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UNIVERSITAS MUSLIM INDONESIA

FAKULTAS SASTRA
ALAMAT: JALAN URIP SUMOHARJO KM 05 TELP 0411 5040407 MAKASSAR
SAP
NAMA MATA KULIAH
: GRAMMAR 1
NOMOR KODE MK
:2
SKS
: 2 (DUA)
1.
Deskripsi Umum
Pendalaman pola-pola kalaimat tunggal (simple sentences) dan kalimat majemuk (compound
sentences) dalam tenses: simple present, present progressive, simple future, future progressive, dan
simple past. Tercakup dalam mata kuliah ini adalah article, imperative, prepositions/prepositional
phrases, nouns, two word verbs, adjectives, adverb of frequency, and sequences.
2.
Pokok Bahasan
1.
(1)
Simple Present
(2)
Present Progressive
(3)
Simple Future
(4)
Future Progressive
(5)
Simple Past
2.
Prepositions/ prepositional phrases
3.
Articles
4.
Imperative
5.
Adjective
6.
Two word verbs
7.
Adverbs of frequency
8.
Question words
9.
Conjunctions
10.
Simple sentence/Compound Sentence
3.

4.

Tujuan Umum Perkuliahan


Mahasiswa memiliki kemampuan berbahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan kalimat sederhana
dan kalimat majemuk dalam tenses yang mengandung unsur-unsur definite and indefenit
articles, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, two word verbs, question words.
Tujuan Khusus Perkuliahan
Setelah selesai perkuliahan mahasiswa diharapkan:
(1)
Mampu membangun kalimat affirmative, negative, dan interrogative dalam pola kalimat
tenses berikut
a. Simple present
b. Present progressive
c. Simple future
d. Future progressive
e. Simple past
(2)
Mampu menggunakan wh-question (bertanya dan menjawab)
(3)
Mampu menggunakan definite and indefinite articles
(4)
Mampu menggunakan prepositions/prepositional phrase
(5)
Mampu member dan mengikuti instruction, direction dan request
(6)
Mampu membangun kalimat majemuk serta kalimat yang mengandung two word verb
(7)
Mampu menggunakan adjective dalam kalimat
(8)
Mampu menggunakan count, non-count nouns

5.

6.

7.

8.

(9)
Mampu menggunakan relative time
Strategi
(1)
Penjelasan
(2)
Drills
(3)
Demonstration
(4)
Tutorial/tugas
(5)
Aplikasi
Media
(1)
lcd
(2)
Board
Evaluasi
(1)
Test Objective
(2)
Completion/fill-in-blank
(3)
Matching
(4)
Pengamatan
Jadwal Perkuliahan

Pertemuan 1
The Verb To Be

Probably the best known verb in the world: "To be or not to be..."
Forms of To Be
Present

Past

Perfect
Form

Continuous
Form

am

was

have / had been

am / was being

he / she / it

is

was

has / had been

is / was being

you / we / they

are

were

have / had been

are / were being

Normally we use the verb to be to show the status or characteristics of something or someone (as
a stative verb). It says what I am, what you are or what something is.
Present Simple (stative)
I am a
You are a He /She is a
It is a car.
teacher. student. student.

We are all
teachers.

They are
students.

We were all
students
once.

They were
students.

Past Simple (stative)


It was a nice
I was a You were He /She was
day
student. a student. a student.
yesterday.
Future Simple (stative)
I will be You will
a
be a
student. teacher.

He / She will It will be nice We will be


be a teacher. later.
teachers.

They will
be
students.

When used with the present participle of other verbs it describes actions that are or were still
continuing - auxiliary verb be [+ ing form of the main verb].

Present Continuous (active)


I am
being
silly.

You are
He /She is
being silly. being silly.

It is being
silly.

We are being They are


silly.
being silly.

Past Continuous (active)


I was
being
silly.

You were He /She was It was being


being silly. being silly. silly.

We were
being silly.

They were
being silly.

Am/Is/Are
The verb to be is used to create simple yes/no questions by simply inverting the order of subject
and the To be verb.
For example:I am a teacher. (Statement)
Am I a teacher? (Question)
Question

Positive Statement

Negative Statement (possible short forms)

Singular
Am I ...?

I am ... (I'm ...)

I am not ... (I'm not ...)

Is he / she / it ...?

He / She / It is
...(He's/She's/It's ...)

He / She / It is not (He / She / It isn't... // He's / She's


/ It's not ...)

Are you ...?

You are ...(You're...)

You are not (You're not ...// You aren't...)

Am I being ...?

I am being ...

I am not being ... (I'm not being...)

Is he / she / it
being...?

He / She / It is being ...


(He's/She's/It's being ...)

He / She / It is not being ... (He / She / It isn't


being...// He/she/it's not being...)

Are you being ...?

You are being ... (You're being You are not being ... (You're not being ... // You
...)
aren't being...)

Was I ...?

I was ...

I was not. ..

Was he / she / it
...?

He / She / It was ...

He / She / It was not ... (He / She / It wasn't)

Were you ...?

You were ...

You were not ... (You weren't ...)

Was I being ...?

I was being ...

I was not being (I wasn't being...)

Was he / she / it
being...?

He / She / It was being ...

He / She / It was not being ... (He / She / It wasn't


being... )

Were you being


...?

You were being ...

You were not being ... (You weren't being ...)

Will I be ...?

I will be ... (I'll be ...)

I will not be ... (I'll not be ...)

Will he / she / it be He / She / It will be ...(He'll /


...?
She'll / It'll be ...)

He / She / It will not be (He / She / It won't be ... //


He'll not be / She'll not be / It'll not be ...)

Will you be ...?

