Sunteți pe pagina 1din 21

UGC Research and Teaching Study Material

1.Teaching Aptitude
Teaching is a complex process which brings socially desirable behavioral change in a
person. Teaching is a part of teaching-learning process. It is required to bring certain
changes in a person according to the need of his society and environment in which he is
living. Teaching is not an act as it is dynamic in nature so it is termed as process. It is
also not a fundamental concept as it is greatly influenced by social and human factors.
Teaching is both art and science. It is-an activity involving teacher and student with a
view to the development of student. The main aim of teaching is to bring about socially
desirable behavioural changes in the students and can be achieved only if teaching is
effective and based on certain values or principles. Teaching is one of the main parts of
the teaching-learning system. So effective teaching is mostly depending on the teacher.
It is a common fact that a good teacher is born and not made. Training and research
can make a good teacher better and a better teacher best. Teacher should follow
various methods of teaching devised from time to time. A teacher encourages the
practice of thinking among students. Teacher should give to the students the freedom
and opportunity to express their ideas. Teaching is required to give education to the
Education may be defined as the process of drawing out least in an individual. We can
define education as the aggregate of all processes by means of which a person
develops attributes, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of positive value in the
society in which he lives We can also define it as the social process by which people
are subjected to the influence of a selected and controlled environment, so that they
may attain social competence and optimum individual development The complete
process of education must contain four common factors

Educator (teacher)


Educand (Student)


the subject matter


the context (setting)

Now, education is the process of developing some abilities in an individual. Though

abilities are in born quality, it is also a fact that these can be nurtured and developed in
an educand through various means by a n educator. Education must also be relevant
and useful to the society in which educand has to live. Since every individual is unique

in their own way, the educator has to adopt strategies and methods suitable to
individual needs. Education is also productive. The educational productivity (rate of
efficiency of work) can be classified as. Qualitative and quantitative. For better
education both qualitative and quantitative productivity is required. Quality means here
the excellence in the part of textbook, teachers students aids, facilities and other
teaching aids where as quantity refers the number of teachers, institutions,
professionals, etc. Education and teaching are interrelated. Education is a complex
social cultural and ethical process designed in a social or cultural content. It is related
with social structures, cultural environments, values, and ideas of people, society and
government. All these factors are dynamic in nature. So teaching is also a dynamic
process and its definition changes according to place and time. Morrison defines it as a
disciplined social process in which teacher influences the behaviours of the less
experienced pupil and helps him develop according to the needs and ideas of the
society. Smith termed it as an organised system of worker. He/she must have proper
guts to lead specific activities aimed to help the learner learn by an example at a
superior level as he is the something. Leader of his pupil. He/she has to exercise An
analytical approach makes it clear that any influence for bringing the. Desired neither of
the definition fulfills the purpose modification in behaviour.

2.Barriers at the receiver

The communication cycle may break down at the receiving end for some of these

Lack of Interest. If a student does not have any interest in your class or subject
he will not take care of what you are telling.


Lack of Knowledge. If a student don't know the basics of a topic or subject,

he/she is unable to understand the topic or subject if you will start at a higher level.


Lack of Communication Skills. Those who have weak reading and listening skills
make ineffective receivers. On the other hand, those who have a good professional
vocabulary and who concentrate on listening, have less trouble hearing and
interpreting good communication.


Emotional Distractions. If emotions interfere with the creation and transmission

of a message, they can also disrupt reception. If a student does not like his/her
teacher receive a lesson from the teacher, he/she may have trouble even reading
and listening the lesson objectively. He/she may read, not objectively, but to find

fault. Student may misinterpret words and read negative impressions between the
lines. Consequently, he/she is likely to misunderstand part or all of the report.

Physical Distractions. If a classroom is full of bright lights, glare on computer

screens, loud noises, or in an area of excessively hot or cold place, or physical
ailments, those students will probably experience communication breakdowns on a
regular basis.

3Characteristics of Good Teacher


Teacher should be mentally and physically fit.


Teacher should be keen in his work and should be enthusiastic and anxious to
keep his knowledge fresh & update.


He should possess patience and tolerance and try to study the difficulties and
problem of students and try to solve them in a quiet and calm manner.


He should have feelings of love and sympathy.


He must not be superstitious about his students and class.


