Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

1

INTERNSHIP REPORT

FAUJI FERTILIZER BIN


QASIM LIMITED
(JUNE 2, 2014 TO JUNE 27, 2014)
Prepared By:

Submitted to:

SYED AHSAN GHAFFAR

MR.KHAN KASHIF

Internee-Instrument

Unit Manager L&D

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Syed Ahsan Ghaffar student of NED University of Engineering and
Technology, Karachi worked as internee in FFBL.I thank Almighty ALLAH
who empowered me to complete this internship.
I would like to thanks My Father ABDUL
SUPERVISOR AT FFBL.

GHAFFAR SENIOR

Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................... 2
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 5
COMPANY HISTORY: ....................................................................................... 6
Performance & Production.................................................................................... 6
GRANULAR UREA:............................................................................................ 7
DI-AMMONIA PHOSPHATE (DAP): ................................................................ 7
SAFETY ................................................................................................................ 8
PERSONEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS: ..................................................... 8
WORK PERMIT PROCEDURE: ......................................................................... 8
Ammonia Plant: ..................................................................................................10
Ammonia Plant: ..............................................................................................10
CAPACITY: ........................................................................................................11
UREA PLANT ....................................................................................................12
.............................................................................................................................14
UTLILIES AND POWER GENERATION: ......................................................15
Utility Control Room: .........................................................................................16
Fuel Gas Control System: ...................................................................................16
Components of Fuel Gas Control System:..........................................................16
Cooling Tower: ...................................................................................................17
DAP PLANT: ......................................................................................................18
DAP PLANT DESCRIPTION: ...........................................................................18

Process .......................................................................................................18

Base Plant: ....................................................................................................18

Revamp: ........................................................................................................18

Capacity: ....................................................................................................18

Raw Material: ............................................................................................18

Manufacturing Process Of DAP Plant: ...............................................................19

4
FOUR BASIC PROCESS VARIABLES OF INDUSTRY ................................21
Pressure: ..............................................................................................................21
Pressure Sensors: .................................................................................................21
1. Bourdon Tube Pressure Sensors: ..................................................................22
2. Bellows Pressure Sensors: ............................................................................22
3. Diaphragm pressure sensors: ........................................................................22
4. Piezo-Electric pressure Sensors: ...................................................................23
Flow:....................................................................................................................23
Introduction to Flow Meters and Flow sensors: .................................................24
Level:...................................................................................................................24
Level measuring Instruments: .............................................................................24
Temperature: .......................................................................................................24
Temperature Measuring Instruments: .................................................................25
HIMA PLC: EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN SYSTEM ......................................26
ONE I/O RACK CONTAINS: ............................................................................26
ELOP System Software& Operating System f o r Programming &
operation:.............................................................................................................26
CETRAL MODULE F8630: ...............................................................................27
COPROCESSOR MODULE F8621: ................................................................27
CONTROL SYSTEM OF FFBL: .......................................................................27
Control System ....................................................................................................28
Process control: ...................................................................................................28
DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS): .................................................30
Programmable logic controller (PLC): ...............................................................31
Input: ...................................................................................................................31
Output:.................................................................................................................32
.............................................................................................................................33

Introduction

Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited is US$460 Million Project, one of the
largest in the private sector in Pakistan. Producing both dap and granular
urea for the first time in the century. The largest and well known industrial
group of Fauji and Jordan phosphate mines company sponsors the project.
But now its the whole property of FFBL.

COMPANY HISTORY:
By the early nineties, Pakistan was
almost one million tons of urea and 800,000 tons of DAP per annum. At that
time management of Fauji Fertilizer embarked on the FFC Jordan fertilizer in
order to make Pakistan self-efficient in Urea Fertilizer and to drastically
reduce the import of DAP fertilizer.
Initially named as FFC-Jordan Fertilizer Company (FJFC), wef 17th Nov
1993, with FFC (30%), FF (10%) and JPMC (10%) as main sponsors. The
company was formally listed with stock exchanges in May 1996 and
commercial production commenced wef Jan 2000. However, it continued to
run in crises due to technical, financial and managerial reasons till 2001.
DAP Plant brought to suspension in 2001 due to accumulated loss of Rs. 6.5
Billion. It resumed production in Sep 2003, after a lapse of 2 years.