You will be ...(You'll be ...)

You will not be (You won't be ... // You'll not be ...)

We / You / They are (We're /


You're / They're)

We / You /They are not (We're / You're / They're not


// We / You / They aren't)

Plural
Are we / you /
they?

Are we / you / they We / You / They are being ...


being ...?
(We're / You're / They're)

We / You /They are not being (We're / You're /


They're not being // We / You / They aren't being)

Were we / you /
they ...?

We / You / They were ...

We / You / They were not ... (We / You / They


weren't ...)

Were we / you /
they being ...?

We / You / They were being ...

We / You / They were not being ... (We / You / They


weren't being ...)

Will we / you /
they be ...?

We / You / They will be


...(We'll / You'll They'll be ...)

We / You / They will not be (We / You / They won't


be ... // We'll / You'll They'll not be ...)

Examples
Am/Are
Question - ?

"Am I disturbing you?"

Is
"Is this your coat"

Positive Answer - Yes

"Yes you are."

"Yes it is"

Negative Answer - No

"No you're not."

"No it isn't"

Was / Were
Question - ?

Was

"Was I disturbing you?"

"Was that your old house?"

Positive Answer - Yes

"Yes you were ."

"Yes it was "

Negative Answer - No

"No you weren't."

"No it wasn't."

!Note - The verb to be is also used when forming the passive voice.

Simple Present Tense


Simple Tenses

The simple tenses are used to show permanent characteristics of people and events or what
happens regularly, habitually or in a single completed action.
The simple present tense is used to discuss permanent situations and the frequency of events.
To have

Short form

Other Verbs (to work)

I have

I've

I work

he has

he's

He works

she has

she's

She works

it has

it's

It works

you have

you've

you work

we have

we've

we work

they have

they've

they work

Statements
+

Statements
-

Questions

Short answer
+

Short answer
-

I work.

I don't work.

Do I work?

Yes, I do.

No, I don't.

He works.

He doesn't work.

Does he work?

Yes, he does.

No, he doesn't.

She works.

She doesn't work.

Does she work?

Yes, she does.

No, she doesn't.

It works.

It doesn't work.

Does it work?

Yes, it does.

No, it doesn't.

You work.

You don't work.

Do you work?

Yes you do.

No, you don't.

We work.

We don't work.

Do we work?

Yes we do.

No, we don't.

They work.

They don't work.

Do they work?

Yes they do.

No, they don't.

Regular or permanent situations

When something happens regularly or is a permanent situation we usually use the simple present
tense. When using the simple present the verb (with the exception of the auxiliary verbs) remains
in the dictionary form (verb + s with he/she/it).
Simple Present Timeline

For example:
Q) "Where do you live?" A) "I live in Germany."
Q) "Where does he live?" A) "He lives in Germany."
Q) "What do you do?" A) "I'm a teacher."
Q) "What does he do?" A) "He's a teacher."

Frequency
The simple present tense is also used to show how often something happens with adverbs of
frequency - always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, never, etc.... And
when discussing daily, weekly, monthly etc. routines.
For example:
"I always get up at 6.00."
"I never drink coffee before 12.00."
"I work on my website every day."
"Every Monday and Thursday I go to the gym."
We also use the simple present to ask for and give instructions or to discuss a series of actions.
For example:
Q) How do I make pancakes?" A) Well, first you take 4 eggs and crack them into a bowl, then
you weigh out 4 oz. of flour and sieve it into the eggs. etc.

Pertemuan ke 2
Present Continuous Tense
I am singing

We often use the present continuous tense in English. It is very different from the simple present
tense, both in structure and in use.
In this lesson we look the structure and use of the present continuous tense, followed by a quiz to
check your understanding:

Structure: how do we make the present continuous tense?


Use: when and why do we use the present continuous tense?
Spelling: how do we spell verbs with -ing for the present continuous tense?
Present Continuous Tense Quiz

Continuous tenses are also called progressive


tenses. So the present progressive tense is the
same as the present continuous tense.

How do we make the Present Continuous Tense?


The structure of the present continuous tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb
be

base + ing

Look at these examples:


subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

am

speaking

to you.

You

are

reading

this.

She

is

not

staying

in London.

We

are

not

playing

football.

Is

he

watching

TV?

Are

they

waiting

for John?

How do we use the Present Continuous Tense?


We use the present continuous tense to talk about:

action happening now


action in the future

Present continuous tense for action happening now


a) for action happening exactly now
I am eating my lunch.
past

present

future

The action is happening now.

Look at these examples. Right now you are looking at this screen and at the same time...

...the pages are turning.

...the candle is burning.

b) for action happening around now

...the numbers are spinning.

The action may not be happening exactly now, but it is happening just before and just after now,
and it is not permanent or habitual.
John is going out with Mary.
past

present

future

The action is happening around


now.

Look at these examples:

Muriel is learning to drive.


I am living with my sister until I find an apartment.

Pertemuan ke 3

Present continuous tense for the future


We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future - if we add a future word!!
We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. "Future words" include, for
example, tomorrow, next year, in June, at Christmas etc. We only use the present continuous
tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. We have
already made a decision and a plan before speaking.
I am taking my exam next month.
past

present
!!!

future

A firm plan or programme exists


now.

The action is in the future.

Look at these examples:

We're eating in a restaurant tonight. We've already booked the table..


They can play tennis with you tomorrow. They're not working.
When are you starting your new job?

In these examples, we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. The decision and plan

How do we spell the Present Continuous Tense?


