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DAMPAK KEGIATAN MANUSIA TERHADAP

KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN

IMPACT OF HUMAN
ACTIVITIES ON
ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY

Since Homo sapiens


p
live on the
planet of earth c.a.180,000 years
ago,
g human activities have been
increased that cause great impacts
to environment

Major human cultural changes


and
d its
it impact
i
t tto environment
environme
i
ntt
Human Cultural
changes

Major human activities

Humans were mostly


hunter gatherers

Hunting
Food gathering

Agricultural
g
revolution

g
development,
p
,
Settlement and agriculture
domestication of animal, city development
(urbanization)

Industrial revolution

Development
D
l
t off iindustrial
d t i l process, mining
i i and
d
fossil fuel production , increase the use of
pesticide and chemical fertilizer,

Information and
globalization revolution

Rapid technology and information


development, globalization on many aspects
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Agricultural revolution

Settled Agriculture

Nomadic hunting
g and food g
gathering
g
Settled agriculture (animal
domestication and p
plants cultivation))
y Settled agriculture has increased food
supply
supp
y tthat
at led
ed to suppo
supportt more
oe
people, but decrease the environment
qua y
quality
y

Human activities for settled agriculture and its


i
impact
t to
t environmental
i
t l
Peoples Cut down vast forest to supply wood
f fuel
for
f l and
d building
b ildi material
t i l soilil erosion
i
y Plowed up large expanses of grassland to
grow crops turning fertile land to desert
y Built irrigation systems to transfer water from
one place to another continous avaibility of
water for
f plants
l
y

Such activities cause extensive land clearing


which degraded the quality of ecosystems

Modern agriculture has harmful impacts on


air,
i soil,
il water,
t and
d biodiversity
bi di
it resources

Raising livestock to produce meat by open


grazing could destroyed ecosystems

Lightly grazed

Overgrazed
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City development and


urbanization
b i i
Urbanization: the formation of villages,
g
town, and cities. Some villages grew into
towns and cities, which served as center
for trade, government and business
y Towns and cities concentrated sewage
g
and other wastes, polluted the air and
water
y

Industrial revolution
y

Represented
p
shift from dependence
p
on
renewable energy wood to nonrenewable fossil fuels ( first coal, later oil
and natural gas) this led to switch from
handmade ggoods in small scale production
p
to large scale machine-made goods in
industries cities

Effects of extracting, processing and using of


mineral
i
l / ffossilil ffuels
l

10

Using fossil fuels can leak into


the
h ocean ecosystems
y

a large
g amount Liquid
q
fossil fuels can
seeps into ocean
Tanker accidents
Waste oil dumped from activities on land

Oil spill onto the ocean and kill a


number of organisms

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Spill of oil fossil fuel over the sea

12

Surface and subsurface mining cause


pollution
po
ut o a
and
d deg
degradation
adat o o
of st
stream
ea a
and
d
groundwater by runoff of acids

13

Burning fossil fuels produces billions tones of


CO2,, one of greenhouse gases that contribute
global warming
climate change
Projected emissions of three important greenhouse gases as
a result of human activities

14

Several Impact of human activities cause a major issue:


CLIMATE CHANGE
EFFECT of CLIMATE CHANGE to HUMAN HEALTH

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Building
g roads is one of human activities that
cause destruction and degradation land and
ecosystem

16

Soil Degradation
Areas of degraded soil of the world

Controlling pest population by spraying


a pesticides
ti id
y

About 2.5 million tons


of pesticides are use yearly in
developed and developing
countries to control pests such as
insects
The use of pesticides threat
human health:
-According WHO , nearly 3 million agricultural
p g countries are seriously
y
workers in developing
poisoned by pesticides each year, estimated 180,000
deaths
p country
y such as USA,, 300,000
,
farms
-In developed
worker suffer from pesticides related illnesses each
year
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Decline of marine species (mostly fish)


About 75% of the
worlds commercial
oceanic
i fifish
h stocks
t k are
in decline
Overfishing

Pollution, habitat degradation

19

Overload wastes into water cause


d
degradation
d ti off water
t quality
lit

20

Water use
y

Only a tiny amount of worlds abundant water is


available as fresh water (2.6%)

Water is collected,
collected purified
purified, recycled
recycled, distributed
fresh water available (siklus air)
Human withdraw fresh water from rivers, lakes, and
aquifers for cities,
cities residences and industry uses
uses, and
also to irrigate cropland

21

Global water use

The use of too much water by human may


effect
ff t to
t the
th avaibility
ibilit off ffresh
h water
t
y

Due to large population, human withdraw


underground
d
d water
t ffaster
t than
th it is
i replenished
l i h d
depletion of fresh water
If it is happened near a coast, salt water can
intrudes into aquifer and contaminate drinking
water along coastal area

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24

Too much water: flooding


y

Natural flooding primarily caused by heavy rain and


degradation of water holding capacity of soil

Natural flooding have benefits:


- provide productive farmland
- recharge groundwater
- refill wetland
However each year flood kills thousands of people and
However,
cause property damage

Since 1960 human activities have contributed a severe


flood damage by:
-removing water-absorbing vegetation (hillsides)
-draining wetland that absorb floodwater
-living on flood plain
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Flood Plain

Hillside

26

Flooding on Jakarta

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Nuclear power
y

Produce energy: produce electricity at much lower cost than coal

Hi h l
High-level
l radioactive
di
ti wastes
t ((stored
t d iin pooll off water
t att plant
l t site)
it )

Nuclear disaster happened at Ukraine (Chernobyl nuclear power


plant)) in 1986:
p
- killed 3,576 ~ 32,000 people
- a series of explosions caused a huge
radioactive d cloud spread over Ukraine,
Russia and other parts of Europe
- forced 40,000 people to leave their homes,
probably never to return

Global nuclear power plant peaked in the 1990s and is projected to


decline

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Information and globalization


revolution
l i
y

Technologies
g
such as telephone,
p
radio, television, computers, the
g satellites
internet, remote sensing
providing people to access people to
have much more information on a
global scale

29

Positive affect of information and


globalization
l b li i revolution
l i
y
y

Allow us to respond environmental problems


more effectively and rapidly
Allow us to use remote sensing satellites to
survey resources and monitor changes in the
worlds
world
s forests,
forests grassland
grassland, oceans,
oceans rivers
rivers, polar
regions, cities, and other system
Can reduce pollution and environmental
degradation by substituting data for materials
and energy and communication for transportation
Allow environmental researchers and activist to
exchange data and information rapidly

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Negative affect of information


and
d globalization
l b li i revolution
l i
y

IT could cause confusion, distraction and


sense off hopelessness
h
l
as rapidly
idl
growing environmental information
Increase environmental degradation and
decrease cultural diversity as a
globalized economy spreads over most
of the earth and homogenizes the
worlds cultures including disease
Creating and introducing new
technologies much faster than we ca
evaluate
l t their
th i iimpacts
t
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Infectious disease
y

Spread by air, water, food, body fluids,


some insects,
i
and
d other
h nonhuman
h
carrier (vector)
Human activities such as International
traveling can rapidly spread diseases
such as flu, measles, chlorella, TB,
smallpox and AIDS
Migration
g
to uninhabited rural areas and
deforestation in tropical country can
expose to disease spread by vectors
such
h as malaria
l i
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Smallpox and AIDS

People with AIDS symptom

Child with smallpox

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Humans activities affected


bi di
biodiversity
i

34

Kill endangered animal cause


d l i off bi
depletion
biodiversity
di
i
Consume such p
protein endanger
g
species of Gorilla

Confiscated p
products from
endangered species

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