Performance & Production:


FFBL fertilizer complex is state of the art manufacturing facility with
advanced Distributed Control System for safe and efficient operation.
The phosphoric acid being raw material for DAP plant is imported from
Morocco and initially stored in tanks at Port Qasim. Design capacity
via-a-viz actual production of Plants is as under:
Manufacturing Plants
Production (Metric Ton / Day)
Original
Actual (Approx.)
Urea Granular

1670

1920

DAP

1350

2230 (After Revamp)

Ammonia

1270

1570 (After Revamp)

FFBL is the only fertilizer complex in Pakistan producing DAP fertilizer


and Granular Urea thus making significant contribution towards
agricultural growth of the country by meeting 45% of the demand of
DAP and 13% of Urea in domestic market.

GRANULAR UREA:
(GURRATED 46% NITROGEN)
With its state of the art of Fertiliser plant, Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited
is the only granular urea manufacture in Pakistan. Its product granular urea
has the cutting edge over the conventional pill urea fertilizer with the
following superior qualities.

Larger granular size


Greater granules strength
Minimum fines dust and powder
Minimum loses in the air
Least caking property
Easy to spread 9in the fields
No setting on crops/leaves

DI-AMMONIA PHOSPHATE (DAP):


(Guaranteed 18% Nitrogen and 46% P2O5)
Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited is the pioneer of premium quality Dap
fertilizer manufacturing in Pakistan. This first ever DAP fertilizer plant is a
lone production facility of its kind in the country our production meets
international quality standard and is ready to full fill farmers demand in
Pakistan.

SAFETY

Safety is the first priority in the FFBL. Safety is a measure of success in any
work. It means constant evaluation of thing, we do and how we go about
doing them so that we won`t get harm, they our equipments condition will
not contribute to an accident. In FFBLsafety is considered equal to
production.
Safety priorities of FFBL
1. Employs
2. Company assets
3. Environmental

PERSONEL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS:


Following Equipments is available for personal protection.
1. Safety helmets and shoes should be worn at plant site during working
and any other activity.
2. Googols for protection against liquids and gas.
3. Gloves for protection against acid and alkaline solution and heat
4. Respiration Mask with filters for duct and poisonous gases (H2S,
NH3, Natural Gas etc.)
5. Compressed air mask for protection against CO
6. Ear plugs for protection
7. Draggers equipment (Tubes and Sniffer) for measurement of
poisonous gases likeCO,H2S,NH3,Natural gas)

WORK PERMIT PROCEDURE:


The FFBL is controlled by Operation Department and no work can be
carried out by an unauthorized persons and Department. Any work which is
related to concern Department is carried by his permission of maintenance

9
and technical service Department. The permission is sought on a
presubscribed format known as work permit.
FFBL complex includes the following process units, offsite and on site.
Process Units:
1. Ammonia Plant
2. DAP Plant
3. Urea Plant
4. Utilities & Power Generation

FINAL PRODUCT RAW MATERIAL&


CHEMICAL STORAGE:
o
o
o
o

Final product storage & bagging Facilities


Ammonia Storage (5000 MT/Day)
Phosphoric Acid , Sulphuric Acid storages
Nitrogen Storage Unit

OFF SITES AND OTHER BUILDINGS:


Fire water
Natural gas Station
Effluent Treatment Facility

BUILDING INCLUDES:

Control Room and electrical Room


Laboratory
Technical Service Building
Ware house and Workshop
Technical Training Centre
Administration Building
OCEA

10

Ammonia Plant:
Ammonia Plant:

Ammonia Plant is the heart of FFBL or any other fertilizer company because
this plant is responsible for Ammonia production and also Carbon Dioxide
which is used in the manufacturing of Urea.
Following are the names of some of the major equipment under ammonia
plant.

