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CONF.DR.

ANCA CEHAN
CONF.DR. TEFAN COLIBABA

LIMBA ENGLEZ

CUPRINS
I.

Reading Digest 1: DOES HONESTY ALWAYS PAY?


Grammar Digest 1: Past Progressive and Simple Past; when,
while, and as soon as; Present Perfect; since and for

II.

Reading Digest 2: LEAVING HOME


Grammar Digest 2: Present Perfect and Simple Past; ever and never;
Present Perfect Progressive

III.

Reading Digest 3: LETTERS TO AN ADVICE COLUMN


Grammar Digest 3: Comparison with Adjectives; Similarities and Differences;
Comparison with Adverbs; Superlatives

IV.

Reading Digest 4: CRIME WAVE


Grammar Digest 4: should, ought to, had better, could, and must; Expressing Degree: too,
enough, very

V.

Reading Digest 5: WORK FOR A LIVING


Grammar Digest 5: Phrasal Modals and Modals of Necessity: have to/have got to, do not
have to, must/must not, should

VI.

Reading Digest 6: OUR WORLD


Grammar Digest 6: Making Offers; Requests and Permission: can/could, will/would, may

VII.

Reading Digest 7: FINISHING TOUCHES


Grammar Digest 7: Past Habitual; used to, still and anymore; Adverbs of Frequency; Past
Perfect, before and after

ANSWER KEY

SCOPUL MODULULUI DE CURS:


Acest modul urmrete consolidarea i dezvoltarea cunotinelor de limb englez ale cursanilor ID din
anul II Psihologie prin exersarea deprinderilor de limb specifice, relevante pentru viitoarea lor
profesiune.
OBIECTIVE OPERATIONALE:
Consolidarea, aprofundarea i dezvoltarea deprinderilor generale de limb englez.
mbuntirea capacitii studenilor de a-i edita i evalua propriile rezultate.
EVALUAREA ACTIVITATII:
Temele de la sfritul unitilor II, IV, VI, VII semnalate prin denumirea "Tutor-assessed Task i prin
simbolul de mai jos:

trebuie trimise tutorilor prin posta clasic sau electronic la termenele anunate n timpul tutorialelor. n
cazul n care studenii folosesc pota electronic, mesajele vor fi trimise concomitent ambilor tutori.
Mesajul este considerat recepionat n momentul n care studenii primesc confirmare de primire de la
tutori. Studenii vor avea grij s menioneze n aceste mesaje (n 'subject line' i n interiorul mesajului)
toate elementele de identificare necesare (nume i prenume, an, grup, subgrup).
Media rezultat din notele de la aceste teme va constitui 30% din nota obinut la examenul final.

Autorii mulumesc Nadinei Cehan pentru ajutorul primit la editarea acestui curs.

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Reading Digest 1
Does Honesty Always Pay?

Exercise 1.1
A. Can you think of a situation when it might not be a good idea to say exactly what you think?
B. What kind of people could be described as dishonest?
Exercise 1.2
A. Read the text and choose the best answer to the questions that follow.
What exactly is a lie? Is it anything we say which we know is untrue? Or is it something more than that?
For example, suppose a friend wants to borrow some money from you. You say, `I wish I could help you
but I'm short of money myself.' In fact, you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not
paying his debts and you don't want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. Is this really a lie?
Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying.
According to him, women are better liars than men, particularly when telling a 'white lie', such as when a
woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful.
However, this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more
serious lies, such as making a promise which they have no intention of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie
politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at: the lie from which the liar hopes
to profit or gain in some way.
Research has also been done into the way people's behaviour changes in a number of small,
apparently unimportant ways when they lie. It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time,
they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual. To the trained observer, they are saying, 'I wish
I were somewhere else now.' They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often, in particular
the nose. One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure. The tip
of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressure makes it itch.
Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book Manwatching
calls 'the mouth cover'. He says there are several typical forms of this, such as covering part of the
mouth with the fingers, touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth.
Such a gesture can be interpreted as an unconscious attempt on the part of the liar to stop himself or
herself from lying.
Of course, such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth, or squirming about in a chair
cannot be taken as proof that the speaker is lying. They simply tend to occur more frequently in this
situation. It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things, and in
particular the context in which the lie is told.
1 According to the passage, a 'white lie' seems to be a lie
A that other people believe.
B that other people don't believe.
C told in order to avoid offending someone.
D told in order to gain some advantage.

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2 Research suggests that women
A are better at telling less serious lies than men are.
B generally lie far more than men do.
C make promises they intend to break more often than men do.
D lie at parties more often than men do.
3 One reason people sometimes rub their noses when they lie is that
A they wish they were somewhere else.
B the nose is sensitive to physical changes caused by lying.
C they want to cover their mouths.
D they are trying to stop themselves from telling lies.
4 It would appear from the passage that
A there is no simple way of finding out if someone is lying.
B certain gestures are proof that the speaker is lying
C certain gestures are proof of lying only if they are repeated frequently.
D people lie in some situations more often than in others.
B. Which word or phrase in the passage above means
1 take something, promising to give it back?
2 amounts of money owed to another person?
3 do or carry out something?
4 able to do something well?
5 to feel that you want to scratch something?
6 be understood as meaning?
7 twist the body about nervously?
8 the general situation in which something occurs?
C. Use one of the following words to complete each of the sentences below.
borrow lend gain win
itching scratching
1 Could you ...... me some money until tomorrow?
2 My skin is ...... under the bandage.
3 Why are you ...... yourself?
4 What do you hope to ....... from telling such terrible lies?
5 Do you think Argentina will ...... the World Cup again?
6 He never pays his debts so he can't ...... any more money from me!
Exercise 1.3
Read the following film reviews and finish the questions below by matching parts 1-4 with the
appropriate endings A-D.
1 Which film is about
2 What does Dunaway
3 Why do Redford and Newman
4 Who does the photographer

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A want revenge?
B get involved with?
C two small-time crooks?
D star as?

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EYES OF LAURA MARS


Faye Dunaway stars as a photographer who can 'see', in her mind's eye, the murders of her friends
before they happen. The plot takes several nightmarish twists and turns, especially when Dunaway gets
involved with a handsome detective. But is the detective really who he seems to be? Or is he just
pretending to help her in order to trick her? See the film and find out!
THE STING
A classic! The film takes place in Chicago in the 1930s Two small-time crooks (Paul Newman and
Robert Redford) pass themselves off as big gamblers in order to get revenge on a powerful New York
gangster (Robert Shaw) who is responsible for the murder of one of Redford's friends. Through a series
of cunning tricks, the two plan to cheat the gangster out of a huge sum of money Although at times it is
difficult to work out who is betraying who, the film never fails to entertain.
VOCABULARY
Exercise 1.4
A Match the words on the left (1-8) with the meanings on the right. Two words have the same
meaning. Which are they?
1 cunning
2 to cheat
3 a trick
4 to take someone in
5 to betray
6 to deceive
7 to pass yourself off as
8 a crook

a) to make someone believe something that is not true


b) a thief or dishonest person
c) to act like someone or something you are not
d) to act dishonestly in order to gain an unfair advantage
(especially in games, sports or exams)
e) clever in a dishonest way
f) an act done to confuse someone or sometimes to amuse
g) to be disloyal to a friend or to your country

B Complete the following sentences with a word or phrase from A above. Change the form if
necessary.
Example: Redford and Newman play the parts of two crooks in the film.
1) He hasn't really been ill. He has ...... you.
2) I read a story in the paper about a man who put on a white coat and managed to ...... himself ......
...... a doctor.
3) Animals such as foxes are famous for their .......
4) Don't play cards with him. He always .......
5) Don't let that woman ...... you ...... with all her lies.
6) The man who ...... his country by giving away secrets was later hanged.
7) Magicians know all sorts of ...... which they use to entertain people.

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LANGUAGE STUDY
Exercise 1.5
Complete these sentences with the correct prepositions.
1) Newman and Redford wanted to play a trick ...... the gangster.
2) Redford wanted revenge ...... the murder of his friend.
3) They succeeded ...... their plan to cheat him .............. a great deal of money.
4) They did this ...... passing themselves off as gamblers.
5) The gangster bet the money ...... a horse race.
6) It's almost impossible ...... times to understand exactly what is happening.
7) But ...... the end of the film, everything has become clear.
8) This film is probably one of the best ...... its kind.
9) It's ...... television again next week.
USE OF ENGLISH
Exercise 1.6
Read the advertisement below.
THE LIEBUSTER: A MIRACLE OF MODERN ELECTRONICS
At last, ...................... (1) to modern technology, there is a way to find ...................... (2) if people are
telling the truth. The Liebuster ...................... (3) just like an ordinary watch, but in .................... (4) it's
far more ...................... (5) that! In ...................... (6) to telling the time, it buzzes when it detects a lie.
The ...................... (7) the lie, the bigger the buzz. You will find it invaluable ...................... (8) you're at
home or at work. It is by ...................... (9) the smallest, most accurate, lie-detector ever made. It
measures the stress in people's voices by ...................... (10) of high-tech microchips. In business
negotiations, it will ...................... (11) you if people are being ................... (12) with you. At
...................... (13) it can warn you if your girlfriend or boyfriend is lying when they tell you what they did
that weekend when you were ...................... (14) on business. Never ..................... (15) has such an
electronic miracle been ..................... (16) at such a low price. So get ...................... (17) now while
stocks ...................... (18). Hurry! Don't ...................... (19)! Nobody can do ...................... (20) the
Liebuster, the miracle of modern high-tech electronics!
A. Here are ten of the missing words. Where do they belong? Can you guess the other ten?
dishonest
out
wait/delay
far
than
yours/one
before
means
addition
last
B. Make all the changes and additions necessary to produce a complete dialogue from the
words and phrases below.
Example: So/get here/last/Peter.

So you got here at last, Peter.

PETER Yes/I be/terribly sorry/late.


(1) .............................................................

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JENNY It be/second time/this/happen/last two weeks.


(2) .............................................................
PETER I know/I hope/you/forgive me.
(3) .............................................................
JENNY Well/why/late/this time?
(4) .............................................................
PETER The boss/ask me/work late/again.
(5) .............................................................
JENNY Well/why/you not/phone me?
(6) .............................................................
PETER I/try to/but/not be/possible.
(7) ............................................................. J
JENNY What/you mean? You try/tell me/there be/no phones/your office?
(8) .............................................................
PETER Of course/there be/phones/the office/but/ there be/something wrong/them.
(9) .............................................................

VOCABULARY
Exercise 1.7
A. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the word in CAPITALS.
1 That man is a police ........
2 Jack is a very bad ........
3 Einstein was a great ........
4 I've always wanted to be an ........
5 The ....... all went back to the ship.
6 The town is full of tourists and other ........
7 Jack the Ripper was a famous ........

INSPECT
LOSE
THINK
ACT
SAIL
VISIT
MURDER

B. Study these word combinations. Then, in as few words as possible, say what the thing is and
what it does.
Example: lie-detector

A lie-detector is a machine that detects lies.

1 a cassette-player
2 a stain-remover
3 a water-softener

4 a water-purifier
5 a cigarette-lighter
6 a voice-stress-analyser

C. What is the word combination for each of the following definitions?


Example: a machine that washes dishes a dish-washer
1 a special kind of pot that cooks things under great pressure
2 a liquid that is used to thin paints
3 another kind of liquid that removes paints
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4 a machine people use to dry their hair
5 a kind of medicine or liquid that some men hope will restore their hair
6 a small gadget people use to open tins
7 a very simple kind of machine that people use when they sweep carpets
8 a powder which kills ants
9 a screw that pulls corks out of bottles
10 a small gadget that opens bottles

REVISION AND EXTENSION


Exercise 1.8
Choose the best answer.
1 The Sting is by ...... the best Robert Redford film I have seen.
A long B far C much D way
2 I like England, but I wish it ..... rain quite so much.
A didn't B won't C hadn't D hasn't
3 People who live in cities ........ to suffer from stress more than people in the countryside.
A lean B develop C tend D use
4 I thought I'd buy her a ..... brown bag.
A shopping B black C new D French
5 I didn't realize everyone was going to wear formal clothes and I felt ..... in my jeans and jumper.
A insulted B annoyed C offended D embarrassed
6 ..... the papers, the Prime Minister is giving a speech on the economy tomorrow.
A Referring to B According to C Related to D Attached to
7 He didn't want to make up his mind until he had heard Pamela's ...... of the story.
A side B angle C aspect D edge
8 I haven't heard from Pete for ages. I wish he ...... me his phone number before he left.
A gave B would give C would've given D had given
9 The bank manager agreed to give me 200....... the 500 he had already lent me.
A extra to B according to C in addition to D surplus to
10 The student who ........ in his exams was expelled from the school.
A tricked B cheated C deceived D betrayed
11 Excuse me, do you ...... me bringing my dog into your house?
A oppose B mind C object D complain
12 In court, she was so upset that she broke .......
A out Bin Cup D down
13 I wish you ...... put your clothes on the floor all the time. It drives me mad.
A don't B wouldn't C won't D would
14 After going to several interviews, she eventually ...... to get a job.
A managed B could C achieved D succeeded
15 I hope that you have read the contract and understand ...... it means.
A that B how C what D which
16 He stole one of the officers' uniforms and managed to escape by passing himself ..... as a guard.
A by B out C through D off
17 Excuse me, but would you ...... talking a little bit more quietly? We are trying to work.
A mind B care C object D rather
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18 There are still a great many people in Africa who suffer ...... malaria.
A of B with C from D by
19 He ...... to turn up for the football match.
A omitted B neglected C stopped D failed
20 The young man swore that he would take ...... his father's killers.
A revenge in B revenge on C revenge D revenge at

Grammar Digest 1
Past Progressive and Simple Past
When, While, and As Soon As
Present Perfect
Since and For
FOCUS 1
PAST PROGRESSIVE vs. SIMPLE PAST
Form of the Past Progressive: was/were + verb + -ing
statement
I
She
was sleeping.
He
It
We
You
were sleeping.
They

negative
I
She
He
It
We
You
They

question
was not sleeping.
(wasnt)
were not sleeping.
(werent)

Was

I
she
he
it

sleeping?

Were

we
you
they

sleeping?

The past progressive refers to an action that was in progress when something else happened. It
started before this time and possibly continued after it.
examples
Sue left the party at 9:00 last night.
Sue was leaving the party at 9:00 last night.:
Sue was leaving the party when I arrived.

explanations
When talking about actions or events that started
and finished in the past, we usually use the simple
past:
When talking about an action that was in progress
at a specific time in the past, we use the past
progressive
We often use the past progressive with the simple
past to describe two actions in the past:

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FOCUS 2
WHEN, WHILE, AND AS SOON AS
explanations
While I was reading the newspaper, Diane
called.
When Diane called, I was reading the
newspaper.
As soon as we heard the good news, we
started to celebrate.

examples
While, when, and as soon as are time adverbials.
While is associated with an action in progress. It
means during that time.
When is associated with a completed action. It
means at that time.
However, when and while are often used in the same
way. When is more common, and we often use it in
place of while, especially in informal situations.
As soon as is also associated with a completed
action. It means immediately after.

Exercise 1.1
A. A murder has taken place and a detective is investigating it. Make meaningful statements
about Mr. Joness murder by matching information from column A with information from B. The first has
been done for you.
A
1. Mrs. James called the police
2. While she was waiting for the police to arrive
3. As soon as Mark Sutton, the detective, heard
about the murder
4. Mrs. James took him to the scene of the crime
5. While Mark Sutton was searching the bathroom
for clues
6. He saw that Mr. James died
7. When Mark Sutton charged Mrs. James with
murder
8. A crowd of news reporters tried to interview Mrs.
James

B
she insisted she was innocent.
as soon as he arrived.
when her husband died.
while the police were taking her to jail.
while he was brushing his teeth.
she placed a bar of soap on the bathroom floor.
he rushed to the James's house.
he became suspicious of Mrs. James's story.

B. Look again at the sentences you created in the first part of the exercise. For each one,
underline the part of the sentence that gives information about time. This is the part of the sentence that
answers the question When? For example: He saw that Mr. James died while he was brushing his
teeth.

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FOCUS 3
TIME CLAUSES WITH WHEN, WHILE AND AS SOON AS
examples
While Renee was crossing the street, she ran
into her friend.
We left as soon as we got your phone call.
When Pit arrived home, everyone rushed out to
greet him.

explanations
Time clauses answer the question When? by
giving information about the time an action or
event happened. They contain a subject and a
verb and are introduced by time terms like when,
while, and as soon as.
A time clause is a dependent clause (it is not
Dependent Time Clause
Main Clause
complete by itself). For example, in order to fully
understand, When Pit arrived home, we need
When Pit arrived home, everybody rushed
more information. A time clause depends on the
to greet him.
rest of the sentence (the independent/main
clause) to complete the meaning:
While Mom was cooking the dinner, the guests A time clause can come at the beginning of a
sentence.
arrived.
The guests arrived while Mom was cooking the A time clause can also come at the end.
dinner.
When _________ , _________.
If the time clause comes at the beginning of the
(time clause; comma; main clause)
sentence, use a comma between the time clause
While _________ , _________.
and the main clause:
(time clause; comma; main clause)
As soon as _________ , _________.
(time clause; comma; main clause)
_____________ when _____________.
If the main clause comes at the beginning of the
(main clause)
(time clause)
sentence and the time clause comes last, do not
_____________ while _____________.
use a comma between the two clauses:
(main clause)
(time clause)
_____________ as soon as _____________.
(main clause)
(time clause)
Exercise 1.2
Turn back to the sentences you created in Exercise 1.1.B. Write them down and add
punctuation, as necessary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 1.3
Here is some information about John Lennons life. The wavy line indicates an action in
progress. X indicates a completed action.
1. attends high school

2. attends high school

X
his mother dies
3. studies at art school

X
meet Paul McCartney
4. performs in clubs in Liverpool

X
form the Beatles
5. lives in London

X
signs his first recording contract
6. works for peace and writes new songs

X
falls in love with Yoko Ono

X
die
7. leaves his apartment
X
one of his fans shoots him

Use this information to finish the short biography below. Fill in the blanks, using simple past or
past progressive. The first one has been done for you as an example.
John Lennon was one of the most famous singer/songwriters of his time. He was born in
Liverpool, England, in 1940, but his childhood was not very happy. (1) His mother died while he was
attending high school. Life was difficult for John after his mothers death, but after a time things got
better. (2) _________________________ while ______________________________. Soon Paul
introduced him to George Harrison, and they began to play in a band together. After that, John left high
school and became an art student. (3) While ________________________________. Soon after John
formed the Beatles, he married his first wife, Cynthia, and they had a son, Julian. (4)
____________________________________ when ___________________________________. John
and the Beatles moved to London and became very famous throughout the world. (5)
___________________________________ while ____________________________________. A
couple of years later, the Beatles split up. John and Yoko got marries and they moved to the United
States, where their son Sean was born. John (6) _________________________________ when
____________________________________. On December 8, 1980, (7) _________________ while
_________________________________. John Lennon died many years ago, but he still has many
fans all over the world.
Exercise 1.4
Complete the sentences in the story below using the word in parentheses. Decide whether you
should use simple past or past progressive.
NOTE: After and before also introduce time clauses, but we use them with the simple past tense only, in
contrast with while and when.

1.

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Yesterday morning at 10:00, Marie ________________ (go) to see the dentist.

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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

While she ________________ (wait) for he appointment, her old friend Monica
________________ (come) into the dentists waiting room.
Before Marie ________________ (get) her new job at the software company, she and Monica
________________ (work) together at the bank.
When Marie and Monica ________________ (see) each other in the waiting room, they
________________ (be) surprised and delighted.
They ________________ (realize) that they had not seen each other for several months.
While they ________________ (wait) for their appointments, they ________________ (talk and
laugh) about old times.
When it ________________ (be) finally time for Marie to see the dentist, they
________________ (not + want) to stop talking.
Just before Marie ________________ (leave) the waiting room, they ________________
(make) a date to see each other again.
While Marie ________________ (leave) the waiting room, Monica ________________ (say), I
hope you dont have any cavities!
Exercise 1.5

Combine the two sentences below into one sentence. Use the time word on the left to make a
time clause and put the verb into simple past or past progressive.
1.

(as soon as)


EXAMPLE:

Event #1:
I (finish) shopping for groceries.
Event #2:
I (drive) home.
As soon as I finished shopping for groceries, I drove home.
OR

I drove home as soon as I finished shopping for groceries.


2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

(when)

Event #1:
I (get) home.
Event #2:
I (put) the groceries away.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________
(as soon as) Event #1:
I (finish) my homework.
Event #2:
I (make) dinner.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________
(while)
Event #1:
I (make) dinner.
Event #2:
My brother (come) home.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________
(when)
Event #1:
I (ask) my brother if he was hungry.
Event #2:
He got upset.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________
(while)
Event #1:
My brother (explain) why he was upset.
Event #2:
I (load) his plate with food.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________
(when)
Event #1:
He (look) down at the food on his plate.
Event #2:
He (calm) down.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________
(as soon as) Event #1:
He (start) to eat.
Event #2:
He (apologize) to me.
__________________________________ OR __________________________________

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FOCUS 4
PRESENT PERFECT: CONNECTING PAST AND PRESENT
Task. Quickly read the following:
MEDICAL HISTORY
NAME: Michael James Harris
MARITAL STATUS: Single
SERIOUS ILLNESS(ES): None
SMOKING: Stopped 10 years ago
EYESIGHT: Wears glasses for reading; started in

1987

PRESENT PROBLEM: Headaches

SEX: Male
DATE OF BIRTH: 5/13/56
HEIGHT: 5 ft 11in
WEIGHT: 185 lbs
TIME IN HOSPITAL: May 1973. Broke both legs in

traffic accident

DRINKING: 1 glass of wine with dinner


ALLERGIES:

None

WHEN PROBLEM STARTED: 2 months ago

Now try to find details from Michael Harriss medical history to complete the following list. Find
two things that relate to the past, two things that relate to the present, and two things that started in the
past and continue to the present. The first one has been done for you as an example.
PRESENT
PAST
1. __________________________________
1. He broke his legs
2. ___________________________________
2. __________________________________
FROM PAST TO PRESENT
1. _____________________________________
2. _____________________________________
We use the present perfect to show a connection between something in the past and something
in the present. The present perfect shows the result or relevance now of a past action, event, or
experience.
PAST
February:
I moved to Iai. (simple past)

PRESENT
September:
I live in Iai now. (simple present)

FROM PAST TO PRESENT


I have lived in Iai since February.
I have lived in Iai for seven months. (present perfect)
In this situation, the simple past tells us only about the past; the present tells us only about the
present. One use of the present perfect is to tell us about something which began in the past and
continues in the present.

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Exercise 1.6
Listed below are some important events in the life of Carmen, but the events are not in the
order in which they happened. Write the numbers of the events in the correct order on the time line. If
the event began in the past and continues into the present, write it out on the lines below the time line.
The first one has been done for you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

She has volunteered at a hospital for one year.


She will go to medical school.
She was born in Suceava, Romania, in 1984.
She learned English at "tefan cel Mare" High School.
She hasnt become a doctor yet.
She has lived and studied in Iai, since 2003.
She is studying biology and chemistry.
Since she was a child, she has dreamed of becoming a doctor.
She learned how to take a blood sample.
She graduated from high school in 2003.
She will be a paediatrician.

Past

Present

Future

1. She has volunteered at a hospital for 1 year.


_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 5
FORMING THE PRESENT PERFECT
Form: have/has + past participle
statement
I
You
We
They
She
He
It

have gone.
(ve)
has gone.
(s)

negative
I
You
We
They
She
He
It

question
have not gone.
(havent)

Have

has not gone.


(hasnt)

Has

I
you
we
they
she
he
it

gone?

gone?

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Exercise 1.7
Using the words below, write sentences with the present perfect (have + past participle).
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I / not meet a famous person.


I havent met a famous person.

John / not eat ants


_______________________________________________________________________
Helena / be to Hong Kong?
_______________________________________________________________________
Adam and Kristen / see a penguin
_______________________________________________________________________
you / ride a camel?
_______________________________________________________________________
I / not catch any fish
_______________________________________________________________________
Loren / not shoot a gun
_______________________________________________________________________
I / have a pet snake
_______________________________________________________________________
you / go to the Galapagos Islands?
_______________________________________________________________________
Larisa and Dora / stand in line for more than an hour
_______________________________________________________________________
you / do something crazy?
_______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 1.8

Use the information about Michael Harris from the Task in Focus 4 to complete the doctors
report about him. Use the simple past, simple present, or present perfect of the verbs in parentheses.
REPORT ON MICHAEL HARRIS

Michael Harris spoke with me yesterday about serious headaches. He (1)


____________________ (have) these headaches for two months. His previous medical history is good.
He (2) ____________________ (not have) any serious illnesses. In 1973, he (3)
____________________ (be) in the hospital for three weeks, when he (4) ____________________
(break) both legs in a car accident. He (5) ____________________ (not smoke) now; he (6)
____________________ (stop) ten years ago, and he (7) ____________________ (not smoke) since
that time. He (8) ____________________ (wear) glasses for reading, and he (9)
____________________ (wear) them since 1987. He (10) ____________________ (drink) a little wine
with dinner every night. I examined Mr. Harris and took several tests. I asked him to return next week.

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Exercise 1.9
Write the questions that the doctor asked Mr. Harris in order to get these responses.
EXAMPLE:

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1. Do you drink?
Yes, a little. I drink a glass of wine with dinner every night.

_______________________________________________________________________?
Yes, I do. I wear them for reading.
_______________________________________________________________________?
I started wearing them in 1987.
_______________________________________________________________________?
Yes, Ive worn them since 1987.
_______________________________________________________________________?
No, I dont smoke now.
_______________________________________________________________________?
I stopped ten years ago.
_______________________________________________________________________?
No, I havent smoked since that time.
_______________________________________________________________________?
Yes, I have had these headaches for two months.
Exercise 1.10

In order to donate blood, you must answer several questions about your medical history.
Complete the following dialogue between a blood donor and the interviewer using the correct form of the
verb in the present perfect. The first one has been done for you as an example.
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:
Donor:
Interviewer:

How long has it been (it be) since you ate?


I ____________________ (not eat) anything since breakfast.
____________________ (you give) blood before?
Yes, I ____________________ (give) blood many times.
Really? How long ____________________ (it be) since you last donated
blood?
I ____________________ (not donate) blood for a year.
____________________ (you have) any serious illnesses?
No, I ____________________ (have) any illnesses.
____________________ (you be) in the hospital in the past five years?
No, I ____________________ (not be) hospitalized.
____________________ (you travel) abroad?
Yes, ____________________ (go) to Italy.
How long ago was that?
I was in Italy in 1990, but I ____________________ (live) in Romania since
then.
Thanks for answering the questions. Now will you please roll up your sleeve
and well take your blood.

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Exercise 1.11
Go back to Exercises 1.8 and 1.9. Look for the words since and for. In the boxes below, write
down the word or words that directly follow them. We have done the first one for you.
since

for
two months

What does this tell you about the use of since and for?

FOCUS 6
FOR vs. SINCE
examples
for two weeks
for ten years
for five minutes
since 1985
since my birthday
since Monday
since April

explanations
You can use for to talk about the length of a period of time.
You can use since to talk about when a period of time began.

Exercise 1.12
Complete the following dialogue by writing since or for in the blanks.
COUNT DRACULA BLOOD BANK

Count Dracula:
Stoker:
Count Dracula:
Stoker:
Count Dracula:
Stoker:
Count Dracula:
Stoker:
Count Dracula:
Stoker:

400

Good evening, Mr. Stoker. Welcome to the Count Dracula Blood Bank. So nice
of you to come. We would like to take your blood, but first we want to see if
youre our type. Would you answer a few questions?
Well, uh, I guess so.
How long ago has it been (1) ________ you arrived in Transylvania?
I just arrived. Ive only been here (2) ________ two hours.
Oh! Have you had time to explore the castle?
Well, Ive walked around a little (3) ________ I got here. The castle is
interesting, but that back room is full of bats.
Yes, weve had that problem (4) ________ the castle was built. That reminds
me, how long has it been (5) ________ you flew last night?
What? I havent flown at night (6) ________ the last year. Im afraid of the dark.
Well, perhaps we can help you with that problem. How log has it been (7)
________ youve been in a cemetery?
These are the strangest questions I have ever heard. I guess the last time was
in March. Yes, its been three months (8) ________ I was in a cemetery.

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Count Dracula:
Stoker:
Count Dracula:

Very good. Finally, Mr. Stoker, have you given blood before?
Yes, but I havent donated (9) ________ the last six months.
Wonderful! Because youve answered all out questions, weve decided youre a
perfect victim I mean candidate. Please roll down your collar.

examples
Main Clause
(from past to present)
He has worked here

explanations
Time Clause
(past)
You can use since to introduce a time clause.
since he graduated from
high school.
He has worked here since April.
He has worked here since the beginning of the You can use since to introduce a time clause.
month.
You can also use since with a phrase referring
He has worked here for several years.
to a specific time.
Ive lived here five months.
You can use for with a phrase that refers to a
Ive lived here for five months.
quantity of time, but not with a time clause.
It is possible to omit for. Both examples are
(For) how long have you lived here?
correct, but the first one is more informal.
Ive lived here since January.
It is also possible to omit for in questions.
NOT: *Ive lived here January.
Since when have you lived here/
It is not possible to omit since.
NOT: *When have you lived here?
Exercise 1.13
Read the following statements and decide if they are referring to an action that is finished or
unfinished. If you think it is finished, write F beside it; write U if you think it is unfinished.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

He has lived here 20 years.


We have studied English for a few months.
I saw him last week.
My friends worked there for six months.
Hes worn glasses since he was a child.
She slept ten hours.

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FOCUS 7
ACTIONS CONTINUING UP TO NOW
examples
They have studied martial arts for a long
time.
Carrie has been a member of the tennis club
since May.
Andrew started to smoke on his eighteenth
birthday, so he as smoked for three years.
NOT: *He has started to smoke for
three years.

start
arrive
begin
leave
meet
stop

explanations
When you talk about the duration of an action or
situation that began in the past and that continues to the
present, you can use present perfect + for or since +
time word or phrase.
Some verbs are not used in this way because the
actions they describe cannot continue from past to
present. Thus, in the first example, we understand that
it is the smoking that continues, not the starting. Start
refers to something that happens at one time only, or at
several times, but not to an action that continues over
time.
For the same reason, some other verbs (including the
ones on the left) are not usually used with present
perfect + for or since to express the duration of an
action or situation that continues from past to present.

Exercise 1. 14
Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect and since or for.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

402

Karen wears glasses. She started to wear glasses when she was a child.
Karen has worn glasses since she was a child.

He works for the TV station. He started working there eight years ago.
They are married. They got married in 1962.
She knows how to fix a car. She learned how to do it a long time ago.
Tom rides his bike to work. He started to do it when his car broke down.
I wanted to go to China several years ago. I still want to go now.
My brother stopped smoking when he was in college, and he doesnt smoke now.
I was afraid of bats when I was a child, and I am afraid of them now.
My mother is in France. She went there last week.
My sister runs two miles every morning before breakfast. She started to do it when she was 15
years old.
They go to Spain every summer. They started to do this 12 years ago.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Exercise 1.15
Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect and since or for.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Does she work for Tarom? Did she begin to work there six years ago?
Has she worked for Tarom for six years?

Do you like ice cream? Did you like it when you were a child?
_______________________________________________________________________
She sings with the Milan Opera. She started singing there three years ago.
_______________________________________________________________________
He is an accountant. He became an accountant in 1985.
_______________________________________________________________________
Our parents enjoy playing tennis. They began playing tennis when we went to college.
_______________________________________________________________________
Grandma doesnt drive anymore. She stopped driving when she turned 85.
_______________________________________________________________________
Are your aunt and uncle in Italy? Did they go there last week?
_______________________________________________________________________
Nick plays baseball every day. He started playing two years ago.
_______________________________________________________________________
Their house is a wreck. It was destroyed when the hurricane struck.
_______________________________________________________________________
She is in the library. She started to study three hours ago.
_______________________________________________________________________
It isnt raining; it stopped raining at 5:00 am.
_______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 1.16

Complete the following. Put in the empty blanks since or for or the appropriate form of the verb
in parentheses.
Leroy and Paula are having a party. Two of their guests, Lee and Bob, have just met.
Lee:
Bob:
Lee:
Bob:
Lee:
Bob:
Lee:
Bob:
Lee:

(1) Have you known (know) Leroy and Paula (2) for a long time?
I (3) _____________________ (know) Paula (4) _____________________ my senior year in
college. I first (5) _____________________ (meet) Leroy at their wedding two years ago. What
about you?
Im a colleague of Leroys. We (6) _____________________ (work) together (7)
_____________________ several years.
Oh, Leroy (8) _____________________ (show) me some of your work last week. Its great.
Thanks. What do you do?
I (9) _____________________ (teach) French (10) _____________________ ten years, but I
(11) _____________________ (quit) a couple of years ago. Now Im an actor.
An actor! I thought you looked familiar.
Well, not really. I (12) _____________________ (not work) as an actor (13)
_____________________ last October. In fact, last night I (14) _____________________
(start) to work as a waiter at the Pizza Hut.
Really? I (15) _____________________ (eat) there last night. Thats why you look familiar.
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Exercise 1.17
Look at the following and underline the sentences that you think are correct.
My sister is very good at languages.
1.

She studies Italian; she started studying Italian in 1991, so


a) she has studied Italian for several years.
b) she studies Italian several years.
c) she studied Italian for several years.
d) she is studying Italian since 1991.

2.

When she was a child, she wanted to learn Russian; she still wants to learn it.
a) She wanted to learn Russian when she was a child.
b) She wants to learn Russian since she has been a child.
c) She has wanted to learn Russian for she was a child.
d) She has wanted to learn Russian since she was a child.

3.
Two years ago she started taking courses at the local community college. Unfortunately, she
doesnt have a car, so
a) she takes the bus to school for two years.
b) she have taken the bus to school for two years.
c) she has taken the bus to school since two years.
d) she has taken the bus to school for two years.