We make the present continuous tense by adding -ing to the base verb. Normally it's simple - we
just add -ing. But sometimes we have to change the word a little. Perhaps we double the last
letter, or we drop a letter. Here are the rules to help you know how to spell the present
continuous tense.
Basic rule

Exception
1

Just add -ing to the base verb:


work

>

working

play

>

playing

assist

>

assisting

see

>

seeing

be

>

being

If the base verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant, double the last letter:
s

consonant

stressed
vowel

consonant

(vowels = a, e, i, o, u)

stop

>

stopping

run

>

running

begin

>

beginning

Note that this exception does not apply when the last syllable of the base verb is not
stressed:
open
Exception
2

>

opening

If the base verb ends in ie, change the ie to y:

Exception
3

lie

>

lying

die

>

dying

If the base verb ends in vowel + consonant + e, omit the e:


come

>

coming

mistake

>

mistaking

Present Continuous Tense Quiz


1

Is

Maxwell

they coming over for dinner?

is

My mother-in-law is

not sleeping on our sofa.

stay

at our house this week.

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

my dinner right now.

learn

My sister

eat

We

w ork

at the hair salon until September.

eat

at a fancy restaurant tonight. Jason decided this


yesterday.

When do you

They are

10

Spanish.

start

your new art class?

opening

Melissa is

a new record shop downtown.

lieing

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

down on her bed.

Pertemuan ke 4
Simple Future Tense
I will sing

The simple future tense is often called will, because we make the simple future tense with the
modal auxiliary will.

How do we make the Simple Future Tense?


The structure of the simple future tense is:
subject

auxiliary verb WILL


invariable

main verb
base

will

V1

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we insert not between the auxiliary verb and
main verb. For question sentences, we exchange the subject and auxiliary verb. Look at these
example sentences with the simple future tense:
subject

auxiliary verb

main verb

will

open

the door.

You

will

finish

before me.

She

will

not

be

at school tomorrow.

We

will

not

leave

yet.

Will

you

arrive

on time?

Will

they

want

dinner?

When we use the simple future tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and auxiliary
verb:
I will

I'll

you will

you'll

he will
she will
it will

he'll
she'll
it'll

we will

we'll

they will

they'll

For negative sentences in the simple future tense, we contract with won't, like this:
I will not

I won't

you will not

you won't

he will not
she will not
it will not

he won't
she won't
it won't

we will not

we won't

they will not

they won't

How do we use the Simple Future Tense?


No Plan
We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we
speak. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. Look at these examples:

Hold on. I'll get a pen.


We will see what we can do to help you.
Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight.

In these examples, we had no firm plan before speaking. The decision is made at the time of
speaking.
We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it:

I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow.


I think I will have a holiday next year.
I don't think I'll buy that car.

Prediction
We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future. Again, there is no
firm plan. We are saying what we think will happen. Here are some examples:

It will rain tomorrow.


People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century.

Who do you think will get the job?

Be
When the main verb is be, we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or
decision before speaking. Examples:

I'll be in London tomorrow.


I'm going shopping. I won't be very long.
Will you be at work tomorrow?

Note that when we have a plan or intention to do


something in the future, we usually use other
tenses or expressions, such as the present
continuous tense or going to.

Pertemuan ke 5
Simple Past Tense
I sang

The simple past tense is sometimes called the preterite tense. We can use several tenses to talk
about the past, but the simple past tense is the one we use most often.
In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the simple past tense, followed by a quiz to
check your understanding:

Structure: how do we make the simple past tense?


Use: how do we use the simple past tense?
Simple Past Quiz

How do we make the Simple Past Tense?


To make the simple past tense, we use:

past form only


or
auxiliary did + base form

Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular
verbs:
V1
base

V2
past

V3
past participle

regular
verb

work
explode
like

worked
exploded
liked

worked
exploded
liked

The past form for all


regular verbs ends in -ed.

irregular
verb

go
see
sing

went
saw
sang

gone
seen
sung

The past form for


irregular verbs is variable.
You need to learn it by
heart.

You do not need the past participle


form to make the simple past tense. It is
shown here for completeness only.

The structure for positive sentences in the simple past tense is:
subject + main verb
past

The structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb
did

base

The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is:
auxiliary verb + subject + main verb

did

base

The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did etc).
And the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main verbs go
and work:
subject
+

auxiliary verb

main verb

went

to school.

You

worked

very hard.

She

did

not

go

with me.

We

did

not

work

yesterday.

Did

you

go

to London?

Did

they

work

at home?

Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it
was, we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences.
To make a question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples:

subject

main verb

I, he/she/it

was

here.

You, we, they

were

in London.

I, he/she/it

was

not

there.

You, we, they

were

not

happy.

Was

I, he/she/it

right?

Were

you, we, they

late?

How do we use the Simple Past Tense?


We use the simple past tense to talk about an action or a situation - an event - in the past. The
event can be short or long.
Here are some short events with the simple past tense:
The car exploded at 9.30am yesterday.
She went to the door.
We did not hear the telephone.
Did you see that car?
past

present

future

The action is in the past.

Here are some long events with the simple past tense:
I lived in Bangkok for 10 years.
The Jurassic period lasted about 62 million years.
We did not sing at the concert.
Did you watch TV last night?
past

The action is in the past.

present

future

Notice that it does not matter how long ago the event is: it can be a few minutes or seconds in the
past, or millions of years in the past. Also it does not matter how long the event is. It can be a
few milliseconds (car explosion) or millions of years (Jurassic period). We use the simple past
tense when:

the event is in the past


the event is completely finished
we say (or understand) the time and/or place of the event

Here are some more examples:

I lived in that house when I was young.


He didn't like the movie.
What did you eat for dinner?
John drove to London on Monday.
Mary did not go to work yesterday.
Did you play tennis last week?
I was at work yesterday.
We were not late (for the train).
Were you angry?