Furnace (Primary Reformer).


Secondary Reformer.
Heat Exchangers (Shell & Tube, Flat Plate, Finned Type).
Boiler.
Start-up Furnace.
Start-up Heater

The Ammonia plant was designed and constructed by bechte corporation


(USA) in 1964-65 for Olin Chemicals. Commissioned, in November1998.Plants design Capacity is 1270 MT/day. During relocation In Pakistan
plant design capacity is same. After BMR in January 2006 reproduction
capacity was increased to 1570 MT/day. Raw materials are natural gas, Air
and water.
Desulphurization, reforming, CO2-convertion, CO2 removal, Meth nation,
comparison and ammonia synthesis are the process involve to produce the
syntheses Ammonia.
Natural gas prior to reforming section is Desulphurize in Desulphurization
section as Sulphur is poison for reforming catalyst. In primary reforming
Natural gas is converted in to hydrogen, Carbon-dioxide and carbon
monoxide in the presence of steam.

11
Then in secondary reformer air is introduce to have Nitrogen required for
Ammonia syntheses compressed by air compressors.
In carbon monoxide conversion section carbon monoxide to converted o
carbon dioxide in the presence of steam and catalyst. This carbon dioxide
removed in carbon dioxide removal section using Benfield solution which
absorb carbon dioxide which is further stripped of and send to urea section.

CAPACITY:
Design:
1,270 MTPD
Post BMR: 1,570 MTPD

12

UREA PLANT
There are two sections in urea plant.
Urea Wet
Urea Dry
Urea Wet section designed based on CO2 stripping process of stamicarbon.
Netherlands and Urea Dry section designed is based on the Fluidized based
Granulation technology from Hydro Fertilizer Technology (HFT), Belgium.
Commissioned in April, 1999. Urea Plants design capacity is 1670 MT/day
and actual is 1900 MT/day.
Urea Plant Description:
Process
Urea wet stamicarbon, Holland
Urea dry Hydro Agri, Belgium
Capacity:
Design 1,670 MTPD
Current 1,920 MTPD
Raw Material:
Ammonia 1,110 MTPD
Carbon Dioxide 1,480 MTPD
Urea Formaldehyde 18.0 MTPD

13

14

15

UTLILIES AND POWER GENERATION:

Utilities plays an important role in the running of whole plant .it gives all
basic inputs according to the required input of different plants located at
FFBL. Following are storage systems of Utilities.
Gas turbines (Electrical power at 60Hz Frequency)

Emergency Diesel Generator


Demineralization plant
Steam generation system
Instrumentation & service air system
Cooling water system
Waste water treatment
Nitrogen storage

Utilities Production Unit:


Power Generation consisting of Two 26.3 MW (ISO rating) gas
turbine generators.
Emergency Power generation consisting of one 2MW emergency
diesel generator.
Water processing consisting of storage basin, raw water clarification &
filtration and demineralization units.
Sulphuric acid and caustic unloading and storage
Cooling water system
Boiler feed water consisting of one gas fired heat recovery system
generator(HRSG) and one gas filled auxiliary boiler
Compressed air unit consisting of three air compressors, two air dryers
and one instrument air receiver
Chilled and hot water plant consisting of two steam absorption chillies
and one hot water system
Natural gas system consisting of knockout drums and pressure
reducing & distribution system.
Natural gas consisting of one storm water impoundment and
underground gravity collection and discharge system.

16
Storm sewer system consisting of one collection basin, underground
gravity collection and discharge system.
Fire protection system consisting of fire water storage, hydrants and
carbon di-oxide system.