He should be well dressed and well maintained.


His voice should be sweet, polite and clear.


His language should be understandable to the students.


He must not give any false promise.



He/she should have interest in his profession and the knowledge must be
He must not have any bad habits.
Teacher must have a good communication skill and must be a master of his area
or field of teaching.


Teacher should be trained in various methods of teaching.


He should know the child psychology.


Teacher should be a good researcher.


He should have a control over students-to maintain peace and order in class.


Teaching should be pupil central rather than subject centres is given opportunity
to compare two or more sets of facts. This enhance the understanding of lesson
among students as they compare and observe different facts.


Teacher should arose interest among students about the subject./order to give a
generalised truth.



Teacher must be fair in grading and marking.

Teacher-should organize extra curricular activities for-better understanding of
subject matter.
Good interpersonal relationship should be maintained.


Rewards and punishments should be given according to their behavior but

usually punishment should be avoided.


Teacher should use modern techniques, methods and gadgets in teaching for
better understanding of subject matter.


Teacher should evoke curiosity of the pupils by presenting the subject matter in
an effective manner with clear explanation leading to better understanding of the


Teacher should arrange subject matter in a logical way.


Teacher should make a lesson plan before presenting the lesson in the class


Teacher should work as a leader in the class.


Teacher should maintain a democratic atmosphere in the class so that every

student will be able to put his doubt, questions and ideas with suggestion.


Teacher should act as a role model for his students with his character and
behaviour. He way follow the way of simple living and great thinking


Teacher should inspire his pupil.

4Barriers Of Effective Communication

Barriers at the sender: Encoding means creating and sending of massage. The process
of selecting and organizing symbols to represent a message requires skill and
knowledge. Obstacles listed below can interfere with an effective message.

Lack of Sensitivity to Receiver. Sender must know the receiver's needs, status,
knowledge of the subject, and language skills before creating and sending a
massage as breakdown in communication may result when a message is not
adapted to its receiver.


Lack of Basic communication Skills. If the sender will not choose the precise
words needed and arranging those words in a grammatically correct sentence then
the receiver is less likely to understand the message.


Insufficient Knowledge of the Subject. If the sender lacks specific information

about something, the receiver will likely receive an unclear or mixed message.


Information Overload. If a message is with too much information, then generally

receiver may tend to put up a barrier because the amount of information is coming
so fast that he/she may have difficulty in understanding of interpreting that


Emotional Interference. An emotional sender cannot send its message in

wellplanned manner. If someone is angry, hostile, resentful, joyful, or fearful, that
person may be too preoccupied with emotions to receive the intended message.

5Characteristics Of Research

It is always directed towards the solution of a problem.


It is always based on empirical or observable evidences.


It involves precise observation and accurate description.


Gives emphasis to the development of theories, principles and generalisations,

which are very helpful accurate predictions regarding the unable under study.


It is systematic, objective and logical.

6Classroom Interaction
The classroom interaction between a student and a teacher is completely based on the
climate created by teacher. He should be able to bring the bendiness of friendship with
a definite degree of firmness. The interaction must be smooth and pleasant without any
friction for a complete and fruitful teaching learning process. Normally, verbalisM'goes
on in the name of teaching. Students are merely expected to listen to th~ explanation
and lectures. This is known as direct teaching. The effectiveness of direct teaching has
been questioned many times and it is found that this type of teaching is not very
effective one. For effective teaching the active, participation of students IS very
important. This participation IS done through the classroom interaction.
This interaction consist of their explanations and lectures with students, suggestions,
ideas concepts, and questions, etc. These activities of students make important for
making teaching learning process effective, democratic and friendly. Interaction is
required for the rectification of the drawbacks of direct teaching. This interactive
teaching is known as indirect teaching. Through the interaction; the teacher analyses
the-capacity and requirement of students and can bring subsequent changes in their
behavior according to the requirement and can also change way of teaching. I One of
the most important thing ill classroom interaction is the communication.
Communication-will be learned in UNIT-IV in details.

7A good definition of teaching

The educand is deperident According to this analysis we can define variable of
education whereas educator is teaching as a-tripolar process involving human
independent variable. Social milieu is required or material source of teaching students
and a for the direction of education. Education should set of organised activities
designed and develop intellectual, moral, aesthetic, manipulated for bringing changes in
the democratic, material and economic life to make behaviours of the taught our
country a leading force.