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Reading Digest 2
Leaving Home

Exercise 2.1
Answer these questions.
1 Do you think it is better for young people to live at home, on their own, or with other young people?
2 What different reasons do you think young people might have for leaving home?
Exercise 2.2
A. Read the text, then explain and describe questions 1-6.
When I told my mother, she looked at me as if I had slapped her face.
'What? Live in London?' she said.
'I just feel it's time I saw a little more of the world. After all, Mum, I'm twenty-two!'
Just then, my father came downstairs, looking relaxed as he always did after his Sunday afternoon nap.
I had chosen the moment carefully.
Clive wants to leave home. He doesn't want to live with us any more,' she told him in a trembling voice.
My father's expression changed.
'What? You aren't serious, are you, son?' he asked. He sat down at the table opposite me.
Perhaps my parents wouldn't have reacted this way if they hadn't spent all their lives in a small village in
Wales. And perhaps my mother in particular wouldn't have been so possessive if her only other child
hadn't died as a baby. I tried to explain to them that the bank I worked for had offered me a chance to
take a job in their head office. But I didn't dare tell them I had already accepted the job.
'London's a long way away. We'll hardly see you any more,' my father said.
'I can come back at weekends, Dad.'
He shook his head, looking more and more like someone who had just been given a few months to live
by his doctor.
'I don't know, son. I don't know.'
He shook his head again and then got up and walked out into the garden.
My mother and I sat there at the table. In the silence, I could hear the old clock ticking away in the hall.
There were tears in my mother's eyes. I knew she was going to put pressure on me to give up the idea,
and I wondered if I could stand up to it. I even began to wonder if it was wrong of me to want to leave
my family, the village and the people I had known all my life to live among the English in their cold,
strange capital.
She put her hand over mine.
'Your father hasn't been well lately. Neither have I. You know that. But we won't stand in your way if it's
what you really want,' she said.

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1 This is an extract from a longer story. What exactly do you think the writer said to his mother just
before the extract begins?
2 Describe what happened when his father came downstairs.
3 Describe what you think happened in the month or so just before this particular Sunday.
4 How do you think the writer's parents felt when he told them he wanted to leave home?
5 What do you think were the writer's reasons for wanting to leave home?
6 What do you think happened after his mother said 'We won't stand in your way...?
B. Imagine you are a television camera. What can you see as you
1 look at the writer's parents?
2 move around the room the writer and his parents are in?
3 move into other rooms in the house and then go outside the house itself?
VOCABULARY
Phrasal verbs
Exercise 2.3
A. What is the phrasal verb in the following examples?
a) I'll stand by you if you need help.
b) What do the initials `BBC' stand for?
c) He couldn't stand up to the pressure.
d) I won't stand for this nonsense.
B. Which phrasal verb means
resist?

mean?

give help; support?

put up with; tolerate?

C. Complete the following sentences.


1 'UK' stands ....... United Kingdom'.
2 A good friend will stand ...... you when you are in trouble.
3 You can't treat me like this. I won't stand ...... it!
4 This machine will stand ...... hard use.
USE OF ENGLISH
Exercise 2.4
A. What are the missing words in the advertisement? Fill each of the numbered blanks with one
word.

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If only wed known about YOUNG CONTACTS before!'


Thousands of young people come to London every month, .................. (1) to find love, romance and
adventure. A few succeed, but most never find what they are .................. (2) for. Meeting people in
London, .................. (3) the sort of people you really want to meet, turns .................. (4) to be far more
difficult than you imagined. But now there is a new scientific way - YOUNG CONTACTS.
Q: How does it work?
First, we give you a scientific personality .................. (5), using the very .................. (6) computer
techniques. Then we match you .................. (7) someone of similar tastes and interests, who also has
the characteristics you are looking .................. (8) in your ideal partner or companion.
Q: Who can belong to YOUNG CONTACTS?
We are the first organization in this .................. (9) to specialize in matching people between the ages of
17 and 29. But, .................. (10) from that, anyone can join. We have people from all walks of life. But
they all have one thing .................. (11) common. They're .................. (12) of feeling lonely and think it's
.................. (13) they did something about it. And that's the .................. (14) they come to us.
Q: How do I actually meet people?
Just come to one of our centres, with its special club-like atmosphere, and we'll do the .................. (15).
A .................. (16) of our friendly staff will talk to you and then .................. (17) for you to meet just the
sort of people you will get on .................. (18). For a list of centres and further information simply
.................. (19) in the form below and send it .................. (20), today!

B. Now decide how you would fill in this form which appeared with the advert.
CONFIDENTIAL
I would like further details about how you can find my ideal partner.
I enclose two first-class stamps.
Your age ______________________ Your sex M F
Height _________________
Weight ______________________________
Age you would like to meet ______________________________________
(min.) __________________ (max.) _______________________________
First name ____________________________________________________
Surname _____________________________________________________
Address ______________________________________________________
Nationality ______________ Religion ______________________________
Occupation ____________________________________________________
VOCABULARY
Exercise 2.5
A. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the word in CAPITALS.
1 The test is very ......
2 What a ....... atmosphere!
3 You have a very ...... nature.
4 She is a computer ........
5 He is a wonderful ........

SCIENCE
ROMANCE
ARTIST
SPECIALIZE
PIANO
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


6 I wanted to be a ........
7 Do you ever suffer from ...... ?
8. They got married and lived ........ ever after.
9 Are there any ...... between these two religions?
10 He joined in all the club's ........

CHEMISTRY
LONELY
HAPPY
SIMILAR
ACTIVE

B. Complete each sentence with between or among.


1 The woman was ...... the ages of 25 and 30.
2 She entered the crowded restaurant and sat down ...... the people there.
3 ...... all the things in her handbag, there was a photograph of a man.
4 When she looked up, the same man was standing ...... her and the door.
5 'Are you the woman I'm supposed to meet ...... three o'clock and three fifteen?' he asked.
6 ..... the many things they discussed that afternoon were the subjects of love and marriage.
7 Until that moment the man had only been a name ...... a lot of other names on a list.
8 What else do you think happened ...... the beginning of this story and their wedding day five months
later?
USE OF ENGLISH
Paragraph completion
Exercise 2.6
Read the information below and decide which of the three men you think would make the best
partner for Alice. Give reasons for your choice. What is wrong with the other two?
ALICE, aged 25
teaches art and music
likes going out to concerts, good films, foreign restaurants, etc.
favourite pastimes listening to classical music, reading and arguing about politics
non-smoker
wants children but not for a while
looking for a man with a good sense of humour, intelligence and who 'will allow me to develop my
career and own interests'
SEBASTIAN, aged 29 research scientist
favourite pastimes - working in the garden and other open-air activities (climbing mountains, hiking,
cycling, etc. )
non-smoker, never drinks, hates spending money on things like cinema, food, etc.
wants to start a family 'asap' and looks for an 'intelligent woman who will be a good mother'
DONALD, aged 27 sports journalist
enjoys Woody Allen films, opera and good food
favourite pastimes -'playing the guitar and talking with friends'
smokes 'but only now and then'
isn't sure if he wants to have children; says 'it all depends ...
looking for a woman 'who is a good companion but is also independent and will give me some time
alone

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BERNIE, aged 28
owns small sportswear shop
favourite food-'good old-fashioned fish and chips, and roast beef with lots of mustard'
favourite pastimes - 'going out to pubs with friends and watching cowboy films and football on TV
heavy smoker
looking for a woman who 'appreciates the same things I do and understands me'; can't stand women
who talk too much
Using the information above, continue in about 60 words each of these three paragraphs below,
giving your reasons.
1 I think the best partner for Alice would be ...... She would probably get on well with him because
.... He would also get on well with her because .
2 In some ways, Alice and ...... would be suited to each other because .. However ..
3 I don't think ...... and Alice would get on very well because ..
VOCABULARY
Prefixes
Exercise 2.7
A. Study the words in columns A and B. What is the same about them? What is different? What
has changed the meaning?
A
personal
friendly
satisfied
satisfactory
tolerant
religious

B
impersonal
unfriendly
dissatisfied
unsatisfactory
intolerant
irreligious

B. What do you need to add to each word in order to change its meaning to the opposite?
Example: able unable
1 capable
4 polite
7 loyal
10 happy
13 willing
16 convenient

2 accurate
5 resistible
8 orderly
11 sensitive
14 pleased
17 correct

3 possible
6 regular
9 lucky
12 reasonable
15 pleasant
18 certain

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REVISION AND EXTENSION
Exercise 2.8
if, unless, when or in case?
A. Complete the following sentences with if, unless, when or in case.
1 He got on the train at 8.30 and he'll phone us ...... he gets here.
2 Please don't phone me at work ...... it is an emergency.
3 The weather forecast wasn't good. You'd better take this umbrella ...... it rains.
4 She's not sure if she'll be free for the party, but she'll let us know ....... she can come.
5 You won't do well in the exam ...... you work a bit harder
6 ...... you didn't spend so much on beer, you'd have a lot more money.
7 Don't forget to send us a postcard ...... you arrive.
8 ...... the strikers go back to work at once, the management will dismiss them.
B. Complete the following conversation with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
A You don't look very cheerful. You haven't failed your driving test again, have you?
B Yes, I'm afraid so. But it really isn't fair, you know. I had to take it in a car I wasn't used to. If I (be
able) to use my father's, I'm sure I (pass).
A Why didn't you ask me? If I (know) you were taking your test, you (can borrow) mine. Anyway, what
happened?
B I was coming up to a pedestrian crossing, and had to stop suddenly to let someone over. I didn't have
time to look in the mirror, that was all. Just think, I (be) all right if that stupid pedestrian (not want) to
cross the road.
A But surely they didn't fail you for that?
B Yes, it's ridiculous, isn't it? And if you think about it, if I (not stop) so quickly, I (may run) him over. And
if I [do) that, I (fail) for sure. But tell me, what (you do) if you (be driving) and that (happen) to you? A I
think I (do) just the same. Did you complain?
B No, I didn't, and it's too late now anyway. Do you think I (should do)?
A If it (be) me, I (would do).
B Maybe, but I'm sure it (not change) anything even if I (make) a fuss. You know what these driving
examiners are like.
C. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
1 Goodness! It's nearly midnight. It's time we (go) home.
2 I wish he (not come) to the party, seeing him again ruined my evening.
3 The alarm-clock went off half an hour ago; it's time for you (get) up.
4 Oh dear, I've broken the vase; if only I (be) a bit more careful.
5 You're an adult now. It's time you (start) to look after yourself.
6 This terrible weather has been going on for weeks. I wish it (get better).
7 If only you (be) at home, none of this would have happened.
8 Come along children, it's eight o'clock. It's time you (go) to bed.

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Grammar Digest 2
Present Perfect and Simple Past
Ever and Never
Present Perfect Progressive

FOCUS 1
PRESENT PERFECT vs. SIMPLE PAST
examples
Last year, she graduated from high school.
He lived in this house from 1980 to 1988.

explanations
To talk about a completed action, experience, or
situation at a specific time in the past, you can
use simple past to show that you are thinking
about the past, not the present:
He has been to Greece.
To talk about a completed action, experience, or
They have run a marathon.
situation in the past when you do not refer to
when it happened, use present perfect.
I drank champagne last night.
We use present perfect in order to show that
(simple past because I want to show when it something happened in the past, but we do not
happened)
show when it happened. We show only that it
I have drunk champagne.
happened at some time before now; we are
(present perfect because I want to show that the thinking about the past in relation to the present.
experience is more important than when I did it)
Ive been to Thailand. I went there about ten years W often use the present perfect to introduce the
ago and travelled all over the country. I had a general idea and then continue with the simple
great time, and I enjoyed meeting the friendly Thai past to give specific details about it.
people.
Exercise 2.1
Decide if the following verbs should be in the simple past or the present perfect. Then circle the
correct form.
Captain Michael Johnson, a pilot, is retiring this year. He (1. was/has been) one of the best
commercial airline pilots in the world. He (2. began/has begun) working for the Western Airlines 35
years ago. In the beginning of his career, he (3. flew/has flown) only domestic flights, but later on the
company (4. told/has told) him to fly internationally. Captain Mike, as his flight attendants call him,
(5. flew/has flown) around the world many times. He (6. met/has met) a lot of people and (7. saw/has
seen) a lot of different places. In one year he (8. went/has gone) to India, Egypt, and Greece, where he
(9. saw/has seen) the Taj Mahal, the pyramids, and the Acropolis. In addition, he (10. did/has done) a
lot of exciting things. On one trip, in 1980, he (11. jumped/has jumped) from an airplane with a
parachute, and on another trip he (12. rode/has ridden) in a submarine. But his life (13. wasnt/hasnt
been) easy. In 1976 his plane almost (14. crashed/has crashed); he (15. had/has had) to make an
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


emergency landing. Ten years ago, he (16. had/has had) cancer, but Captain Mike (17. fought/has
fought) the cancer and (18. won/has won). All in all, he (19. was/has been) very lucky, and so
(20. were/have) we here at Western Airlines. Were going to miss you, Captain Mike.
Exercise 2.2
Alice is on vacation in New York City. Complete her draft for a postcard home, using either
simple past or present perfect with the verbs in parentheses.
Hi folks!
Having a great time! I (1) _________________ (walk) at least 50 miles, but I (2)
_________________ (see) lots of interesting things. Yesterday I (3) _________________ (take) the
Staten Island Ferry, and on Thursday I (4) _________________ (go) to the top of the Empire State
Building. I (5) _________________ (see) several shows. Two nights ago I (6) _________________ (go)
to see Cats: I (7) _________________ (have) great tickets. Wonderful food!! I (8) _________________
(eat) some delicious meals. Yesterday I (9) _________________ (try) sushi for the first time. See you
next week.
Love, Alice
P.S. I (10) _________________ (spend) lots of money!
Exercise 2.3
Read this job advertisement:
EXCITING OPPORTUNITY
for the right person
Are you independent and adventurous?
Requirements:
knowledge of other cultures
ability to speak at least one foreign language
flexibility
must enjoy working with other people and like travel
Interested?
This is a difficult but wee-paying job.
Write Box 392,
giving a short description of your previous experience.
This is one of the letters the company received in answer to the advertisement. Complete the
blanks with the appropriate form of the verb in parentheses. The first one has been done for you.
Dear Sir,
I am writing about the job advertised in todays paper.
I (1) graduated (graduate) from high school in 1978. I (2) _________________ (have)
experience in many different fields. I (3) _________________ (work) as a typist, receptionist, sales
assistant, and teacher. I (4) _________________ (travel) extensively and (5) _________________
(learn) Spanish, French, and Italian.
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LIMBA ENGLEZ

In 1979, I (6) _________________ (go) to France. First, I (7) _________________ (work) as a


tour guide and (8) _________________ (help) American tourists in Paris. After that, I (9)
_________________ (move) to Italy, where I (10) _________________ (live) with an Italian family and
(11) _________________ (look after) their three children. In 1984, I (12) _________________ (work) in
Barcelona, Spain, for three months and (13) _________________ (teach) English conversation to
children. In 1985, I (14) _________________ (return) to the United States, and I (15)
_________________ (be) a receptionist at a beauty salon for six months. In 1986, I (16)
_________________ (leave) the country again, and for two years I (17) _________________ (give)
sailing lessons on charter yachts in the Caribbean. I finally (18) _________________ (come) home in
1989 and (19) _________________ (take) a job at a book shop.
As you can see, I (20) _________________ (work) with a lot of different people, and I (21)
_________________ (experience) different cultures. In all my jobs, I (22) _________________ (enjoy)
meeting other people. I believe this experience makes me a good candidate for the job.
Sincerely,
Nancy Martin

FOCUS 2
EVER and NEVER
examples
Have you ever eaten Chinese food?
Yes, I have eaten Chinese food.
NOT: *I have ever eaten Chinese food.
I havent ever eaten Chinese food.
I have never eaten Chinese food.
I have never eaten Chinese food.
I have not eaten Chinese food.

explanations
Ever with the present perfect tense means at any time
before now. It is usually used in questions and negative
statements. It is not usually used in affirmative
statements.
Never with the present perfect tense means at no time
before now.
Not versus never: The opposite examples have similar
meanings. Never means not + ever. In the first example,
never emphasizes the fact that I have not had this
experience in my life before the present moment. It is
therefore stronger than not.

Exercise 2.4
Read the conversation. Underline and correct any mistakes.
Mick:
Dave:
Mick:
Dave:

Have you ever visit Europe?


visited
Yes, Ive been there several times, in fact. Thee years ago Ive gone to France.
Really? Where did you go?
I went to Paris, of course. And then I rode my mountain bike in the Pyrenees. Last year Ive
ridden my bike in Germany and Switzerland. Have ever you been there?
Mick: Ive never been to Germany, but Ive ever been to Switzerland.
Dave: When was that?
Mick: Ive studied German there about eight years ago.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


Exercise 2.5
Have you ever done these things? Using the words below and the present perfect, write
sentences about your experiences. If you havent ever done the activity, use never or not + ever.
EXAMPLE:
OR

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

study Chinese
I have studied Chinese.
I havent ever studied Chinese.

find a wallet in the street


_______________________________________________________________________
fly in a helicopter
_______________________________________________________________________
fight in a war
_______________________________________________________________________
break a bone
_______________________________________________________________________
give blood
_______________________________________________________________________
know a person from Greenland
_______________________________________________________________________
have a car accident
_______________________________________________________________________
wear snowshoes
_______________________________________________________________________
build anything
_______________________________________________________________________
travel to other countries
_______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 3
PRESENT PERFECT vs. SIMPLE PAST: QUESTIONS
examples
Have you ever been to China?
Yes, I have.
When did you go there?
Last year.

explanations
When we ask such a question, we are interested in knowing about
the experience, not about when it happened. We expect the
answer: Yes, I have, No, I havent, or No, Ive never done that.
When we ask a question with when, we are more interested in
when it happened, and we expect the answer to tell us something
like: Last year or I went there last year.

Exercise 2.6
Complete the conversation, using the present perfect or the past simple of the verbs in
parentheses. The first one has been done for you.

414

LIMBA ENGLEZ

1.

A: Excuse me, sir, were doing a survey. Can I ask you a few questions?
B: Sure, go ahead.
A: Have you ever used WonderWhite detergent? (you/ever/use)
B: No, (a) _________________ it. (I/try/never)
A: Why not?
B: (b) _________________ laundry in my life. (I/do/never) My wife always does it.
A: What about you, sir? (c) _________________ your clothes with WonderWhite?
(you/wash/ever)
C: Yes, (d) _________________ it. (I/try)
A: When (e) _________________ it for the first time? (you/try)
C: (f) _________________ it for the first time about six months ago. (I/use)

2.

A: (a)_________________ any books by Latin American writers? (you/read/ever)


B: Yes, I (b) _________________. I (c) _________________ a great novel by a Colombian
writer a few years ago. (read)
A: Which one?
B: I (d) _________________ his name. (forget) He (e)_________________ the Nobel Prize
several years ago. (win)
A: Oh, you mean Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

3.

A: My brother is coming to stay with us for a few years next week. Do you have any ideas about
how we can entertain him?
B: (a) _________________ here before now? (he/be/ever)
A: Yes. He (b) _________________ (come) once about three years ago.
B: (c) _________________ to Chinatown then? (he/go)
A: No (d) _________________ to Chinatown (he/be/never), but (e) _________________ a lot
in China and in the Far East. (he/travel)
B: Maybe youd better not take him to Chinatown then! (f) _________________ him to
Greektown when he was here three year ago? (you/take)
A: No, and (g) _________________ Greece. (he/visit/never)
B: Great! Why dont you take him there?

4.

A: (a) _________________ last night? (you/go out)


B: Yes. (b) _________________ to that new Italian restaurant. (we/go)
A: Whats it like? (c) _________________ there. (I/be/never)
B: Its OK, but (d) _________________ better Italian food in other restaurants. (I/eat)
A: (e) _________________ the one on the Main Street? (you/try/ever)
B: Yes. (f) _________________ a great meal there last weekend. (we/have)
Exercise 2.7
Complete the following using the words in parentheses.

My friend and I (1) _________________ (decide) to take our next vacation in Bali. Yesterday
we (2) _________________ (go) to a travel agent and we (3) _________________ (pick up) lots of
different brochures. We (4) _________________ (take) them home and (5) _________________ (read)
them all very carefully. We want to go there because my friend (6) _________________ (travel) in
Southeast Asia, but she (7) _________________ (never be) to Bali and I (8) _________________
(read) many books about the customs and culture of the Balinese people. My brother (9)
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


_________________ (be) there several times. He (10) _________________ (go) there for the first time
about 15 years ago, and he (11) _________________ (stay) there for six months. He (12)
_________________ (return) to Bali last year and according to him, life there (13) _________________
(change) a lot because there are so many tourists now. I dont care! I (14) _________________ (hear)
so many different things about Bali, but now I want to find out for myself!

FOCUS 4
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
Task. Read the statements below. Why do you think they were said? What had probably
happened before?
statement
1. A: Ugh your hands are covered with oil
and grease.
B: Sorry.
2. A: Are you OK? Your eyes are all red.
3. A: You look terrible.
B: I didnt get much sleep last night.
4. A: Thats enough for tonight. Give me
your car keys.
B: Why?
A: Ill take you home. You cant drive like
this.
5. A: Why is your hair wet?
6. A: Hey, kids! Stop right there!
B: What for?
A: Take your shoes off at once! I dont
want mud all over the carpet.

recent activity
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

_____________________________________
_____________________________________

_____________________________________

Now look at the activities in the list. Try to match each statement above to an appropriate
activity in the list. Write the activity in the space beside the statement.
activities
baking bread
drinking
swimming
studying for a test
chopping onionsrunning

eating garlic
watching TV
playing in the yard
fixing a car

Meaning
examples
Why are your hands yellow?
Ive been painting my room.

416

explanations
The present perfect progressive connects the past with the present.
You can use the present perfect to talk about an activity which was
in progress very recently in the past. In fact, the activity is so recent
that its effect or result is often still visible or apparent in the present.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Exercise 2.8
Read the following story. Underline the words which show that the activities were in progress
recently in the past. The first one has been done for you as an example.
The Henderson family is on their way home from a week of camping. What have they been
doing for the last week? Well, Mrs. Henderson has been cooking over a campfire. She enjoys cooking
outdoors. But she has also been washing the dishes in a bucket. She doesnt like that very much.
The whole family has been living in a tent. They havent been sleeping in regular beds. Instead,
they have been sleeping in sleeping bags.
The boys, Eric and Todd, have been very busy. They have been hiking and mountain climbing
with their dad in the mountains. Also, they have been swimming in the cool mountains lakes.
Rachel Henderson has been hiking too, but she also has been going horseback riding. Rachel
loves horses.
Finally, they have been having a contest to see who can find the most varieties of birds. So
everyone has been bird watching.
After the busy week they have been having, the Hendersons are glad to go home and have a
vacation from their vacation.
Exercise 2.9
Make a list of three things you have been doing since you woke up this morning. Write complete
sentences.
1.
2.
3.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Form: has/have + been + verb + -ing


statement
I
You
We
They
She
He
It

negative
have been sleeping.
(ve)
has been sleeping.
(s)

question
I
You
We
They

have not been


sleeping.
(havent)

She
He
It

has not been


sleeping.
(hasnt)

Have
Has

I
you
we
they

been
sleeping?

she
he
it

been
sleeping?

Exercise 2.10
Turn back to the Task at the beginning of Focus 4 and write appropriate statements, using the
present perfect progressive in response to statements 1 6. The first one has been done for you:
1.
2.
3.

She has been fixing a car.


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
417

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


4.
5.
6.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2.11

You are riding the subway in a big city, late at night. There are several other people in the same
car. You observe them carefully and tray to figure out what they have been doing recently. Probably you
will be able to think of several possibilities for each one.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A man with lipstick traces on his face and on the collar of his shirt.
He _____________________________________________________________________
Two young women with many bags and packages from well-known department stores:
They ___________________________________________________________________
A couple wearing shorts and walking shoes and carrying backpacks. They seem very tired.
They ___________________________________________________________________
A young woman with a bookbag full of chemistry textbooks. She has a book open in her hands
and she is asleep.
She ____________________________________________________________________
A woman with red stains on her hands.
She ____________________________________________________________________
A man with white hairs all over his clothes and scratches on his hands.
He _____________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2.12

Complete the following dialogue with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. The first one
has been done for you as an example.
Mom: What have you been doing (you do)?
Lee: Nothing. We (1) __________________ (not do) anything.
Mom: Are you sure? You (2) __________________ (make) lots of noise out here and you (3)
__________________ (run).
Chris: We (4) __________________ (play) baseball, Mom.
Lee: Yes, we (5) __________________ (play) catch.
Mom: (6) __________________ (you play) on the vacant lot next door?
Chris: Yes, we (7) __________________ (practice) with Aaron.
Mom: (8) __________________ (you do) anything besides throwing and catching the ball? I hope you
(9) __________________ (not hit) the ball with a bat. You could break one of Mr. Smiths
windows if you do that.
Lee: I (10) __________________ (catch), but Aaron (11) __________________ (hit) the ball.
Mom: You didnt break a window, did you?
Chris: Sorry, Mom.
Mom: I (12) __________________ (tell) you that you would get into trouble some day. I guess I had
better go see Mr. Smith.

418

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Actions continuing to the present


examples
He has been waiting for 20 minutes (and he is still
waiting).

explanations
We also use the present perfect progressive to
describe actions or situations starting in the past
and continuing up to and including now.

Exercise 2.13
Complete the following sentences, using the scrambled verb in parentheses. We have done
the first one for you.
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

9.
10.

Lee:
What are you doing?
Mary: Im waiting to make a phone call. This woman has been talking on the phone for the
last 20 minutes. (katl)
Dan:
Havent you finished writing that book yet?
Heidi: No, were still working on it.
Dan:
You __________________ it for almost a year! (retwi)
Heidi: I know, but its nearly finished now.
Sky:
Whats up? You look miserable.
Tom:
I am. I want to go for a bike ride, but it __________________ since eight oclock this
morning. (anir)
Gin:
What do you want to do tonight?
Bruce: I want to go out and have fun. I __________________ here all day. (krow)
George:
Excuse me, but is this your dog?
Barbara: Yes. Is there a problem?
George:
I cant get to sleep because that dog __________________ for hours! Please
keep it under control, or Ill call the police. (krab)
Julie: Have you seen Patsy recently?
Jan:
No. Shes got a new boyfriend, and she __________________ all her time with him.
(psned)
John: Are these your glasses?
Betty: Yes! Thank you so much. I __________________ for them everywhere! (oklo)
Mike: How are things going in New York?
Dave: We dont live there anymore.
Mike: Really?
Dave: Yes. We __________________ in Philadelphia since January. (lvei)
Diane:
Why are Kim and Cynthia so depressed?
Marianne:
They __________________ grammar for ages, but they still dont understand
how to use the present perfect progressive. (yusdt)
Pam:
Arent you ready yet?
Andrew: No. Ive lost my keys and I __________________ to find them for the last half hour.
(ytr)

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

FOCUS 5
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE vs. PRESENT PERFECT
examples
Jim has worked here for ten years.
Jim has been working here for ten years.
live
work
teach
study

explanations
The present perfect and the present perfect
progressive can both describe actions or situations
starting in the past and continuing up to and including
now. In this case, it is necessary to add a time adverbial
to show how long the activity has been in progress.
The verbs opposite are commonly used with both
present perfect and present perfect progressive to
describe an unfinished action.

You can also use the present perfect progressive to


We have been working on this for a long emphasize an activity that started in the past and that
time.
continues without interruption to the present.
You can express the same meaning with the present
We have worked on this for a long time.
perfect. However, the present perfect progressive
emphasizes the fact that the activity has continued
without stopping.
The present perfect without a time adverbial shows
They have painted their house.
that an activity finished sometime before now in the past,
but we are not sure when.
The present perfect progressive without a time adverbial
They have been painting their house.
is often used to talk about an activity that finishes very
recently before now.
Exercise 2.14
Read the following sentences. On the line before each sentence write 1 or 2. Write:
1.
If the sentence emphasizes that the action is without interruption.
2.
If the action is finished but when it finished is unknown.
EXAMPLE:

___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___

420

The Klebert family has been working since early this morning to clean
the house for a party.

A. Mrs. Klebert has cleaned the kitchen.


B. Shes washed and dried all the dishes and put them away.
C. She has also wiped all the counters, and swept and mopped the floors.
D. Deborah has been straightening up the bedrooms.
E. She has changed the sheets and made the beds.
F. Ben has been cleaning the bathrooms for the last hour.
G. He has scrubbed the sinks and toilets.
H. Hes also changed the towels.
I. Mr. Kelbert has been working in the living room.
J. Hes been vacuuming and dusting and making sure that everything is in its right place.
K. Theyve been hurrying to finish in time for the party. I hope they are not too exhausted to
enjoy themselves at their party.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Exercise 2.15
Think about the activities that you have done already today. Write one sentence about your own
activities for each of the examples below.
1.
2.

Something you have done without interruption.


_______________________________________________________________________
Something you have finished, but dont tell exactly when it finished.
_______________________________________________________________________

Recent habits
examples
They have been eating out a lot recently.
Hes been working a lot lately.
Ive been walking to work recently.
Ive walked to work.

explanations
You can also use the present perfect progressive to talk
about a regular habit or activity that someone started
recently and which s/he continues to do. In this
situation, you can add a time adverbial to emphasize
that the action started recently.
In the third example, we understand that walking to
work is a recent habit.
In the fourth, we understand that I did this at some time
in the past, but I do not do it at the moment. In this
situation, you do not usually add a time adverbial

Exercise 2.16
Barbara is talking with her friend, Janet. They have not seen each other for several months, and
Janet is surprised by some of the changes in Barbaras appearance. Complete their conversation using
verbs from the list below.
happen
do
study
Janet:
Barbara:
Janet:
Barbara:

Janet:
Barbara:

sail
feel
eat

cook
take
ski

ride
date

talk
go

Barbara, you look great! Youve really lost a lot of weight.


Well, I (1) _________________________________ my bike to school recently and I (2)
_________________________________ an aerobics class.
Is that all? No special diets or anything?
Not really. I (3) _________________________________ (not) to any fast-food
restaurants, and I (4) _________________________________ at home instead. So, I
(5) _________________________________ a lot of fresh vegetables and salads and
other healthy stuff like that. It really makes a difference. I (6)
_________________________________ much better, with lots more energy.
Well, you seem to be very busy these days. Youre never home when I call. What else
(7) _____________________ you _________________________________?
I (8) _________________________________ this really cute guy. He has a boat, so
we (9) _________________________________ a lot and he also has a cabin in the
mountains, so we (10) _________________________________ too. And also, we (11)
_________________________________ about taking some trips together. So its all

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

Janet:

pretty
exciting.
But
what
about
you?
What
(12)
_________________________________ with you?
Nothing. I (13) _________________________________ for my final exams, but when
theyre over, Im going to start having fun!
Exercise 2.17
Complete the dialogues, using present perfect progressive, present perfect, or simple past.

Jim:
Jill:
Jim:

Whats the matter? You look frustrated.


I am. I (1) _________________________________ (try) to study all day, but the phone never
stops ringing. People (2) _________________________________ (call) all day about the car.
Thats great. I (3) _________________________________ (hope) to sell that car for six months
now. Maybe todays the day.

Maria:
Alex:
Maria:
Alex:

Im sorry Im so late. (4) _________________________________ (you/wait) long?


Yes, I have! Where (5) _________________________________ (you/be)?
I really am sorry. My watch is broken, and I didnt know what time it was.
Why didnt you ask somebody? I (6) _________________________________ (stand) out here
in the cold for at least 40 minutes.
Maria: Oh, you poor thing! But wed better hurry to get to the movie theatre.
Alex: Its too late. The movie (7) _________________________________ (start).
Maria: Really?
Alex: Yes. I (8) _________________________________ (start) 20 minutes ago.

Tutor-assessed Task 1

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 1 and 2.


Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.
1.

2.

3.

422

The native people of Northern Canada and Alaska have participated in dog sled races
A
B
since more than 500 years.
C
D
The Inuit people has used dog sleds as their main source of transportation since settling
A B
C
D
in the northern pats of North America.
The sled dogs have working as faithful beasts of burden, carrying people and equipment
A
B
C
from place to place.
D

LIMBA ENGLEZ

4.

In the past, every Inuit family wants a dog sled team because this was the only source
A
B
C
of transportation over the frozen land.
D

5.

The use of sled dogs as the primary means of transportation have declined since the
A
B
C
D
invention of the snowmobile.

6.

One of the most famous sled dog races, the Iditarod Trail, covers more than 1,000
A
miles of Alaskan wilderness; it have challenged competitors and their dogs for many
B
C
D
years.

7.

I have wanted seeing this race for along time, but I never had the opportunity.
A
B
C D

8.

Last year, I have seen this great race for the first time. I was there at the finish line in
A
B
C
D
Nome, Alaska.

9.

Have you never eaten Indian food? No, I havent.


A
B
C
D

10.

I have had Indian food several times, but I didnt had it in a long time. I think you
A B
C D
would like it.

11.

Yes, I think I would. Ive always wanted to try Indian food, but not ever had the
A
B
C
D
chance.

12.

Indian food is famous for its curried vegetables. I have ate curried eggplant and
A
B
C D
curried beans.

13.

That sounds great. Lets go eat now. I need some lunch; I havent have anything to eat
A
B
C
D
all day.

14.

I need to look up the address of the Indian restaurant. I havent being there in a while.
A
B
C
D

15.

I think Ill enjoy this. I havent eaten out since a while and I want a new taste
A
B
C
D
experience.

423

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
16.

________ to Smoky Mountain National Park since it has been improved?


(A) You been
(C) Have you been
(B) Were you
(D) Did you go

17.

No, but I want ________ back there.


(A) going
(C) go
(B) to go
(D) went

18.

I ________ camped in such a beautiful national park since I was in Yellowstone National Park
in Wyoming.
(A) no
(C) havent
(B) didnt
(D) dont

19.

The wilderness is breathtakingly beautiful, but the campsites are rough; they ________ few of
the amenities of home.
(A) have had
(C) havent
(B) have
(D) has

20.

There are wild animals in the park, and campers ________ be aware of the bears, who like to
steal the campers food.
(A) have
(C) had
(B) have had
(D) have to

21.