Utility Control Room:


Control Room has following control units:
Power and steam Generation control
Water boards
Boiler
Auxiliary
HRSG
Gas turbine
Gas turbine control (MAK V)
Electrical GT

Fuel Gas Control System:


o Fuel Gas Stop/Ratio and Control Valve assembly is used to control
Fuel gas supply
o Both are servo controlled by signal from the SPEEDTRONIC control
panel and actuated by single acting hydraulic cylinders moving against
spring loaded plugs
o It is the gas control valve that controls the desired flow fuel in
response to the command voltages. To enable it to do this in
Predictable the Stop/ratio valve is designed to maintain a
predetermined pressure.

Components of Fuel Gas Control System:


The fuel gas control system contains the following components:
1. Gas supply pressure switch
2. Stop/ratio valve assembly

17
3. Three redundant fuel gas pressure transducers
4. Control valve assembly: Four Linear variable differential
transducers
5. Dumper Valve: three pressure gauges.
6. Two servo type valves

Cooling Tower:
Cooling tower has ten cells. Cell #1, 2 & 3 are dedicated for urea, Dap and
utilities. Cell # 5, 6,7,8,9 & 10 are dedicated to NH3 plant. Cell # 4 is a spare
cell common for both networks.

18

DAP PLANT:

The DAP plant design is based on double pipe reactor (DPR) AZF process
from Grande Paroisse, France. Commissioned in November 1988.DAP Plant
design capacity is 1350MT/DAY and actual is 1500 MT/DAY

DAP PLANT DESCRIPTION:


Process
Base Plant:
AZF Grande Paroisse, France

Revamp:
Jacobs Engineering, U.S.A.

Capacity:
Design: 1,350 MTPD
Post Revamp: 2,230 MTPD

Raw Material:
Ammonia: 450 MTPD
Phosphoric Acid: 1,750 MTPD
Sulphuric Acid: 92 MTPD
Sand: 117 MTPD
Coating Oil: 10 MTPD

19

Manufacturing Process Of DAP Plant:

1. Dual pipe Reactors


2. Granulation
3. Drying
4. Screening
5. Cooling
6. Product Coating
7. Dedusting & Off gases scrubbing
8. Storage/Bagging

20

21

FOUR BASIC PROCESS VARIABLES OF


INDUSTRY

1.
2.
3.
4.

Temperature
Pressure
Flow
Level

Pressure:
Pressure is defined as the amount of force applied to an area.
This can be defined mathematically as pressure is equal to force per unit
area.
P=F/A
The unit of pressure can be described in pounds per square inch (psi), which
is the common standard for English.

Pressure Sensors:
Pressure sensors are among the most useful
sensors for industrial applications because pressure can be converted to
determine the liquid level of a tank or the temperature in addition to
measuring the amount of force that is placed on an object. Pressure can be
used to determine the level of fluid in a tank by converting the amount of
head pressure into the height of a column of the liquid. Pressure can also be
used to determine temperature from conversion tables because this is a direct
correlation between the temperature and the pressure of confined gases.
Pressure can also be used to measure flow by calculating the pressure drop
across on orifice plate.
The pressure sensors are:

22

1. Bourdon Tube Pressure Sensors:


The bourdon tube is
one of the most common pressure sensors in use. The simplest form off these
sensors is made of a C-shaped metal tube. One end of the tube is sealed, and
the other end is connected to the source of pressure that is being measured.
The end that pressure is applied to is mounted in such a way that it cannot
move. When pressure is applied to the inside of the tube, the sealed end of
the tube will tend to straighten out, which will cause a small amount of
movement at the sealed end of the tube. This movement can be amplified
directly by gears and a pointer to make a direct-reading pressure gauge.

2. Bellows Pressure Sensors:


The bellows pressure sensor is
made of a sealed chamber that has multiple ridges like the plates of an
accordion that are compressed slightly when the sensors is manufactured.
When the pressure is applied to the chamber, the chamber will try to expand

and upon the plates.

3. Diaphragm pressure sensors:


A diaphragm seal is a flexible
membrane that seals and
isolates an enclosure. The
flexible nature of
this seal allows pressure effects to
cross the barrier but not the
material being contained.