Hard work and Since teaching is a process and it is mental alertness should be the rest
requisite of dynamic in nature so it changes its concept the educational training.
According to time and place. It is a professional. The teacher has to provide intellectual
and activity. Teaching can be analysed and. Social leadership. He is to follow a
curriculum assessed. This analysis and assessment but his task is beyond this. He acts
as an ideal provides feedback for further improvement in for his students. He has to
follow the way of methods of teaching. Teaching is highly simple life with great thinking,
His morale dominated by communication skill. It is should be high. He must be
competent. His interactive process carried-with purpose and efficiency and enthusiasm
is also very objectives, Teaching may have various forms as important. He must also
possess some other formal, imformal, diiectional, lnstructional. Qualities as he is the
pivot of educational formational; training, conditioning, talking: System. Such as
Use of good means for good showing etc. All these words single handly can't ends, clear
thinking no prejudice, ability of be synonym of teaching. Teaching is a much critical
judgements at the right time, tolerance broader term, All these activities are parts of
are all needed for a teacher. Teacher must be teaching at different level. Ready to
impart to their students all Teaching has been analysed in several information
geographical, historical, political ways for understanding it, for designing social practical
and strategic and scientific. Teaching methods and materials with a view. To The
complete educational process has four realism. Specific objectives making teaching
important common factors more effective
Teacher works to change the behaviour of

Tell whether teaching is a process or students according to the need of the

society. Act. He/she must also creates situation to increase


Clearly indicates constitutional factors. The thinking capacity of mind of students.



Reveals objectives, and give education to the people. Education is a

Say something about its organisational tripolar process involving educator,
educant and structural aspect and social milieu.

Basis of Modification
This modification is based on





subject matter feedbacks.

8Plan of Chapters
Think about the plan of chapters and decide what is best for your research. Then make
a list, in point form, of what will go in each chapter. Always represent the text of thesis
in logical order. Make a plan for each chapter and section, the result will probably be
clearer and easier to read. The different heading may be the following:

Copyright Waiver: This gives the university library the right to publish your work.


Declaration: This page declares that the thesis is your own work and is not taken
from any other's work.


Title Page: The format of this page may be Title/Author: A thesis submitted for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in faculty of science in university on date.


Abstract: This part is most important part of the thesis it is most widely page. It
is best written towards the end. It should be self contained and contains a consise
description of the problem (s) addressed. Your method of solving, result and


Acknowledgements: It is the thanks giving page to all the people who helped in
the research or whose work you used'for your research.


Table of content: Introduction starts from page 1, the earlier pages should have
different numbering system.


Introduction: This gives the details about the topic its importance. This must be
very interesting. You should not bore the reader. Never overestimate the reader's
familiarity with your topic.


Literature Review: Where did the problem come from? what is already known
about the problem? If you have been keeping up with the literature as you vowed to

do three years ago, and if you have made notes about important papers over the
year, then you have some good points for the review.


Materials and Methods: This varies from thesis to thesis and may be absent in
theoretical thesis. It explains the methods used for research.


Results and Discussion: The results and discussion are very-often combined in
thesis. The division of results and Discussion material into chapters is usually best
done according to subject matter. In most cases your result need discussion. What
do they mean? How can they fit into existing body of knowledge? Are they
consistent with present theories? Do they give new insight? Do they suggest new
theories or mechanism?


Conclusion: Generally abstract also contains conclusion in very brief form. A

summary of conclusions may be put in point form after the result and discussion


Reference and Appendices



9Qualities Of Teacher Context (Setting)

Previously schools were not designed to successfully teach all students. Nowadays their
motto have been changed. Their new motto is DO LEARN This setting is dynamic and
flexible. This is changing in view-of making it beneficial to society rather than for an
individual. Teaching is a process carried out in different steps. There are five main steps
of teaching

Preparation: This stage is required or-intended for the preparation of both the
teacher and the students. The teacher prepare the student for a new topic or lesson
in variety of ways.


Presentation: At this stage the new lesson actually begins. The students know
that what they are going to learn. The subject material should be carefully arranged
by the teacher. He has to encourage the students to observe, compare and contrast

the. Facts presented to them. This stage requires mental alertness from the
students. The presentation rests in. The principle of selection of the area to be
covered. It is not necessary for a-teacher to cover up all areas of the course of
study. He. May leave some areas for students self-study.