Park rangers ________ many hiking trails since the park opened.
(A) have developed
(C) are developing
(B) will develop
(D) develop

22.

Rangers have protected the natural beauty of the Great Smokies National Park ________ it
was created
(A) for
(C) when
(B) since
(D) that

23.

In the last decade, computers ________ an important part of everyday life.


(A) have become
(C) have became
(B) will become
(D) has became

24.

________ computers have been readily available for home use, it has become more important
to become computer literate.
(A) For
(C) When
(B) Since
(D) At the time

25.

Schools are teaching all children to be computer literate because in the future everyone will
need ________ these skills.
(A) to have
(C) have
(B) having
(D) can have

26.

Almost every part of our lives ________ computerised work, school, the government, and
even the grocery store over the past few decades.
(A) had
(C) was
(B) have been
(D) had been

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27.

Since I ________ college, I ________ a computer to help me write my papers.


(A) ve been ve using (C) ve been ve used
(B) was ve used
(D) ve been used

28.

Yesterdays, I ________ a computer to write my term paper.


(A) have used
(C) has used
(B) used
(D) have been using

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Reading Digest 3
Letters to an Advice Column

Exercise 3.1
A. These two letters appeared in the 'advice column' of a popular Canadian newspaper. Read
them and then choose the best answer.
Dear Mary,
For the last year I have been going out with a very
nice man called Peter. I'm very fond of Peter in lots
of ways. We have a calm, peaceful relationship and
he has asked me to marry him. I would say yes if it
weren't for Roger.

I worked for a small company for ten years


before I took on a new job with a much larger
firm. Although I didn't earn as much in the old
job, I got on much better with my boss and
the other employees than I do now.

Roger is my ex-boyfriend. We went out together for


three years. Although we had lots of fights, I found
the relationship deeply satisfying. We broke up
because he found another woman he said he loved
more.

I've had the new job for more than a year


and have found that my personal life has
suffered. I am expected to travel a lot and
never have any time for my family. I find the
job less interesting than the old one, too.
There isn't the same contact with people I
used to have.

I didn't hear from Roger for a long time but last week
he phoned me again. He told me that he was no
longer seeing the other woman and wanted me to
take him back.
I am terribly confused. I get on much better with
Peter. But the relationship with Roger was more
exciting. What would you do if you were me?
Nora F., Toronto

A few days ago I happened to see my old


boss again. When I told him how I felt, he
offered me my old job back. I told him I would
think about it. If I take the offer, I will be
happier but my salary won't be as good.
What would you advise me to do?
M. L., Hamilton

1 Nora's previous relationship with Roger broke up because


A Nora started going out with Peter.
B Roger left her to be with someone else.
C they used to fight all the time.
D they had been going out together for too long.
2 Nora does not know what to do because
A Roger has asked her to marry him.
B she finds Peter more exciting than Roger.
C she isn't attracted to Roger any more.
D Roger wants to start their relationship again.

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3 M.L. left her old job because


A she wasn't happy in her work.
B she had problems with her boss.
C she found employment elsewhere.
D she didn't get on with her colleagues.
4 Since she began her new job, she finds that
A she is expected to spend more time working.
B she has enjoyed travelling on business.
C she has been so unhappy that she has decided to leave.
D she has made many useful business contacts.
B. When we read about people, we often form impressions which do not come directly from the
information we are given about them. Discuss your answers to these questions.
1 Which of the following age groups do you think Nora F. probably belongs to? Why?
11-20
21-30
31-35
36-50
2 Have you any idea how old M.L. might be? Give reasons for your answer.
3 Try to describe a typical evening for Nora and Peter. Would an evening with Roger be different? How?
4 What do you think M.L. actually said to her old boss? Try to imagine the exact words of their
conversation.
5 What would you advise Nora F. to do?
6 If you were M.L., what would you do? Why?
VOCABULARY
Exercise 3.2
Complete the following sentences with one of these words.
money

pay cash

salary

wages

1 In this job, you will get a monthly .....


2 All he ever thinks about is making ......
3 The job is interesting but the .... is poor.
4 The ..... are very low for work like this.
5 In the United States, most people pay by cheque or on credit rather than in .....
USE OF ENGLISH 1
Exercise 3.3
Below is another letter to an advice column but this time some words are missing. Here are five
of the missing words. Where do they belong? Can you guess the other fifteen?
result
advice reason since
after

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About a year ago I had a bad quarrel with my father. ....... (1) then we have hardly spoken to each other.
I would apologize if I felt that the quarrel was my ....... (2). But I don't think it ....... (3). It all began
because he criticized the man I was ....... (4) out with and I told him he had no right to ....... (5) in my
personal life. This ....... (6) him very angry.
A few months ....... (7) the quarrel, I discovered my boyfriend was ....... (8) an affair with another woman,
and as a ....... (9) of this, we broke ....... (10). But I still haven't ....... (11) my father about the break up
even though I phoned him recently to ....... (12) him a happy birthday. He sounded very cool and I didn't
feel ....... (13) continuing the conversation any longer than necessary.
Unfortunately, I need a new car, as my old one has ....... (14) down and can't be repaired. But I am
rather ....... (15) of money. I know my father ....... (16) lend it to me if I asked him, but I don't want him to
think this is the only ....... (17) I have contacted him again. However, if he finds out that I have ....... (18)
the money from a bank before asking him, he will probably never ....... (19) me.
What ....... (20) would you give me?

Exercise 3.4
Read the information about these three people and answer the questions that follow.
TONY
works in a bank near his home
has been offered a better job in
another bank in a town 70 km away
can get to the town only by car
hasn't got a car, and needs an extra
500 to buy one

HARRY
is Tony's brother
could lend Tony the
500
lent Tony 300 two
years ago which Tony
has never paid back

ALICE
is Tony's girl-friend
works in the same bank as Tony
could also lend Tony the 500
Tony hasn't told her about the
new job yet

1 What do you think Harry will probably do if Tony asks him for the money?
2 What do you think Tony will do if he can't borrow the money from Harry?
3 How do you think Alice will probably feel when Tony tells her about the new job?
4 What is one of the reasons she may not want to lend him the money?
VOCABULARY
Exercise 3.5
Study the following definitions.
lend vt (pt, pp lent) 1 give (a person) the use of (something) on the understanding that it or its
equivalent will be returned: I will ~ you 100.
bor-row vt, vi 1 get something, or its use, on the understanding that it is to be returned: May I ~ your
pen? lend. 2 take and use as one's own: ~a person's ideas/methods.
fault n 1 [C] something that makes a person, thing, etc imperfect; defect: She loves me in spite of all my
-~s. There is a - in the electrical connections. at fault, in the wrong; in a puzzled or ignorant state: My
memory was at ~. find fault with, complain about: I have no -~ to find with your work. Hence, 'faultfinder, 'fault-finding. 2 (sing only) responsibility for being wrong: It's your own ~.

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er-ror n 1 [C] mistake: spelling ~s; an -~ of judgement. 2 [U] condition of being wrong in belief or
conduct: do something in ~, by mistake.
mis-take n [C] wrong opinion, idea or act: spelling ~s. We all make ~s occasionally, by mistake, as the
result of carelessness, forgetfulness, an error, etc: I took your umbrella by ~.
lend or borrow ?
A. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of lend or borrow.
1 Could I ...... some money from you?
2 Could you ...... me some money?
3 I ...... Bob a lot of money last month and he still hasn't paid it back.
4 If you're short of money, why don't you ...... some from the bank?
5 I don't believe in ...... money from my friends.
6 I don't believe in ...... money to other people, not even my friends.
fault, error or mistake ?
B. Complete the following sentences with fault, error or mistake.
1 I took someone else's coat by .......
2 The accident wasn't my ...... !
3 The letter was sent to you in .......
4 It was a big ...... to pay so much for your car.
5 Look! Here's another spelling ...... in this stupid book!
In which sentence could you use either error or mistake?
USE OF ENGLISH 2
Exercise 3.6
Make al the changes and additions necessary to produce a complete letter from the words and
phrases below. The first sentence has been done for you as an example.
Dear Dad,
I want/thank you/offer/lend me/1,000.
I want to thank you for offering to lend me I,000.
1 I/already discuss/further loan/my bank manager.
2 He offer/lend me/2,600.
3 Now it/seem/there be/no problem/buy the car.
4 I/not yet decide/exactly which car/buy.
5 However/one of my friends/suggest/I buy/a Fiat Uno.
6 She buy one/several years ago/and/be very satisfied/it.
7 Another friend/suggest/I buy/a Volkswagen.
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8 He say/he have one/six years/and it/still go/very well.
9 I/let you know/as soon as I/decide which car/best for me.
LANGUAGE STUDY
Exercise 3.7
still, yet or already ?
Complete the following sentences with still, yet or already.
1 She hasn't decided which car to buy .......
2 She has ...... asked her father if he will lend her some of the money.
3 When I left the bank, she was ...... talking to the manager about the loan.
4'You haven't told me ...... how much you want to borrow,' he said.
5'You ...... haven't told me if you can lend me the money,' she said later.
6 When she left, the bank had ...... closed.
7 However, some of the bank clerks were ...... working.
8 But most of them had ...... finished counting up.
REVISION AND EXTENSION
Exercise 3.8
A. Complete the following conversation with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
A. Jack's coming this evening.
B. When?
A. Well, I'm not sure, it depends on the buses. He said he might catch the 7.30. If he (do), he (be) here
at about 8.30, but if he (miss) it, he (have to) get the one at 8.15.
B. What time he (get) here if he (take) the later one?
A. I should think he (be) here at about 9.30, unless the traffic (be) bad, in which case he (may) not arrive
until about 10.
B. What do you want me to do about supper?
A. Mmm. If he (get) here early, we (can) eat together, but if he (be) late, just (put) something in the oven
to keep warm. But don't make too much, because if he (already eat) he (not be) very hungry.
B. There's only one problem. What he (do) if I (be) out shopping when he (get) here?
A. I wouldn't worry about that if I were you. If you (not be) here when he (arrive), he /have to/ wait.
B. No, I know what - if I (go) out, I (leave) a key and a note so that he (can) let himself in.
B. Explain what you would do if these things happened.
Example: You found a wallet in the street.
If I found a wallet in the street, I would take it to the police.
1 You heard a stranger shouting for help.
2 Someone insulted you.
3 You were offered a job in China for three years.
4 Someone you had never seen before said 'I love you'.
5 You saw a strange light in the sky which looked like a flying saucer.
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C. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
1 If I (be) you, I (apply) for a job as soon as possible.
2 If I (speak) perfect English, I (not need) to take the exam.
3 If he (be) taller, he (be able) to join the police.
4 You (be) rich if you (win) the pools.
5 You (not be able) to travel next week unless you (get) a visa.
6 If the weather (be) nice next weekend, they (go) to the country.
7 Unless you (hear) otherwise, I (come) at 8.15.
8 If I (be) the Prime Minister, I (change) a lot of things.
9 If the bus (leave) by the time I arrive, I (get) a taxi.
10 If my headache (not go away) soon, I (take) an aspirin.

Grammar Digest 3
Comparison with Adjectives
Similarities and Differences
Comparison with Adverbs
Superlatives
FOCUS 1
COMPARISON WITH ADJECTIVES
Comparative form of adjectives
Regular comparatives
There are two regular forms of adjectives in English.
1.
For adjectives with one syllable or those ending in y:
X is ______-er than Y.
example
adjective
This neighborhood is safer than that safe
one.
The one-bedroom apartment is
big
bigger than the studio.

comparative
safer than

The studio is noisier than the one


bedroom.
The studio is smaller than the onebedroom.

noisy

noisier than

small

smaller than

2.

bigger than

rule
For adjectives ending in e,
add r.
For adjectives that end in
consonant-vowel-consonant,
double the consonant, add
er.
For adjectives ending in y,
change the y to i add er.
For all other adjectives, add
er.

For adjectives with two or more syllables


X is (more/less) ___________ than Y.
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example
The studio is more
economical than the onebedroom.
The studio is less expensive
than the one-bedroom.

adjective
economical
expensive

comparative
more economical than
less expensive than

rule
Use more or less before
the adjective.

NOTES:

Some adjectives with two syllables can take either er or more/less. For example: quiet
quieter or more quiet.
In formal English we say: Joe is taller than I (am).
In informal English we sometimes say: Joe is taller than me.
Irregular comparatives

examples
This neighbourhood is better than that one.
This years winter was worse than last years
(winter).
The one-bedroom is farther away from the bus
stop than the studio is.
This apartment is much better than that one.
This apartment is much larger than the other
one.

explanations
The comparative forms of good, bad, and far are
irregular.
good -- better
bad -- worse
far -- farther
Use much to make a comparison stronger.

NOTE: Farther is used for physical distance, while further is used for both physical and metaphysical
distance.

Exercise 3.1
Write the comparative form of each adjective + than in parentheses.
Example:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A cat is (big) bigger than a mouse.

a. A tiger is (large) ____________________ a cat.


b. It is (dangerous) ____________________ a cat.
a. outgoing people are (nervous) ____________________ shy people.
b. They are (comfortable) ____________________ in social situations.
a. The weather in Spain is (hot) ____________________ the weather in Sweden.
b. The food in hot countries is (spicy) ____________________ the food in cold countries.
a. Dog lovers say cats are (intelligent) ____________________ dogs.
b. Cat lovers think cats are (good) ____________________ dogs.
Today wasnt a very good day.
a. We hope tomorrow will be (good) ____________________ today.
b. We hope it will be (exciting) ____________________ today.
Exercise 3.2
Fill in the blanks with the comparative form of the adjective.

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Jane: Kevin, I found these two apartment ads in the newspaper this morning. Theres a studio and a
one-bedroom. I think the one-bedroom sounds nice. What do you think?
Kevin: Well, the one-bedroom is definitely (1) (large) __________________ than the studio, but the
studio is (2) (cheap) __________________ You know you only have a part-time job. How can
you afford to pay $750 a month for rent?
Jane: I know the one-bedroom is (3) (expensive) __________________ but I have so much furniture.
The one-bedroom is (4) (big) __________________ and I want to have guests visit and it will
be much (5) (comfortable) __________________ Besides, maybe someday Ill have a
roommate, and Ill need a (6) (spacious) __________________ apartment, Kevin. Right?
Kevin: Well, maybe, but you need to be realistic. the studio is in the center of town. Youll be (7) (close)
__________________ to transportation, stores, the library, and the college.
Jane: Youre much (8) (practical) __________________ than I am, Kevin. But the studio is directly
over a video store, so it will be (9) (noisy) __________________ than the one-bedroom. I will
need peace and quiet so I can study.
Kevin: Listen the studio is small, but its much (10) (cozy) __________________ than the onebedroom and youll spend much less time cleaning it!
Jane: True, but I think the one-bedroom will be much (11) (safe) __________________ for me than
the studio.
Kevin: It seems to me your mind is made up.
Jane: Yes, it is. By the way, Kevin, Im going to see the one-bedroom later today. Can you come with
me?
Kevin: Sure.
Exercise 3.3
Yoko wants to study English in the United States. She knows about an English program in
Brattleboro, a small town in Vermont. She also knows about a program in Los Angeles, a big city in
California. She needs to decide where she wants to live. Here is some information about the two places.
1. Rent for a one-bed apt.
2. Population
3. Weather
4. Public transportation
5. Quality of life
a. the environment
b. the crime rate
c. lifestyle
d. the streets
1.
2.
3.
4.

Brattleboro, Vermont
$450 a month
12,000
cold in winter
hot in summer
not good

Los Angeles, California


$ 1,000 a month
3 million
warm in winter
hot in summer
good

clean
low
relaxed
quiet

not so clean
high
busy
noisy

Make comparative statements about Brattleboro and Los Angeles.


crime rate (low/high)
The crime rate is lower in Brattleboro than in Los Angeles.
(populated)
__________________________________________________________________
(cheap/expensive)
__________________________________________________________________
public transportation (good/bad)
__________________________________________________________________
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5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

winters (cold)
__________________________________________________________________
(dangerous/safe)
__________________________________________________________________
(clean/dirty)
__________________________________________________________________
(quiet/noisy)
__________________________________________________________________
(relaxed/busy)
__________________________________________________________________
In your opinion, which place is better for Yoko? Why?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Questions with comparative adjectives


examples
Is the one-bedroom more expensive than the studio?
Are studios better than apartments?
Are studios less practical than one bedroom apartments?
Who is older, you or your brother?
Which is more difficult, English or Chinese?
Whose apartment is more comfortable, yours or hers?

FOCUS 2
EXPRESSING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
WITH AS AS
examples
Mark is as tall as Sam.
Tokyo is as crowded as Hong Kong.
Mark isnt as tall as Steve.
(= Steve is taller than Mark.)
The studio isnt as expensive as the onebedroom.

explanations
To say two things are equal or the same, use as +
adjective + as.
To say there is a difference between two things, use
not as + adjective + as.

Exercise 3.4
Here is a dialogue between Tommy and his mother. Write the correct form of the comparative in
the blanks. Use er, more than, less than, and as as.
Mother:
Tommy, I dont want you to buy a motorcycle. Why dont you buy a car instead? A car
is (1) more convenient than (convenient) a motorcycle and its (2) _____________________
(practical), too.
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Tommy:
Maybe its more practical, but a car isnt (3) _____________________ (economical) a
motorcycle. I can get fifty miles to a gallon with a motorcycle! And a motorcycles (4)
_____________________ (cheap) a car.
Mother:
Listen to me. You live in a big city. There are a lot of crazy people out there on the
streets. A car is (5) _____________________ (safe) a motorcycle.
Tommy:
Mom, Im a good driver. Im (6) _____________________ (good) you are. Besides that,
its (7) _____________________ (easy) to park a motorcycle in the city than it is to park a car.
Mother:
Well, youre right about that. But Im still your mother and you live in my house, so you
will do as I say! When you are (8) _____________________ (old), you can do whatever you
want.
Tommy:
But all my friends are getting motorcycles, Mom. I wont look (9)
_____________________ (cool) my friends.
Mother:
I dont care, Tommy. Maybe their mothers arent (10) _____________________
(nervous) I am, or (11) _____________________ (concerned) I am. My answer is no and thats
final.

Making polite comparisons


examples
Harry is shorter than Mark.
Harry is not as tall as Mark.

explanations
The second sentence is more polite. To make a polite
comparison, use not as + adjective + as.

Exercise 3.5
Correct the errors in the following sentences:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

John is more tall than Mary.


__________________
Seoul is more safer than Los Angeles. __________________
Paul is as intelligent than Robert.__________________
Mary test scores were more worse than Margarets.
__________________
My test scores were more worse than Margarets. __________________
Lorraines eyes are darker than me.
__________________
Jeff is more handsomer than Jack.
__________________
My parents life was hard than mine.
__________________
Is New York exciting as Paris? __________________
Is Lake Ontario cleaner that Lake Erie? __________________
The Hudson River is polluted as the Volga River. __________________
Mexicos capital city is more crowded than the United States.
__________________

Exercise 3.6
Use the following adjectives to compare the worn basketball shoes of Bob, the basketball
player, and the flashy high-heel shoes of Felicia, the fashion model.
comfortable
EXAMPLE:

old
dressy

expensive

new

big

casual

Bobs shoes are more comfortable than Felicias shoes.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Bob likes comedy movies and Felicia likes romances. Use the following adjectives to compare
the movies.
emotional
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

exciting

sensitive

sad

funny

silly

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Exercise 3.7

This is my hometown, Skagway, Alaska. It is a small, isolated town only 700 people live there,
but the people are very friendly because they all know each other. The closest town to Skagway is 50
miles away.
Skagway is a historic town. In1898, Skagway was a gold rush town. At that time 20,000 people
lived there. Most of the buildings from that time are still standing.
Every summer thousands of tourists visit Skagway to see a gold rush town and to see the
spectacular beauty of the surrounding mountains.
In the winter Skagway doesnt have many tourists. It is very cold, wet, snowy, and windy, but in
the summer the weather is pleasant. Because Skagway is near the Arctic Circle, the summer days are
long. Sometimes the sun never sets at all.
Using the cues, write sentences comparing your hometown to Skagway.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
436

good winter weather


The winter weather in Iai is better than in Skagway.

old
___________________________________________________________
far
___________________________________________________________
large
___________________________________________________________
historic
___________________________________________________________
touristic
___________________________________________________________
beautiful
___________________________________________________________
cold
___________________________________________________________
wet
___________________________________________________________
snowy
___________________________________________________________
windy
___________________________________________________________
long days
___________________________________________________________
bad winter weather
_____________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

FOCUS 3
COMPARISON WITH ADVERBS
Task. Comparing men and women: Check () Yes, No or Maybe for each question.
Yes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

No

Maybe

Do women work harder than men?


Do men drive more safely than men?
Do women communicate better than men?
Do men dance more gracefully than women?
Do women take care of children more patiently than men?
Do man express their feelings more openly than women?
Do women learn math more easily than men?
Do men spend money more freely than women?
Do women learn languages more easily than men?
Do men think more clearly in emergencies than women?

Comparative forms of adverbs


example
Women live longer than
men.
Do women drive more safely
than men?
Do men drive less carefully
than women?
Eugene and Carol eat out
much more often than
Warren and Harriet.
Do women cook better than
men?
Do boys do worse in school
than girls?
Can a man throw a ball
farther than a woman?

adverb/comparative
long
longer than

rule
For short adverbs, add er + than.

safely

more/less
safely than
carefully than

For adverbs with two or more


syllables, use more/less + adverb +
than.

often

more/less
often than

With adverbs of frequency, use


more/less + adverb + than.

well

better than

carefully

badly

worse than

far

farther than

With irregular adverbs, use the


irregular form + than.

Comparative sentences
examples
Jason can climb higher than his brother (can).
Shes better in school than I (am).
I type faster than my friend (does).
We speak Spanish better than they (do).
I type faster than she (does).
I type faster than her.

explanations
Sometimes, the auxiliary verb, for example can, be, or
will, follows the subject after than.
If there is no be or auxiliary verb, you can use do.
In formal English, the subject pronoun follows than. In
informal English, the object pronoun (me, you, him,
her, us, them) follows than.

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Exercise 3.8
Go back to the questions in the Task and underline the comparatives with adverbs.

Expressing similarities and differences


examples
A woman can work as hard as a man.
A man can dance as gracefully as a woman.
He doesnt speak as clearly as I (do).
= I speak more clearly than he (does).
= He speaks less clearly than I (do).

explanations
To show similarities, use as + adverb + as.
To show differences, use not as + adverb + as.

Exercise 3.9
Sally and Bill are applying for a job as director of an art company. Decide who is better for the
job. Make comparative statements about each person.
EXAMPLE:

Sally works as hard as Bill.


Bill draws better than Sally/Sally doesnt draw as well as Bill.
Work habits
Sally
Bill
1.
works hard
X
X
2.
draws well
X
3.
thinks creatively
X
X
4.
communicates openly
X
5.
plans carefully
X
6.
works well with others
X
X
7.
acts calmly in emergencies
X
8.
solves problems fairly
X
9.
writes clearly
X
X
10.
works fast
X

Exercise 3.10
Imagine you are the president of the art company. You want to compare Sally and Bill. Write
some questions to ask about them.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.

Does Sally work as hard as Bill?


Does Bill draw better than Sally?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 3.11
Answer these questions in writing before you read the text below:
1.
2.

438

Do you think boys and girls grow up differently?


__________________________________________________________________
In what ways do they grow up differently?
__________________________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

3.
4.

Do you think boys and girls talk to each other differently?


__________________________________________________________________
In what ways do you think boys and girls play differently?
__________________________________________________________________

Boys and girls grow up in different worlds. Research studies show that boys and girls act very
differently. For example, when boys and girls play, they dont play together. Some of their activities are
similar, but their favourite games are different. Also, the language they use in games is different.
Boys usually play outside in large groups. The group has a leader. The leader gives orders.
There are winners and losers in boys games. Boys frequently brag about how good they are at
something and argue about who is the best.
Girls, on the other hand, play in small groups or pairs. The most important thing for a girl is her
best friend. Closeness is very important to girls. Girls like to sit together and talk. In their games, like
jump rope, everyone gets a turn. In many of their activities, such as playing together with their dolls,
there are no winners or losers. Girls dont brag about how good they are at something. They dont give
orders. They usually make suggestions.
Does this text say the same things you said in your answers? What information is the same?
What information is different
Exercise 3.12
With the information from the reading, check True or False for the statements below.
True
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

False

Boys and girls play differently.


Boys and girls usually play with each other.
Girls act more aggressively than boys.
Girls play more competitively than boys do.
Boys brag about how good they are at something more frequently than girls.
Girls talk to each other more intimately than boys do.
Girls give suggestions more frequently than boys.
Boys play more cooperatively than girls do.
Exercise 3.13
Write statements to compare boys and girls. Use more/less/as as.
EXAMPLE:

1. build things more creatively


Boys build things more creatively than girls.
Girls build things as creatively as boys (do).

2.

score high on math tests

3.

run fast

4.

act aggressively

5.

act independently

6.

learn languages easily

_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


7.

solve problems peacefully

8.

make friends quickly

9.

study hard

10.

express feelings openly

_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

FOCUS 4
SUPERLATIVES
Task: General Knowledge Quiz. Check the correct answer.
1.

What is the largest ocean?


a. Pacific
b. Atlantic

2.

Whats the most valuable painting in the world?


a. Van Goghs Sunflowers
b. Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa
c. Rembrandts Self Portrait

3.

Whats the most widely spoken language in the world?


a. English
b. Spanish
c. Chinese

4.

Whats the hottest place in the world?


a. Libya
b. Israel

5.

Whats the tallest office building in the world?


a. the Sears Tower, Chicago
b. the World Trade Center, New York
c. the Petronas Tower, Kuala Lumpur

6.

Whats the most crowded city in the world?


a. Shanghai
b. Mexico City

c. Indian

c. Ethiopia

c. Tokyo

7.

Whats the most expensive university in the United States?


a. Harvard
b. Yale
c. M.I.T.

8.

Whats the wettest place in the world?


a. Hawaii
b. India

c. Jamaica

9.

Whats the most nutritious fruit?


a. banana
b. avocado

c. orange

10.

Whats the hardest gem?


a. ruby
b. diamond

emerald

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Superlatives
examples
The tallest building in the world is the Petronas Tower.
The least expensive food on the menu is a
hamburger.
Rosa writes the most carefully of all.
Dr. Demeter is the most respected teacher at the
school.
M.I.T. is the most expensive university in the United
States.
Helen performs the best of all the dancers.

explanations
Superlatives compare one thing or person to
all the others in a group.
Use prepositional phrases after superlatives
to identify the group.

Exercise 3.14
Go back to the opening task. Underline all the superlative forms in the questions.
EXAMPLE:

What is the largest ocean?

Regular and irregular superlative forms


Regular forms
examples
The Sears Tower in Chicago is the
tallest building in the United
States.
My grandfather worked the
hardest of his three brothers.
Jupiter is the largest planet.
I get up the latest in my family.
The hottest place in the world is
Ethiopia.

The easiest subject for me is


geography.
She arrived the earliest.
The most nutritious fruit is the
avocado.
The least expensive food on the
menu is a hamburger.
Of all his friends, he drives the
most carefully.
She danced the least gracefully of
all the students.

adjective/
adverb
tall

superlative form
the tallest

hard

the hardest

large

the largest

late
hot

the latest
the hottest

easy

the easiest

early

the earliest

nutritious

the most nutritious

expensive

the least expensive

carefully

the most carefully

gracefully

the least gracefully

rule
One-syllable adjectives or
adverbs: the +
adjective/adverb +
-est.
Adjectives/Adverbs
ending in e: add
st.
One-syllable adjectives,
ending in consonantvowel-consonant: double
the final consonant, add
est.
Two-syllable
adjectives/adverbs ending
in y: change y to i:
add est.
Adjectives/adverbs with
two or more syllables: use
the + most/least.

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Irregular forms
examples
The college has the
best professors.
That was the worst
movie I saw last year.
He ran the farthest.

adjective
good

adverb
well

superlative
the best

bad

badly

the worst

far

far

the farthest

Exercise 3.15
How much de you know about the country of Canada? Match the information in the two
columns below. The first one has been done for you as an example.
_C_
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___

1. the longest river


2. the tallest mountain
3. the longest waterfall
4. the largest lake
5. the biggest city
6. the tallest building
7. the oldest city
8. the highest government official
9. the town that is the farthest north
10. the earliest European explorer
11. the biggest trading partner

A. Quebec
B. the Prime Minister
C. the Milk River
D. the CN tower
E. Mount Logan
F. Toronto
G. the United States
H. Alert, the Northwest Territories
I. Lake Superior
J. Della Falls
K. Jacques Cartier

Exercise 3.16
Here are some interesting facts from the Guinness Book of World Records. Write the
superlative form of the adjective/adverb in parentheses in the blanks.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

442

(cold)

Antarctica is the coldest place on earth.

_________________ (large) cucumber weighed sixty-six pounds.


_________________ (popular) tourist attraction in the United States is Disney-world in Florida.
_________________ (successful) pop group of all time is the Beatles.
_________________ (heavy) baby at birth was a boy of twenty-two pounds eight ounces. He
was born in Italy in 1955.
_________________ (fat) person was a man in New York City. He weighed almost 1,200
pounds.
_________________ (prolific) painter was Pablo Picasso. He produced about 13,500 paintings,
100,000 prints, 34,000 book illustrations, and 300 sculptures.
_________________ (long) attack of hiccups lasted sixty-seven years.
_________________ (big) omelette was made of 54,763 eggs with 531 pounds of cheese in
Las Vegas, Nevada in 1986.
_________________ (hot) city in the United States is Key West, Florida.
Mexico City is now the worlds _________________ (fast) growing city.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

One of the + superlative + plural noun


examples
(a) Bach was one of the greatest
composers of all time.
(b) He is one of the least popular students
in the school.

explanation
One of the + superlative + plural noun is common
with the superlative form. Example (a) means that
there are several composers we think of as the
greatest composers of all time. Bach is one of them.

Exercise 3.17
Fill in the blanks with one of the + superlative + plural noun. Use the words in parentheses.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Thats one of the most expensive cars you can buy. (expensive car)
In my opinion, wrestling is ________________________________ you can play. (exciting
sport)
That was ________________________________ of my life. (proud moment)
That was ________________________________ in the city. (expensive hotel)
Drinking and driving is ________________________________ you can do. (bad thing)
The chocolate ice cream is ________________________________ on the menu. (good desert)
Dr. Jones is ________________________________ in the hospital. (fine doctor)
Louis Armstrong was ________________________________ in America. (great jazz
musicians)
This is ________________________________ in the museum. (beautiful sculpture)
Sergei Grinkov, the Olympic ice skater, died in 1995. He was twenty-nine years old. This was
________________________________ in the history of ice skating. (tragic death)
Exercise 3.18
Make sentences with one of the + superlative + plural noun.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

1. Prague is one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

a beautiful city in the world


__________________________________________________________
an interesting place ( in the city you are living in)
__________________________________________________________
a good restaurant (in the city you are in)
__________________________________________________________
a famous leader in the world today
__________________________________________________________
a dangerous disease of our time
__________________________________________________________
a serious problem in the world
__________________________________________________________
a popular food (in the country you come from)
__________________________________________________________
a funny show on television
__________________________________________________________

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Exercise 3.19
Using the information from Exercise 3.15, write five sentences about Canada.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The Milk River is the longest river in Canada.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 3.20
Think of all the people you know. Write the name of a person who is at the top of the group next
to each category. Write a sentence with the correct form of the superlative. Be careful to spell the
superlative correctly.
EXAMPLES:

tall / Jim
Jim is the tallest.
OR

writes neatly / Diane


Diane writes the most neatly.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

silly
sleepy
runs quickly
helpful
sleeps lightly
pleasant
heavy
busy
sad
drives slowly
good musician
graceful dancer
has blue eyes
works hard

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Exercise 3.21
Do the same as in Exercise 3.20, except this time write the name of a person who is at the
bottom of the group next to each category.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

444

bad writer
shy
interesting
busy
sings badly

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Reading Digest 4
Crime Wave

Exercise 4.1
A. Match the crimes in the box with their definitions 1-10.
burglary
murder

mugging
minor offences

forgery
shoplifting

robbery
theft

assault
kidnapping

1 stealing from shops while they are open


2 killing someone intentionally
3 stealing objects in general
4 breaking into buildings to steal things
5 attacking and hurting someone physically
6 making false documents
7 attacking someone and stealing from them in the street
8 stealing money from banks, etc.
9 taking someone prisoner and demanding money for their release
10 crimes such as illegal parking, speeding, etc.
false.

B. Look at these statements about crimes in Britain, and say whether you think they are true or

1 Most crimes involve possessions and not people.


2 Most criminals make enough money from crime to live on.
3 Most criminals follow careful plans.
4 Most criminals are young people.
5 Most criminals give up crime after a few years.
6 Most crimes are the result of carelessness.
7 20% of drivers never lock their cars.
8 70% of house burglaries are through open doors or windows.
C. Now read the extract about crime prevention below and see if you were right.
1. Crime, as we are all aware, has been a growing problem all over the world in the last 30 years. But
we are not powerless against crime. Much is being done - and can be done - to reverse the trend. You
can play a part in it.
2. The first step towards preventing crime is understanding its nature. Most crime is against property,
not people. And most is not carried out by professionals; nor is it carefully planned. Property crimes
thrive on the easy opportunity. They are often committed by adolescents and young men, the majority of
whom stop offending as they grow older-the peak ages for offending are 15-18. Also, and not
surprisingly, the risk of crime varies greatly depending on where you live.
3. This reliance by criminals on the easy opportunity is the key to much crime prevention. Motor cars, for
example, are a sitting target for the criminal. Expensive, attractive and mobile, they are often left out on
the streets for long periods at a time. The police estimate that 70-90 per cent of car crime results from
easy opportunities. Surveys have shown that approximately one in five drivers do not always bother to
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secure their cars by locking all the doors and shutting all the windows. It's the same story with our
homes. In approximately 30 percent of domestic burglaries, the burglar simply walks in without needing
to use force; the householder has left a door unlocked or window open.
4. If opportunities like these did not exist, criminals would have a much harder time. The chances are
that many crimes would not be committed at all, which would in turn release more police time for
tackling serious crime. Of course, the primary responsibility for coping with crime rests with the police
and the courts. But there are many ways that you can help reverse the trend. So if you care about
improving the quality of life for yourself, your family and your community, read on ...