23
Common uses for diaphragm seals are to protect pressure sensors from
the fluid whose pressure is being measured.

4. Piezo-Electric pressure Sensors:


A piezoelectric
sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect, to measure changes
in pressure, acceleration, strain or force by converting them to
an electrical charge. The prefix piezo- is Greek for 'press' or 'squeeze'.
Piezoelectric sensors have proven to be versatile tools for the measurement
of various processes. They are used for quality assurance, process
control and for research and development in many industries

Flow:
Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement.
Flow can be measured in a variety of ways. Positive-displacement flow
meters accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and then count the number of
times the volume is filled to measure flow. Other flow measurement methods
rely on forces produced by the flowing stream as it overcomes a known
constriction, to indirectly calculate flow. Flow may be measured by
measuring the velocity of fluid over a known area.
Both gas and liquid flow can be measured in volumetric or mass flow rates,
such as litres per second or kilograms per second. These measurements are
related by the material's density. The density of a liquid is almost
independent of conditions. This is not the case for gasses, the densities of
which depend greatly upon pressure, temperature and to a lesser extent,
composition.
When gases or liquids are transferred for their energy content, as in the sale
of natural gas, the flow rate may also be expressed in terms of energy flow,
such as GJ/hour or BTU/day. The energy flow rate is the volumetric flow
rate multiplied by the energy content per unit volume or mass flow rate
multiplied by the energy content per unit mass. Energy flow rate is usually
derived from mass or volumetric flow rate by the use of a flow computer.
In engineering contexts, the volumetric flow rate is usually given the symbol
, and the mass flow rate, the symbol .

24
For a fluid having density , mass and volumetric flow rates may be related
by
.

Introduction to Flow Meters and Flow sensors:


The types of Flow meter are:

Open channel Flow Meter


Orifice Plate Flow Meter
Positive Displacement Flow meter
Paddle Meter Flow Meter
Turbine Flow meter
Thermal Mass Flow Meter
Ultrasonic Flow meter
Variable Area Flow meter
Venturi Flow Meter
Vortex Flow Meter

Level:
Level Measurement is the determination of the linear vertical
distances between a reference point or datum plane and the surface of a
liquid or the top of a pile of divided solids

Level measuring Instruments:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Gauge glass
Electronics Gauge
Float type level gauge
Ultra Sonic Level Transmitter
Differential Pressure level Sensor

Temperature:
A temperature is a numerical measure of hot and cold. Its
measurement is by detection of heat radiation, particle velocity, kinetic
energy, or most commonly, by the bulk behaviour of

25
a thermometric material. It may be calibrated in any of various temperature
scales, Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin, etc.
Measurements with a small thermometer, or by detection of heat radiation,
can show that the temperature of a body of material can vary from time to
time and from place to place within it. If changes happen too fast, or with too
small a spacing, within a body, it may be impossible to define its
temperature. Thus the concept of temperature in general has an empirical
content.

Temperature Measuring Instruments:


1.
2.
3.
4.

RDT
Thermocouple
Thermistor
Bimetallic thermometer

26

HIMA PLC: EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN


SYSTEM

It Consist of on 19 inch central rack, 5 units high and up to 16 I/O racks in


the 19 inch size.
Central Rack has Following Parts
One or two Microprocessor controlled central modulus
At a time three coprocessor modulus, can be assigned to each central
module.
2 includes RS485 (2 on central module and 2 on each of up to 3 co
processor) allows the connection of other septum respective to build
up bus system with PLC master with a transmitter rate of up to
57600bps.
1 to 3 power supply modulus 24 VDC / 5 VDC to generate the voltage
operating for the central module and the control voltage for the I/O
modulus.
Power supply monitoring module with battens to buffer the RAM area
and the realtime clock on the central modulus

ONE I/O RACK CONTAINS:


Up to 4 power distribution modulus to protect the I/O circuit.
One coupling module to connect the I/O bus, with failsafe switch off of the
watch dog signal with care of fault
Maximum of 16 slots for input and output modulus for binary, digital and
analog signals

ELOP System Software& Operating System f o r


Programming & operation:
HIMA and DCS communicating with MODUS protocol, the two
sputum are interconnected by RS232/485 interface converter.