Comparison: In this section after presentation of subject matter.

Generalization: This stage comes after the comparison and observation. Different
types of conclusions can be drawn from comparison and generalization. These
conclusions are systemized in a particular
Application: At this stage the generalized facts are applied for various

10Research Aptitude

Research: Research is the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled
observations that may lead to the development of generalisations principles or theories
resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events. Scientific research is a
systematic and objective attempt to provide answers to certain questions. It is an
essential and powerful tool in leading towards progress, A significant research leads to
progress in some field of life. Research is born lout of human curiosity. Curiosity
aroused to study movements, behaviour patterns etc. We can also define research as
ideally, the careful unbiased investigation of a problem, based in so far as possible
upon demonstrable facts and involving refined distinctions, interpretations and usually
some generalisations Educational research is the study and investigation in the field of
education or bearing upon educational problems. Since research is. a continuous
problem solving approach to learning it aims and assists in achieving the goals through
analysis and comprehensive-investigation.

Sampling is the process of selecting units (e. g. people) from a population of interest so
that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize our results back to the population
from which they were chosen. A response is a specific measurement value that a
sampling unit supplies. If you measure the entire population and calculate a value like a
mean or average, it is called parameter of the population. The distribution of an infinite

number of samples of the same size as the sample in your study is known as the
sampling distribution.
In sampling contexts, the standard error is called sampling error. Sampling error gives
us some idea of the precision of our statistical estimate. A low sampling error means
that we had relatively less variability or range in the sampling distribution. How do we
calculate sampling error? on the standard deviation of our sample. The greater the
sample standard deviation, the greater the standard error/the sampling error. The
standard error is also related to the sample size. The greater your sample size, the
smaller the standard error. Because the greater the sample size, the closer your sample
is to the actual population itself. If you take a sample that consists of the entire
population you actually have no sampling error because you don't have a sample, you
have the entire population. In that case, the mean you estimate is the parameter.
Probability sampling method
It is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection such as
picking a name out of a hat, or choosing the short straw.
The simplest form of random sampling is called simple random sampling. Simple
random sampling is simple to accomplish and is easy to explain to others. Because
simple random sampling is a fair way to select a sample, it is reasonable to generalize
the results from the sample back to the population. Simple random sampling is not the
most statistically efficient method of sampling and you may, just because of the luck of
the draw, not get good representation of subgroups in a population.
Stratified Random Sampling, also sometimes called proportional or quota random
sampling, involves dividing your population into homogeneous subgroups and then
taking a simple random sample in each subgroup. It assures that you will be able to
represent not only the overall population, but also key subgroups of the population,
especially small minority groups. Second, stratified random sampling will generally have
more statistical precision than simple random sampling. This will only be true if the
strata or groups are homogeneous.
The problem with random sampling methods when we have to sample a population
that's disbursed across a wide geographic region is that you will have to cover a lot of
ground geographically in order to get to each of the units you sampled. It is for
precisely this problem that cluster or area random sampling was invented. In cluster
sampling, we follow these steps:

divide population into clusters (usually along geographic boundaries)


randomly sample clusters


measure all units within sampled clusters

Non-probability sampling
The difference between non probability and probability sampling is that non probability
sampling does not involve random selection and probability sampling does. We can
divide non probability sampling methods into two broad types: Accidental or purposive.
In accidental sampling, sample is chosen accidently and we have no evidence that they
are representative of the populations we're interested in generalizing to and in many
cases we would clearly suspect that they are not. e. g. College students in some
psychological survey. In purposive sampling, we sample with a purpose in mind. We
usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking. For
instance, have you ever run into people in a mall or on the street who are carrying a
clipboard and who are stopping various people and asking if they could interview them?
Most likely they are conducting a purposive sample. Purposive sampling can be very
useful for situations where you need to reach a targeted sample quickly and where
sampling for proportionality is not the primary concern. With a purposive sample, you
are likely to get the opinions of your target population, but you are also likely to
overweight subgroups in your population that are more readily accessible.
One of purposive sampling is quota sampling. In quota sampling, you select people
nonrandomly according to some fixed quota. There are two types of quota sampling:
Proportional and non proportional. In proportional quota sampling you want to
represent the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional
amount of each. e. g. Getting 40% females from a population of say 1000.
Then there is snowball sampling. In snowball sampling, you begin by identifying
someone who meets the criteria for inclusion in your study. You then ask them to
recommend others who they may know who also meet the criteria.