D. Choose the sentences from the list A-E which best summarise each part of the text 1-4
above. Then is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
A We make it easy for them.
B What to do to make your house safer.
C Let's work together against crime.
D How to reduce the number of crimes.
E Who steals what.
VOCABULARY
Crimes and criminals
Exercise 4.2
A. Complete the following table:
Verb
to steal
to rob
to
to commit
an offence
to
to murder
to
to shoplift
to kidnap

Noun
(crime)
robbery
burglary

Noun
(person)
thief
burglar

offence
mugging
murder
forgery

mugger
forger
shoplifter
kidnapper

B. Now put the correct form of one of the words into each of these sentences.
1 The police are looking for a gang which got away with 20,000 in a bank ______________
2 She came home to find her house had been _________ and her car _______________ .
3 A _____________ broke into the school at night and took two video players.
4 Police are very concerned about the increase in _______________ from parked cars.
5 The ________________ knocked him to the ground and ran off with his briefcase.
6 I shouted 'Stop! _______________ !'as the man ran off down the street with my bag.
7 When the bank ____________ was arrested by the police, they found a shotgun in the back of his car.
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8 Big stores in the city centre have reported a 25% increase in _____________ this winter.
9 The bank checks all notes in a machine which can detect ______________ .
10 She had committed a number of minor ___________ before robbing the post office.
Exercise 4.3
A. Read this magazine article about burglaries. Seven sentences have been removed from the
article. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap 1-7. There is one extra
sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
SOMEONE IS BURGLED EVERY TWO MINUTES IN THE UK
0
D
A burglar can enter your home, grab the most valuable portable items - and escape. Often these fast
raids happen while the owner is at home, perhaps in another part of the house or in the garden, leaving
the front door or a window open. Or they may have just gone out to pick up the children from school and
thought it 'wasn't worth' the trouble of shutting and locking the windows for that short time. The fact is
that the majority ~ of burglaries occur between 2 p.m. and 5.30 p.m. on a weekday.
1
Your call will show up on a screen at the local police station and an officer should be with you within
minutes.
If you see or hear obvious signs of entry (noises inside, jammed front door, or the door locked from the
inside), and suspect the burglar may still be in the building, don't enter. Make your emergency call from
a phone box or from a neighbour's house.
If you are sure the burglar has gone, call your local police station rather than the emergency number.
Ideally have the number readily to hand near the phone.
Dont destroy evidence. The police will take an impression of a damaged door, to check against
records of tool marks. They may also take finger and footprints, in an attempt to link the crime with
known burglars or suspects.
2
Walk around the edge of carpets as much as possible - dust impressions of the burglar's shoe marks
can be lifted and identified by special forensic techniques. The fingerprint powder the scene-of-crime
officers will use can normally be removed later from work tops and everyday glass and china by
washing in warm, mild detergent.
3
Ask the officers not to dust any delicate furniture or possessions if you think the powder may affect them
in any way.
4
You will need this for the police and for any insurance claim. It will help you if you have already taken
photographs and written a description of your most valuable items - such as jewellery, video, CD player
and CDs, hi-fi, camera, mobile phone and computer, including any detail of manufacturer and model
numbers. Items you have marked with your post code and house number will be easier for the police to
return to you if they are found.
5
If you rent, the landlord should arrange these for you. House-owners must make their own
arrangements. Your insurance company may have emergency numbers for local tradesmen. Otherwise,
contact 24-hour carpenters and locksmiths through recommendations or Yellow Pages. Your building
insurance policy should cover the cost of repairs; remember to keep receipts.

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6
Ideally, you'll have previously made and hidden a list of emergency numbers to ring with your bank
account number and the numbers of the cards themselves.
7
The police may arrange for a Crime Prevention Officer to call who can give free advice on such
measures as security locks, timing light switches and alarm systems, and may recommend reliable firms
who can install them. Remember that opportunist thieves are always on the lookout for signs that a
property is vulnerable, so make sure you don't advertise the fact that your house is empty. There's
plenty of information available these days on how to prevent it happening to you - so make sure you
take precautionary steps now, before it's too late.
A Tell your bank or credit card company as soon as possible.
B Make a list of the stolen items.
C Avoid touching anything the burglar may have touched.
D Just 30 seconds can be all it takes.
E Prevent it happening again.
F Knowing what to do if you are a victim has become a necessity.
G Ring the police if you think the burglar is still around.
H Arrange for emergency repairs once the police give you the all clear.
I Most furniture can be cleaned with a good quality furniture polish.
B. Find words or phrases in the passage that mean:
take quickly
easy to carry
collect

appear
in a convenient place
connect

easily damaged
things you own
maker

which you can trust


put in
easy to attack

Exercise 4.4
Read the passage quickly and find out what these numbers refer to:
460,000

20

1/4

Apart from your home, your car is probably your most valuable possession. It's also your most
vulnerable.

Keeping your car safe

Car thefts and thefts from cars -typically of radios and cassette players - account for over a quarter of all
recorded crime. Together they impose costs on everyone -the cost of the police time taken up in dealing
with the offences, the cost of taking offenders through the criminal justice system, and the cost to
motorists of increased insurance premiums.
Over 460,000 cars are reported missing in Britain each year and many of these are never recovered.
Many of those which are found have been damaged by the thieves. A stolen car is also far more likely to
be involved in an accident than the same car driven by its owner; car thieves are often young and
sometimes drunk.
Yet car crime can be cut drastically if motorists follow a few simple rules to keep thieves out of their cars
in the first place.
Most car thieves are opportunist unskilled petty criminals; many are under 20. So make your own car a
less inviting target, to discourage thieves from trying.

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Exercise 4.5
Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in
each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Quick as a flash!
Some villagers (0) who
wanted to protect a rare bird's nest have finally solved (1) _________
mystery of the disappearing eggs. (2) _______ the last three years, a pair of rare birds has built a nest
near the village of Sawton and every year the eggs (3) __________ vanished.
Last year, the villagers suspected thieves (4) __________ stealing the rare eggs and selling (5)
________ on the black market. This year, organised by local bird-watcher Margery Thisk, they (6)
___________ weeks guarding the nest-site. They installed a burglar alarm and kept watch (7)
__________ a powerful video camera. (8) __________ all their careful precautions, they found the eggs
missing again.
However, the video recording has been (9) __________ to identify the thief, who is Mrs Thisk's black
and white pet cat called Flash.
'We were watching the video playback (10) __________ Flash suddenly appeared and ran (11)
__________ with one of the eggs' said a red-faced Mrs Thisk.
(12) ___________ year, the villagers plan to fix a cat scarer to the tree (13) ___________ the birds build
their nest. This machine makes a very high-pitched noise (14) ___________ birds and people cannot
hear, but cats can and they do not like the noise (15) ______________ all.

Exercise 4.6
Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some
have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct put a tick (9) . If a line has a word which
should not be there, write the word in the space on the right. There are two examples at the
beginning (0) and (00).

Car crime
Apart from your home, your car is probably
your most valuable with possession.
Over 460,000 of cars are reported missing in
the Britain each year and many of those are
never to recovered. Many of those which are found
have been damaged by thieves. A stolen car
which is also far more likely to be involved
in an accident than the same a car driven
by its owner; car thieves are often young and
sometimes its drunk.
Yet car crime can be to cut drastically if
motorists follow a few by simple rules to keep
thieves out of their cars in the first place.
Most them car thieves are opportunist unskilled
petty criminals; many are under twenty age. So,
make your own car is a less inviting target,
to discourage thieves from go trying.

0 _______9 ________
00 _____ with _______
1 _________________
2 _________________
3 _________________
4 _________________
5 _________________
6 _________________
7 _________________
8 _________________
9 _________________
10 ________________
11 ________________
12 ________________
13 ________________
14 ________________
15 ________________
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Exercise 4.7
Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that
fits in the space on the same line. See the example at the beginning (0).

Technology and crime


Modern (0) technological advances have led to great changes
in police work. Whilst computer (1)_________ are important
in allowing the police to store efficiently the (2) ____________
they need, computer technology has also helped (3) ____________ ,
particularly those making (4) ____________ of banknotes
and other documents.
The police can no longer rely on (5) ____________ and
other more traditional methods of (6) _____________ . They
have to keep up to date with (7) ___________ in many
fields. For example, the (8) _____________ of the cordless
electric drill left them (9) ______________ against robbers of
telephone boxes.
The police now devote more time to the (10) ____________
of crime, by giving advice to motorists and householders
about how to protect their possessions.

TECHNOLOGY
NET
INFORM
CRIME
FORGE
FINGER
DETECT
DEVELOP
INVENT
POWER
PREVENT

Grammar Digest 4
Should, Ought to, Had Better, Could, and Must
Expressing Degree: Too, Enough, Very
FOCUS 1
EXPRESSING OPINIONS, BELIEFS AND ADVICE
Examples
In my opinion, more men should/ought to
teach in elementary schools.
In Aaron's opinion, women should not
drive cars.
Any kind of change should be introduced
gradually and slowly.
You ought to learn how to make them feel
at home.

explanations
To show you think something is a good idea or that it is
right for people to do, you can use should or ought to:
To show something is a bad idea or that it is not right for
people to do, you can use should not (shouldnt):
Should/should not and ought to/ought not are used to
express the speakers opinion about a situation.
Therefore, they are also usually used when you need to
give advice to somebody.

Should and Ought To


examples
explanations
She should be a doctor.
Should and ought to are modal auxiliaries. They do not take
-s in the third person singular:
He ought to work with children.
Should we go? No, you shouldnt.
Questions and negatives are made without do.
Ought to is rarely used in questions and negatives.
It is important to remember that should does not take to.
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Exercise 4.1
Many self-help books are published every year all over the world. These books give people
advice on what they should do in order to improve their lives in specific ways. Look at the list of book
titles and the extracts below. Match each extract to the book you think it probably comes from.
BOOK TITLES

A.
B.
C.
D.

How to Stay Married for a Long Time


Caring for a Neurotic Cat
How to Dress For Success
Getting along with Your Coworkers

E.
F.
G.
H.

Lose 30 Kilos in 30 Days


Live Longer, Eat Better
How to Attract Women
Ways to Save the Planet

EXTRACTS

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

You should not try to surprise him or her. Any kind of change should be introduced gradually
and slowly. Take things slowly, and he or she will soon be happy to accept whatever you
propose.
As an important first step, you really ought to eliminate red meat. This may be hard at first, but
you will be amazed at how many healthy alternatives exist.
Honesty is not always the best policy. In some situations, you should not say exactly what you
think; the truth might cause more trouble than it is worth. For example, you should try to be
tactful and diplomatic when called upon to settle an argument, by trying to show that you value
both points of view.
Learn to cook! You ought to learn some unusual and exotic dishes that you can prepare in
advance. Pretend that it was easy and effortless to prepare so you can focus your attention on
her and not on the meal. Wait for her to compliment you and your skill as a chef. Remember
you should never beg for compliments!
Organize the people in your office! The officer manager ought to arrange special bins for
different types of paper, for bottles, and for cans. Make everybody at work feel they have a part
to play.
You should never settle into a regular routine. Surprise each other with fun activities, like picnics
after work and moonlight barbecues on the beach.
You should try to motivate yourself to keep going on. Buy a dress that is just a little bit too small
and hang it in your closet. You should look at it every day and dream of the day when it will
really fit you.
You should not draw attention to yourself. Choose conservative but becoming styles because
you ought to look competent and professional at all times.

Exercise 4.2
Ask Gabby Advice columns appear frequently in all kinds of magazines. Readers write and
ask for advice about problems they are having. Write four sentences to the following people who are
having problems. Use should, should not, or ought to to express your opinions.
Dear Gabby,
I moved to Canada from Romania three years ago. My mom says that I am forgetting
my Romanian heritage and Im acting too much like a Canadian because I like curling and
playing hockey with my friends. Im not trying to be disrespectful to my mom. I just want to be
like the other kids. What should I do?
Sincerely,
On Thin Ice in Calgary

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


1.
2.
3.

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Dear Gabby,
I work all day as a cashier in a department store. When I come home my husband
expects me to make his dinner and clean the house. Not only that, but my husband is a slob.
When he comes home from work, he leaves his clothes all over and then just sits in front of the
TV and drinks beer. What should I do?
Sincerely,
Worn Out
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Dear Gabby,
Im a 25-year-old construction worker. I am very dissatisfied with my job. Ive always
wanted to help people. Id like to study nursing, but all my friends say nursing is womens work.
What should I do?
Sincerely,
A Fish Out of Water
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.

FOCUS 2
SHOULD vs. MUST
examples
A: I cant sleep at night.
B: You should drink a glass of milk before you
go to bed.
A: I dont have a drivers license.
B: You must get a license before you drive.

explanations
Should shows that something is a good idea.
In this example, B is giving advice, but A is not
obliged to follow that advice. A is free to do what
she or he pleases.
Must is much stronger.
In this situation B is giving advice, but it is obligatory
for A to follow the advice. A is not free to do what
she or he pleases.

Exercise 4.3
Oscar has just bought a used car. Complete the following, using should, shouldnt, or must, as
you feel appropriate.
1. He ____________________ get insurance as soon as possible.
2. He ____________________ take it to a reliable mechanic and have it checked.
3. He ____________________ get registration.
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4. He ____________________ drive without insurance.


5. He ____________________ drink and drive.
6. He ____________________ wear a seat belt.
7. He ____________________ lock the doors when he parks the car.
8. He ____________________ keep a spare key in a safe place.
Exercise 4.4
Rene wants to be a doctor. Complete the following, using should, shouldnt, or must as
appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

She should learn how to read X rays.

She ________________ get high grades in college.


She ________________ like biology.
She ________________ study for at least seven years.
She ________________ find some friends who also want to be doctors so they ca support each
other and study together.
She ________________ apply for a scholarship.
She ________________ be afraid of blood.
She ________________ like to help people.
She ________________ be able to work long hours.
She ________________ take the Hippocratic Oath (a promise to follow a code of medical
ethics).
She ________________ work well under pressure.
She ________________ smoke cigarettes while examining a patient.

FOCUS 3
HAD BETTER
examples
You had better finish this tomorrow.
I had better leave now.
He had better pay me for this.
Youd better leave me alone.
Youd better not leave me alone.
You had better not finish this late.

explanations
Had better refers to the present and the future. It
does not refer to the past, even though it is formed
with had.
Had is often contracted to d.
To form the negative, use had better not.

Exercise 4.5
Victors mother nags him about how he acts, and tells him something bad will happen if he
doesnt follow her advice. Victor is on his way to college. This will be the first time he is away from
home. His mother cant resist telling him things he had better do at college one last time. Complete the
sentences using the cues given with had better, d better, had better not, or d better not.
EXAMPLE:

(write a letter) You had better write a letter once a week or Ill come there and
visit you.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

(study hard)
___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(wash your clothes)
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(eat unhealthy food)
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(make me proud)
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(fail any classes)
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(pay the tuition money back)
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(stay out late) ___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(remember how hard you worked to go to college)
_____________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(stay out of trouble)
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
(leave now)
___________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 4
SHOULD and OUGHT TO vs. HAD BETTER
examples
You should go to school tomorrow. (I think its a
good idea for you to do this.)
You had better go to school tomorrow. (If you
dont go, something bad will happen.)

explanations
You can also use had better to give advice. Had
better is much stronger than should and ought to,
but not as strong as must. In the examples
opposite, had better suggests that there will be a
negative result if you do not follow the advice.

You should see a doctor about that. (Its a good


idea.)
Had better also expresses more urgency than
You had better see a doctor about that. (Its
should.
urgent.)
You must see a doctor about that. (Its obligatory.)
Teacher to student: If you want to pass this class,
you had better finish all your assignments.
Had better is often used in situations in which the
Student to teacher: If you come to my country, you speaker has power or authority over the hearer.
should visit Braov.
In situations in which there is a power difference between speaker and hearer, had better sounds like
an order or a command. Therefore, if you are not sure about the relationship between the speaker and
the listener, it is always safe to use should or ought to.

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Exercise 4.6
Giving stronger advice: Complete the following pairs of sentences with should, ought to, or had
better.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Mother to daughter: You should wear a warm jacket, or youll catch a cold.

Parent to child: You ________________ eat your vegetables, or you wont get any desert!
One friend to another: You ________________ eat vegetables if you want to be healthy.
Teacher to student: You ________________ get a good grade on the final exam or youll fail
this class.
One student to another: I agree we ________________ study, but Im ready for a break.
Worker to co-worker: To impress the boss, you ________________ wear a tie to work.
Boss to worker: You ________________ be on time every day if you want to keep your job!
Travel agent to tourist: You ________________ leave home early or youll miss your flight,
because there is a lot of traffic at that time.
One tourist to another: You ________________ visit the pyramids; they are a marvellous
example of ancient architecture.
Exercise 4.7
Write a sentence using should, ought to, or had better for each of the following situations:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Father to son: ____________________________________________________________


Student to teacher: ________________________________________________________
Doctor to patient: _________________________________________________________
Mechanic to car owner: ____________________________________________________
Exercise 4.8
Circle the best response in the following:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

You (should not/must not) smoke when you are in a movie theatre.
While you are in Los Angeles, you (had better/should) try to visit Disneyland.
In Romania, people under the age of 18 (should not/must not) purchase alcohol.
Children (should/had better) wear helmets when they ride their bicycles.
Look, the bus is coming! We (should/had better) run if we want to catch it.
Everybody who comes into the United States (must/should) show a valid passport or I.D.
Ive just spilled coffee on the new rug. I (should/had better) clean it up right away before it
stains.
Professor Katz gets really angry when students chew gum in class. You (had better/should) get
rid of your gum before we get to class.
Tourists visiting my hometown in the spring (had better/should) bring cameras, as its very
beautiful at that time of the year.
My brother is looking for a new girlfriend. He (must/should) take cooking classes, and maybe
hell meet someone there.
Exercise 4.9
Complete the following with should, ought to, must, or had better as necessary.

1.

Elena:
Patsy:

How can I register to take the examination?


First you ____________________ complete this application form.

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2.

Monica:
Kate:

3.

Vlad:
Advisor:

4.

Herbert:
Eleanor:
Claudia:
Andrew:
Doctor:
Mother:
Calvin:
Mother:

5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.

Carmen:
Carol:
Debbie:
James:
Louis:

I want to make a good impression when I go to England, but Im not sure how
to do that.
I think you ____________________ take every opportunity to practice your
English.
Im sorry I havent been coming to class recently.
You ____________________ start attending regularly if you want to stay in this
program.
I think Im getting the flu.
You ____________________ go to bed and drink plenty of orange juice.
Ive lost my credit card.
You ____________________ report it immediately.
You ____________________ take these pills four times a day.
Time for bed!
Just five more minutes.
No! You ____________________ come here at once or else I wont read you a
bed time story.
Id love to visit Poland.
Well, first of all, you ____________________ get a special visa.
Ive got a sore throat.
You ____________________ try not to talk too much.
You ____________________ clean up your room immediately. If you dont,
there will be trouble.

FOCUS 5
SHOULD vs. COULD
examples
You should see that movie. (I think it is a good
idea for you to see it.)
You could see that movie. (It is possible for you to
see that movie if you want to.)

explanations
You can also use could to express opinions or to
give advice. However, could is much weaker
than should because it only expresses possible
options or possibilities for action in a situation; it
does not show that the speaker necessarily
thinks this a good idea or that it is right.
If you want to improve your Spanish you could We often use could when we want to suggest all
take classes, you could listen to Spanish- the possibilities that are available to somebody,
speaking stations on the radio, you could find a without saying which one we think is best.
conversation partner, or you could take a vacation
in Spain.
Exercise 4.10
Look at the following situation and respond to the questions below:
A woman went shopping. First she bought a large piece of cheese. Then she stopped at a pet
store to buy a white mouse for her nephews birthday. Just as she was leaving the store, she saw an
adorable black and white cat. She couldnt leave the store without it, so she bought the cat as well.
Unfortunately, her car was parked a long way from the pet shop, and she could only carry one
thing at a time. Also, there were no parking areas near the pet store, so she couldnt move her car, and
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there is nobody around to help her. Unfortunately, cats eat mice and mice eat cheese. This means that
if she left the cat with the mouse, the cat would eat the mouse and if she left the mouse with the cheese,
the mouse would eat the cheese.
What should the woman do? What could she do in order to get everything to the car? Can you
find more than one solution to the problem? Which is the best solution?
She should __________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Exercise 4.11
It is the week before the final exams and Victoria and Melanie are trying to decide what they are
going to do today. Complete the following dialogue using should or could as appropriate. The first one
has been done for you as an example.
Victoria:
Melanie:
Victoria:
Melanie:
Victoria:
Melanie:
Victoria:
Melanie:
Victoria:
Melanie:
Victoria:
Melanie:
Victoria:

We should study for the biology exam.


I know we (1) ____________________, but its such a beautiful day. (2)
____________________ we go to the beach? We (3) ____________________ invite
those cute guys who live in the next dorm.
Sure, and we (4) ____________________ go swimming.
Yeah, we (5) ____________________ play volleyball and get a great tan.
I know we (6) ____________________ get some hamburgers and have a barbecue!
But if we go to the beach I (7) ____________________ buy a new bathing suit,
because mine is getting old.
OK, you get a new bathing suit and Ill get the food.
Well, if were going to have a barbecue, you (8) ____________________ get some
more meat and we (9) ____________________ buy some charcoal.
Wait, do you have any money?
No.
Im broke too.
So, what (10) ____________________ we do?
We (11) ____________________ study for the biology exam.

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FOCUS 6
SHOULD and OUGHT TO vs. COULD, HAD BETTER,
and MUST
Although all these modal auxiliaries express opinions and give advice, they express different degrees of
strength:
WEAK
could
should/ought to
had better
must
STRONG
Exercise 4.12
For each of the following situations, use the words should (not), ought to, could, must, or had
better (not) with the phrases given. There are many possible answers to each question. The first one
has been done for you.
David is getting a drivers license.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.

458

have an accident
He had better not have an accident while taking the road test.

bring a passport or birth certificate


_______________________________________________________________________
fail the written test
_______________________________________________________________________
be nervous
_______________________________________________________________________
practice parallel parking
_______________________________________________________________________
Angelica is registering for college classes.
get her advisors signature
_______________________________________________________________________
register early
_______________________________________________________________________
find out about the instructors
_______________________________________________________________________
Its my mothers birthday.
remember to buy her a gift
_______________________________________________________________________
bake a cake
_______________________________________________________________________
remind my father
_______________________________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.

Ben and Sara are writing term papers.


start researching immediately
_______________________________________________________________________
type the paper
_______________________________________________________________________
turn the paper in late
_______________________________________________________________________
David is getting sick.
call the doctor
_______________________________________________________________________
get some rest
_______________________________________________________________________
take some aspirin
_______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 4.13

For each problem of the following situations, use the modals to give advice to the person with
the problem.
EXAMPLE:

Joes wife snores and keeps him awake at night.


(should)
He should make a tape recording of her snoring so that she
will believe him.
(could)
Joe could sleep in another room.

1.
2.

Matthew plays the guitar. He wants to be a rock musician.


(had better)
___________________________________________________________
(could) _________________________________________________________________

3.
4.

Bill got a speeding ticket.


(should) ___________________________________________________________
(must) _________________________________________________________________

5.
6.

Christie has to tell her boyfriend she lost the necklace he gave her.
(ought to)
___________________________________________________________
(could) _________________________________________________________________

7.
8.

Geraldine forgot where she put her car keys.


(had better)
___________________________________________________________
(could) _________________________________________________________________

9.
10.

Davids water pipes broke and there is water all over the kitchen.
(must) _________________________________________________________________
(had better)
___________________________________________________________

11.
12.

Lori lost her credit cards.


(must) _________________________________________________________________
(should) ___________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 7
EXPRESSING DEGREE: TOO, ENOUGH, VERY
Expressing sufficiency, insufficiency, and excess
examples
There are enough closets.
The apartment is big enough for both of us.

explanations
Enough expresses sufficiency; it shows you have as much
as you need and that you do not need any more. Also,
enough suggests a positive feeling about the situation.
There are not enough windows in this Not enough expresses insufficiency; it shows you do not
have all that is necessary or desirable for doing
apartment. (I want more windows.)
something. Not enough expresses a negative feeling
The bedroom is not big enough.
about the situations.
(I want a bigger bedroom.)
The rent is too high.
(EXCESS: The rent is more than I want to
pay.)
The kitchen is too small.
(INSUFFICIENCY: It is less than I want. I want
Too expresses excess (more than you want or need) or
something bigger.)
insufficiency (less than you want or need), depending on
This coffee is too hot.
the meaning of the word that follows. In most contexts, too
(I cant drink it.)
suggests a negative feeling about the situation.
He speaks too quickly.
(I cant understand him.)
She is too young to drink.
(She cant drink alcohol here.)
Exercise 4.14
Can you find an appropriate cause for the following problems?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

PROBLEM
My feet really hurt.
Im broke!
I failed my math test.
Ive gained a lot of weight recently.
I never feel hungry at mealtimes.
I cant sleep at night.
I have a sore throat.
This soup is tasteless.
My neighbours are always angry with me.
My teeth hurt.

CAUSE
a. You dont go to the dentists often enough.
b. Maybe you shouted too much at the ball game.
c. You didnt add enough salt.
d. Perhaps your shoes arent big enough.
e. You spend too much money.
f. Your stereo is too loud.
g. You dont get enough exercise.
h. You eat too many snacks.
i. You drink too much coffee.
j. You didnt study enough.

Exercise 4. 15
The Ganter family has just moved to Nashville. They have three young children. They are
looking for an older house for about $100,000, with at least four bedrooms, two bathrooms, and a large

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yard. Their realtor gave them the description of the following houses. What do you think the Ganters
said about each house? Write enough, not enough, or too as appropriate in the blanks.
Modern, beautiful home with all the conveniences: deluxe dishwasher, washer, dryer, side-byside refrigerator and freezer. Three bedrooms, one bath. Small lot. $100,000.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.

There are not enough bathrooms.

It is _____________________ modern.
There are _____________________ bedrooms.
The yard is _____________________ large _____________________.
It is not _____________________ expensive.
Built in 1926, loaded with space! Large lot. Four large bedrooms, two bathrooms. Old-fashioned
breakfast room and pantry off the kitchen. $75,000.

5.
6.
7.
8.

There are _____________________ bedrooms.


There are _____________________ bathrooms.
The yard is large _____________________.
It is cheap _____________________.
Spacious four-bedroom, two-baths, city house is right in the centre of action right on the
Boulevard. Small yard easy to maintain with a pool. $ 125,000.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

The house is spacious _____________________.


There are _____________________ bathrooms.
The yard is _____________________ small.
The street is _____________________ busy for kids.
It is _____________________ expensive.

Enough and Not Enough


examples
This house is big enough.
He speaks clearly enough.
We have seen enough.
She ate enough.
We have enough money.
There are enough people
here.
Adjective + infinitive:
She is old enough to vote.
Adverb + infinitive:
They studied hard enough to
pass the test.
Verb + infinitive:
We earned enough to buy a
new car.
Noun + infinitive:
I have enough chocolate to
make a cake.

explanations
This house is not big enough.
He does not speak clearly enough.
We have not seen enough.
She did not eat enough.
We do not have enough money.
There are not enough people here

Enough follows adjectives,


adverbs and verbs.
Enough precedes nouns.

She is not old enough to vote.


They didnt study hard enough to
pass the test.
We didnt earn enough to buy a
new car.

Enough can be used with an


adjective, adverb, verb, or
noun followed by an infinitive.

I dont have enough chocolate to


make a cake.
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Too
examples
She is too young.
They work too slowly.
This tea is too hot to drink.
We were too tired to stay at the party.
The book was too difficult for him to
understand.
He walked too fast for the children to keep up.

explanations
Too precedes adjectives and adverbs.
Too + adjective is often followed by an infinitive.
Too + adjective is often followed by for +
noun/pronoun + infinitive.

Exercise 4.16
Complete the following appropriately, using too, enough, or not enough as necessary. There
are many different ways to make meaningful responses in this exercise.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
A:
B:

Why are you wearing so many sweaters?


Because this room is too cold / isnt warm enough.
Does your brother have a cat?
No, hes only 14! Hes _______________________________________________.
Why did they move?
Theyre expecting a baby, and their old house ____________________________.
Would you like some more pie?
No, thanks. Its delicious, but I ________________________________________.
Can you count on your support in next months election?
Im sorry, but I _____________________________. I wont be 18 until next year.
Whats wrong?
My jeans _________________________________________. I cant get them on.
Why dont you buy a new pair?
I dont get paid until next week, so I ____________________________________.
Waiter!
Yes, sir?
We cant eat this. It _________________________________________________.
Let me help you carry that.
Thanks. This suitcase ________________________________________________.

Too Much and Too Many; Too Little and Too Few
examples

explanations
Too + much is used with non-count nouns, whereas
Jack has too much money.
too + many is used with count nouns. Both too much
There are too many students in this class.
and too many express excess, and suggest a negative
feeling about the situation.
There is too little time to finish this.
Too + little is used with non-count nouns and too + few
The class was cancelled because too few is used with count nouns. Too few and too little
express insufficiency, and therefore suggest a
students enrolled.
negative feeling about the situation.

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Exercise 4.17
Read the following and underline all the expressions or phrases that express the idea of
insufficiency. Where possible, replace these with too little or too few as appropriate and change the
verbs as necessary.
My sisters wedding was a disaster. First of all, she decided to get married very suddenly, so
there wasnt enough time to plan it properly. Nevertheless, about 50 of her friends came to the reception
in her studio. Unfortunately, there wasnt enough room for everyone, so it was rather uncomfortable.
She only had a few chairs, and out 96-year-old grandmother had to sit on the floor. My father had
ordered lots of champagne, but there werent enough glasses, so many people didnt get very much to
drink. In addition, we had several problems with the caterers. There wasnt enough cake for everyone,
but there was too much soup! We also had problems with the entertainment. My sister loves Latin
music, so she hired a salsa band; however, it was hard to move in such a small place, and my sister got
upset when not enough people wanted to dance. I got into trouble too. I was the official photographer,
but I didnt bring enough film with me, si now my sister is mad because she only has about ten wedding
photographs and all of them are pictures of people trying to find a place to sit down!

was too little time


Exercise 4.18
Complete the following story with too much, too many, too little, or too few.
Robin:
Mercedes:
Robin:
Mercedes:
Robin:
Mercedes:
Robin:
Mercedes:

Good evening, folks, Robin here with another fascinating episode of Lifestyles of the
Extremely Rich. Were here today with Ms. Mercedes Benz at her fabulous home, San
Coupe, in California. Ms. Benz, may I call you Mercedes?
Certainly, Robin.
Mercedes, do you really have 12 bathrooms here at San Coupe?
Well, yes, Robin. I do have 12 bathrooms. Do you think thats (1) _____________
bathrooms?
No, of course not. But it must take quite a few servants to keep all those bathrooms clean.
Youre right, I never have enough servants. There are always (2) _____________
servants around, and it takes (3) _____________ energy to manage all of them, but I get
by somehow.
Lets talk about the grounds surrounding San Coupe. How much land do you own?
Well, Im just not sure how much land I own, but I know I have (4) _____________ grass
to mow in one day, and I have three swimming pools. Unfortunately, I dont get enough
exercise because I just bought two new cars, and now I have (5) _____________ time to
do much swimming.
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Robin:
How many cars do you own now?
Mercedes: Seven, one for each day of the week. Of course now I have the problem of (6)
_____________ garage space. But, thats what happens when you have (7)
_____________ cars.
Robin:
Can you believe that, folks? Seven cars! Well, we have to go, but Mercedes, I want to
thank you very much for sharing San Coupe with us. I hope we didnt take up (8)
_____________ of your time.
Mercedes: It was my pleasure, Robin. I woman like me can never get (9) _____________ publicity. I
get (10) _____________ opportunities to show off San Coupe.

Too vs. Very


examples

explanations

We often see him.

This writing is small.

Very adds emphasis, but too shows that


something is excessive or more than
She usually doesnt call
This writing is very small. enough. In the second example, the writing
us.
is small, but we can read it; however, in the
third sentence, I cannot read the writing.
They will arrive tomorrow
This
writing
is
too
small.
Therefore, too suggests that you are unable
around midnight.
to do something, but very does not.
Exercise 4.19
Complete the following with too, too + to, or very as appropriate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

464

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
A:
B:
A:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

Are you really going to buy that motorcycle?


Yes, Its very expensive, but I think Ive got enough money in the bank.
Why arent you drinking your tea?
I cant. Its _________ hot _________ drink.
Can I borrow your truck when I move to my new apartment?
Sure.
Thanks! My car is _________ small _________ carry all my stuff.
Can your turn your stereo down?
Why?
Its _________ loud! Weve been trying to get some sleep for about an hour.
Do you need some help?
No, thanks. This is _________ heavy, but I think I can manage by myself.
What do you think of Pats new boyfriend?
Hes _________ quiet, but I like him.
We havent heard from you in ages.
Im sorry. Ive been _________ busy _________ call.
Did you like the movie?
No, it was _________ long.
Do you want to go home now?
No, not yet. Im _________ tired, but I think Ill stay a bit longer.
Hows the water in the pool?
Its _________ cold! Im getting out right now.
Did Brian have fun at the party?
Yes. He seemed to enjoy it _________ much.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

12.

A:
B:

Did Mary decide to rent that apartment?


No, it was _________ small.