Note that when we tell a story, we usually use the simple past tense. We may use the past
continuous tense to "set the scene", but we almost always use the simple past tense for the action.
Look at this example of the beginning of a story:
"The wind was howling around the hotel and the rain was pouring down. It was cold. The door opened
and James Bond entered. He took off his coat, which was very wet, and ordered a drink at the bar. He
sat down in the corner of the lounge and quietly drank his..."

Simple Past Tense Quiz


1

goed

My brother

Did

to the mall after school.

seen

a bear an hour ago.

Mike visit his grandmother last night?

Alex did not

w ork

last weekend.

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

10

Was

Judy and Liz at last month's meeting?

w ere

We

Are

you see Jody's new dog yesterday?

Sorry, I

What

not happy after the sad ending.

w asn't

studying

do

hear you at the door.

English for two years.

you eat for lunch yesterday?

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Click for answ er

Pertemuan ke 6
Prepositions
Prepositions of Movement | Prepositions of Place | Prepositions of Time

Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other
words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun.
The good news is that they never change their form, regardless of the case, gender etc. of the
word they are referring to.
Prepositions are classified as simple or compound.
Simple prepositions are single word prepositions - across, after, at, before, between, by, during,
from, in, into, of, on, to, under, with and without are all single word prepositions.
For example:

The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions are more than one word - in between and because of - are prepositions
made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of - are prepositions made up of three words.
For example:

The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings.
The book is in front of the clock.

Prepositions of Movement
Prepositions can be used to show movement.
For example:to, through, across
We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination
For example:I moved to Germany in 1998.
He's gone to the shops.
We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other.

For example:
The train went through the tunnel.
We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another.
For example:
She swam across the river.
More prepositions of movement
She ran
to

the door.

through

the tunnel. (from one side of an


enclosed space to the other)

across

the road. (from one side of an open


space to the other)

along

the road. (the length of the road)

down

the road. (the length of the road)

over

the bridge. (from one side of an open


space to the other)

off

the stage.

round

the track.

into

the room.

Prepositions of Place

Prepositions can be used to show where something is located.


The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at to show a specific place or position.


For example:
Someone is at the door.

They are waiting at the bus stop.


I used to live at 51 Portland Street.
We use on to show position on a horizontal or vertical surface.
For example:
The cat sat on the mat.
The satellite dish is on the roof.
We also use on to show position on streets, roads, etc.
For example:
I used to live on Portland Street.
We use in to show that something is enclosed or surrounded.
For example:
The dog is in the garden.
She is in a taxi.
Put it in the box.
We also use in to show position within land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and
continents).
For example:
I used to live in Nottingham.

More prepositions of place


Prepositions of Place
after
She slammed the door

after

her.

They ran

after

the thief.

among
I enjoy being

among

my friends.

I found my handbag

among

my luggage.

at
The secretary was sitting

at

her desk.

The man was standing

at

the taxi stand.

behind
The car park is

behind

the building.

He never won a race, he was always

behind

the others.

between
The prisoner sat

between

the two policemen.

I held the pen

between

my thumb and fingers.

The pen was

in

the drawer.

He lives

in

South Africa.

in

in front of
The teacher stands

in front of

the class.

The car was parked

in front of

the garage.

In my English lesson I always sit

next to/
beside/by

my friend.

The bank is

next to/
beside/by

the hotel.

The painting was hanging

on

the wall.

The boy was sitting

on

the chair.

next to / beside / by

on

over/above
The sign hanging
I put the tablecoth
I enjoy watching the planes fly

over/above
over
above

the door read 'No smoking'.


the table.
me.

under / below
The temperature outside was under/below 0.
The woman was sheltering

under

a tree.

When flying I enjoy watching the clouds

below

me.

Prepositions of Time
Prepositions can also be used to show when something happened.
The prepositions at, on, and in

We use at for specific times.


For example:I start work at 7.00 a.m.
I don't work at night.
We use on for specific days and dates .
For example:
My birthday is on Monday.
We're having a party on 7th September.
We also use on for some special days.
For example:
On Christmas day.
We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
For example:
In summer it's too hot to work.
I started this web site in 1999.
She woke up in the night.

More prepositions of time


Point in Time
at

6 o'clock
Midnight

on

Saturday
April 10th
Christmas Day

by

the end of July


(indicates a deadline=at the latest)

till / until / up to

March
(indicates an end point)

since

April
10th March
(indicates a beginning point in time)

Length of Time
in

at

July
the autumn
the morning
the middle of .
night
the weekend

during

the meeting
the lesson

for

two days

twelve months
throughout

August
the project

Pertemuan ke 7
Articles
General | A/an | The | No article

Articles
First the good news:There are only three articles in English: a, an and the.
There are two types of articles indefinite 'a' and 'an' or definite 'the'. You also need to know
when not to use an article.
The bad news is that their proper use is complex, especially when you get into the advanced use
of English. Quite often you have to work it out by what sounds right, which can be frustrating for
a learner.

Indefinite articles - a and an (determiners)


A and an are the indefinite articles. They refer to something not specifically known to the person
you are communicating with.
A and an are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned
before:"I saw an elephant this morning."

For
example: "I ate a banana for lunch."

A and an are also used when talking about your profession:"I am an English teacher."

For
example: "I am a builder."

You use a when the noun you are referring to begins with a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h,
j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y or z), for example, "a city", "a factory", and "a hotel".
You use an when the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)
Pronunciation changes this rule. It's the sound that matters, not the spelling.

Note!