12Research Design
Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design is
used to structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of the research
project the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, and methods of
assignment work together to try to address the central research questions. Design can
be either experimental or non-experimental.

Data analysis is the last part of the research. In most social research the data analysis
involves three major steps, done in roughly this order:

Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis (Data Preparation)

Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics)

Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential Statistics)

Data Preparation
It involves checking or logging the data in; checking the data for accuracy; entering the
data into the computer; transforming the data; and developing and documenting a
database structure that integrates the various measures.

13Types of Statistics
Descriptive Statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study.
They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. Together with
simple graphics analysis, they form the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of
data. With descriptive statistics you are simply describing what is, what the data shows.
Inferential Statistics investigate questions, models and hypotheses. In many cases, the
conclusions from inferential statistics extend beyond the immediate data alone. For
instance, we use inferential statistics to try to infer from the sample data what the
population thinks. Or, we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability
that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might
have happened by chance in this study. Thus, we use inferential statistics to make
inferences from our data to more general conditions; we use descriptive statistics
simply to describe what's going on in our data.

14Types of Research-Definitions

Action research is a methodology that combines action and research to examine

specific questions, issues or phenomena through observation and reflection, and
deliberate intervention to improve practice.

Applied research is research undertaken to solve practical problems rather than

to acquire knowledge for knowledge sake.

Basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new

knowledge without looking for long-term benefits other than the advancement of

Time is an important element of any research design. The most fundamental

distinctions in research design nomenclature: Cross-sectional versus longitudinal
studies. A cross-sectional study is one that takes place at a single point in time. In
effect, we are taking a slice or cross-section of whatever it is we're observing or
measuring. A longitudinal study is one that takes place over time--we have at least
two (and often more) waves of measurement in a longitudinal design.

A variable is any entity that can take on different values. Anything that can vary
can be considered a variable. For instance, age can be considered a variable
because age can take different values for different people or for the same person at
different times. Similarly, country can be considered a variable because a person's
country can be assigned a value.

There is a distinction between an independent and dependent variable. In fact

the independent variable is what you (or nature) manipulates--a treatment or
program or cause. The dependent variable is what is affected by the independent
variable--your effects or outcomes. For example, if you are studying the effects of a
new educational program on student achievement, the program is the independent
variable and your measures of achievement are the dependent ones.

A hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete (rather

than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. Not all studies
have hypotheses. Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory.

Qualitative research is research undertaken to gain insights concerning attitudes,

beliefs, motivations and behaviours of individuals to explore a social or human
problem and include methods such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation
research and case studies.

Quantitative research is research concerned with the measurement of attitudes,

behaviours and perceptions and includes interviewing methods such as telephone,
intercept and door-to-door interviews as well as self-completion methods such as
mail outs and online surveys.

Three basic types of questions that research projects:

Descriptive: When a study is designed primarily to describe what is going on or

what exists. Public opinion polls that seek only to describe the proportion of people
who hold various opinions are primarily descriptive in nature. For instance, if we

want to know what percent of the population would vote for a BJP or Congress in the
next election, we are simply interested in describing something.

Relational: When a study is designed to look at the relationships between two or

more variables. A public opinion poll that compares what proportion of males and
females say they would vote for a BJP or Congress candidate in the next election is
essentially studying the relationship between gender and voting preference.

Causal: When a study is designed to determine whether one or more variables

(e. g. a program or treatment variable) causes or affects one or more outcome
variables. If we did a public opinion poll to try to determine whether a recent
political advertising campaign changed voter preferences, we would essentially be
studying whether the campaign (cause) changed the proportion of voters who would
vote BJP or Congress (effect).

15Steps Of Research

Identification of research: The very 1 step of research is to identify the subject


and nature of the problem.

Proposal of Action: After identifying the subject or the problem, we proposed an

action plan to solve the problem or find a solution for that.