Exercise 4.20
Complete the following with very, too, too + to, enough, not enough, or too much/many/little/few
as appropriate.
Dear Tom and Wendy,
Im writing to answer your questions about life in New York. In fact, this is quite hard to do
because my opinions keep changing!
My apartment is nice, but the rent is (1) very high. Luckily, I earn a good salary and I can afford
it. The main problem is that the apartment just is (2) _________ big _________. I had to sell about half
my furniture because I didnt have (3) _________ room for everything. I cant invite people for dinner
because the kitchen is (4) _________ small _________ eat in! Luckily, the apartment has lots of
windows, so all my plants are getting (5) _________ light. I live (6) _________ close to a subway
station; it only takes me a couple of minutes to walk there. However, I never take the subway to work
because its (7) _________ crowded. You wouldnt believe it! There are just (8) _________ people
crammed in like sardines, and you cant breathe because there is (9) _________ air. I havent had the
courage to ride my bike yet because theres just (10) _________ traffic. Mostly I walk everywhere, so
the good news is that I am getting (11) _________ exercise!
Despite all this, there are lots of wonderful things about living here. There are (12) _________
museums and art galleries to keep me happy for years! However, at the moment, I have (13)
_________ time to enjoy them because my job is driving me crazy! Its impossible to get all the work
done because there are (14) _________ projects and (15) _________ good people to work on them. As
a result, I am (16) _________ busy to make new friends or meet people. I dont sleep (17) _________,
and so I am always tired. Worst of all, I dont even have (18) _________ time to stay in touch with dear
old friends like you! Nevertheless, Im certain things will get better soon. Why dont you come and visit?
That would really cheer me up!
Love,
Mary

Tutor-assessed Task 2

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests , 2, 3 and 4.


Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence.
1.

Maureen needed some money yesterday, so she ________ to the bank.


(A) didnt go
(C) was going
(B) has gone
(D) went

2.

________ Maureen was getting cash at an ATM, someone came up behind her and robbed her.
(A) After
(C) Before
(B) As soon as
(D) While

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3.

The thief ________ a T-shirt and blue jeans and had big tattoos all over his arms.
(A) was wearing
(C) wearing
(B) weared
(D) wore

4.

________ she realized what happened, Maureen ran to a phone, called the police, and reported
the crime.
(A) As soon as
(C) During
(B) Before
(D) While

5.

Luckily, she didnt have ________ money.


(A) as much
(C) too little
(B) enough cash
(D) very much

6.

But Maureen still didnt have ________ to buy gas she had to walk home.
(A) cash enough
(C) too much cash
(B) enough cash
(D) very cash

7.

Later, the police told Maureen that she hadnt been ________. The thief had been standing
near the bank and she should have noticed him.
(A) as careful
(C) enough careful
(B) careful enough
(D) less careful

8.

The next day, someone ________ Maureens purse, with all of her identification and credit
cards, in a trash can.
(A) find
(C) was finding
(B) found
(D) was found

9.

Thai food is hotter than Japanese food; by hotter, I mean ________.


(A) as spicy
(C) spicier
(B) less spicy
(D) the spiciest

10.

Its ________ for people who dont like spicy food.


(A) as hot
(C) hotter
(B) hot enough
(D) too hot

11.

It can be spicy hot like Indian food, but ________ as Indian food.
(A) as greasy
(C) more greasy
(B) less greasy
(D) not as greasy

12.

Thai cuisine is ________ and more exotic than heavy French food.
(A) as light
(C) lighter
(B) less light
(D) more light

13.

Like the French chefs, Thai cooks use ________ fresh herbs and spices
(A) enough
(C) too few
(B) many
(D) too many

14.

Sateh was originally Indonesian, but the Indonesian dish isnt ________ as the sateh from
Thailand.
(A) as spicy
(C) quite spicy
(B) less spicy
(D) spicier

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15.

In my opinion, of all the worlds cuisines, Asian cooking is ________.


(A) delicious
(C) most delicious
(B) more delicious
(D) the most delicious
Identify the one underline word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.
16.

North American food, on the other hand, is boring; I think its one of the blander, least
A
B
C
D
imaginative cuisines.

17.

It uses too little spices and fresh herbs and too many canned and frozen ingredients.
A
B
C D

18.

Other cooking around the world uses a much wider variety of herbs and spices than
A
B
C
the English are.
D

19.

North Americans eat a lot of processed and frozen food, which has chemicals and is
not as healthful than diets with more fresh, natural foods.
A
B
C
D

20.

They also eat at fast-food restaurants, which serve greasy food with a lot of calories.
A
Thats part of the reason that North Americans are much fatter and less healthy that
B
C
D
other nationalities.

21.

Not all North Americans eat fast food; some enjoy trying international food very
A
B
much, but to prepare that food at home isnt enough convenient for them.
C
D

22.

Yes, some have started to change their attitude about food, but no enough the
A
B
average North American still eats mashed potatoes, meat loaf, and Hamburger Helper.
C D

23.

If North Americans borrowed more ideas from the cuisines of their various ethnic
A
B
communities, they could have some of a most fascinating cooking in the world.
C D

24.

Yesterday, while they were driving to work, Natasha and her husband, Yury,
A
B
C
were having an accident.
D

25.

While Natasha stepped on the brake, the car that was driving behind them hit their car.
A
B
C
D
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26.
27.

The man who was driving behind them was following too closely for to stop.
A
B
C
D
As soon one of the neighbours saw the accident, he called the police.
A
B
C
D

28.

An ambulance came right away and was taking Natasha and Yury to the nearest
A
B
C
D
hospital.

29.

Was Natasha and her husband wearing their seatbelts when the accident occurred?
A
B
C
D

30.

Yes, they were, and they feel very lucky that they werent hurt very much and that the
A
neighbours who saw the accident enough cared to call the police.
B
C
D

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Reading Digest 5
Work for a Living

Exercise 5.1
A. Read the article quickly to find the answers to these questions:
1 Which company does Sandy work for?
2 What is her job called?
3 What does she have to do?
4 How long has she been in the food industry?

Chocolate tasting is like wine tasting you don't swallow


SANDY COLLYER

Would working as a Confectionery Selector for Marks & Spencer be a dream come true for chocoholics?
Candida Crewe finds out.
ONE DAY SANDY Collyer and a colleague of hers had to eat their way through almost 10 kilos of
chocolates. It took them from 9am to 2pm. Afterwards they felt `very, very unwell'. But their chocolate
marathon was not a binge. It was all in the course of duty. Sandy is one of the 11 people at Marks &
Spencer who are responsible for chocolates and sweets. Her official title is Confectionery Selector. She
has to sample chocolates everyday.
That 10 kilos was unusual, she said. The technologist and I had to try out an entire fresh cream range
from one of our suppliers before it went off. It was a very hot day which made things worse.
Despite such excesses, Sandy is not overweight. How come? Chocolate tasting is like wine tasting,
she told me, you don't swallow unless it's so good you can't resist. I think all of us in the office have
become immune to chocolate. It no longer makes us put on weight. Perhaps, after 15 years in the
business, Sandy has become immune to the temptations which, in her airy offices in the M&S
headquarters in Baker Street, I found overwhelming. There were chocolates everywhere.
Her chocolate enthusiasms began early. When I was little I, like every kid, wanted to work in the Mars
Bar factory. When I began in confectionery I was just like a child in a sweet shop, eating everything. But
that's worn off. I like chocolate, but I'm not a chocoholic.
B. Now read more carefully and find words which mean:
1 having too much of a good thing
4 trying food

2 to try
5 well-ventilated

3 complete
6 too much

C. Are these statements true or false?


1 Sandy samples 10 kilos of chocolates everyday.
2 She does not usually eat the chocolates she tastes.
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3 She is the only chocolate taster at M&S.
4 She has not put on weight because of her job.
5 She has always wanted to work with food.
VOCABULARY
Exercise 5.2
Skills and qualities
Look at the list of skills and qualities in the box. Which of them are the most important for your
job?
Skills

Qualities

Computer skills
Typing skills
Driving skills
Telephone skills
Interpersonal skills
Artistic skills
Language skills
Mathematical skills
Managerial skills
Financial skills

patient
physically strong
emotionally strong
well-organised
intelligent
caring
calm
quick-thinking
honest
clean and tidy
punctual

Exercise 5.3
A. Answer these questions.
1 What qualities do top models need?
2 How do models find work?
3 How do models start their careers?
4 Do you think modelling is a good choice of career?
B. Read the first part of the article and check your answers to questions 1-4 above.

Models in the making

How do you get into modelling? Marina Gask visits Select model agency's New Faces photo shoot and
meets some of the girls who've made it ...
Part One
GETTING SORTED
So just how do Select find their models? Crissie Castagnetti, Director of Select, says:
'At least 50 per cent of our models get spotted when we're out and about. Wherever I go, I'm constantly
looking at faces. I just do it unconsciously. One time I spotted a girl eating a hamburger in a motorway
cafe, and gave her our number! Another girl, Samantha, was only 13 when she sent us a picture her
aunt had taken of her. Within six weeks she'd done work for The Face magazine and the cover of
French Vogue. Another girl got spotted whilst queuing in a bakery, and another whilst shopping in Miss
Selfridge with her mum!
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WHAT IT TAKES
What exactly do Select look for? Sarah Leon, New Faces booker, says:
'Lots of girls just come to see us (no appointment needed), or send pictures in. We can usually spot
whether or not a girl's got potential within the first five seconds, but we have to meet her in person to be
absolutely sure. Obviously, she has to be the right height (a minimum of 1 m 70 cm), with good skin and
even features. But once she's got all that, we're looking for a special "something" that makes her
individual. Lots of girls plaster themselves in make-up for the pictures they send in, but that's more of a
hindrance than a help. Casual clothes and no make-up is best.
Part Two
HOW THEY MADE THE BIG TIME
The time: One rainy Saturday afternoon.
The place: A posh studio in Farringdon, Central London.
The event: Shooting Select model agency's New Faces 'catalogue', which gets sent to advertising
agencies and magazines (like Sugar), so that people know which models are available for fashion
shoots, etc.
We thought we'd tag along and find out just exactly how you get to become one of modelling's new
faces!
Emma, 17, from Richmond, Surrey
Emma thought she'd wait till she finished her 'A' levels before trying modelling, but fate stepped in when
Select spotted her outside a nightclub!
'It's her sultry, exotic beauty that we noticed', says Crissie, director of Select. Since then, Emma's put
her studies on hold for a year (she plans to be a lawyer), but she still finds time to continue training for
the Olympic swimming trials, alongside the modelling!
Sam, 20, from Wiltshire
Sam was doing a degree in Computer Science when her sister persuaded her to enter a Levi's
modelling competition with her. Sam got through to the finals, screened on TV, and although she didn't
win, Select were so impressed that they offered her a modelling contract.
'Everyone was so shocked because I was always the quiet one!' laughs Sam. 'Five months on, things
have been going so well that I've given up my course. Modelling's very rewarding, but I often get home
too late and tired to go out.
JO, 19, from Cambridgeshire
'1'd gone to a fashion show in Glasgow with some friends, and got spotted by a talent scout who told me
to find myself an agency in London,' says Jo. 'I had absolutely no plans to be a model - people always
said I was too skinny!
Jo's fresh prettiness and personality get her plenty of work, especially in Sugar magazine. Living mainly
on burgers (tsk!), she'd give the whole modelling thing up tomorrow if she had to change her diet, and
still plans to study psychology and French at university later. Sharing a flat with Sam makes the
modelling life more bearable.
Hannah, 15, from Islington
When Hannah was 13, her mum's friend took some pictures of her and sent them to Select. 'She has
beautiful hair and skin and a classic, timeless model look, says Crissie.
Life's been chaotic for Hannah, the star of Wella's Shaders and Toners ad, since she started modelling
18 months ago.
'It's difficult to fit the work in around school work, especially with my exams coming up. It's really weird to
be on a shoot in Paris one day, then in a French class at school the next!
C. Read about the four models and write a name in each space to show which model(s) each of
the statements refers to.
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She is a keen sportswoman
She was first seen on television
She wants to study a language
She was encouraged by a member of her family
She had planned to try modelling later
She has postponed her studies
She is combining work and study
She was discovered by the Select Agency
She hadn't thought of being a model
She has appeared in a television commercial

0
1
2
3
4
5, 6
7
8
9
10

___ Emma ____


_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

D. Match each of these multi-word verbs from the text with its equivalent. One has been done
for you as an example.
1 to get into
2 to make it
3 to get sorted
4 to get spotted
5 to be out and about
6 to tag along
7 to put on hold
8 to get through

to organise (yourself)
to postpone
to follow
to enter(a new career)
to pass (a test)
to be noticed
to travel
to succeed (finally)

E. Find words in the text which mean:


1 person whose job is to find new models
2 something which makes things more difficult
3 photographic sessions
4 which never looks old-fashioned
5 very thin
6 very confused
7 very strange
8 something which makes things easier

(Part One)
(Part One)
(Part Two)
(Hannah)
(Jo)
(Hannah)
(Hannah)
(Jo)

Exercise 5.4
Here is a part of the reading text about Sandy Collyer. Fill in each of the numbered blanks with
one word. When you have finished, turn to the beginning of this unit to check your answers.
Sandy was (1) __________ up in Essex.
(2)_________ A-levels, she worked 3) _________ banking and hated it. Then, encouraged (4)
__________ a friend in retailing, she (5) __________ to work at Harrods. 'I did my training there. I was a
buyer (6) ____________ eight years - bread, patisserie, cakes - before moving (7) _________
confectionery where I found my niche.
She enjoyed the challenge, the fast turn-over. In 1987 she (8) ___________ to Marks &Spencer. Her
basic responsibility is (9) _____________ develop new lines and she is (10) ____________ charge of
both product (11) __________ packaging. This involves a (12) ________ of travel (13) _________

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Britain and on (14) __________ Continent, overseeing production, doing comparative shopping and (15)
_________ food fairs.
Exercise 5.5
Read this letter and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct and some have a
word which should not be there. If a line is correct put a tick (9). If the line has a word which
should not be there, write down the word. There are two example lines at the beginning.
Dear John
Thank you very much for your letter, which arrived this
morning. It was lovely to hear you all about your
new job.

0 ____ 9 ____
00 ____ you __

I am now writing for to ask you a favour. A friend of


mine, Melanie, she is living in England at the moment.
Melanie is studying at a language school in London. Her
course finishes only in two weeks, but she would like to
stay on in England to do her First Certificate exam.

1
2
3
4
5

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

Do you know anybody who might needs a babysitter or


someone to help out with a housework? Melanie is free
each day after lunch and at the every weekends too,
and she really needs to earn some extra of money to pay
for her new course.

6
7
8
9

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

My friend Melanie is a very nice, nineteen-year-old girl


from Holland. She has experience of looking after your
children and has worked as an au pair in Canada. She
has made her own flat so she certainly doesn't need
help with finding some accommodation in London.
I'm sure you can help because you can know so many
people. Thanks a lot.
Love, Jill.

10
11
12
13
14
15.

_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________
_____________

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Grammar Digest 5
Phrasal Modals and Modals of Necessity:
have to/have got to, do not have to, must/must not, should
FOCUS 1
EXPRESSING OBLIGATION, NECESSITY, AND
PROHIBITION
Examples
You must have a passport.
OR

You have to have a passport.


OR

You have got to have a passport.


You should bring a camera.
You dont have to bring a lot of clothes.
You must not (mustnt) bring any food on the
plane.

explanations
Must, have to and have got to show that
something is necessary and obligatory.
Should shows that something is a good idea.
Do not have to shows that something is
permitted but isnt necessary.
Must not is used to show that something is
prohibited and absolutely not permitted.

Exercise 5.1
Underline the sentences that have the same meaning.
1.

a. When you visit India, you should have a visa.


b. When you visit India, you have to have a visa.
c. When you visit India, you must have a visa.

2.

a. Mark wants to go to graduate school, so he has to get a good score in his exams.
b. Mark wants to go to graduate school, so he has got to get a good score in his exams.
c. Mark wants to go to graduate school, so he must get a good score in his exams.
Exercise 5.2
Here are some general statements about travelling abroad. Indicate whether they are true or

false.
T F
T F
T F
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
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F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

1. Before leaving on a trip to another country, you should get a travel book with information
about that country.
2. You shouldnt carry all of your money in cash, and you shouldnt put all your money in one
place.
3. To enter some tropical countries, you mustnt have vaccination and other shots to protect
against tropical diseases.
4. When you check in at the airport, you dont have to pay extra is you have too much luggage.
5. Youve got to pack you camera and passport in your suitcase.
6. During the flight, you mustnt smoke in the non-smoking section.
7. When travelling abroad, you must learn to say please and thank you in the local language.
8. To drive in foreign country you have to have a drivers license.
9. You should be able o carry all of your luggage by yourself.
10. When youre in a foreign city, you mustnt ask about neighbourhoods that you should avoid.
11. If youre lost and you see a police officer, you should ask her or him for help.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

FOCUS 2
MODALS AND PHRASAL MODALS OF NECESSITY
examples
explanations
I must go now and he must go Must is a modal and does not change in form to agree with the
too
subject.
Have to and have got to are phrasal modals. They are different from
I have to go now and he has to modals because they contain more than one word and end in to.
Phrasal modals change in form to agree with the subject.
go too.
I must go.
Modal:
She must go.
must
I have to go.
Phrasal modal:
Statements:
She has to go.
have to
I have (Ive) got to go.
Phrasal modal:
She has (Shes) got to go.
have got to
Must I go?
Modal:
Must she go?
must
Do I have to go?
Phrasal modal:
Questions:
Does she have to go?
have to
Have I got to go?
Phrasal modal:
have got to
Has she got to go?
Exercise 5.3
Complete the following conversation with the correct form of must, have to, or have got to, as
indicated. Where no modal is indicated, answer with the correct pronoun and the auxiliary do. The first
one has bee done for you as an example.
Claudia and Andrei, two foreign tourists, are renting a car. Theyre asking the agent about
driving in the United States.
Andrei:
Agent:
Andrei:
Agent:
Claudia:
Agent:
Andrei:
Agent:
Claudia:
Agent:

(1) Do I have to (I + have to) have a drivers license?


Yes, (2) ____________________.
What about Claudia? She has an international drivers license. (3)
____________________ (she + have to) get another license?
No, (4) ____________________. Se can drive here with an international license.
What about seat belts? (5) ____________________ (we + have to) wear seat belts?
Yes, you (6) ____________________ (must) wear seat belts. Its the law in most
states.
What (7) ____________________ (we + have to) do with that thing in the front seat of
the car?
What thing? Oh, thats the litter basket. Its for litter: garbage, paper, and things that you
want to throw away.
Cant we just throw it out the window?
No, you (8) ____________________ (must [negative]) throw it out the window. There is
a $500 fine for littering! You (9) ____________________ (have got to) keep everything
inside the car.
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Andrei:
Agent:
Claudia:
Agent:

(10) ____________________ (we + have to) drive on the left side of the road the way
they do it in England?
No!! You (11) ____________________ (must [negative]) drive on the left. Stay on the
right.
Are there any other laws that we should know about?
Well, if youre going to turn right or left, you (12) ____________________ (have to) use
your turn signal. On the highway, you (13) ____________________ (must) follow the
speed limit, and if youre driving more slowly than the other cars, you (14)
____________________ (have to) stay in the right lane. The left lane is for faster
traffic. Obey the laws, or the police will stop you.

FOCUS 3
ADVICE vs. NECESSITY
examples
When drivers see a stop sign,
they must/have to/have got to
stop.

explanations
Modals and phrasal modals have many different meanings. In the
opposite example, it is necessary for the drivers to stop, or they will
break the traffic law. In order to express necessity, we use the modal
must, or the phrasal modals have to and have got to.
When you see a bus station,
The modal should is not as strong as must, have to, and have got to.
you should slow down.
Should shows that something is a good idea and expresses advice
but not necessity.
At this point you might want to return to Grammar Digest 4 and revise.
Exercise 5.4
Decide which of the following are necessary to do if you want to get a drivers license. Make five
statements with five of the pieces of information you have found necessary.
know how to drive
take an eye test
have a medical examination
pass a driving test
study the legislation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

476

practice before the test


take a written test
own a car
drive on the right side of the road
wear sun glasses

_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

FOCUS 4
HAVE TO vs. HAVE GOT TO
examples

explanations
Generally, have to is more neutral than have got
Joe has got to follow a very strict diet because he to. In other words, have got to is very strong; use
have got to when you want to emphasize that you
has a serious heart condition.
feel something is very important and very
necessary.
Exercise 5.5
Observe the statements for each situation below. For each one, decide which you would use,
have to or have got to.
1.

Your sisters four-year-old son takes a nap every day and goes to bed at 8:00 every night. But
today he didnt take a nap, and its now 10:00 pm.
She says to her son, You ____________________ go to sleep now.

2.

The last time your friend went to the dentist was four years ago. He doesnt think he has any
problems with his teeth, but he feels he should probably go to the dentist for a check-up.
He says, I ____________________ make an appointment to see the dentist sometime
soon.

3.

You havent been reading the assignments for your history class, and you did very badly on the
first two quizzes. You are afraid that youll fail the course.
You tell your classmate, I ____________________ study every day if I dont want to
fail my history class.

4.

Your roommate is making dinner. She has just put a loaf of bread in the oven. Suddenly she
realizes that she doesnt have an important item that she needs for desert.
She says, I ____________________ go to the store. If Im not back in ten minutes,
can you take the bread out of the oven? It ____________________ come out at 7:00.

Exercise 5.6
Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of have to or have got to, whichever you think is
more appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.

Its time for my yearly check-up. I have to remember to call the doctors office
sometime this month.

I burned my finger while I was cooking. The first-aid book says that I ____________________
hold my finger under cold water.
She spilled hot oil all over her leg and foot. John ____________________ take her to the
emergency room, now!
What ____________________ (Irene) do for her first-aid class?
She ____________________ practice CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation).
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

His face is blue! We ____________________ check his throat to see what hes choking on.
There are jellyfish in the area. The lifeguards telling Tommy that he ____________________
stay out of the water today.
Did that little girl drown? She stopped breathing. The lifeguard ____________________ start
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation as soon as possible.
I cut my finger, and its bleeding a little. What should I do? The neighbour, whos nurse, says
that you ____________________ wash the cut, and then put a bandage on it.
Theres something in my eye again!
Oh, Lee. You ____________________ stop wearing so much eye makeup.
The children ____________________ get their vaccinations before school starts.

FOCUS 5
EXPRESSING PROHIBITION: MUST NOT/MUSTNT
examples
You mustnt smoke in here.
You must not have any more!

explanations
When you want to show that something is not permitted or is
prohibited, you can use must not or the contracted form mustnt.
Must not and mustnt are often used as a strong command in
situations where the speaker definitely wants the listener to obey.

Exercise 5.7
Some children are at a swimming pool with their grandmother. The lifeguard is shouting at the
children, but theyre not paying attention. Their grandmother is repeating the lifeguards instructions. In
the spaces below, write what she says, using must not or mustnt.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

478

Walk! No running!
You mustnt run OR You must not run!

No diving in the shallow water!


_______________________________________________________________________
Youre not allowed to go in the deep water until you pass a swimming test.
_______________________________________________________________________
Dont take beach balls in the water.
_______________________________________________________________________
No pushing!
_______________________________________________________________________
Get that radio away from the pool. No radios in the pool area!
_______________________________________________________________________
Obey the rules! Stop breaking the rules!
_______________________________________________________________________
Get that do out of here! No pets allowed!
_______________________________________________________________________
No eating or drinking in the pool area!
_______________________________________________________________________
Stop hitting that little boy!
_______________________________________________________________________

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FOCUS 6
NECESSITY, NO NECESSITY, AND PROHIBITION
Must, have to, and have got to vs. do not have to
examples
If you want change, you must buy something.
If you want change, you have to buy something.
If you want change, you have got to buy
something.
If you want change, you dont have to buy
anything.

explanations
Must, have to, and have got to show that it is
necessary to do something.
Do not have to shows that it is not necessary to
do something.

Must not vs. do not have to


examples
explanations
You have to have a valid passport to travel
overseas.
You must do it and You have to do it have the same
You must have a valid passport to travel meaning
overseas.
However, You must not do it and You do not have to do it do NOT have the same meaning.
There arent any classes on Saturday, so you You do not have to do it means it is not necessary
dont have to come to school.
for you to do it.
You mustnt smoke in the movie theatre.
You must not do it means it is prohibited.
Exercise 5.8
Peter is an athlete. Every week his coach gives him a different training schedule. Read his
current schedule and complete the sentences below, using have to, do not have to, and must not.
TRAINING SCHEDULE

Necessary

Mon
lift weights

Tue
run 15 miles

Wed
cycle 50 miles

Not Necessary
Prohibited

run
drink coffee

swim
eat meat

lift weights
eat diary
products

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Thu
rest and eat
high-calorie
food
take a sauna
exercise

Fri
run 20 miles
cycle
drink milk

Peter has to ___________________________________________________ on Monday.


He doesnt have to ________________________________________________________.
He must not _____________________________________________________________.
_____________________________________________________________. (drink milk)
_________________________________________________________________. (swim)
____________________________________________________________. (run 20 miles)
________________________________________________________. (rest/take a sauna)
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


Now make your own sentences about Peters training schedule. Do not use information from
sentences 1-7.
8.
_______________________________________________________________________.
9.
_______________________________________________________________________.
10.
_______________________________________________________________________.
Exercise 5.9
Look at the chart below on basic etiquette, and complete the sentences that follow it, using
have to, have got to, dont have to, and must not.
Necessary
Not Necessary
Prohibited
Necessary
Not Necessary
Prohibited
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

480

Personal Hygiene
use deodorant
wear clean clothes daily
wear perfume, cologne
use too much perfume,
makeup
Tipping
leave the water/waitress a
15% tip
tip bad waiter/waitress
leave a tip in a fast-food
restaurant
tip government officials
(e.g. police, customs)

Formal Introduction
smile
shake hands
say Nice to meet you
be very serious
kiss, hug

Informal Introductions
smile
say Hello
shake hands
kiss, hug

Table Manners
Clothing
wait to eat until everyone is wear conservative
served
clothes in business / law
/ religious services
accept offers of food
wear conservative
clothes in other
situations
make noise with mouth
go barefoot (except at
when eating
the beach)

When you meet someone at a classmates party, you dont have to shake
hands.

When you meet people for the first time, you ____________________ kiss or hug them.
To make a good impression at a job interview, you ____________________ dress
conservatively, and you ____________________ put on too much perfume.
A good sense of humour is widely appreciated. Even in business, a person
____________________ be formal and serious all the time.
For satisfactory service in a restaurant, it is customary to leave a 15% tip; but if the service is
poor, you ____________________ tip the waiter.
In order to be accepted in society, you ____________________ take a bath every day and use
deodorant.
You ____________________ go barefoot to a church, mosque, synagogue, or temple.
A business executive ____________________ shake hands when he meets someone for the
first time.
On most college and university campuses, a student ____________________ dress up for
classes; in fact its very casual.
Direct eye contact is important for most people. You ____________________ look at them
directly and smile when you meet them, or they might think youre dishonest.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

FOCUS 7
TALKING ABOUT THE PAST: HAVE TO and MUST
examples
He has to exercise everyday, but he doesnt
have to swim.
He had to exercise last week, but he didnt
have to swim.
Present
We have to go.
We must go.

Past
We had to go.

explanations
When you refer to regular habits, you use the present
tense.
To talk about the past, change have and has to had.
There is no past tense form of must when it is used
to express necessity. When you want to express
necessity in the past, use have to. Do not use must
to talk about past necessity.

Exercise 5.10
Maggie is telling her friend John about a terrible job she had last year. Complete their
conversation with must, have to, and do not have to in the present or in the past, as appropriate.
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:
Maggie:
John:

My worst job was when I worked is a waitress last summer.


What was so terrible about it?
First, I (1) ____________________ get up at 5:00 am.
Did you drive to work?
No. I didnt have a car then, so I (2) ____________________ walk two miles.
What time (3) ____________________ be at the restaurant?
6:00.
6:00. How awful! Did you wear a uniform?
No, we (4) ____________________ wear a special uniform or anything, but the work
was really hard.
What about the present job?
Oh, I love my present job. You see, I start work at 11:00 a.m., so I (5)
____________________ get up early, and the people are really nice.
(6) ____________________ work on weekends?
No, I (7) ____________________ work on weekends, but thats not so good.
Why?
My boyfriend (8) ____________________ work on weekends, so I never see him.
Thats no problem find a new boyfriend!

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

FOCUS 8
TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE: MUST and HAVE TO
examples
We will (well) have to repaint the house in a
couple of years.
We will not (wont) have to paint the house again
in a couple of years.
We must go to the bank tomorrow.
You must not/mustnt park here tomorrow.
I must call him next week.
NOT: I will must call him next week.

explanations
To talk about necessity in the future, use will (not)
before have to.
You can also use must to talk about future
necessity or prohibition.
Do NOT use will with must.

Exercise 5.11
Complete the following, using will have to and wont have to in the appropriate places.
Some people are pessimistic about life in the future because it will be necessary to do many
different things. They think that we (1) ____________________ (change) our habits. For example, to
protect the environment, we (2) ____________________ (develop) materials that do not cause
pollution. In addition, we (3) ____________________ (drive) less, and we (4) ____________________
(try) to develop different methods of transportation. If we continue to use the automobile as much as we
do today, in the future we (5) ____________________ (wear) oxygen masks to protect us from the
polluted air.
However, people are optimistic about the future because they think it wont be necessary to do
many of the things we have to do today. For example, we (6) ____________________ (leave) home to
shop because we will buy everything by computer. Furthermore, we (7) ____________________ (work)
every day and also, we (8) ____________________ (cook) because we will use pills instead of food.
future.
1.
2.
3.

Add 3 other ideas of your own about things we will have to do or we will not have to do in the
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 5.12
Read the conversations below and complete the missing parts.
CONVERSATION A

Ann has just finished talking on the phone with Tom. When she hangs up the phone, her friend
Bill wants to know about their conversation.
Bill:
Ann:
Bill:
Ann:

482

You sound worried. Is Tom having problems?


Toms landlord sold the apartment house, so Tom (1) ____________________ find another
place to live.
Oh, thats too bad. When (2) ____________________ (he) move out of his apartment?
I think he (3) ____________________ move out by the end of the month.

LIMBA ENGLEZ
CONVERSATION B

Emily, a five-year-old, is playing in the street. Her mother, who is watching from the house,
suddenly runs out to her. A big car zooms by.
Emilys mother:
Emily! You (4) ____________________ be more careful! Dont cross the street
without looking for cars!
Emily:
But I didnt see the car!
Emilys mother:
You (5) ____________________ look in both directions before you cross the
street.
CONVERSATION C

Outside the classroom, you hear a conversation between your teacher and Vlad, one of your
classmates.
Teacher:
Vlad, Im afraid this is the last time Im going to tell you this. You (6)
____________________ hand in your homework on time.
Vlad:
I know, I know. But ...
Teacher:
No more excuses! You really (7) ____________________ try to keep up with the class
if you want to pass.
CONVERSATION D

Ron:
Marion:
Ron:

Its the end of the school year. Ron and Marion have just had their last class of the term.
Its vacation time at last! We (8) ____________________ work for two months!
Not me. My grades were very bad, so I (9) ____________________ study all through
the summer.
I know how that feels. I failed physics two years ago, and I (10)
____________________ read physics books all summer and my friends just went to
the beach every day. They (11) ____________________ study at all.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

Reading Digest 6
Our World

Exercise 6.1
Think about the advantages and disadvantage of each of the following solutions to the problem
of air pollution. Think about a big city in your country, or a city like London or Athens.
1 Increase tax on petrol.
2 Limit each family to one car.
3 Close the city centre to traffic.
4 Improve the bus services.

5 Create special roads for bicycles.


6 Build underground railways.
7 Build bigger car parks.
8 Use electric cars.

Exercise 6.2
A. Read the article and underline the parts where these questions are answered:
1 What do the masks do?
2 Who is already using them?
3 Who should be wearing them?
4 What does the BLF predict?

5 Who is thinking about using masks?


6 Who doesn't the mask work for?
7 Who thinks the mask is not the solution?
8 What other solution is proposed?

Are you safe to go out without a smog mask?


by Cathy Scott-Clark
Pollution at danger levels, say experts.
SMOG masks which filter toxic gases out of the air we breathe could soon be a common sight on city
streets, air pollution experts say.
Space-age masks are already a frequent accessory for cyclists. But, with toxic ozone levels now rising
at an alarming rate, experts say pedestrians should be wearing them too.
The Clean Air Act of 1956 that followed the deaths of 4,000 people due to a London pea-soup smog has
almost wiped out emissions of deadly sulphur dioxide.
But concern is mounting over invisible "ozone smog", a poisonous cocktail created when car fumes
such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are heated by sunlight.
Last week the British Lung Foundation (BLF) predicted that London could become as polluted as Los
Angeles and Athens within 15 years.
Dr Malcolm Green, BLF chairman, said if the current pollution levels continued, all city dwellers, who
were outside for 20 minutes or more, would have to wear masks. Traffic wardens, cyclists, messengers
and transport police should be wearing them already, he warns, particularly those prone to chest
infections, asthma or bronchitis. "The reduction of air pollution must be our first priority, but this takes
time. Masks are a sensible way of protecting the lungs." A Metropolitan Police spokeswoman confirmed
that smog masks for officers and traffic wardens in London are now being considered.
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But Liz Marriot of the London Cycles Campaign says their use is limited. "Unless a mask makes a
perfect seal on your face, it doesn't work. Where does that leave men with beards, people who wear
glasses or someone with a big nose?"
Curbed
Friends of the Earth air pollution experts say wearing of masks is not a long-term solution. "Nobody
wants a world in which people have to wear masks in the street," says campaigner Fiona Weir.
"This is a new generation of pollution. Numbers of vehicles are constantly rising and ozone pollution is
rising very, very rapidly car usage has to be curbed."
Government success at ending the Fifties pea-soupers has led to complacency at the growing danger of
toxic vehicle fumes which make up ozone, she claims.
FoE is concerned that toxic ozone levels in Britain now regularly exceed World Health Organisation
safety guidelines.
B. Find words which mean:
1 poisonous
2 frightening
3 a mixture
4 part of the body (organ)

5 likely to suffer from


6 most important thing
7 where nothing can pass
8 reduced

C. For each of the following questions choose the best answer, A, B, C or D.


1 What does Dr Malcolm Green think?
A London has as much air pollution as Athens.
B Smog masks solve the problem of air pollution.
C People working outside should wear a mask in London.
D A mask is necessary after twenty minutes in London.
2 Why does Liz Marriot have doubts about the masks?
A They do not work so well for cyclists.
B The number of cars is always rising.
C The masks do not fit everyone perfectly.
D The masks do not work over a long time.
3 What do Friends of the Earth think?
A People cannot be forced to wear masks.
B World Health Organisation levels are too low.
C A new generation of cleaner vehicles is needed.
D People must use their cars less.
VOCABULARY
Prepositions
Exercise 6.3
Put a preposition in each of the numbered spaces.
Recently, the authorities (1) ____________ Athens were forced (2) ______________ ban all cars (3)
__________ the city centre (4) __________ one day because (5) _________
the levels of air
pollution.
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


Meanwhile, (6) ___________ California, a law has been passed saying that no car manufacturer will be
allowed (7) ___________ sell cars (8) ___________ the state after 2008, unless (9) ___________ least
two percent (10) _________ its sales are in Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). This percentage will rise
(11) __________ ten percent (12) _________ subsequent years.
The only true ZEVs are electrically-powered cars that run (13) ____________ batteries and most car
manufacturers are now working (14) ___________ electric models.
Other US states have followed California's example which suggests that the electric car may be the car
(15) _____________ the future.
Exercise 6.4
A. Read the article and circle:
a) 3 words connected with water
b) 2 types of shop
c) 3 illnesses
d) 3 things made from wood
e) 3 industries
f) 3 ways in which people have been killed

Why we must fight the destruction

When rainforests are cleared and burned millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide are released into the
atmosphere affecting climatic conditions and threatening us all with severe flooding, drought and crop
failure.
The rainforests contain at least half of the Earth's species. At the current rate of devastation an
estimated 50 species worldwide become extinct every day.
One in four purchases from your chemist is derived from the rainforests. Scientists are currently caught
in a race against time to find rainforest treatments for cancer, AIDS and heart disease - before they are
lost forever.
Tribal people in the rainforests have been shot, poisoned and infected with disease to which they have
no resistance - to make room for logging, mining and dams.
If this destruction continues only nine of the 33 countries currently exporting rainforest timber will have
any left by the end of the decade.
Almost everyone will have part of the rainforests in their home, as DIY stores still supply and the
construction industry still uses tropical hardwoods for doors, window frames and even toilet seats.
What Friends of the Earth has done
Friends of the Earth's Tropical Rainforest Campaign has been fighting to save the rainforests for ten
years. In that time, we've achieved a great deal.
We've forced the British Government - and even timber trade organisations themselves - to
acknowledge just how short-sighted the devastation is.
We have persuaded major international companies to stop industrial activities that harm the
rainforests.
And by mobilising consumer pressure, we have helped reduce imports of tropical timber into the UK by
nearly a third.
Please help us save the tropical rainforests now, before it's too late, There's still a lot more to do. With
your help, we can build on our success.