If the next word begins with a consonant sound when we say it, for example,
"university" then we use a. If the next word begins with a vowel sound when we say it,
for example "hour" then we use an.
We say "university" with a "y" sound at the beginning as though it were spelt
"youniversity".
So, "a university" IS correct.
We say "hour" with a silent h as though it were spelt "our".
So, "an hour" IS correct.
(Lots of people get this wrong - including native speakers.)

Definite Article - the (determiners)

Strong pronunciation

Weak pronunciation

You use the when you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person/thing
you are talking about.
"The apple you ate was rotten."

For
example: "Did you lock the car?"

You should also use the when you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.
For
"She's got two children; a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the boy's fourteen."
example:
We use the to talk about geographical points on the globe.

For
the North Pole, the equator
example:
We use the to talk about rivers, oceans and seas
For
the Nile, the Pacific, the English channel
example:
We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing.
For
the rain, the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House etc..
example:
However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use a/an.
For
example:

"I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing."


"What are your plans for the future?" / "She has a promising future ahead of her."

The is also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best, most
famous, etc. In this use, 'the' is usually given strong pronunciation:
For
example:

"Harry's Bar is the place to go."


"You don't mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?"

!Note - The doesn't mean all:"The books are expensive." = (Not all books are expensive, just the ones I'm talking
For
about.)
example:
"Books are expensive." = (All books are expensive.)

No article
We usually use no article to talk about things in general:Inflation is rising.
People are worried about rising crime. (Note! People generally, so no article)

You do not use an article when talking about sports.


For
example:

My son plays football.


Tennis is expensive.

You do not use an article before uncountable nouns when talking about them generally.
For
example:

Information is important to any organisation.


Coffee is bad for you.

You do not use an article before the names of countries except where they indicate multiple areas
or contain the words (state(s), kindom, republic, union). Kingdom, state, republic and union are
nouns, so they need an article.
No article - Italy, Mexico, Bolivia, England
For
Use the - the UK (United Kingdom), the USA (United States of America), the Irish
example: Republic
Multiple areas! the Netherlands, the Philippines, the British Isles

Pertemuan ke 7
Adjectives describe or give information about nouns or pronouns.
For example:The grey dog barked. (The adjective grey describes the noun "dog".)
The good news is that the form of an adjective does not change. It does not matter if the noun
being modified is male or female, singular or plural, subject or object.
Some adjectives give us factual information about the noun - age, size colour etc (fact adjectives
- can't be argued with). Some adjectives show what somebody thinks about something or
somebody - nice, horrid, beautiful etc (opinion adjectives - not everyone may agree).
If you are asked questions with which, whose, what kind, or how many, you need an adjective to
be able to answer.
There are different types of adjectives in the English language:

Numeric: six, one hundred and one


Quantitative: more, all, some, half, more than enough
Qualitative: colour, size, smell etc.
Possessive: my, his, their, your
Interrogative: which, whose, what
Demonstrative: this, that, those, these

!Note - The articles a, an, and the and the possessives my, our, your, and their are also
adjectives.

Opinion

Adjectives can be used to give your opinion about something.


good, pretty, right, wrong, funny, light, happy, sad, full, soft, hard etc.
For example:
He was a silly boy.

Size

Adjectives can be used to describe size.


big, small, little, long, tall, short, same as, etc.
For example:

"The big man." or "The big woman".

Age

Adjectives can be used to describe age.


For example:

"He was an old man." or "She was an old woman."

Shape

Adjectives can be used to describe shape.


round, circular, triangular, rectangular, square, oval, etc.
For example:

"It was a square box." or "They were square boxes."

Colour

Adjectives can be used to describe colour.


blue, red, green, brown, yellow, black, white, etc.
For example:

"The blue bag." or "The blue bags".

Origin

Adjectives can be used to describe origin.


For example:

"It was a German flag." or "They were German flags."

Material

Adjectives can be used to describe material.

"It was a cotton cushion." or "They were cotton cushions."

Distance

Adjectives can be used to describe distance. l -- o -- n -- g / short

long, short, far, around, start, high, low, etc.


For example:

"She went for a long walk." or "She went for lots of long walks."

Temperature

Adjectives can be used to describe temperature.


cold, warm, hot, cool, etc.
For example:

"The day was hot." or "The days were hot."

Time

Adjectives can be used to describe time.


late, early, bed, nap, dinner, lunch, day, morning, night, etc.
For example:

"She had an early start."

Purpose

Adjectives can be used to describe purpose. (These adjectives often end with "-ing".)

For example:

"She gave them a sleeping bag." or "She gave them sleeping bags."

!Note - In each case the adjective stays the same, whether it is describing a masculine, feminine,
singular or plural noun.
When using more than one adjective to modify a noun, the adjectives may be separated by a
conjunction (and) or by commas (,).
For example:

"Her hair was long and blonde." or "She had long, blonde hair."

More examples:
Adjective

Pretty

Serious

Fast

Quiet

Example

She was a pretty


girl.

He was a serious
boy.

It was a fast car.

They were quiet


children.

!Note - Adjectives that go immediately before the noun are called attributive adjectives.
Adjectives can also be used after some verbs. They do not describe the verb, adverbs do that.
Adjectives after a verb describe the subject of the verb (usually a noun or pronoun). They are
called predicative adjectives.
For example:

"David looks tired." The subject (in this case David) is being described as tired not the verb to
look.

There is also the adjective used to, which is explained here.

Comparative form of Adjectives


When we compare two things or people we look at what makes them different from each other.
For example:
Tall / Short

The man on the left is taller than the man on the right.
The man on the right is shorter than the man on the left.
Fast / Slow

A car is faster than a bicycle.


A bicycle is slower than a car.