Constructing hypothesis: Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for an

observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further
investigation. It is a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain
certain facts or phenomena. Characteristics of hypothesis: (1) It should state the
relationship between variables (2). It must consist of known facts (3). It can be
tested. (4). It must be dear in its concept (5). It must be objective and specific (vi).
It should be amendable to testing with in a reasonable time. So our next step is to
construct a hypothesis for research and after that he plans to explain it either based
on laboratory experiment or field experiment.

Collection of data: The researcher collects data either in experimental way or in

non experimental way, for his problem.

Presentation of data: The next step is to represent the collected data in logical
manner so that he or anyone else will be able to analysze that easily. Most general
way of presentation of data in scientific or social research is to make table of the
collected data in certain way which shows the relation between variables.

Analysis of data: The analysis is done in both ways statistical and descriptive

Declaration of Result: After analysing the data, the researcher declares the result
of the research.

16Subject Matter
It is also known as curriculum. Curriculum is a general overall plan of the content or
specific material of instruction, that an educational institution should offer to the
student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification It is also a body of
prescribed educational experience under an institutional supervision, designed to
provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the
society of which he/she is a part, or to qualify him for a trade or profession. It is also
defined as a subject matter, instructional materials, situations o~ experience that may,
help to develop understanding, skills, appreciation and attitudes Curriculum should be
logical, Psychological and according to the needs of the pupil and also the society. It
should be objective in approach. Curriculum can be of two types:

Teacher oriented curriculum: In this type of curriculum the process of selection of

materials content is based on the needs-of the instructor/teacher. The teacher is
proficient in, his particular field and is considered superior.


Child/student oriented curriculum: A curriculum in which the criteria for the

selection and sequence of material, activities and experiences for any particular
pupil are the needs, maturity, interests and experiential backgrounds of the
individual child. In our country the NCERT is the main institution authorized for
making curriculum. Every state has. His own curriculum making bodies known as
SCERT. Some states follows the NCERT curriculum. All schools affiliated uses. This is
the most important step of-teaching learning process. The CBSE boards generally
follow NCERT curriculum. At higher _level every university make their own
curriculum according to the guidelines of University Grant Commission which acts for
the uniformity in curriculum at higher level in our country.

Thesis and its format: One of the most general format for thesis is given below. The list
of contents and chapter are almost same for every subject university. In some cases

one or two heading may be irrelevant or one or two more heading may be required. We
can divide the whole thesis in four parts:



Explanation of the topic-


Details of research & its result


Reference and appendices.

18Transmitting Barriers
Such as if a teacher started saying something in a class of deafs verbally he will not be
able to communicate properly to his students. Things that get in the way of message
transmission are sometimes called noise. Communication may be difficult because of
noise and some of these problems:

Physical Distractions. A noisy classroom can destroy communication. If a notes

or something on board is not formatted properly, or if it contains grammatical and
spelling errors, the receiver may not be able to concentrate on. The messagebecause the physical appearance of the massage is sloppy and unprofessional.


Conflicting Messages. Messages that cause a conflict in perception for the

receiver may result in incomplete communication. For example if a teacher requests
his pupil to answer some questions immediately without giving the students enough
time to gather the proper information.


Channel Barriers. If the sender chooses an inappropriate channel of

communication, communication may not reach in a proper way.

19Types of Communication

Intrapersonal Communication
This means communicating within yourself. When you think, daydream, solve problems,
and image, you are in the realm of intrapersonal communication. Some investigators
also include all physical feedback mechanisms, such as the sensations of hunger, pain,
and pleasure in this area.
Interpersonal Communication
This form of communication describes the interact ions of two or more people. The most
significant setting for interpersonal communication IS direct face-to-face
communication between two persons. An interview, a conversation, and in climate
communications come under this heading. It is more persuasive and int1uential than
any other type of communication. For it involves, the in, terplay of words and gestures,
the warmth of human closeness and in fact all the five senses. Feedback is the key
word here. Feedback is instantaneous.
Group Communication
Group communication shares all these qualities, though in a much less measure. The
larger the group the less personal and intimate is the possibility of exchange. In fact, as
the group grows in size communication tends to become more and more of monologue,
for participation becomes problematic. The degree of directness and intimacy,
therefore, depends upon the size of the group, the place where it meets, as also the
relationship of the members of the-group to one another, and to the group message.
Mass Communication
When a message needs help to get from its source to its destination, mass
communication begins to function. Usually some form of medium-one meaning of which
is between -is needed to connect the sender to receivers. These media and visibility to
some people and points of views, whereas it mutes other voices and viewpoints. Thus
mass communication affects our perceptions of issues, events, and people.