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B. Match the words on the left with the definitions on the right. Use a dictionary if necessary.
1 timber
2 species
3 crops
4 decade
5 currently
6 a purchase

a) plants grown for food


b) wood used for making things
c) something you buy
d) a family of plants or animals
e) a period of ten years
f) at the moment

Exercise 6.5
Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in
each space. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The End of the dinosaurs

About 66 million years (0) __ ago ____ , seventy percent of all living creatures including the dinosaurs
are (1) ____________ to have disappeared (2) ___________ the surface of the Earth.
Scientists believe that this may (3) _________ been caused by a natural disaster on a very large scale.
One possible explanation is (4) _________ the earth was (5) __________ by an enormous asteroid
about six miles in diameter as it travelled through space.
Side effects of this disaster could have been the destruction of (6) _________ ozone layer, acid rain,
global warming and the pollution of the atmosphere (7) ___________ dust which blocked out the sun.
Either one or a combination of these effects could have (8) __________ to the disappearance of the
various species.
Scientists are (9) ____________ searching for the site of the crater (10) ____________ the asteroid
must have (11) __________ . This may be buried (12) ___________ more recent rocks, or be lost
somewhere on the seabed. Wherever (13) __________ is, it seems probable that the dinosaurs died out
(14) __________ a result of an environmental disaster lasting only a (15) __________ years.
Exercise 6.6
A. You are going to read a newspaper article about a natural disaster. Choose from the
sentences A-I the one which fits each gap 1-7. There is one extra sentence which you do not need
to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
A This in turn led to an explosion of violence which reduced the food supplies still further.
B This gave them the false confidence that they could survive the much longer one which destroyed
them.
C But the colonists refused to change their social system.
D History is not man-made, it is the planet itself which shapes our destiny.
E But none of this would have produced a revolution if the country had not been faced with famine.
F Instead of improving their agriculture, their rulers fought endless wars to win more land.
G This led to a massive lowering of temperature for several years.
H An intelligent civilisation will be safe from any but the most severe climatic change.
I This in turn, produced two decades of war and, indirectly, two centuries of conflict in Europe.

Revolution that erupted from two volcanoes


Can a volcanic eruption on the other side of the world affect politics? According to two French
volcanologists the answer is yes. Despite a distance of thousands of kilometres and a gap of six years,
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


they say that in 1783 eruptions of a volcano in central Japan and another in southern Iceland, helped
set off the French Revolution.
0
1
Like the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991, these eruptions blew large amounts of
sulphurous ash into the atmosphere, partly blocking the sun's rays and temporarily cooling the climate.
France in 1789 was already bankrupt because of a long war in America. The government was
threatened by a plot to organise riots financed by an ambitious aristocrat who wanted to become king.
1
The result of the eruptions was several years of cold, wet weather in Europe. Two violent storms in 1788
and 1789 destroyed the harvest in many parts of the country, and the resulting shortage of corn was
made worse by the Finance Minister's refusal to import corn from abroad on the grounds that the state
could not afford it.
2
When the people of France saw wagons full of corn go through their village streets they said, There is
plenty of corn, but not for us: it's for the king, the aristocrats, the rich who have plenty to eat while we go
hungry.' And then the maddened people would throw the sacks of corn into the nearest river.
Another volcanic eruption - in Indonesia in April 1815 - may have helped cause Napoleon's defeat at the
battle of Waterloo.
3
1816 was called the `year without a summer'. Torrential rains marked the beginning of the Waterloo
campaign, creating deep mud which for many hours prevented Napoleon from moving his big guns. The
French revolution is one of many examples where a change of climate was the final blow to an already
threatened society.
The Little Ice Age, which started about AD 1400, threatened the Scandinavian colony in Greenland.
4
They might have survived if, instead of sticking to their aristocratic society, they had moved from farming
to hunting, like the Eskimos who replaced them.
At about the same period the great civilisation of the Mayas in Yucatan faced ever worsening droughts.
5
This had the opposite effect to that intended, since forcing people into the army meant they had to leave
their land.
The Bronze Age empire of Mesopotamia also collapsed from drought about 3000 years ago. People
successfully survived two fairly short periods of drought.
6
What lessons can be drawn for the future?
7
The exceptionally violent eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, for example, caused no social disasters. Only
societies which behave stupidly will fail when nature turns bad.
B. Find words or phrases in the text which mean:
someone who studies volcanoes
for a short time
financially ruined
lived through a difficult period

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for the reason that


made angry
very heavy rain

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Exercise 6.7
Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an
example at the beginning (0).

The Car of the future

A French company has recently published (0) ____ plans ____ for a revolutionary car of the future
which will (1) __________ the nature of inner-city transport. The car of the future will (2) ___________
the good points of private and public transport, giving users the advantages of a private car,
(3)_________ the cost of purchase or (4) __________ . The car will be (5) _________ by users on a
pay-as-you-go basis. Drivers will simply (6) _________ up the a car at a special station, (7) _________
to a taxi-rank, and leave it at another station, (8) ________ for their destination. Here it will be cleaned
ready for the next user.
The electronically-powered car will be about half the length of (9) ________ mini cars and will improve
traffic flow and (10) ___________ pollution in crowded cities. At present, most cars in towns (11)
__________ only one person who spends most of his or her time looking for a parking (12)
____________ .
A magic key personal remote control opens the car and contains the (13) __________ information to
enable the car user's (14) ___________ to be prepared. In the car the magic key also works to
programme the mobile phone, radio and heating (15) _________ to the driver's preference.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

A plans
A turn
A conduct
A without
A maintenance
A paid
A take
A just
A convenient
A nowadays
A slice
A bring
A stop
A necessary
A receipt
A service

B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B

programmes
change
concern
lacking
conservation
let
pick
like
useful
current
smash
carry
place
needed
bill
system

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

projects
switch
connect
short
preservation
hired
lift
same
nearby
already
chop
fetch
point
needful
charge
section

D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D

plots
exchange
combine
subtracting
protection
lent
put
similar
close
actual
cut
drive
site
necessity
cheque
structure

Exercise 6.8
Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that
fits in the space in the same line. See the example at the beginning (0).

Lucky escape

Susan Hill was (0) ___ unaware ____ as she carried her handbag around
for more than two months that it contained a bomb (1) ________
there before she bought the bag.
The bomb was (2) _______ planted by animal rights
(3) ________ in August when there were several minor

AWARE
HIDE
PROBABLE
TERROR
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


(4) ________ in local shops caused by fire bombs placed in
leather bags. Susan (5) ________ the bag in October and
used it (6) ___________ for two months. She only found the
bomb when she was (7) _________ her bag after a Christmas
shopping trip. She thought she had (8) ________ one of the
gifts she had bought and after (9) __________ the side pocket
for the first time, she (10) _________ the cassette-sized
device inside. The police said that if it had gone off it could have
caused a lot of damage and Susan could have been seriously injured.

EXPLODE
BUY
REGULAR
PACK
LOSE
ZIP
COVER

Grammar Digest 6
Making Offers
Requests and Permission: Can/Could, Will/Would, May
FOCUS 1
HOW TO MAKE OFFERS
Different ways to make offers
Examples
Would you like some more coffee?
Would you like to sit down?
Would you like me to open the window?

explanations

Would you like + noun phrase


There are several ways to
Would you like + verb phrase
make offers with Would
Would you like me to + verb
you like ?
phrase
Would you like Sally to open the This form is also useful
window?
when you make an offer
Would you like (person) to +
verb phrase
Would you like someone to open the about someone else
window?
Exercise 6.1
Pierre has just become the new assistant manager of the Dew Drop Inn Caf. He is trying to
make the atmosphere a little more polite and sophisticated, so he is listening to how the waitresses talk
to the customers. Read the dialogue between Wanda, the waitress, and her customers, Phil and Emily.
Then rewrite the dialogue using more polite forms.
Wanda: Good morning. Where do you want to sit? Do you want a table by the window?
Phil:
Yes, that would be fine.
Wanda: Do you want some coffee?
Phil:
Yes, please, two coffees.
Wanda: Sugar or cream in that coffee?
Emily:
Sugar for me, please.
Wanda: Theres your coffee. Do you want to order now?
Phil:
Yes, I guess we do.
Wanda: What do you want?
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Emily:
Ill have eggs and French toast.
Wanda: How do you want your eggs?
Emily:
Fried, but not too well done.
Wanda: Do you want me to tell the cook to make them over easy?
Emily:
Yes, please.
Wanda: And you, Sir? Do you want eggs too?
Phil:
Yes, Ill have the cheese omelette.
Wanda: Do you want anything else?
Phil:
Yes, some orange juice.
Wanda: Heres your breakfast. Do you want some ketchup for those hash browns?
Phil:
Yes, please.
Wanda: Do you want anything else?
Phil:
Just the check, please.
Now rewrite the dialogue using more polite forms.
Wanda: 1. ________________________________________________________________
Phil:
Yes, that would be fine.
Wanda: 2. ________________________________________________________________
Phil:
Yes, please, two coffees.
Wanda: 3. ________________________________________________________________
Emily:
Sugar for me, please.
Wanda: 4. ________________________________________________________________
Phil:
Yes, I guess we do.
Wanda: 5. ________________________________________________________________
Emily:
Ill have eggs and French toast.
Wanda: 6. ________________________________________________________________
Emily:
Fried, but not too well done.
Wanda: 7. ________________________________________________________________
Emily:
Yes, please.
Wanda: 8. ________________________________________________________________
Phil:
Yes, Ill have the cheese omelette.
Wanda: 9. ________________________________________________________________
Phil:
Yes, some orange juice.
Wanda: 10. _______________________________________________________________
Phil:
Yes, please.
Wanda: 11. _______________________________________________________________
Phil:
Just the check, please.

Would you like ? vs. Do you want ?


examples
Would you like a cup of tea?
is more polite than
Do you want a cup of tea

explanations
Would you like ? is a polite way of asking
Do you want .?.

Do you want me to help you with your homework?


is more informal than
Would you like me to help you with your homework?

(Do you) want ? is an informal way of


making an offer. Usually it is used with close
friends and family.
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Exercise 6.2
Change the following commands and questions into polite offers.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Come in.
Sit down.
Give me your coat.
Want a chair?
Let me get you an ashtray.
Something to drink?
Cream in your coffee?
Want me to open that window for you?
More coffee?

___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________
___________________________________

Exercise 6.3
Read the descriptions of Mark and Cleopatras first date and another date a year later. Write out
their dialogue using would you like or do you want, as appropriate. Marc Anthonys first line has been
written for you as an example.
FIRST DATE

1.
3.
5.

Mark
asks Cleopatra for a date
2.
asks Cleopatra what kind of restaurant she 4.
wants to go to
asks what movie Cleopatra wants to see.
6.

Mark:
Cleopatra:
Mark:
Cleopatra:
Mark:
Cleopatra:

9.
11.

Mark
asks Cleopatra if she wants to stay home and 8.
watch the football game
asks if she wants to order out for pizza
10.
asks her if she wants to go bowling and eat at 12.
the bowling alley instead

Mark:
Cleopatra:
Mark:
Cleopatra:
Mark:
Cleopatra:

492

tells him which movie she wants to see

(1) Would you like to go out with me this weekend?


(2) _________________________________________________________
(3) _________________________________________________________
(4) _________________________________________________________
(5) _________________________________________________________
(6) _________________________________________________________
ONE YEAR LATER

7.

Cleopatra
accepts the offer
says she prefers French or Italian

Cleopatra
says she prefers to go country-western
dancing
says she prefers to eat Chinese food
accepts

(7) _________________________________________________________
(8) _________________________________________________________
(9) _________________________________________________________
(10) ________________________________________________________
(11) ________________________________________________________
(12) ________________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

FOCUS 2
POLITELY ACCEPTING AND REFUSING OFFERS
examples
Offer
Would you like something to
drink?
Offer
Would you like me to help you?
Offer
Would you like some coffee?

Polite acceptance
Yes, please.
Yes + appreciation
Yes, please. Thats very
nice/kind of you.

explanations
Using please along with yes is a
polite way of accepting an offer.
Extra phrases that show that you
appreciate the offer make your
acceptance sound even more polite.
But this is not always necessary in
informal situations.
Using thank you or thanks along
with no is a polite way of refusing an
offer.

Polite refusal
No, thank you.
No, thanks.
Offer
Refusal + reason
Polite refusals can also include a
Would you like some coffee?
No, thank you. Ive had enough.
reason why the offer cannot be
Would you like me to help you? No, thanks. Thats very nice of
accepted.
you, but I can manage.

Exercise 6.4
Look at the following responses. What was the offer that was probably made? Write it down in
the blank.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: No, thanks. Ive had enough.
Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: Yes, please. Its delicious.
Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: Oh, no, thank you. Ive seen it already.
Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: No, thanks. Im warm enough.
Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: Yes, please. Its very heavy.
Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: Thanks, Id love to. That sounds great.
Offer: __________________________________________________________________
Response: Thanks, but Ive already got one of my own.

Exercise 6.5
For each of the following situations, write a short dialogue in which one person makes a polite
offer (using Would like) and the other person either politely accepts or politely refuses the offer.
1.

The English teacher, at the front of the classroom, is ready to show a video in class today. The
switch to run the video player is right by Mike, at the back of the room.
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2.

3.

4.

5.

Mike says: _____________________________________________________________


The instructor says: _______________________________________________________
The dinner at Mrs. Blacks home is almost finished. Mrs. Black notices that some of the guests
ate their dessert cherry pie very quickly, and she thinks they might want another piece.
Mrs. Black says: _________________________________________________________
A guest says: ____________________________________________________________
Alfredo has a seat at the front of the city bus. He notices that an old woman has just gotten on,
but there are no more seats left.
Alfredo says: ____________________________________________________________
The old woman says: ______________________________________________________
As Mary is about to leave for the post office, she sees that there are several envelopes on the
desk, stamped and addressed by her roommate Judith.
May says: _______________________________________________________________
Judith says: ______________________________________________________________
Just as Thomas starts to drive away to work, he sees that his neighbour Rob is walking down
the sidewalk to the bus stop. Thomas knows that Robs office is not far from where he works.
Thomas says: ____________________________________________________________
Rob says: _______________________________________________________________

FOCUS 3
REQUESTS AND PERMISSION: CAN/COULD, WILL/WOULD,
MAY
Task. You are about to start house-sitting for a friend of yours. Your friend has left you a note
with instructions about what to do while she is gone. Unfortunately, someone has spilled coffee on the
note, and now it is difficult to read. Try to find the missing parts of the note from the choices below.
Im glad youll be here to watch the house while Im gone! My neighbours think that this neighbourhood
is not completely safe at night, so (A)....................................................
The cats eat twice a day, (B)...................................................................................................
I dont want them to stay out at night, so (C)..........................................................................
The plants need to be watered twice a week. (D)....................................................................
I left some bills to mail on the kitchen table. (E).....................................................................
My cousin from out of town said that he would call this week. (F).........................................
The rent check is on the kitchen table. Its due at the end of the week. (G).............................
I told the landlord about the broken light in the bathroom. If he calls, (H)..............................
Thanks for everything, (I)...................................................
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
494

could you ask him to fix it as soon as possible?


remember to lock the windows and doors when it gets dark. Thanks.
so will you please give them water on Tuesday and Friday?
See you next week!
Would you mind mailing them for me tomorrow morning?
please make sure they come in around 8:00.
Would you take a message and tell him Ill be back on the 29th?

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8.
9.

so could you feed them in the morning and at night?


Please mail it before Friday.

Making polite requests


examples

explanations
Questions using the modals can, could, will and would are
ways of making polite requests. If you really want someone
to say "yes" to a request, it is important to make the request
polite. The modals could and would are more polite than the
I left my notes at home. Could you please
modals can and will.
lend me yours?
Providing some good background or reason for why you are
making the request and using please are also ways to make
requests sound more polite. In questions, please usually
comes between the subject you and the verb.
Could you please lend me your notes? I The reason for making the request can also come after the
left mine at home.
question
Another way to make a polite request is to use the phrase
Would you mind lending me your notes?
Would you mind + verb + -ing.
Exercise 6.6
Below are some situations in which requests are commonly made. For each situation, make a
request using can, could, will, would, or please, as appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Youre driving to a party with a friend. Youre not sure exactly where the party
is, but you have a map in the glove compartment. You say to your friend:
Would you please look for a city map in the glove compartment? Im not exactly
sure where the party is.

Youre not sure which bus goes to the beach. You see a man waiting at the bus stop. You say:
________________________________________________________________________
After you find out which bus to take, you want to know how often it stops here. You turn to the
man again and say:
________________________________________________________________________
When you come home from shopping, your arms are full of groceries. You see your neighbour
standing next to the front door of your apartment building. You say:
________________________________________________________________________
You have to be at work a half hour early tomorrow. Your husband/wife always gets up before
you and wakes you up. You say to him or her:
________________________________________________________________________
You are looking for your seats in a theatre. You know your seats are in the balcony, but youre
not sure how to get there. You see an usher and you say:
________________________________________________________________________
Youve invited a friend to go on a picnic. You know she has a daughter the same age as your
daughter. You want her to bring her daughter along. You say:
________________________________________________________________________
Its your turn to pick up the kids after soccer practice, but you have some work to finish at the
office before you go home. You call up your spouse and say:
________________________________________________________________________

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8.
9.

Youre giving a dinner party. Suddenly you realize you are out of eggs and you need eggs for
your dessert. You call u your neighbour and say:
________________________________________________________________________
Youre trying to find the immigration building. You know its nearby. You go up to a friendly
looking woman and say:
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.7
Below are some situations in which requests are commonly made. For each situation, make a
polite request.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

You want to know what time it is. You find someone who is wearing a watch and you say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
When you pay for your groceries at the supermarket, you remember that you need some
change. You hand the cashier a dollar and you say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
You have been waiting in line at the bank for 15 minutes, but you need to get a drink of water.
You turn to the friendly-looking person standing behind you in line, and you say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
You are watching a movie in a theatre. The person in front of you is in the way. You want him or
her to his or her position a little. You say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
Your teacher just showed the class a videotape. It is finished; your classroom is dark. Your
instructor wants the student who is sitting near the light switch to turn on the lights, so she or he
says:
_______________________________________________________________________?
There is a lot of noise outside your classroom. The teacher wants the student who is sitting near
the door to close it, so she or he says:
_______________________________________________________________________?
A classmate is giving a presentation, but she is speaking very softly. You cannot hear her. You
say:
_______________________________________________________________________?

Making polite refusals


examples
Request
Can you lend me your
notes?

496

explanations
Softening phrase + Reason
Im sorry, but I need them to study
for the test.
OR: Im afraid I didnt take any
notes.
OR: Id like to, but I left mine at
home too.

If you need to refuse a request, the


refusal is more polite when: 1) you say
why you have to refuse the request,
and 2) you use a softening phrase.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Exercise 6.8
The following are some of the requests that Aunt Esther made, but Caro refused. Complete the
following dialogue with a softening phrase and a reason. The first one has been done for you as an
example.
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:
Aunt Esther:
Caro:

Oh, hello, dear. Im so glad to see you. Could you please set the table for me? Im
running a little late.
Im sorry, I cant. I dont know where the dishes are.
Well, can you set the table while I stir the soup then?
(1) _______________________________________________________________
I need a serving dish for the broiled eel. Will you get me that long thin platter?
(2) _______________________________________________________________
Oh, Ive left the salt in the kitchen. Would you please get it for me? I really dont like fish
without salt.
(3) _______________________________________________________________
Would you please cut up the cactus for the kids, dear?
(4) _______________________________________________________________
Can you lend me your fork, please? Ive dropped mine on the floor.
(5) _______________________________________________________________
Well, dear, you didnt eat very much tonight. I suppose youre on a diet. Could you
please bring me the chocolate fudge for dessert?
(6) _______________________________________________________________
Well, will you help me with the dishes?
(7) _______________________________________________________________
Im sorry you have to go so soon. Could you stay a little longer?
(8) _______________________________________________________________

Responding to requests
examples
Request
Can you lend me your
notes?
Can/Could you lend
me your notes?
Will/Would you lend
me your notes?

explanations
Verbal Response
Sure.
You bet.
Yeah, no problem.
Id be glad to.
Yes, I can.
NOT: Yes, I could.
Yes, I will.
NOT: Yes, I would.

To respond informally to requests, short answers are


acceptable.

Could and would are usually not used in response to


requests.

Exercise 6.9
Make polite requests for the following situations. Use can, could, will, would, or would you mind
in these requests. What is the response? How is the request politely accepted or refused?
1.

You have a toothache. Your dentist asks you to sit back in the chair, open your mouth, and
point to the tooth that hurts. The dentist says:
_______________________________________________________________________?
What do you do or say?
_______________________________________________________________________?
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2.

Your friend is helping you hang a picture on your wall. He is holding it up while you decide
where it should go. You say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
What does your friend do or say?
_______________________________________________________________________?

3.

At your first exercise class, the instructor asks you to use the wall to get your spine in a straight
position. The instructor says:
_______________________________________________________________________?
What do you do or say?
_______________________________________________________________________?

4.

Theres a place on your back that suddenly begins to itch. You ask your close friend to scratch it
. You say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
What does your friend do or say?
_______________________________________________________________________?
But your friend is not quite getting the right place. So you say:
_______________________________________________________________________?

5.

You are at a restaurant, and the people at the next table are smoking. You want them to stop,
so you say:
_______________________________________________________________________?
What do they do or say?
_______________________________________________________________________?

Exercise 6.10
Hanna, a flight attendant, is on a flight with the Polite family. Mr. and Mrs. Polite and Peter and
Polly Polite are always making requests of Hanna. Write Hannas positive responses to the Polite
familys requests.
Mrs. Polite
Could you get me a pillow?
Would you bring me some more
sugar for my coffee, please?
Can you show me where the
bathrooms are?
Mr. Polite
Could I have another drink?
Will you take away my food tray?
Could you bring me a newspaper,
please?
Would you tell me where to catch
my connecting flight to Boston?
Peter Polite
Could I have a deck of cards,
please?
498

Hanna
1. ______________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________
6. ______________________________________________
7. ______________________________________________

8. ______________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Would you get me a blanket?

9. ______________________________________________

Polly Polite
Could I please have a Glamour
magazine?
Will you turn down the air? Its
blowing my hair.
Would you get me some
earphones?

10. _____________________________________________
11. _____________________________________________
12. _____________________________________________

Exercise 6.11
Place the following questions in the chart below, writing the number of each sentence in the
appropriate box. The first one has been done for you.
Something the speaker wants to do
(request for permission)
1.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Something the speaker wants somebody else to do


(general request)

Could I smoke?
Can you open the window?
May I ask a question?
Could you speak more slowly?
Would you mind lending me your dictionary?
Can I drive early?
Would you tell me the answer?
May we swim in your pool?
Could you show us how to do it?
Could I borrow your knife?
Would you mind if I handed in my assignment a day late?
Asking for permission

examples

Could I leave early?


Can I smoke in here?
May I ask a question?

Is it alright if I do
this?

Would you mind in I asked you a question?

explanations
When you want somebody to do something, you can
make a request. When you want to do something,
and you want to find out if it is permitted or allowed,
you can request permission.
In formal situations, may or could are used in
questions to request permission. If the speaker thinks
that the listener has a lot of authority or power, she or
he uses may or could.
As with requests, can is used in informal situations to
ask for permission. If the speaker and the listener
know each other well and / or have an equal amount
of power, can is used.
You can also politely ask for permission using Would
you mind + if + simple past tense.
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Exercise 6.12
Below are some situations in which permission is commonly asked. For each situation ask for
permission using could, can, may, or would you mind if, as appropriate.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

You get a chance to meet your favourite singer. Ask for permission to take her
picture.
Would you mind if I took your picture?

A young girl wants to spend the night at a friends house this weekend. She asks her mother for
permission.
________________________________________________________________________
Gus is at a formal dinner party and needs to leave the table for a minute. He asks the hostess
for permission.
________________________________________________________________________
You are at a friends house. You would like to smoke, but youre not sure if it is allowed, Ask
permission to smoke.
________________________________________________________________________
Youve got a friend from Japan coming to visit. Youd like your friend to see what an American
school is like. Ask permission form your teacher to bring your friend to school.
________________________________________________________________________
Your community organization is having a special summer program for children. Ask the owner
of bakery for permission to put one of your posters about the program in the shop window.
________________________________________________________________________
You have a doctors appointment at 4:00. Ask your boss for permission to leave work early.
________________________________________________________________________
Your classroom is getting a little hot and stuffy. Ask your teacher for permission to open the
window.
________________________________________________________________________
You find an interesting magazine at the library. Youre not sure of you can check out
magazines. Ask the librarian for permission to check it out.
________________________________________________________________________
You park your car by an office building. You are not sure if parking is permitted. Ask the security
guard for permission to park there.
________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 6.13
For each answer, what was probably the question?

1.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Teacher to student: No, Id like you to hand it in on Friday. I announced the due date two weeks
ago, so Im afraid I wont be able to make any exceptions.

2.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Friend to friend: Sure, it is a little cold in here.

3.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Lecturer to member of the audience: Sorry, but Im going to have to ask you to hold your
questions until the end of my talk. Well have 15 minutes for questions.

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4.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Secretary (on phone): Yes, may I tell him whos calling?

5.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
12-year-old kid (on phone): Yeah, just a moment, Ill get him.

6.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Mother (to child): OK, you can have one more. But only one, because were going to eat soon
and I dont want you to spoil your appetite.

7.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Hostess to guest: Oh, of course, please help yourself. Im glad you like them.

8.

Question: _______________________________________________________________?
Customer to salesperson: Yes, I want to look at the sweaters that are on sale. The ones that
were advertised in the newspaper?

Responding to requests for permission


examples
explanations
Sure.
OK.
As with responses to requests, you can answer
Yeah.
requests for permission with short, positive
Of course.
phrases.
No problem.
If you need to refuse a request for permission, the refusal is more polite when you say why you have to
refuse the request, and you use a "softening" phrase such as Sorry.
Exercise 6.14
For each of the following situations, make general requests and requests for permission, and
then respond to these requests. Decide how polite you need to be in each situation and whether can,
could, will, would, may or would you mind is the most appropriate to use. There is more than one way to
ask and answer each question.
1.
2
3.
4.
5.
6.

You are at a friends house, and you want to use the phone.
________________________________________________________________________
Your teacher says something, but you do not understand, and you want her to repeat it.
________________________________________________________________________
Your friend has asked you to pick her up at the airport. You want to know if her flight is on time,
so you call the airline.
________________________________________________________________________
You want to borrow your friends car.
________________________________________________________________________
Your brother is going shopping, and you remember that you need some film.
________________________________________________________________________
You are the first one to finish the reading test in class. You want to find out from your teacher is
your are allowed to leave the room now.
________________________________________________________________________
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7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

It is very cold in class, and the window is open.


________________________________________________________________________
You see that your teacher is in her office with the door partly open. You want to go in to talk to
her.
________________________________________________________________________
You are on the phone with the dentists secretary because you want to change your
appointment time.
________________________________________________________________________
You are at a close friends house, and you would like a cup of tea.
________________________________________________________________________
Your friends have arrived at your house for dinner, and you want them to sit down.
________________________________________________________________________
You want to hold your friends baby.
________________________________________________________________________

Tutor-assessed Task 3

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 2, 4, 5 and 6.


Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.
1.

I think that if a person lives in North America, she or he should learn how to swim.
A
When my parents were in college, they must to pass a swimming test in order to
B
C
D
graduate.

2.

But at most colleges nowadays, a student doesnt have to do that as a requirement for
A
B
graduation. Youre right, I didnt had to do that when I was in college.
C
D

3.

Ought I learn to be safe around water? Yes, you should. You ought to take water
A
B
C
safety classes from the Red Cross. The first rule in water is that you shouldnt swim
D
alone.

4.

The second rule in water safety is that to save a drowning person, you mustnt try to
A
swim to him. You ought to throw something. You also could to reach for the drowning
B
C
D
person with something like a pole or towel.

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5.

Children should learn about water safety. They have got to go near the water alone; an
A
B
C
adult should always by with them.
D

6.

I have a toothache. What I should do? Well, you could take some aspirin, but it is
A
B
C
probably better to see the dentist.
D

7.

I know I had better not be afraid to go the dentist, but I always get nervous sitting in
A
B
C
the dentists chair.
D

8.

You must see the dentist right away! To avoid painful toothaches you could brush
A B
C
your teeth and use dental floss.
D

9.

You ought to visit a dentist twice a year and your children should so.
A
B
C D

10.

I has been trying to get to South Mall for the last 10 minutes. Do you know what bus I
A
B
C
have to take?
D

11.

You cant get a bus downtown from here. Do you like me to show you the way to the
A
B
C
D
bus stop?

12.

Yes, would you please help me? I have been living here not long and I cant figure out
A
B
C
D
the bus system.

13.

Yes, I would. You have to take either the number 3 or 16 bus. The bus stop is there,
A
B C
across the street.
D

14.

Thank you. I cant believe it. I have been stood on the wrong side of the street.
A
B C D

15.

Deb, Jim is in town. Would you mind if he comes to the party tonight?
A
B
C
D

16.

No, that would be great. Id love to have him come. I havent been seeing him for a
A
B
C
D
long time. Is he all right?
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17.

He has worked hard lately, and I think hes under too much stress.
A
B
C
He could use some rest.
D

18.

Do he been doing a lot of travelling for his job?


A
B
C
D

19.

Yes. He has been spending a lot of time on airplanes. Lately, he has been going to
A
B
C
D
New York and Chicago several times.
Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentences.

20.

In North American classrooms, the students ________ stand when the teacher enters the room.
(A) dont have to
(C) not must
(B) havent got
(D) no should

21.

In some classes, students my eat, but they ________ smoke; its the law.
(A) dont have to
(C) mustnt
(B) havent got
(D) shouldnt

22.

However, students ________ stand up and walk around the class while the teacher is talking.
(A) oughtnt to
(C) shouldnt
(B) have got to
(D) will have to

23.

When I was a student, I ________ treat my teachers with more respect than students do
nowadays.
(A) didnt have to
(C) had to
(B) had got to
(D) must have

24.

________ do anything to prevent heart disease?


(A) Have got I
(C) Should I
(B) Ought I to
(D) Had better I

25.

The Hear Association gives some advice: you ________ eat healthy food, without too much fat
or cholesterol.
(A) should
(C) had better not
(B) must
(D) could

26.

If you dont want to die of heart disease, you ________ have a low-fat diet, get more exercise,
and get frequent check-ups from a doctor.
(A) shouldnt
(C) could
(B) had better
(D) had better not

27.

If you feel chest pains, you ________ see a doctor as soon as possible, or your life may be in
danger.
(A) could
(C) must
(B) had better not
(D) ought to

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28.

Finally, you ________ try to eliminate stress.


(A) so not have to
(C) couldnt
(B) shouldnt
(D) could

29.

Could you carry this notebook for me? Sure, I ________.


(A) can
(C) would
(B) could
(D) may

30.

What do you have in that box? What have you ________ on?
(A) be work
(C) being worked
(B) been working
(D) working

31.

This is my science project for school. Recently, I ________ the quality of water in different parts
of the city.
(A) have been testing
(C) has been testing
(B) will have tested
(D) will test

32.

________ me to carry something else? It might make things easier.


(A) May
(C) Would you like?
(B) Couldnt
(D) Could

33.

Thanks, Id appreciate that. I wouldnt want these to break. I ________ these samples for a
week.
(A) ve been studied
(C) has been studying
(B) had studied
(D) ve been studying

34.

________ lend me you calculator? I left mine at home.


(A) May you
(C) Would you like
(B) Could you
(D) Might you

35.