Comparative adjectives are used to show what quality one thing has more or less than the other.
They normally come before any other adjectives.
For example:
Big / Small

The red bag is bigger than the blue bag.


The blue bag is smaller than the red bag.

Forming the comparative

Form
Words of one syllable ending in 'e'.

Rule
Add -r to the end of the word.

For example

wide - wider

Words of one syllable, with one vowel and one Double the consonant and add big - bigger
consonant at the end.
er to the end of the word.
Words of one syllable, with more than one
Add - er to the end of the word. high - higher
vowel or more than one consonant at the end.
Words of two syllables, ending in 'y'.

Change 'y' to 'i', and add -er to


the end of the word.

happy - happier

Words of two syllables or more, not ending in


'y'.

Place 'more' before the


adjective.

beautiful - more
beautiful

The following adjectives are exceptions to this rule:

'good' becomes 'better'


'bad' becomes 'worse'
'far' becomes 'farther' or 'further'

!Note - When comparing two things like this we put than between the adjective and the thing
being compared.
For example:

"Mount Everest is higher than Mount Snowdon."


"Arguably, Rome is more beautiful than Paris.

Adjective Order
Adjectives can be used to describe lots of things, from physical size, age, shape, colour, material,
to more abstract things like opinion, origin and purpose. We can use adjectives together to give a
detailed description of something. Adjectives that express opinions usually come before all
others, but it can sometimes depend on what exactly you want to emphasise.
For example:
"That nice, big, blue bag." (You like the bag.)
"That big, nice, blue bag." (You like the colour.)
When we group adjectives together there is a general rule for the position of each type adjective,
these are:Position

1st*

2nd*

3rd

4th

5th

6th

7th

8th

Opinion

Size

Age

Shape

Colour

Material

Origin

Purpose

Nice

Small

Old

Square

Black

Plastic

British

Racing

Ugly

Big

New

Circular

Blue

Cotton

American

Running

This is just a guide as you wouldn't normally see so many adjectives in one description.
For example:

"She had a big, ugly, old, baggy, blue, cotton, British, knitting bag." Is grammatically correct but
a bit too long-winded.

* You might swap opinion and fact adjectives depending on what you wish to emphasise:For example:

"She had a long, ugly nose." emphasising the length of her nose.
"He was a silly, little man." emphasising that the man was silly.

Common Adjectives Table


(A list of English adjectives with dictionary look up - double click on any word for its definition
and pronunciation)
Appearance | Condition | Feeling | Shape | Size | Sound | Speed | Taste | Time | Touch
Appearance

adorable
alert
average
beautiful
blonde
bloody
blushing
bright
clean
clear
cloudy
colourful
concerned
crowded
curious
cute
dark
dirty
drab
distinct
dull
elegant
fancy
filthy
glamorous
gleaming
graceful
grotesque
homely
light
misty
motionless
muddy
plain
poised
quaint
scary

Condition
alive
brainy
broken
busy
careful
cautious
clever
crazy
damaged
dead
difficult
easy
fake
false
famous
forward
fragile
guilty
helpful
helpless
important
impossible
infamous
innocent
inquisitive
mad
modern
open
outgoing
outstanding
poor
powerful
puzzled

shiny
smoggy
sparkling
spotless
stormy
strange
ugly
unsightly
unusual

Feelings - negative

afraid
angry
annoyed
anxious
arrogant
ashamed
awful
bad
bewildered
bored
concerned
condemned
confused
creepy
cruel
dangerous
defeated
defiant
depressed
disgusted
disturbed
doubtful
eerie
embarrassed
envious

real
rich
right
robust
sane
scary
shy
sleepy
stupid
super
tame
thick
tired
wild
wrong
Feelings - neutral

alright
calm
different
fair
fine
OK
pleasant
puzzled

Feelings - positive

agreeable
alert
amused
brave
bright
charming
cheerful
comfortable
cooperative
courageous
delightful
determined
eager
elated
enchanting
encouraging
energetic
enthusiastic
excited
exuberant
faithful
fantastic
friendly
frowning
funny

evil
fierce
foolish
frantic
frightened
grieving
guilty
helpless
hungry
hurt
ill
jealous
lonely
mad
naughty
nervous
obnoxious
outrageous
panicky
repulsive
safe
scared
shy
sleepy
sore
strange
tense
terrible
tired
troubled
unusual
upset
uptight
weary
wicked
worried

gentle
glorious
good
happy
healthy
helpful
hilarious
innocent
jolly
kind
lively
lovely
lucky
obedient
perfect
proud
relaxed
relieved
silly
smiling
splendid
successful
thoughtful
victorious
vivacious
well
witty
wonderful

Shape

broad
crooked
curved
deep
even
flat

Size

average
big
fat
gigantic
huge
large

Sound

cooing
deafening
faint
harsh
high-pitched
hissing

hilly
jagged
round
shallow
square
steep
straight
thick
thin
triangular
uneven

little
long
massive
medium
miniature
narrow
petite
short
skinny
small
tall
tiny
wide

Speed
fast
quick
rapid
slow
swift

Taste
bitter
bland
delicious
different
fresh
greasy
hot
juicy
repulsive
revolting
ripe
rotten
salty
sour
spicy
stale
strong
sweet
tasteless
tasty
terrible

hushed
husky
loud
melodic
moaning
mute
noisy
purring
quiet
raspy
screeching
shrill
silent
soft
squeaky
squealing
thundering
voiceless
whispering
Time
ancient
brief.
early
late
long
modern
new
old
old-fashioned
quick
short
young

wonderful
Touch
blunt
boiling
breakable
breezy
broken
bumpy
chilly
clean
cold
cool
crooked
cuddly
curly
damaged
damp
different
dirty
dry
dusty
filthy
flaky
fluffy
fuzzy
greasy
grubby
hard
icy
loose
plastic
prickly
ripe
rough
rubbery
scratchy
shaky
shaggy
sharp

silky
slimy
slippery
smooth
soft
solid
steady
sticky
tight
uneven
unusual
unripe
warm
weak
wet
wooden
wooly

Possessive Adjectives
Possesive adjectives are used to show ownership or possession.
Subject pronoun

Possessive adjective

my

you

your

he

his

she

her

it

its

we

our

they

their

For example:

I own a laptop. = It is my laptop.