27
Global alarms and permissive are transmitted via this link.
Field devices are connected by hard wired links to shutdown system.
This satisfies related data is read by one PLC and is shared with other
PLC`s over HIBUS FS protocol over HIMA System bus.
The ELOP and PLESY station are connected via H7505 interface
converter over ELOP and PLESYbus respectively.
Consider a situation with field switch actuation. This signal is received
through hard wired linksPLC generates an O/P and shutdown the
process via field SOV`s and relays to return the system to the safe
state with in milliseconds.
Then it transmits data over PLESY bus for logging and arching and to
ELOP station over ELOP bus. This data is also conveyed to DCS for
alarm updating. In this way HIMA guarantee reliable plant operation
and ensure safe operation

CETRAL MODULE F8630:


HD64180H Microprocessor with 10 MHZ clock frequency.
Static memory in EPROM and CMOS RAM
2 interfaces RS485 up to 57600bps.
Fail safe watch dog

COPROCESSOR MODULE F8621:

HD64180 Microprocessor with 10 MHz clock frequency


RAM for PLC master Project
2 Interfaces RS485
Dual port RAM (DPR)

CONTROL SYSTEM OF FFBL:


The control philosphy of FFBL.

28

Control System:
Control system is a collection of electronic devices &
equipment which are in place to ensure the stability, accuracy & smooth
transition of a process or a manufacturing activity.AS we know FFBL is a
Process industry so the process control is very mean to it for the production
and as well as the safety of Employs, company assets and environment.

Process control:
The regulation of process parameters to within
specified target parameters through the manipulation of the control variable

29
A TYPICAL PROCESS CONTROL

Plant controls scheme or philosophy varies from plant to plant but normally
it depends on type of process, size of hardware and software configuration to
handle process I/O signals

30

DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM (DCS):


A
Distributed Control System is a part of manufacturing industry, DCS is used
in industrial and civil engineering applications to monitor and control
distributed equipment with remote human intervention, it is generally, since
the 1970s digital and normally consists of field instrument, connected via
wiring to computer buses to MUX/DEMUX and A/D or analog to digital and
finally the human interface or control consoles. A DCS is a process control
system that uses a network to interconnect sensors, controllers, operators
terminal and actuators. A DCS typically contains one or more computers for
control and mostly use both propriety interconnections and protocols for
communication
Distributed control system in general provides:
Faster execution of process control algorithms with adjustable scan
rate as fast as 20 times per second.
Highest level of availability.
Redundancy
Operational ease, maintains wise and other provisions like scalability
and flexibility in user defined tasks.
Fauji fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited is using ABB Baileys Infi
90 DCS for Process Monitoring /Control of ammonia, urea, DAP and
utilities Plant.

31

Programmable logic controller (PLC):


A solid state
control device that can be programmed to control process or machine
operation. In an automated system, the PLC is commonly regarded as the heart
of the control system. With a control application program (stored within the
PLC memory) in execution, the PLC constantly monitors the state of the
system through the field input devices feedback signal. It will then base on
the program logic to determine the course of action to be carried out at the
field input devices. It consists of five basic components
1. Process
2. Memory (RAM, ROMEPROM, EEPROM)
3. INPUT/OUTPUT Modules
4. Power supply
5. Programming devices

Input:
Intelligence of PLC
lies in the
signals from
sensors,
actuators & field
devices.
Push
buttons
Keypads
Toggle
switches

32
Proximity switches
Piezoelectric sensors
Level sensors

Output:

Motors
Solenoids
Relays indicators
Buzzers
LEDs

33

34
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) is dedicated Control system and
used in:
1. Emergency Shutdown System (ESDS)
2. Logical and loop controls, ON / OFF valves, motor: start / stop
commands.
3. Equipment local emergency stop (belt conveyor, elevator)
4. Main pumps start / stop
5. Fail safe operation