________ but the batteries in my calculator have gone dead. I doesnt work.
(A) Yes,
(C) No problem,
(B) Id like to,
(D) Sure,

36.

I ________ my homework and now I want to check my answers.


(A) have been finishing
(C) have finished
(B) will have finished
(D) finish

37.

________ to compare your answers with mine? That way we could both check our homework.
(A) Do you like
(C) May you like
(B) Would you like
(D) Could you like

38.

Thats a great idea. ________ you move your desk over here so we can compare answers?
(A) May
(C) Could
(D) Do
(D) Did

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Reading Digest 7
Finishing Touches

Exercise 7.1
A. Answer these questions.
1 Do you have any pets?
2 What sort of animals make good pets for teenagers, young families, old people, people living alone,
people living in cities?
3 What sort of animals should people not be allowed to keep as pets?
B. Read what 12-year-old David tells us about his pet water snake, Zoe, and look carefully at
each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is
correct, put a tick(9). If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space on the
right. There is an example at the beginning (0).

My pet snake
I got her from a reptile pet shop that when
she was a year and a half old. She is called Zoe.
I was going for to call her something like Venom,
but then I thought it puts people off if you would
give a snake a bad name, so I changed it to Zoe.
A month before I got her, I read in about nine
thick books about snakes and when keeping them
as pets. I am very careful with her as if you should be
with any pet. Snakes are never stop being a bit shy.
She is a very strong swimmer and, although
she does not actually live in water, I put her
in the bath and she goes swims very well.
She normally lives in a heated tank with glass
sliding doors. But snakes need any hiding
places, or they tend to get very much nervous,
so we found a teapot for her where to sleep in.
She has not bitten anyone yet, she is a really nice friendly snake.

0
00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

__ that ___
__ 9 _____
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________
__________

Exercise 7.2
A. Read this extract from a short story about pets and answer questions 1-3.
1 Who are these characters in the story?
Anna Richard Kate Maria Griselda
Melusina
2 What has happened ? How do each of these people feel about it?
Anna Richard
Kate Maria
3 What do you think is going to happen next?

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The Cat woman

Although no note awaited her on the doorstep, no letter came and there were no phone calls, Anna
knew the cat woman would come back on the following evening. Richard had advised her to go to the
police if any threats were made. There would be no need to tell them she had been driving very fast.
Anna thought the whole idea of going to the police bizarre. She rang up her friend Kate and told her all
about it and Kate agreed that telling the police would be going too far.
The battered red car arrived at 7 pm. Maria Jakob was dressed as she had been for her previous visit,
but because it was rather cold, wore a jacket made of synthetic fur as well. From its harsh too-shiny
texture there was no doubt it was synthetic but from a distance it looked like a black cat's pelt.
She had brought an album of photographs of her cats for Anna to see. Anna looked through it - what
else could she do? Some were recognisably of those she had seen through the windows. Those that
were not, she supposed might be of animals now at rest under the wooden crosses in Maria Jakob's
back garden. While she was looking at the pictures, Griselda, Anna's mother's cat, came in and jumped
on to the cat woman's lap. They're very nice, very interesting,' Anna said. 'I can see you're devoted to
your cats.
They're my life.
A little humouring might be in order. When is the funeral to be?
I thought on Friday. Two o'clock on Friday. My sister will be there with her two. Cats don't usually take
to car travel, that's why I don't often take any of mine with me, and shutting them up in cages goes
against the grain, but my sister's two Burmese love the car, they'll go and sit in the car when it's parked.
My friend from the Animal Rescue will come if she can get away and I've asked our vet but I don't hold
out much hope there. He has his goat clinic on Fridays. I hope you'll come along.
'I'm afraid I'll be at work.
'It's no flowers by request. Donations to the Cats' Protection League instead. Any sum, no matter how
small, gratefully received. Which brings me to money. You've got a cheque for me.
No, I haven't, Mrs Yackle.
'Miss. And it's Jakob. J, A, K, 0, B. You've got a cheque for me for 799.
'I am not giving you any money, Miss Jakob. I'm very very sorry about your cat, about Melusina, I know
how fond you were of her, but giving you compensation is out of the question. I'm sorry.
The tears had come once more into Maria Jakob's eyes, had spilled over. Her face contorted with
misery. It was the mention of the wretched thing's name, Anna thought. That was the trigger that started
the weeping. A tear splashed on to one of the coarse red hands. Griselda opened her eyes and licked
up the tear.
Maria Jakob pushed her other hand across her eyes. She blinked.
We'll have to think of something else then,' she said.
'I beg your pardon?' Anna wondered if she had really heard right. Things couldn't be solved so simply.
'We shall have to think of something else. A way for you to make up to me for murder.
Look, I will give a donation to the Cats' Protection League. I'm quite prepared to give them - say 20.'
Richard would be furious but perhaps she would not tell Richard. 'I'll give it to you, shall I, and then you
can pass it on to them?
I certainly hope you will. Especially if you can't come to the funeral.'
That was the end of it then. Anna felt a great sense of relief. It was only now that she realised quite how
it had got to her. It had actually kept her from sleeping properly. She phoned Kate and told her about the
funeral and the goat clinic and Kate laughed and said, poor old thing. Anna slept so well that night that
she did not notice the arrival of Griselda who, when she woke, was asleep on the pillow next to her face,
but out of touching distance.

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B. Read again more carefully. For questions 1-7, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you
think fits best according to the text.
1 Why had Anna not phoned the police?
A Because she had been driving fast.
B She wasn't sure if the woman would come back.
C She hadn't been threatened in any way.
D It seemed an unnecessary thing to do.
2 'synthetic' refers to which aspect of Maria's coat?
A the material
C the condition
B the colour
D the style
3 Why did Anna look through the photographs?
A She recognised some of the cats.
C She didn't know how to behave.
B She was very interested in them.
D Maria made her look at them.
4 What invitation did Anna refuse?
A To attend a goat clinic.
B To visit the Animal Rescue.

C To go to a funeral.
D To meet Maria's sister.

5 Why does Maria ask Anna for 799?


A As a donation to the Cats' Protection League.
B Because Anna can't attend the funeral.
C Because Anna has killed one of Maria's cats.
D Because Maria's car has been damaged.
6 What is Kate's reaction to the story?
A She doesn't take it seriously.
B She is relieved that it is over.

C She feels sorry for Anna.


D She finds it frightening.

7 What does 'it' (last paragraph, in bold) refer to?


A Anna's guilt.
C Maria's demands.
B Richard's anger.
D Melusina's revenge.
Exercise 7.3
You are going to read an article about parachuting. For questions 1-6 choose the answer (A, B,
C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

Parachuting changed my life

When Su Woods stepped out on to the tarmac of Thruxton airfield one sunny afternoon to make her first
parachute jump, she was not only about to make her childhood dream come true, she was also leaving
her old life for a new one. Achieving her ambition was to transform her life. Eight years later, Su and her
husband Dennis own the parachute club where Su made her first jump, and where they met.
Parachuting has changed my life enormously,' Su says: When I think back to the first day I came,
watching all the experienced jumpers and free-fallers and feeling so nervous, I have to keep telling
myself that the club's all ours. I've made 100 jumps now - that's quite a lot. But there are plenty of
members here who are much more advanced than I am.

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It's so exhilarating you don't get frightened. Everything to do with parachuting in this country is so highly
regulated. You can't just go up in a plane and jump out of it. You must have proper training. Safety
precautions are rigorously enforced. At first, you have a static line attached to your parachute linking it
to the aeroplane. As you fall free, the line pulls the parachute open. It's not until you've reached a
certain standard that you're allowed to open your own parachute, so there's not really any danger. A
feeling of fear at the thought of jumping out of a plane at 762 metres is only natural sometimes!
When you're first told you're ready to go up, you get really nervous. You step out on to the platform, the
instructor says "Go", and then you're in the air. It's so exhilarating, you can't imagine what you were
afraid of. Even now, I get nervous when I go up for a jump. But as soon as you're coming down, peace
all around you, the earth below, it's wonderful.
Juggling her career as editor of an internal newspaper for a major British company with sorting out a
new house, managing the parachute club and pursuing her favourite hobby, means that things like
housework and washing up can get badly neglected. But then,' Su says, it's a question of priorities. I'd
rather parachute than spend Saturdays cleaning the house.
We try to travel the 40 miles from home to the club as often as we can and, of course, we're there all
weekend. That's the best time. It's a very sociable place - families come to watch and take part, and we
have a lot of charity jumps, which is nice.

1 What reasons did Su have for beginning parachuting?


A It was something she had always wanted to do.
B She had wanted to change her life completely.
C She wanted to show her children what she could do.
D She had married the owner of the club.
2 What happens when you start jumping?
A You jump with the parachute already open.
B You always jump with another person.
C You are not allowed to open your own parachute.
D You remain connected to the ground.
3 What does Su say about the emotions involved in parachuting?
A You never get over the fear of falling.
B You get very nervous before jumping out.
C You are only nervous the first few times you jump.
D You are more nervous with the instructor.
4 How has parachuting changed Su's life?
A She has given up her job.
B She now jumps for a living.

C She now owns the parachute club.


D She goes parachuting every day.

5 'juggling' (last but one paragraph, in bold) means


A replacing.
C combining.
B resigning.
D organising.
6 How does Su spend most of her weekend?
A Looking after her family.
B Doing work for charity.

C Following her favourite hobby.


D Organising the club's social life.

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Exercise 7.4
You are going to read a magazine article about friendship. Choose from the list A-I the most
suitable heading for each part of the article (1-7). There is one extra heading which you do not need to
use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
A What's in it for me?
B We've been through a lot together
C Some straight talking
D The end of a friendship?
E Further disasters

F A better sort of friendship


G Giving her more space
H I've had enough!
I Doing what a good friend should

Is your friend hard work?


0
I
Last month my friend Kate's boyfriend finished with her. Tears? She could have flooded rivers. But I'm a
good friend, I know there are times in every girl's life when she really needs the firm but gentle shoulder
of her best friend.
So I spent a week confined with Kate in her bedroom. I endured hours listening to her misery, making
steaming mugs of hot chocolate and watching her eat packet after packet of biscuits.
By Saturday, she was beginning to feel better. Great, I thought. I was more than ready for a night out.
Besides, it was just what Kate needed.
1
And then it happened; I was just getting ready to go out when Kate telephoned. I wouldn't be dancing
that night. Kate had twisted her ankle and was in need of more tea and sympathy. The following week
Kate failed a maths exam, and left her new coat on the bus. I provided all the support, encouragement
and advice I could over these crises. Then, to cheer her up, I lent her my favourite purple velvet jacket
... and she splashed it with tomato juice.
2
Kind, patient, caring person that I am, there are limits to my tolerance. I'm not a bad friend, but there has
to be more to friendship than being a full-time shoulder to cry on. Right?
3
We've all got a Kate. The friend who turns up in the middle of the night desperate to talk, the one who
calls you, in tears, several times a day. She is the Walking Disaster, the friend to whom you can't say
NO. Kate is what is known as a High Maintenance Friend. And, although I always think to myself poor
Kate', I also can't help wondering, could she be playing some part in causing her own disasters? I mean,
who else has six crises a day? OK, I'll admit that being the strong one in the friendship makes me feel
great in some ways, but Kate's series of dramas also leave me feeling exhausted and resentful. What's
more, when I have difficult times, Kate hardly knows about them.
4
When I started seeing more of my other friends, I hoped Kate would get the message and back off a bit.
Instead she just got upset and made sulky little comments when I didn't call her back. Sometimes the
only thing to do with such friendships is to end them. If you can live with the guilt, you may feel lots of
relief in the long run.
5
So why don't I just get rid of this selfish so-called friend? Well, it's just not as easy as that. Kate and I go
way back to primary school days. The thought of giving up our shared history is just too much to bear.
Besides, she's fun -sometimes. Life without her is unthinkable. But life with her is hardly a bottomless
bowl of Haagen-Dazs either.

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6
All I really wanted was to take the pressure off myself, so I decided that Kate and I needed a gentle
heart-to-heart. It was risky - I didn't want my old friend to feel totally rejected, so I started out by making
it clear how much I value her.
7
Then - deep breath - I explained that she needed more from me than I can give. I suggested that she
talk to other friends as well as me when she needs support. The silence and Kate's frozen stare seemed
to indicate that this could be the point where our friendship would end. The longer her silence lasted, the
more I talked to fill the air, finally convincing myself that I was a really bad friend. Kate didn't call me for
days after that, but when she did phone about a week later, she was the happy, fun Kate I know and
love. Sure, I heard about the latest drama in her life, but not for hours. And she actually... asked
questions about me! These days, Kate has a network of new friends, and the balance in our relationship
is getting better. Now, when I see Kate, I really enjoy her company and she's happier too. No-one is
saying that you should only love your friends when they're up, and cross the street to avoid them when
they're down. But when you're doing all the giving and your friend is just taking, it's time to weigh it up.
Remember you have a right to say NO!
Exercise 7.5
Look at this letter that Gemma has written to her pen friend, Kate, and look carefully at each
line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is
correct, put a tick (9). If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space
on the right.
Dear Kate
I'm sorry if your best friend thinks you're so hard
work, but let me give you some of advice.
First, back off and give your friend a little more in space.
Ask her about it her life, too. Let her know, you're
there for when she really needs a sympathetic ear, but
avoid rushing to the phone every one time you have
a crisis. She doesn't have all this the answers! Then,
spend time with other some friends, so she doesn't
feel like you're lost without her. Relax yourself and try
to have a good laugh sometimes. Life and friendship
don't have to be with all problems, you know.
Finally, don't worry every time your friend goes out
with other people, and not as you. It doesn't mean
she hates you! Remember that no-one can be spend
all their time with just one person.
Lots of love, Gemma

1 ____________
2 ____________
3 ____________
4 ____________
5 ____________
6 ____________
7 ____________
8 ____________
9 ____________
10 ___________
11 ___________
12 ___________
13 ___________
14 ___________
15 ___________

Exercise 7.6
You are going to read a newspaper article about the problems of young people who live in the
country. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra
sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A Long, lonely summer

Jamie Summers is 13 and hates school holidays. As the end of term approaches he becomes
increasingly depressed and even the prospect of a school camping holiday fails to raise more than a
weak smile.
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0
I
He is one of thousands of young people for whom rural isolation means spending long periods alone
with parents, seldom venturing beyond the village and having to rely on television and on their own
imagination for entertainment.
Home for Jamie is a large farmhouse on the edge of the Exmoor national park. During the summer, if it
doesn't rain, he spends most nights in a tent on the hillside behind the farm.
1
Most of his classmates make similar journeys each day. For Jamie and many like him, school is their
only social life. With little chance to meet school friends in the evening, at weekends or during the
holidays - and few visits from other family members - his only chance for conversation with people other
than his parents is the seven hours a day he spends in school.
He never stays for after-school activities and can only go to school plays and discos with difficulty. Last
year he missed collecting a prize because his father did not get home in time to drive him to the school.
2
Sometimes he travels 250 kilometres a day and worries about how long it will keep going.
The family's story, a cautionary tale for town-dwellers tempted by the idea of rural life, is typical. They
came from London to escape noise, pollution, crime and the bullying that Jamie received at school.
The first winter they rented a house in a village where Jamie could walk to school. His mother, Maureen,
soon made friends among other parents at the school gate and for a while life was exactly what she and
Jamie had hoped for.
3
They moved to another village, from which Jamie began getting the bus to school. Then his father lost
his factory maintenance job and they couldn't afford the rent. That was when they found the farmhouse
in which they've lived ever since. Their nearest neighbour is the elderly farmer whose cattle graze in the
surrounding fields.
4
In practice, he is mostly alone and doesn't know enough about nature to appreciate it. His mother
worries if he wanders, because even in the country you can't be too careful'.
5
He is reluctant to visit friends because he can't invite them back. The pretty villages that attract tourists
hold little interest for a teenager.
One year, he went back to London to stay with his grandmother for part of the holiday. But she is too old
now to cope with a teenager.
Anyway, none of the people he started school with remembers or wants to know about him.
It is not only newcomers from London who suffer the problems of isolation. Lonely farmhouses hidden
away in folded valleys can be prisons for children.
6
With few youth clubs or other amenities and virtually no public transport, entertainment is a real
difficulty.
Better-off parents establish transport networks for taking children to school and village events, but in the
holidays they may still go for days without seeing anyone of their own age except for brothers and
sisters.
Parents thinking about a move to the country should think carefully about their children's needs. For
Laura, who moved from Sheffield to an isolated Devon cottage when she was fourteen, the contrast was
so strong that she attempted suicide and now requires regular counselling.
7
Which is why, unlike many urban children, he is already looking forward to school starting again.
***

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Devon.

A The car, in fact, enables Jamie's father to do his job as an electrician across North and South

B He has an old bike, but the country lanes, with their high banks and blind corners, make
cycling dangerous. Anyway where would he go?
C But farming is a hard life that demands the involvement of the whole family and most children
have their 'jobs' to do before and after school.
D In theory, Jamie enjoys the many advantages of country life: fresh air, freedom from fear,
friendly people who always have time to stop and chat.
E Jamie hasn't reached those depths and doesn't want a return to city life - but neither can he
face the loneliness of the summer holiday weeks.
F But summer came and the owners needed their home for more profitable holiday lets.
G Every day in term time, he walks to the crossroads outside the village and then travels eight
miles by coach along narrow country lanes to the closest school to his home.
H A recent survey of students at one rural school in North Devon found 'being able to meet
friends' topped the list of improvements that youngsters wanted in their lives.
I The problem is, Jamie knows that once the holidays start, he is unlikely to see another person
his own age until school opens again in September.
Exercise 7.7
Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There is an
example at the beginning (0).
Romantic fiction is as old (0) __ C ___ love itself and still very (1) _______ alive and well. An amazing
41,000 Mills and Boon romantic novels are sold in the UK every day; that (2) _______ up to around 15
million copies a year. And (3) _______ being popular in the UK, these books have also been (4)
_________ into 20 other languages and sold in over 100 different countries.
Romantic fiction has changed over the years and Mills and Boon novels continually try to reflect
contemporary (5) ________ . The company has also tried to give readers greater (6) ________ Mills
and Boon (7) _________ over 5000 manuscripts a year from (8) ________ writers, but only a few join
their list of (9) ________ authors.
Now, if you've ever (10) ________ of writing for Mills and Boon, help is at (11) ________ . The company
has produced a (12) ________ guide, And Then He Kissed Her..., which explains how to (13)
_________ out to write a romantic novel. The booklet contains valuable (14) ________ that can be
applied to almost any form of creative writing.
So, if you've written a love letter but feel you could write a (15) ________ novel, get And Then He
Kissed Her.... Happy Writing!

0
1
2
3

A than
A than
A adds
A although

B so
B greatly
B makes
B besides

C as
C much
C comes
C moreover

D of
D just
D gives
D whereas
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4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

A interpreted
A attitudes
A differences
A receives
A beginner
A regular
A hoped
A work
A unique
A start
A directions
A whole

B transferred
B ways
B selection
B registers
B training
B common
B wondered
B hand
B solitary
B take
B proposals
B total

C exchanged
C habits
C variety
C remarks
C hopeful
C correct
C considered
C once
C single
C carry
C suggestions
C strong

D translated
D traditions
D alternatives
D realises
D promised
D routine
D thought
D last
D lone
D work
D indications
D thorough

Exercise 7.8
Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that
fits in the space in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Rows can be good for you

A row is simply expressing your own point of view (0) __ forcefully ___
and it's (1) ___________ that people quarrel in different ways. In
some families, rows are tight-lipped affairs, with (2) _____________
covered up by a (3) _____________ that all is well. In others, it is more
(4) _____________. My mother threw insults and crockery, while
my father ignored the insults, (5) _____________
the crockery and produced (6) _____________ cups of tea
when they eventually made up.
But rows can lead to greater (7) _____________ and
(8) _____________
in relationships often indicate development, which
is fine as long as the (9) _____________is positive. It is only when
there are lots of (10) _____________ rows with no clear motivation,
or when rows leave you feeling tense, angry and sick that the alarm bells
should start to ring.

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SURPRISE
ANGRY
PRETEND
DRAMA
CATCH
END
UNDERSTAND
ARGUE
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Grammar Digest 7
Past Habitual
Used To, Still and Anymore
Adverbs of Frequency
Past Perfect, Before and After
FOCUS 1
PAST HABITUAL
Comparing past and present with used to
examples
Tina Turner used to have short, wavy hair (but now
she doesnt).

T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

explanations
Used to shows that something was true or
regularly happened in the past, but it does not
happen now in the present.

Exercise 7.1
Circle T if the statement is true, and F if the statement is false.
F 1.
People used to use candles and gas lamps because they didnt have electricity.
F 2.
Before electricity, people used to put a big block of ice in the icebox; today we use a
refrigerator.
F 3.
Before electricity, people used to use batteries for power.
F 4.
Before the invention of the car, people used to ride the bus.
F 5.
People used to walk much more than they do now.
F 6.
There didnt use to be as much violent crime as there is now.
F 7.
People used to know much more about nutrition than they do now.
F 8.
Big families used to be much more common than they are now.
F 9.
People used to live longer than they do now.
F 10. There didnt use to be a big drug problem.

Form: Used to
Used to does not change form to agree with the subject:
statement
I
You
used to work.
We
They
She
He
used to work.
It

negative
I
You
We
They
She
He
It

question
did not use to work.
(didnt)

Did

did not use to work.


(didnt)

Did

I
you
we
they
she
he
it

use to work?

use to work?

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Exercise 7.2
Make statements with used to about the changes in Madonna and Bruce Springsteen. Use the
words in parentheses. You can add other ides of your own.
1.

Madonna
a. (have a big nose) She used to have a bigger nose; she didnt use to have a small one.
b. (be a dancer) _____________________________________________________
c. (be poor)
___________________________________________________________
d. (live in Michigan)
_____________________________________________________

2.

Bruce Springsteen
a. (have straight hair) _____________________________________________________
b. (play football in high school) _________________________________________
c. (live in New Jersey) _______________________________________________
d. (sing about blue-collar life) _______________________________________________
Exercise 7.3
Using the words below, ask and answer questions with the correct form of used to.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

516

You/have long hair?


Did you use to have long hair?
Yes, I used to have very long hair.

Where/you/live?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
When you were a little boy/girl, what/you/play?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
When you were in elementary school, what/you/do after school?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
When you were very young,/your parents/read to you?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What bed habit/you/have?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What/you/look like?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
Who/be your best friend?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
You/live in the city?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

9.
10.

Where/you/go on vacation?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
You/wear glasses?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 2
ANYMORE
examples
Past
Present
Madonna used to live in Michigan, but she doesnt live there
anymore.
Madonna used to live in Michigan, but she doesnt anymore.
Madonna doesnt live in Michigan anymore.
(From this sentence, we understad that she used to live there.)

explanations
Anymore shows a change in a
situation or activity that was
regular or habitual in the past.
It is not necessary to repeat the
second verb phrase if it is the
same as the first one.
You can also use anymore without
used to.

Exercise 7.4
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of used to or anymore.
My grandmother complains about how things have changed, and she says that life (1)
_______________________ be better.
Families arent families the way they (2) _______________________ be. Everyones divorced.
If a husband and wife are having problems with their marriage, they dont stay together (3)
_______________________. And mothers (4) _______________________ stay home and take care of
their children, but not (5) _______________________. Everyones working. No one has time for
children (6) _______________________.
And the cars! No one walks (7) _______________________: everybody drives. We (8)
_______________________ walk five miles to school every day, even in the winter. And in school, the
children dont have to think (9) _______________________. In the maths class, for example, we (10)
_______________________ add, subtract, multiply, and divide, using our heads. Kids dont use their
heads (11) _______________________; they use calculators.
Computers have taken control over our lives. In my day, we didnt (12)
_______________________ have computers. We didnt even have electricity. My mother (13)
_______________________ spend all day cooking in the kitchen. Nobody eats home-cooked food (14)
_______________________. Food (15) _______________________ taste better. Its all chemicals and
preservatives now.
And people dont talk to each other (16) _______________________. Theyre too busy to talk,
too busy to eat, too busy to think
Life (17) _______________________ be simple, but it isnt (18) ___________________.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

Position of Anymore
examples
I dont live in Braov anymore.
They dont work here anymore.
Alice doesnt live here anymore.
We dont go there anymore.
They never talk to me anymore.
No one likes him anymore.

explanations
Anymore comes at the end of the sentence or clause.
Anymore is always used with a negative.

Exercise 7.5
Rewrite the statements you wrote in Exercise 7.2, using anymore and used to as appropriate.
(The conjunction but may be helpful in these statements.)
EXAMPLE:

Madonna doesnt have black hair anymore.


Madonna used to have black hair, but she doesnt anymore.

1.

Madonna
a. (have a big nose) _______________________________________________________
b. (be a dancer) _____________________________________________________
c. (be poor)
___________________________________________________________
d. (live in Michigan)
_____________________________________________________

2.

Bruce Springsteen
a. (have straight hair) _____________________________________________________
b. (play football in high school) _________________________________________
c. (live in New Jersey) _______________________________________________
d. (sing about blue-collar life) _______________________________________________

Exercise 7.6
Go back to Exercise 7.4 and underline all of the negative forms that are used with anymore.
The first one is they dont stay together.

FOCUS 3
STILL
examples
She lived in New Mexico 15 years ago; she lives in
New Mexico now:
She still lives in New Mexico.
He smoked 20 cigarettes a day in the past; he
smokes 20 cigarettes a day now:
He still smokes 20 cigarettes a day.
(From this sentence, we understand that he started
this habit in the past and hasnt stopped.)

518

explanations
To show that someone or something has NOT
changed, you can use still.
Still means that the action or habit continues to
the time of speaking.

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Exercise 7.7
Circle T if the statement is true, and F if it is false.
T
T
T
T
T
T
T

F
F
F
F
F
F
F

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

T
T
T

F
F
F

8.
9.
10.

There used to be a country called the Soviet Union, but there isnt anymore.
Theres still a country called Italy.
Thomas Jefferson used to be President of the United States, and he still is.
They still havent found Atlantis.
Anthony and Cleopatra used to float down the Nile River, and they still do.
They used to speak German in Ireland, and they still do.
There used to be a wall separating East Germany from West Germany in Berlin, and
there still is.
Alaska used to belong to Russia, but it doesnt anymore.
The Taj Mahal used to be in India, and it still is.
There didnt use to be a country named Uzbekistan, and there still isnt.

Position of Still
examples
1. He still lives in New Orleans.
2. He is still crazy after all these years.
3. I will still love you.

explanations
Still is a midsentence adverb. It
comes:

before the main verb in 1.


after the verb be in 2 or an auxiliary
verb in 3.

Exercise 7.8
Complete the following with still or anymore as appropriate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:
A:
B:

Wheres Jeff?
He doesnt live here __________________.
Is Gary home yet?
No, he is __________________ working.
Have you finished writing your book?
No, Im __________________ working on it.
Do you want a cigarette?
No, thanks, I dont smoke __________________.
Where do you live?
I __________________ live at home with my parents.
Hurry up! Were going to be late.
Im __________________ wrapping the gift.
Hows your grandfather?
Hes doing pretty well, even though he cant go out much __________________.

519

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

FOCUS 4
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY AND THEIR POSITION
examples
Most
frequently

explanations

always
usually
often
sometimes
seldom
rarely
hardly ever
never

ask questions.

Least
frequently
I usually get up at 6:00.
He never calls me.
She is always late.
They are rarely happy.
I will sometimes hear from them.
I have seldom spoken to her.
They never used to smoke.
He always used to call her.

To show how often you do something, you can


use an adverb of frequency.

Adverbs of frequency may stand before the main


verb.
Or they may be positioned after the verb be.
Adverbs of frequency are also placed between
an auxiliary verb and the main verb.
They are placed before used to as well.

Exercise 7.9
Look at the information in the chart below and answer the questions, using still, anymore, or an
adverb of frequency. Be careful with verb tenses.
always
often/
usually
sometimes
seldom/
hardly ever
never

Before
go dancing on weekends
go out to eat
travel
read novels
go to the beach

Now
stay home on weekends
cook dinner
clean the house
do the laundry
help kids with homework
go to the beach
go to baseball games
read novels
go out to eat
go dancing
travel

cook
clean
stay at home on weekends
go to baseball games
have children
Carol used to be single. Last year she married George. George is divorced and has two
children. The chart shows how Carols life has changed.
1.

520

Before she got married, how often did Carol use to go dancing?
_______________________________________________________________________

LIMBA ENGLEZ

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Did Carol use to have children?


_______________________________________________________________________
How often does Carol help the kids with their homework?
_______________________________________________________________________
When she was single, what did Carol often use to do on her vacation?
_______________________________________________________________________
How often did Carol use to cook and clean?
_______________________________________________________________________
How often does Carol cook and clean now?
_______________________________________________________________________
Does Carol still go dancing?
_______________________________________________________________________
Does she still go to the beach.
_______________________________________________________________________
How often does she go out to eat?
_______________________________________________________________________
How often does she do the laundry?
_______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 5
PAST PERFECT
Past perfect and simple past
examples
When I got there, he had eaten all the cookies.
(First, he ate the cookies; then, I got there; I didnt
see him eat the cookies.)

explanations
When two actions or events both happened in the
past, the past perfect describes the action or event
which happened first; the simple past describes
the action or event which happened second.

Exercise 7.10
Read about Jerry, and then fill in the time line with brief phrases describing Jerrys life. Include
only the underlined verbs. The first one has been done for you.
Jerry used to be a typical young man. Then five years ago, a car accident changed his life
forever. The accident paralyzed him, and now hes in a wheelchair.
After the accident, Jerry was in the hospital for a long time. He had a lot of operations. He had
never been in the hospital before, and he had never seen so many doctors: surgeons,
anaesthesiologists, neurologists He had never felt so much pain; he was sure the physical therapists
were experts in torture. He had to learn to get around in a wheelchair, too.
Before the accident, Jerry had played tennis and he had sailed. Now hes learning to play table
tennis, and he still sails his boat on the lake. He also competes in races in his wheelchair. He had
always had a dog, but after the accident, he needed a specially trained dog to help him around the
house. Last year he got Bridget, a Black Labrador.
As for his love life, Jerry had been engaged to a girl named Debbie. Hes still going to be
married, but now hes engaged to Patty his physical therapist.

521

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


Before accident

After accident

1. He had never been in the


hospital before.
2. ______________________
3. ______________________
4. ______________________
5. ______________________
6. ______________________
7. ______________________

Now

1. Jerry was in the hospital.


2. ______________________
3. ______________________
4. ______________________
5. ______________________

1. He's in a wheelchair.
2. ______________________
3. ______________________
4. ______________________
5. ______________________

Form: had + past participle


statement
I
had arrived.
You
We
(d)
They
She
had arrived.
He
(d)
It

negative
I
had not arrived.
You
We
(hadnt)
They
She
had not arrived.
He
(hadnt)
It

question
Had

Had

short answer
I
you
we
they
she
he
it

arrived?

Yes, we had.

arrived?

No, she had


not.
(hadnt)

Exercise 7.11
A reporter is interviewing Jerry (see Exercise 7.10) for a feature story about the disabled. The
reporter wants to know about Jerrys life before he was paralyzed. Using the words given below, write
the reporters questions and Jerrys answers. Use the past perfect.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

your life / pretty normal?


Had your life been pretty normal?

Yes, it had.

How many times / you / be in the hospital / before the accident?


_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
What sports / you / play / before the accident?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
you / run in races?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Before Bridget, / you / have a dog?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
you / be engaged to Patty?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 7.12
In the following pairs of statements, decide which event probably happened first. Write 1 beside
the event you think happened first, and 2 beside the one you think happened second. The first one has
been done for you.
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LIMBA ENGLEZ
EXAMPLE:

My legs ached. 2
I played tennis. 1

1.

a. His car broke down.


b. He took the bus.

5.

a. Brendas clothes were too tight.


b. She didnt exercise for several months.

2.

a. Charlotte was depressed.


b. She failed the English exam.

6.

a. Neville couldnt sleep.


b. He drank several cups of very strong
coffee.

3.

a. Tanya sat in the sun all afternoon.


b. Her skin was very red.

7.

a. We studied hard for three weeks.


b. We thought the test was easy.

4.

a. We didnt eat all day.


b. We were really hungry.

8.

a. The brothers fell asleep immediately.


b. They played soccer for several hours.

Now join the two statements to make one sentence, using because to connect them; change
one of the verbs in each sentence into past perfect. The first one has been done for you.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

My legs ached. 2
I played tennis. 1
My legs ached because I had played tennis.

________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Exercise 7.13
Combine the following pairs of statements to make one sentence, using the word in
parentheses to connect them. Change one of the verbs into the past perfect.
EXAMPLE:

Allen had a fight with his wife.


He slept badly last night. (because)
Allen slept badly last night because he had had a fight with his wife.

1.

He slept late.
Nobody set the alarm. (because)
_______________________________________________________________________

2.

Nobody did the laundry.


Allen didnt have any clean underwear. (so)
_______________________________________________________________________
Nobody went grocery shopping.
There wasnt any coffee. (because)
_______________________________________________________________________

3.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Allen forgot to go to the gas station.


There wasnt any gas in the car. (because)
_______________________________________________________________________
He was very worried.
His boss warned him not to be late anymore. (so)
_______________________________________________________________________
He didnt cash his pay check, so he used a credit card.
He got to the gas station. (when)
_______________________________________________________________________
He looked in the mirror and saw that he didnt comb his hair.
He was driving. (While)
_______________________________________________________________________
Allen found that he left his wallet at the gas station.
He got to work. (As soon as)
_______________________________________________________________________
He noticed there were no cars in the parking lot.
He realized that he forgot it was Saturday. (when)
_______________________________________________________________________

FOCUS 6
BEFORE, AFTER, BY, and BY THE TIME
examples
first event
second event
They were
before
Christmas.
married
before
I arrived.
She left
second event
first event
They were
after
Christmas.
married
after
I arrived.
She left
He left before I got there.
(It is possible to use the past perfect in this sentence,
but it is not necessary: He had left before I got here.
first event
second event
They were
by
Christmas.
married
by the time
I got there.
She had left

explanations
Before, after, by and by the time show the order
of actions or events.
Before introduces the event that happened
second or more recently.
After introduces the event that happened first.
When we use before and after, it is not
necessary to use the past perfect because they
make the order of events clear.
By (+ noun phrase) and by the time (+ verb
phrase) introduce an event that happened
sometime before the second or more recent
event.
By the time is often associated with the past
perfect.