You own this computer (I presume). = It is your computer.
My husband owns a car. = It is his car.
My sister owns a house. = It is her house.
My dog owns a collar. = It is its collar.
We use this website. = It is our website.
Manchester United own a football ground. = It is their football ground.

Superlative Adjectives
Overview | Order | Possessive | Comparative | Superlative

The superlative is used to say what thing or person has the most of a particular quality within a
group or of its kind. Superlative adjectives normally come before any other adjectives.

Snowdon is not
the highest
mountain in
Britain, Ben
Nevis is.
Mount Snowdon is 3,559
feet high.

Ben Nevis is 4,408 feet


high.

Forming the superlative


Form
Words of one syllable ending in 'e'.
Words of one syllable, with one vowel and
one consonant at the end.

Rule
Add -st to the end of the word.

'good' becomes 'the best'


'bad' becomes 'the worst'
'far' becomes 'the furthest'

For example:

high - highest

Change 'y' to 'i', and add -est to


happy - happiest
the end of the word.

Words of two syllables or more, not ending in Place 'the most' before the
'y'.
adjective.

The following adjectives are exceptions:

wide - widest

Double the consonant and add big - biggest


est to the end of the word.

Words of one syllable, with more than one


Add - est to the end of the
vowel or more than one consonant at the end. word.
Words of two syllables, ending in 'y'.

For example

beautiful - the
most beautiful

"Jill is the best student in the class ."


"Jack is the worst student in the class."
"In our solar system the planet Pluto is the furthest planet from the Sun."

!Note - superlatives are usually preceded by 'the'.


For example:

"The Rio de la Plata river, on the southeast coastline of South America, is the widest river in the
world."
According to the List of World records Carol Yager (1960-1994), from Michigan, is the fattest
person ever to live, weighing 725 kg (1,600 lb).
"Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world."
"I think that Castle Combe is the prettiest village in England."
"Arguably, Rome is the most beautiful city in the world."

Irregular Adjectives
Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

Example

bad

worse

the worst

Historians say that Hitler was worse than


Mussolini. He was one of the worst dictators
the world has ever seen.

far

further

the furthest

Mars is further from the Sun than Earth. Pluto is


the furthest world from the Sun.

good

better

the best

Her English was better than the teacher's. She


was the best English student in the class.

old (age)

elder

the eldest

My elder sister Karen is the eldest in our family.

Adjectives
Used to something

The use of used to do is explained here. However, used to has another meaning, it can be used as
an adjective and we use it to talk about things that have become familiar, and are no longer
strange or new.
Used to usually comes after verbs such as be, get or become.

After a while you get used to the noise.


She will become used to the smell.

I was used to the web site.

You can also say that someone is used to doing something.

I'll never get used to getting up at six o'clock in the morning.


It took me a while until I was used to driving on the right-hand side of the road.

Pertemuan ke 8
Adverbs
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time | Comparative |
Superlative

Adverbs can tell you where, when, how, why and to what extent something happens.
There are several different classes of adverb (see above).
They are often formed from adjectives or nouns be adding the suffix -ly.
For example: Quick becomes quickly, sudden becomes suddenly, intelligent becomes
intelligently, . . .
To form an adverb from adjectives ending in -y change the y to i before adding the -ly.
For example: angry becomes angrily, busy becomes busily, . . .
To form an adverb from adjectives ending in -e drop the -e before adding the -ly.
For example: feeble becomes feebly, true becomes truly, . . .
Some adjectives ending in -ly need no changes.
For example: heavenly, . . .
However there are exceptions.
For example: sly becomes slyly, shy becomes shyly, . . .
Some adverbs do not end in -ly.
For example: fast, hard, straight, . . .
Adjective

Pretty

Serious

Fast

Quiet

Example

She was a pretty


girl.

He was a serious
boy.

It was a fast car.

They were quiet


children.

Adverb

Prettily

Seriously

Fast

Quietly

Example

The bird sang


prettily.

The policeman
spoke seriously.

Schumacher drives The woman spoke


fast.
quietly.

Adverbs can modify adjectives

An adjective can be modified by an adverb, which precedes the adjective.


For example:That's really nice.

Adverbs can modify adverbs

Some adverbs can modify others. As with adjectives, the adverb precedes the one it is modifying.
For example:She did it really well.

Adverbs can modify nouns

Adverbs can modify nouns to indicate time or place.


For example:The concert tomorrow.
The room upstairs.

Adverbs can modify noun phrases

Some adverbs of degree such as quite, rather, so, such ... can modify noun phrases.
For example:We had quite a good time.

They're such good friends.

Adverbs can modify determiners, numerals and pronouns

Adverbs such as almost, nearly, hardly, about, etc., can be used:


For example:Nearly everyone, who was invited, came to the party.

Adverbs can modify sentences

Some adverbs modify a whole sentence, not just a part of one.


For example:Luckily the car stopped in time. In this sentence luckily modifies the whole sentence, it shows
that it was good luck that the car stopped in time.

