of the height

Special Equations

The motion equations can be combined

algebraically and solved for the range and

maximum height

A stone is projected at a cliff of height h with an initial speed of 42.0

m/s directed at angle 0=60 above the horizontal. The stone strikes at

A, 5.50 s after launching. Find (a) the height h of the cliff, (b) the

speed of the stone just before impact at A, and (c) the maximum

height H reached above the ground.

1

h (v0 sin 0 )t gt 2

2

1

(42.0)(sin 60)(5.5) (9.8)(5.5) 2 51.83 m

2

vx v0 cos 0 (42.0)(cos 60) 21 m/s

v y (v0 sin 0 ) gt (42.0)(sin 60) (9.8)(5.5) 17.5 m/s

v (21 m/s) 2 (17.5 m/s) 2 27 m/s

68 m

H=

2g

2(9.8)

Relative Velocity

Relative velocity is about relating the measurements

of two different observers

It may be useful to use a moving frame of reference

instead of a stationary one

It is important to specify the frame of reference, since

the motion may be different in different frames of

reference

There are no specific equations to learn to solve

relative velocity problems

The pattern of subscripts can be useful in

solving relative velocity problems

Assume the following notation:

E is an observer, stationary with respect to the

earth

A and B are two moving cars

is the position of car A as measured by E

is the position of car B as measured by E

is the position of car A as measured by car

Relative Position

The position of car A

relative to car B is given

by the vector

subtraction equation

The rate of change of the displacements gives

the relationship for the velocities

Velocity

Label all the objects with a descriptive letter

Look for phrases such as velocity of A

relative to B

Write the velocity variables with appropriate

notation

If there is something not explicitly noted as being

relative to something else, it is probably relative to

the earth

Velocity (continued)

Take the velocities and put them into an

equation

Keep the subscripts in an order analogous to

the standard equation

Solve for the unknown(s)

Need velocities

Boat relative to river

River relative to the

Earth

Boat with respect to the

Earth (observer)

Equation

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