20Types of Research
There are many classifications of research. Some of the important classifications are:

Exploratory and conclusive research: Exploratory or formulate research aims at

probing into phenomenon to formulate a more precise research problem or to

develop a hypothesis. While conclusive research tests these hypothesis. Developed

through exploratory research and may suggest a new idea or a new opportunity.

Fundamental or pure or basis research, applied research and action research: A

fundamental research is the formal and systematic process where the researcher's
aim is to. Develop a theory or a model by identifying all the important variables in
the situation and by discovering broad generalisations and principles about these
variables. Applied research, applies the theory or model developed theories but to
test those existing theories in actual problem situations. Action research has
recently been popular in the field of social psychology, industrial psychology and
education. In action research, researcher focuses upon the immediate consequences
and applications of a problem of a theory or a model.


Historical research, descriptive research and experimental research: Historical

research describes what was. The process involves investigation, recording,
analyzing and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering
generalizations that are helpful in understanding the past and the present and to a
limited extent, in anticipating the future. Descriptive research describes records,
analyzeS'and interprets the conditions that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs,
points of views or attitudes that are held processes that are going in effects that are
being felt, or trends that are developing. It involves some type of comparison or
contrast and attempts to discover relationship between existing non-manipulated
variables. It can be of various types, like survey studies, interrelationship studies
casual comparative studies and development studies. Experimental research
describes what will be when certain variables are carefully controlled or
manipulated. The focus is on variable relationship. Deliberate manipulation is always
a part of experimental method. Experimental research is the description and
analysis of what will be, or what will occur, under carefully controlled conditions in
which one factor is varied and the others are kept constant and can be repeated by
another investigator, by the same investigator or another occasion with nearly
identical results.


Experimental and non-experimental research: This classification is based on the

nature of research. An experimental research is one where the independent
variables can be directly manipulated by, experimenter. It is further divided into two
main types-Laboratory experiment and field experiment. A non experimental
research is one where independent variables cannot be manipulated and therefore
cannot be experimentally studied. A non experimental research can be divided into
three main types-field, studies, expost factor research and survey research.

Other important types

Laboratory Experiment: It is the study of a problem in a situation in which some

variables are manipulated and some are controlled in order to have an effect upon
the dependent variable. The variables which are manipulated are known as
independent variables and the variables which are controlled are known as
extraneous or relevant variables. Thus in laboratory experiment the effect of
manipulation of an independent variables upon the dependent variable is observed
under controlled conditions.

Field Experiments: It is a study carried out is a more or less realistic situation or

field where the experimenter successfully manipulates one or more independent
variables under the maximum possible controlled conditions.

Field Study: It is a study which systematically discovers relations and

interactions among variables in real life situations such as school, factory,
community college etc. It field study the investigator depends upon the existing
conditions of a field situation as well as upon the selection of subject for determining
the relationship among variables.

Expost Facto Study: In this the investigators attempt to trace an effect which has
already occurred to its probable causes. The effect becomes the dependent
variable and the probable causes become the independent variable. The
investigator has no direct control over such variables.

Survey Research: It is a technique where, the investigator or researcher studies

the whole population with respect to certain sociological and psychological
variables. Depending upon the ways of collecting data, survey research can be
classified into different categories, namely, personal interview, main
questionnaire, panel technique arid telephone survey.

It is an essay or dissertation read at a seminar or published in a journal It is a formal
written composition intended to published, presented, or read aloud or a scholarly
Article: It is a nonfictional literacy, composition that forms an independent part of a
publication, as of a newspaper or magazine.
Workshop: A meeting at which a group engages in intensive discussion and activity on a
particular subject or project.

Seminar: A conference for discussion on training on a specific subject.

Conference: A formal meeting for discussion or debate. Symposium: A meeting or
conference for discussion of a topic, especially one in which the participants form an
audience and make presentation.
Dissertation or Thesis: Advancing a new point of view resulting from research; usually a
requirement for an advanced academic degree.