Adverbs of Degree
Overview | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time
Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of degree tell us the strength or intensity of something that happens. Many adverbs are
gradable, that is, we can intensify them. Basically they answer the sort of question that asks How
much ...? or How little...?
Adverbs of degree include; adequately, almost, entirely, extremely, greatly, highly, hugely,
immensely, moderately, partially, perfectly, practically, profoundly, strongly, totally,
tremendously, very, virtually etc.
For example:The man drove badly. = The man drove really badly. - In this sentence really shows us just how
badly he drove.
They enjoyed the film. = They enjoyed the film immensely. - In this sentence immensely shows us
how much they enjoyed the film.
These intensifiers are not gradable though, you cannot say The man drove extremely very badly.

Adverbs of Duration

Overview | Degree | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time | Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of duration tell us how long something happened.


They include; briefly, forever, long, shortly, permanently, temporarily . . .
For example:
"They were occupied." = "They were briefly occupied." - In this sentence briefly shows us the
duration.
"The phone was out of order." = "The phone was temporarily out of order." - In this sentence
temporarily shows us the duration.

Adverbs of Frequency
Overview | Degree | Duration | Manner | Place | Probability | Time
Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of frequency tell us how often something is done. These include; always, constantly,
continually, frequently, infrequently, intermittently, normally, occasionally, often, periodically,
rarely, regularly, seldom, sometimes, . . .
For example:
I always do my homework on time. - In this sentence always shows us the frequency.
She goes out occasionally. - In this sentence occasionally shows us the frequency.
Most frequent

always
constantly
nearly always
almost always
usually
generally
normally
regularly
often

frequently
sometimes
periodically
occasionally
now and then
once in a while
rarely
seldom
infrequently
hardly ever
scarcely ever
almost never
Least frequent

never

When something happens regularly at a fixed time we can use the following as adverbs:Every day

Daily

Every week

Weekly

Ever fortnight (two


weeks)

Fortnightly

Every month

Monthly

Every year

Yearly/Annually

For example:
I get a newspaper every day. = I get the newspaper daily.
I pay my rent every month. = I pay my rent monthly.

Adverbs of Manner
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Place | Probability | Time | Comparative | Superlative

Some adverbs tell us how an action is or should be performed.


Often these adverbs are formed by adding -ly to the end of an adjective.
Adjectives ending -l add -ly ; careful-carefully.
Adjectives ending -y change to -ily ; lucky-luckily
Adjectives ending -ble change to -bly ; responsible-responsibly
adjective

adverb

anxious

anxiously

bad

badly

beautiful

beautifully

capable

capably

lucky

luckily

quick

quickly

weak

weakly

For example:
The little girl ran quickly. In this sentence quickly modifies the verb ran (to run).

Adverbs of Place
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Probability | Time | Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of place indicate where something happens.


These include; abroad, anywhere, here, outside, somewhere, there, underground, upstairs ...
For example:

My passport is here in my bag.


Place
Upstairs

Example
The children were playing upstairs.

In London The people demonstrated in London.


Outside

The children were playing outside.

Adverbs of Probability
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Time | Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of probability tell us the likelihood of something happening.


If you imagine playing dice, what's the likelihood (probability) of rolling a six? It's possible, but
it's not certain. You'll certainly throw something between one and six, but your not likely to
throw two sixes.
Adverbs of probability include; certainly, definitely, doubtless, maybe, perhaps, possibly,
probably etc.
For example:
We will win the game. = We will certainly win the game. - In this sentence certainly shows us the
probability.

Adverbs of Time
Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability
Comparative | Superlative

Adverbs of time
Some adverbs tell us when something happened.
These include:afterwards, later, now, soon, yesterday, . . ..
For example:Yesterday all my troubles seemed so far away. - In this sentence yesterday shows us when.
Other adverbs of time include:Time

Example

Saturday, Sunday ...

I am going to the shops on Monday.

Today

I've been to the shops today.

Yesterday

I went yesterday.

Next week/month/year

I am going next week.

Last week/month/year

I went last year.

Finally

I finally went.

Eventually

I eventually went to the shops.

Already

I've already been to the shops.

Soon

I'm going to the shops soon.

Just

I'm just going to the shops.

Still

I'm still at the shops.

Adverbs of Comparison

Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time | Superlative

When we compare what two things or people do we look at what makes one different from the
other.
Adverbs of comparison are used to show what one thing does better or worse than the other.
When an adverb ends in -ly, more is put in front of the adverb.
For example:

"Jill did her homework more frequently."

The rule for forming the comparative of an adverb is if it has the same form as an adjective add
the suffix -er to the end.
For example:

"Jill did her homework faster."

The following irregular adverbs are exceptions to this rule:

'well' becomes 'better'


'badly' becomes 'worse'
'little' becomes 'less'

For example:

"Jill was better."


"Jack was worse."
"To lose weight you need to eat less."

When comparing two things you need to put than between the adverb and what is being
compared.
For example:

"Jill did her homework faster than Jack."


"Jill did her homework more frequently than Jack."

Superlative form of Adverbs

Overview | Degree | Duration | Frequency | Manner | Place | Probability | Time


Comparative

The superlative form of an adverb is used to say what thing or person does something to the
greater degree within a group or of its kind. Superlatives can be preceded by 'the'. In general the
superlative forms of adverbs are the same as for superlative forms of adjectives.
The rule for forming the superlative of an adverb is if it has the same form as an adjective add
the suffix -est to the end.
For example:

fast - "Jill ran the fastest."

When an adverb ends in -ly, most is put in front of the adverb.


For example:

Frequently - "Jill did her homework most frequently."

The following irregular adverbs are exceptions:

'well' becomes 'the best'


'badly' becomes 'the worst'

For example:

"Jill did the best in the test."


"Jack did the worst in the test."