Exercise 7.14
In each of the following sentences, write 1 above the action that occurred first, and 2 above the
action that was second. If there are three verbs, write 3 above the third action. Then check (3) the
sentences where it is necessary to use the past perfect to indicate the order of events. The first one
has been done for you.

524

LIMBA ENGLEZ

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

___
___
___
___
___
___
___
___

9.

___

10.

___

11.

___

1
2
Last night Mr. Wilson walked the dog and then let the cat out.
He locked the doors, turned off the lights, and went upstairs.
When he got upstairs, he realized that he had forgotten to take out the garbage.
He went back downstairs and took out the garbage.
When he went upstairs to brush his teeth, he heard a noise.
By the time Mr. Wilson got to the door, the noise had stopped.
He went back upstairs and heard the noise again. It sounded like someone crying.
He went back downstairs, and again, before he reached the door, the noise had
stopped.
By that time, Mr. Wilson had gone up and down the stairs so many times that he was
dizzy. He went to bed.
The next morning when Mr. Wilson went outside to get the newspaper, he saw what
had caused the noise the night before.
He was surprised to see that the cat had had kittens!

Exercise 7.15
Answer the following questions about Mr. Wilson (see Exercise 7.14) with complete sentences.
EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Did Mr. Wilson walk the dog last night?


Yes, he walked the dog.

Had Mr. Wilson let the cat out when he went upstairs?
_______________________________________________________________________
What was he doing when he first heard the noise?
_______________________________________________________________________
What did Mr. Wilson do when he heard the noise?
_______________________________________________________________________
Why did he first go back downstairs?
_______________________________________________________________________
Did Mr. Wilson hear the noise before or after he went upstairs?
_______________________________________________________________________
Why did he feel dizzy?
_______________________________________________________________________
What had Mr. Wilson done by the time he locked the doors and turned off the lights?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
By the time he went to bed, how many times had Mr. Wilson walked up the stairs?
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
What had caused the noise?
_______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 7.16
Rewrite the following sentences by omitting the underlined words and using the word in
parentheses. Underline the verb in each sentence where it is possible (but not always necessary) to use
past perfect. The first one has been done for you.

525

ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


EXAMPLE:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

First Sue listened to the weather report and then she decided to go for a bike
ride. (after)
After Sue listened to the weather report, she decided to go for a bike ride.
OR
Sue decided to go for a bike ride after she listened to the weather
report.

Sue studied several maps, and then she decided on an interesting route for her bike ride.
(before)
She changed her clothes, and then she checked the tires on her bike. (after)
She put fresh water in her water bottle, and next she left home. (before)
She rode for several miles, then she came to a very steep hill. (after)
She climbed to the top of the hill, and then she stopped to drink some water and enjoy the view.
(before)
She continued for ten more miles, and then she got a flat tire. (after)
She fixed the flat tire quickly, and then she continued her ride. (before)
It started to rain, and then she decided to go home. (after)
Before she got home, she rode over 30 miles. (by the time)
She took a long, hot shower, and finally she ate a huge plate of pasta. (after)

FOCUS 7
PAST PERFECT vs. PRESENT PERFECT
examples
She was tired yesterday because she had taken a
long bike ride.
She is tired now because she has taken a long
bike ride.

explanations
The past perfect contrasts two actions or events in
the past.
The present perfect connects the past with the
present. It tells us that something happened
sometime before now or that something started in
the past and continues until now.

Exercise 7.17
Underline the mistakes in the following sentences and correct as necessary.
EXAMPLE:

had
I wasnt tired yesterday because I have slept for ten hours the night before.

1.

Nigel wasnt hungry last night because he had eaten a large fresh salmon for lunch.

2.

Jan is really confused in class last Tuesday because she hadnt read the assignment.

3.

Graham had gone home because he has a terrible headache today.

4.

Howard is a lucky man because he had travelled all over the world.

5.

Martha went to the hospital after she has broken her leg.

6.

Before he has left the house, George locked all the doors and windows.

526

LIMBA ENGLEZ

7.

Professor Westerfield always returns our papers after she had graded them.

8.

I didnt see you at the airport last night because your plane has left before I got there.

9.

Matthew and James were late because they have missed the bus.

Exercise 7.18
In the story below, use the appropriate verb tense (simple past, past progressive, past perfect,
present perfect) for the verbs in parentheses.
Some people attend all their high school reunions, but Al (1) _______________________ (go +
not) back to his high school since he (2) _________________________ (graduate) ten years ago. Five
years ago, he (3) _________________________ (make) arrangements to go to his five-year high
school reunion, but two days before that reunion, he (4) _________________________ (break) his leg.
He (5) _________________________ (paint) his house on a tall ladder when he (6)
_________________________ (lose) his balance. So he (7) _________________________ (not + go)
to his five-year reunion.
Al (8) _________________________ (not + visit) his hometown for ten years and his wife,
Marta, (9) _________________________ (never + be) there. Al and Marta (10)
_________________________ (get) married about a year and a half ago and they (11)
_________________________ (not + be) married long when some of Als high school friends (12)
_________________________ (come) to visit them last year. So at least Marta (13)
_________________________ (meet) a few of Als old friends, even though she (14)
_________________________ (not + be) to his hometown.

Tutor-assessed Task 4

Before doing this test, revise Grammar Digests 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7.


Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentences.
1.

Roy had a heart attack last year. Before than, he ________ about his health. His doctor told him
to change his lifestyle, and gave him a diet and exercise plan.
(A) had never thought
(C) never had been thinking
(B) had thought never
(D) never had thought

2.

He used to eat a lot of fast food and he ________ any fresh vegetables.
(A) ate seldom
(C) seldom used to eat
(B) had eaten seldom
(D) used to seldom eat

3.

Before his heart attack, Roy ________ a lot of salt and fired food.
(A) did use to eat
(C) used to eat
(B) use to eat
(D) was use to eat
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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA


4.

Roy quit smoking and drinking hard liquor. After he ________ for about three months, he
started to feel a lot better.
(A) had been quitting
(C) had quit
(B) has quit
(D) used to quit

5.

After his doctor advised Roy to start an exercise program, he ________ to walk every morning
before work.
(A) began
(C) begun
(B) begins
(D) had begun

6.

Its been one year since Roys heart attack, and he feels great. He ________ a cigarette
anymore.
(A) didnt want
(C) still wants
(B) doesnt want
(D) wanted

Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be
grammatically correct.
7.

When I was a little boy, every Thanksgiving weekend my family and I were used
A
B
C
to visit my grandparents on their farm.
D

8.

We lived in the city, so it had been very special for us, especially me and my sister,
A
B
to be in the country and to help Grandpa Bob with the animals and Grandma Flo with
C
D
the baking.

9.

By the time we got to the farm on Wednesday night, Grandma had baked her worldA
B
C
famous homemade cinnamon bread and Grandpa had chose a turkey for Thanksgiving
D
dinner.

10.

Thursday morning we always used to get up early, toast a few slices of Flos
A
B
C
cinnamon bread for breakfast, and then go out to the garden to clean the best head of
D
pumpkin for the pumpkin pie.

11.

Then my sister and I used to play in the brightly coloured autumn leaves; we had made
A
B
castles and mountains from the leaves, and then jumped and ran and laughed until Dad
C
called us.
D

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12.

The three of us helped Grandpa with the cows and the chickens, but mostly we played
A
B
with the cats and dog; we children used to do seldom very much real work.
C
D

13.

After we had played and worked so much, we were tired; my sister and I took a long
A
B
C
nap while Mom and Dad had continued to help with all the work in the kitchen.
D

14.

Now Im married, I have my own family, and I live in the city still; my grandparents
A
died many years ago, so we dont visit the farm anymore.
B
C
D

15.

I didnt use to cook, but now that Grandmas not here, she doesnt bake anymore that
A
B
C
wonderful cinnamon bread, so Ive learned to make it myself.
D

Write a short article for your old high school magazine, reporting on your life and habits and
how they have changed (or not) over the years since you left high school. Also describe your present life
and habits and compare these with your past.
Try to include the following:
something you used to do but dont do anymore
something you used to do and still do
something you didnt use to do but do now
something you never do
something you seldom do
something you sometimes do
something you often do
something you usually do
Dont forget to include changes (or not) in your physical appearance. We have begun the article
for you:
I left high school in _______ (year). As I look back on my life since then, I realize that some
things gave changes, and some things have stayed the same. Let me start by telling you about some of
the changes

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

Answer Key
Reading Digest 1
Exercise 1.2. A
1C
2A
3B

4A

Exercise 1.2. B
1 borrow
2 debts

3 fulfilled
4 skilled (at)

5 itch
6 be taken as proof

Exercise 1.2. C
1 lend
2 itching

3 scratching
4 gain

5 win
6 borrow

Exercise 1.3
1C
2D

3A

4B

Exercise 1.4. A
1 e)
3 f)
5 g)
2 d)
4 a)
6 a)
*4 and 6 have the same meaning
Exercise 1.4. B
1 been deceiving
2 pass himself off as
7 tricks
Exercise 1.5
1 on
2 for
3 in out of
Exercise 1.6. A
1 thanks
2 out
3 looks
4 fact./reality

7 squirm about
8 the context

7 c)
8 b)

3 cunning
4 cheats

4 by
5 on
6 at
5 than
6 addition
7 bigger
8 whether

5 take you in
6 betrayed

7 by/at
8 of
9 on
9 far
10 means
11 tell
12 dishonest

13 home
14 away
15 before
16 available

17 yours/one
18 last
19 wait/delay
20 without

Exercise 1.6. B
1 Yes, Im terribly sorry Im late.
2 It is the second time this has happened in the last two weeks.
3 I know. I hope youll forgive me.
4 Well, why are you late this time?
5 The boss asked me to work late again.
6 Well, why didnt you phone me?
7 I tried to but it wasnt possible.
8 What do you mean? Are you trying to tell me that there are no phones in your office?
9 Of course there are phones in the office but there is something wrong with them.
Exercise 1.7. A
1 inspector
2 loser
Exercise 1.7. C
1 a pressure-cooker
2 a paint-thinner
7 a carpet-sweeper
10 a bottle-opener
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3 thinker
4 actor

5 sailors
6 visitors
3 a paint-remover
4 a hair-dryer
8 ant-powder/ant-killer

7 murderer

5 hair-restorer
6 a tin-opener
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Exercise 1.8.
1.B, 2 A, 3C, 4C, 5D, 6B, 7A, 8D, 9C, 10B, 11C,
12D, 13B, 14A, 15C, 16D, 17A, 18C, 19D, 20B
Grammar Digest 1
Exercises 1.1 & 1.2
1. Mrs. James called the police when her husband died.
2. While she was waiting for the police to arrive, she placed a bar of soap on the bathroom floor.
3. As soon as Mark Sutton, the detective, heard about murder, he rushed to the James's house.
4. Mrs. James took him to the scene of the crime as soon as he arrived.
5. While Mark Sutton was searching the bathroom for clues, he became suspicious of Mrs. James's story.
6. He saw that Mr. James died while he was brushing his teeth.
7. When Mark Sutton charged Mrs. James with murder, she insisted she was innocent.
8. A crowd of news reporters tried to interview Mrs. James while the police were taking her to jail.
Exercise 1.3
2. He met Paul McCartney while he was attending high school.
3. While he was studying at high school, he formed the Beatles.
4. He was performing in clubs in Liverpool when he signed he first recording contract.
5. He fell in love with Yoko Ono while he was living in London.
6. John was working for peace and writing new songs when he died.
7. One of his fans shot him while he was leaving his apartment.
Exercise 1.4
1. went; 2. was waiting ... came; 3. got ... worked/were working; 4. saw ... were; 5. realised; 6. were waiting ...
talked and laughed; 7. was ... did not want; 8. left ... made; 9. was leaving ... said.
Exercise 1.5
2. When I got home, I put the groceries away. OR I put the groceries away when I got home.
3. As soon as I finished my homework, I made dinner. OR I made dinner as soon as I finished my homework.
4. While I was making dinner, my brother came home. OR My brother came home while I was making dinner.
5. When I asked my brother if he was hungry, he got upset. OR My brother got upset when I asked him if he was
hungry.
6. While my brother was explaining why he was upset, I loaded his plate with food. OR I loaded my brother's plate
with food while he was explaining why he was upset.
7. When he looked down at the food on his plate, he calmed down. OR He calmed down when he looked at the
food on his plate.
8. As soon as he started to eat, he apologised to me. OR He apologised to me as soon as he started to eat.
Task
Past: 2. He stopped smoking.
Present: 1. He drinks a glass of wine with dinner. 2. He weighs 185 lbs.
From Past to Present: 1. glasses; 2. headaches.
Exercise 1.6
Past: 3, 4, 10, 9.
Future: 2, 11.

Present: 7.
Began in the past and continues now: 5, 6, 8.

Exercise 1.7
1. John hasn't eaten ants.
2. Has Helena been to Hong Kong?
3. Adam and Kristen have seen a penguin.
4. Have you ridden a camel?
5. I haven't caught any fish.
6. Lauren hasn't shot a gun.
7. I haven't had a pet snake.
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8. Have you gone to the Galapagos Islands?
9. Larisa and Dora have stood in line for more than an hour.
10. Have you done something crazy?
Exercise 1.8
(1) has had; (2) has not had; (3) was; (4) broke; (5) isn't smoking; (6) stopped; (7) hasn't smoked; (8) is wearing;
(9) has worn; (10) drinks.
Exercise 1.9
2. Do you wear glasses?
3. When did you start wearing them?
4. Have you worn them for some time?
5. Do you smoke?
6. When did you stop?
7. Have you smoked since then?/ since that time?
8. Have you had these headaches for some time?
Exercise 1.10
Donor: haven't eaten
Interviewer: Have you given
Donor: have given
Interviewer: has it been
Donor: haven't donated
Interviewer: Have you had
Donor: haven't had
Interviewer: Have you been
Donor: haven't been
Interviewer: Have you travelled
Donor: have gone; have lived
Exercise 1.11
Since: that time; 1987.
For: three weeks.
Exercise 1.12
(1) since; (2) for two hours; (3) since; (4) since; (5) since; (6) since; (7) since; (8) since; (9) for
Exercise 1.13
1. F; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. U; 6. F.
Exercise 1.14
1. He has worked for the TV station for eight years.
2. They have been married since 1962.
3. She has known how to fix a car for a long time.
4. Since his car broke down, Tom has been riding is bike to work.
5. I have wanted to go to China for several years.
6. My brother hasn't smoked since he stopped smoking in college.
7. I have been afraid of bats since I was a child.
8. My mother has been in France since last week.
9. My sister has been running two miles every morning since she was 15 years old.
10. They have been going to Spain every summer for 12 years.
Exercise 1.15
1. Have you liked ice cream since you were a child?
2. She has sung with the Milan Opera for three years.
3. He's been an accountant since 1985.
4. Our parents have played tennis since we went college.
5. Grandma hasn't driven since she turned 85.
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6. Have your aunt and uncle been in Italy for a week?/ since last week?
7. Nick has played football for two years.
8. Their house has been a wreck since the hurricane struck.
9. She has studied in the library for three hours.
10. It hasn't rained since 5 a.m.
Exercise 1.16
(3) have known; (4) since; (5) met; (6) have worked; (7) for; (8) showed; (9) taught; (10) for; (11) quit; (12) haven't
worked; (13) since; (14) started; (15) eat.
Exercise 1.17
1. a)
2. d)
3. d)
Reading Digest 2
Exercise 2.2 A
Suggested answers:
1 What would you say if I told you I was thinking of going to live in London?
2 (as in the passage)
3 The writer had been offered a job in the head office in London of the bank he was working for and he had
accepted it.
4 hurt/angry/upset/sad/disappointed.
5 He was probably tired of the small village he had lived in all his life and wanted to see something of the world.
6 He probably took the job and went to live in London.
Exercise 2.3.A
a) stand by
b) stand for
Exercise 2.3.B
1c
2b
3a

4d

Exercise 2.3.C
1 for
2 by
3 for

4 up to

c) stand up to

d) stand for

Exercise 2.4.A
1 hoping/wanting/longing
5 test
9 country/field
13 time
17 arrange

2 looking/searching
6 latest
10 apart
14 reason
18 with

Exercise 2.5.A
1 scientific
2 romantic
6 chemist
7 loneliness

3 artistic
8 happily

4 specialist
9 similarities

5 pianist
10 activities

3 Among

4 between

5 between

Exercise 2.5.B
1 between
2 among
7 among 8 between

3 especially/particularly
7 with/to
11 in
15 rest
19 fill

4 out
8 for
12 tired
16 member
20 off/away

6 Among

between = 2 people, things or points


among = more than 2 people, things or points
Exercise 2.7.A
Negative prefixes for words in column B: im-, un-, dis-, un-, in-, irExercise 2.7.B
1 incapable
2 inaccurate
7 disloyal
8 disorderly

3 impossible
9 unlucky

4 impolite
10 unhappy

5 irresistible
11 insensitive

6 irregular
12 unreasonable
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13 unwilling

14 displeased

Exercise 2.8.A
1 when
5 unless 6 If

15 unpleasant

2 unless
7 when

16 inconvenient

3 in case
8 Unless

17 incorrect

18 uncertain

4 if

Exercise 2.8.B
had been able, would have passed,
had known, could have borrowed,
would have been, had not wanted,
had not stopped, might have run,
had done, would have failed,
would you do/would you have done, were driving/had been driving, happened/had happened,
would do/would have done,
should have done, had been,
would have done, would not have changed,
had made
Exercise 2.8.C
1 went/were going
6 would get

2 had not come


7 had been

3 to get
8 went

4 had been

5 started

Grammar Digest 2
Exercise 2.1
1. was; 2. began; 3. flew; 4. told; 5. has flown; 6. has met; 7. has seen; 8. went; 9. saw; 10. has done; 11. jumped;
12. rode; 13. hasn't been; 14. crashed; 15. had; 16. had; 17. fought; 18. won; 19. has been; 20. have.
Exercise 2.2
(1) have walked; (2) have seen; (3) took; (4) went; (5) have seen; (6) went; (7) had; (8) have eaten; (9) tried; (10)
have spent.
Exercise 2.3
(2) have had/have; (3) worked; (4) have traveled; (5) have learn; (6) went; (7) worked; (8) helped; (9) moved; (10)
lived; (11) looked after; (12) worked; (13) taught; (14) returned; (15) was; (16) left; (17) gave; (18) came; (19)
took; (20) have worked; (21) have experienced; (22) have enjoyed.
Exercise 2.4
2. I've gone; I went
3. I've ridden; I rode
4. Have ever you been; Have you ever been
5. I've ever been; I've been
6. I've studied; I studied
Exercise 2.5
Answers will vary.
1. I have (never/haven't ever) found a wallet in the street.
2. I have (never/haven't ever) flown in a helicopter.
3. I have (never/haven't ever) fought in a war.
4. I have (never/haven't ever) broken a bone.
5. I have (never/haven't ever) given blood.
6. I have (never/haven't ever) known a person from Greenland.
7. I have (never/haven't ever) had a car accident.
8. I have (never/haven't ever) worn snow shoes.
9. I have never/haven't ever built anything./ I have built something.
10. I have (never/haven't ever) traveled to other countries.

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Exercise 2.6
1. (a) I have never tried; (b) I have never done; (c) Have you ever washed; (d) I have tried; (e) Did you try; (f) I
used.
2. (a) Have you ever read; (b) have; (c) read; (d) forgot; (e) won.
3. (a) Has he ever been; (b) came; (c) Has he gone; (d) he has never been; (e) has travelled; (f) Did you take; (g)
he has never visited.
4. (a) Did you go out; (b) We went; (c) I have never been; (d) I have eaten; (e) Have you ever tried; (f) We had.
Exercise 2.7
(1) have decided; (2) went; (3) picked up; (4) took; (5) read; (6) has traveled; (7) has never been; (8) read; (9) has
been; (10) went; (11) stayed; (12) returned; (13) has changed; (14) have heard.
Exercise 2.8
Has been washing; has been living; haven't been sleeping; have been sleeping; have been hiking and (mountain)
climbing; have been swimming; has been hiking; has been going; have been having; has been bird-watching;
have been having.
Exercise 2.10
2. She has been chopping onions.
3. She has been studying for a test.
4. He's been drinking.
5. He's been swimming.
6. They have been playing in the yard.
Exercise 2.11
Answers will vary on your imagination.
1. He has been kissing his girlfriend./He's been celebrating his birthday.
2. They have been shopping/spending money.
3. They have been hiking/walking for a long time.
4. She has been doing her homework/studying for a chemistry class.
5. She has been eating a hamburger with a lot of ketchup./She has been writing a letter with a red pen.
6. He has been playing with a cat/working in a circus or a zoo.
Exercise 2.12
(1) haven't been doing; (2) have been making; (3) have been running; (4) have been playing; (5) have been
playing; (6) Have you bee playing; (7) have been practicing; (8) Have you done; (9) haven't hit; (10) have caught;
(11) has hit; (12) told.
Exercise 2.13
2. have been writing; 3. has been raining; 4. have been working; 5. has been barking; 6. has been spending; 7.
have been looking; 8. have been living; 9. have been studying; 10. have been trying.
Exercise 2.14
A. 2; B. 2; C. 2; D. 1; E. 2; F. 1; G. 2; H. 2; I. 1; J. 1; K. 1.
Exercise 2.15
Answers will vary.
Exercise 2.16
(1) have been riding; (2) have been taking; (3) have not been going; (4) have been eating; (5) have been cooking;
(6) have been feeling; (7) have you been doing; (8) have been dating; (9) have been sailing; (10) have been
skiing; (11) have been talking; (12) has been happening; (13) have been studying.
Exercise 2.17
(1) have/'ve been trying; (2) have been calling; (3) have/'ve been hoping; (4) Have you been waiting; (5) have you
been; (6) have/'ve been standing; (7) has started; (8) started.

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Reading Digest 3
Exercise 3.1.A
1B
2D
3C

4A

Exercise 3.2
1 salary

2 money

3 pay

4 wages

5 cash

Exercise 3.3
1 Since
7 after
13 like
19 forgive

2 fault
8 having
14 broken
20 advice

3 was
9 result
15 short

4 going
10 up
16 would

5 interfere
6 made
11 told
12 wish
17 reason borrowed

4 borrow

5 borrowing

6 lending

3 error

4 mistake

5 error/mistake

Exercise 3.5.A
1 borrow 2 lend

3 lent

Exercise 3.5.B
1 mistake
2 fault

Exercise 3.6
1 I have already discussed a further loan with my bank manager.
2 He has offered/offered to lend me 2600.
3 Now it seems there is/will be no problem about buying the car.
4 I have not yet decided exactly which car to buy/I am going to buy.
5 However, one of my friends has suggested that I (should) buy a Fiat Uno.
6 She bought one several years ago and is/has been very satisfied with it.
7 Another friend suggested/has suggested that I (should) buy a Volkswagen.
8 He says/said he has had one for six years and it is still going very well.
8 I will let you know as soon as I have decided which car will be/is the best for me.
Exercise 3.7
1 yet
2 already

3 still

4 yet

5 still

6 already

7 still

Exercise 3.8.A
A: does, will be, misses, will have
B: will he get, takes
A: will be, is, may
A: gets, can, is, put, has already eaten, will not be
B: will he do, am, gets
A: are not, arrives, will have to
B: go, will leave, can
Exercise 3.8.C
1 If I were you, I would apply for a job as soon as possible.
2 If I spoke perfect English, I would not need to take the exam.
3 If he were taller, he would be able to join the police.
4 You will/would be rich if you win/won the pools.
5 You will not be able to travel next week unless you get a visa.
6 If the weather is nice next weekend, they will go to the country.
7 Unless you hear otherwise, I shall/will come at 8.15.
8 If I were the Prime Minister, I would change a lot of things.
9 If the bus leaves/has left by the time I arrive, I will get a taxi.
10 If my headache does not go/has not gone away soon, Ill take an aspirin.
Grammar Digest 3
Exercise 3.1
1. a. larger than; b. more dangerous than.
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2. a. more nervous than; b. more comfortable.
3. a. hotter than; b. spicier than.
4. a. more intelligent than; b. better than.
5. a. better than; b. more exciting than.
Exercise 3.2
(1) larger; (2) cheaper; (3) more expensive; (4) bigger; (5) more comfortable; (6) more spacious; (7) closer; (8)
more practical; (9) noisier; (10) cosier; (11) safer.
Exercise 3.3
Answers may vary.
2. Brattleboro is less populated than Los Angeles./Los Angeles is more populated than Brattleboro.
3. Brattleboro is cheaper than Los Angeles./A one room apartment in Brattleboro is cheaper than one Los
Angeles./Los Angeles is more expensive than Brattleboro./A one room apartment in Los Angeles in more
expensive than one in Brattleboro.
4. Public transportation in Brattleboro is worse than in Los Angeles./Public transportation in Los Angles in better
than in Brattleboro.
5. The winter is colder in Brattleboro than in Los Angles./The winter is wormer in Los Angeles than in Brattleboro.
6. It's more dangerous in L.A. than in Brattleboro./ Brattleboro is safer than Los Angeles.
7. Brattleboro is cleaner than Los Angeles./Los Angeles is dirtier than Brattleboro.
8. Brattleboro is quieter an Los Angeles./L. A. is noisier than Brattleboro.
9. Brattleboro is more relaxed than Los Angeles./ Los Angeles is busier than Brattleboro.
10. Answer will vary.
Exercise 3.4
(2) more practical; (3) as economical as; (4) cheaper than; (5) safer than; (6) better than/as good as; (7) easier;
(8) older; (9) as cool as; (10) as nervous as; (11) as concerned as.
Exercise 3.5
1. John is taller than Mary.
2. Seoul is safer than Los Angeles.
3. Paul is as intelligent as Robert.
4. Mary is not as beautiful as Kim.
5. My test scores were much worse than Margaret's.
6. Lorraine's eyes are darker than mine/than my eyes.
7. Jeff is more handsome than Jack.
8. My parents' life was harder than mine.
9. Is New York as exciting as Paris?
10. Is Lake Ontario cleaner than Lake Erie?
11. The Hudson River is as polluted as the Volga River.
12. Mexico's capital city is more crowded than America's capital city.
Exercise 3.6
Answers will vary.
1. Felicia's shoes are dressier than Bob's shoes.
2. Bob's/Felicia's shoes are more expensive than Felicia's/Bob's shoes.
3. Felicia's shoes are newer than Bob's shoes.
4. Bob's shoes are older than Felicia's shoes.
5. Bob's shoes are more casual than Felicia's shoes.
6. Bob's shoes are bigger then Felicia's shoes.
7. Felicia's favourite movies are more emotional than Bob's favourite movies.
8. Bob's favourite movies are more exciting than Felicia's favourite movies.
9. Felicia's favourite movies are more sensitive than Bob's favourite movies.
10. Felicia's favourite movies are sadder than Bob's favourite movies.
11. Bob's favourite movies are funnier than Felicia's favourite movies.
12. Bob's favourite movies are sillier than Felicia's favourite movies.

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Exercise 3.7
Sentences will vary.
Exercise 3.8
1. harder than; 2. more safely than; 3. better than; 4. more gracefully than; 5. more patiently than; 6. more openly
than; 7. more easily than; 8. more freely than; 9. more easily than; 10. more clearly than.
Exercise 3.9
3. Sally thinks as creatively as Bill (does).
4. Sally communicates more openly than Bill./Bill doesn't communicate as openly as Sally (does).
5. Bill plans more carefully than Sally (does)./Sally doesn't plan as carefully as Bill (does).
6. Sally works with others as well as Bill (does).
7. Sally acts more calmly in emergencies than Bill (does)./Bill doesn't act as calmly in emergencies as Sally
(does).
8. Bill solves problems more fairly than Sally (does)./Sally doesn't solve problems as fairly as Bill (does).
9. Sally writes as clearly as Bill (does).
10. Bill works faster than Sally (does)./Sally doesn't work as fast as Bill (does).
Exercise 3.10
Possible questions:
1. Does Sally work as hard as Bill?
2. Does Sally draw better than Bill?
3. Does Bill think as creatively as Sally?
4. Does Sally communicate more openly than Bill?
Exercise 3.12
1. T; 2. F; 3. F; 4. F; 5. T; 6. T; 7. T; 8. F
Exercise 3.13
Answers will vary according to your views. Some examples:
2. Boys score higher on math tests than girls./Girls score as high as boys on math tests.
3. Girls run faster than boys./Boys run as fast as girls (do).
Task
1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. c; 5. c;6. b; 7.c; 8. b; 9. b; 10. b.
Exercise 3.14
1. the largest; 2. the most valuable; 3. the most widely spoken; 4. the hottest; 5. the tallest; 6. the most crowded;
7. the most expensive; 8. the wettest; 9. the most nutritious; 10. the hardest.
Exercise 3.15
1. C; 2. E; 3. J; 4. I; 5. F; 6. D; 7. A; 8. B; 9. H; 10. K; 11. G.
Exercise 3.16
1. The largest; 2. The most popular; 3. The most successful; 4. The heaviest; 5. The fattest; 6. The most prolific;
7. The longest; 8. The biggest; 9. The hottest; 10. The fastest.
Exercise 3.17
Answers may vary, depending on your viewpoints.
2. one of the most/least exciting sports; 3. one of the proudest moments; 4. one of the least expensive hotels; 5.
one of the worst things; 6. one of the best desserts; 7. one of the finest doctors; 8. one of the greatest Jazz
musicians; 9. one of the most beautiful sculptures; 10. one of the most tragic deaths.
Exercise 3.18
1. ___ is one of the most beautiful cities.
2. ___ is one of the most interesting places in ___.
3. ___ is one of the best restaurants in ___.
4. ___ is one of the most famous leaders ....
5. ___ is one of the most dangerous diseases ....
6. ___ is one of the most serious problems ....
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7. ___ is one of the most popular foods in ___.
8. ___ is one of the funniest shows ....
Exercise 3.19
1. Mount Logan is the tallest mountain in Canada.
2. Della Falls is the longest waterfall in Canada.
3. Lake Superior is the largest lake in Canada.
4. Toronto is the biggest city in Canada.
5. The CN Tower is the tallest building in Canada.
6. Montreal is the oldest city in Canada.
7. The Prime Minister is the highest government official in Canada.
8. Alert, the Northwest Territories, is the town that is the farthest north.
9. Jacques Cartier was the earliest European explorer.
10. The United States is the biggest trading partner.
Exercise 3.20
Sentences will vary. Superlative forms to be used are:
1. the silliest; 2. the sleepiest; 3. runs the most quickly; 4. the most helpful; 5. sleeps the most lightly; 6. the most
pleasant; 7. the heaviest; 8. the busiest; 9. the saddest; 10. drives the most slowly; 11. the best musician; 12. the
most graceful dancer; 13. has the bluest eyes; 14. works the hardest.
Exercise 3.21
Sentences will vary. Superlatives forms to be used are:
1. the worst writer; 2. the shiest; 3. the least interesting; 4. the least busy; 5. the worst singer.
Reading Digest 4
Exercise 4.1.A
1 shoplifting
6 forgery

2 murder
7 mugging

Exercise 4.1.D
1C
2D
3B

4A

3 theft
8 robbery

4 burglary
9 kidnapping

5 assault
10 minor offences

Exercise 4.2.A
Verb

Noun
(crime)

Noun
(person)

to steal

theft

thief

to rob

robbery

robber

to burgle

burglary

burglar

to commit
an offence

offence

offender

to mug

mugging

mugger

to murder

murder

murderer

to forge

forgery

forger

to shoplift

shoplifting

shoplifter

to kidnap

kidnapping

kidnapper

Exercise 4.2.B
1 robbery
2 burgled, stolen
6 thief
7 robber
Exercise 4.3.A
1G
2C
3I

4B

3 burglar
8 shoplifting
5H

6A

4 theft
9 forgeries

5 mugger
10 offences

7F
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Exercise 4.3.B
grab
possessions

portable pick up
manufacturer

show up to hand
reliable

link
install

delicate
vulnerable

Exercise 4.4
460,000 cars reported missing each year
20 the average age of car thieves
- car thefts and thefts from cars in relation to overall crime
Exercise 4.5
1 the
7 with
13 where

2 in/over
8 Despite
14 which

3 have
9 quick
15 at

Exercise 4.6
1 of
9 to

2 the
10 by

3 to
11 9

Exercise 4.7
1 networks
6 detection

2 information
7 developments

4 were
10 when

5 them
11 away

6 spent
12 Next

49
12 them

5 which
13 age

6a
14 is

79
15 go

3 criminals
8 invention

4 forgeries
9 powerless

5 fingerprints
10 prevention

8 its

Grammar Digest 4
Exercise 4.1
1. B; 2. F; 3. D; 4. G; 5. H; 6. A; 7. E; 8. C.
Exercise 4.2
Sentences will vary.
1. You should explain that your heritage is important to you.
2. You should take her to a game with you.
3. You shouldn't do things just "to be like the other kids".
1. You should sit down with your husband and tell him what's on your mind.
2. If you both have jobs, he ought to do half of the housework.
3. You should take turns making dinner and washing the dishes.
4. You shouldn't pick up or wash his clothes if he drops them on the floor.
1. First of all, you shouldn't listen to your friends, but decide what's important to you.
2. You ought to talk to someone at your local community college about careers in nursing.
3. You should try to talk to a nurse about his/her work.
4. You should definitely change jobs if you're very dissatisfied.
Exercise 4.3
1. must; 2. should; 3. must; 4. shouldn't; 5. shouldn't; 6. must; 7. should; 8. should.
Exercise 4.4
1. should; 2. must; 3. must; 4. should; 5. should; 6. shouldn't; 7. must; 8. must; 9. must; 10. must; 11. shouldn't.
Exercise 4.5
1. You had better study hard ...
2. You had better wash your clothes ...
3. You'd better not eat unhealthy food ...
4. You'd better make me proud ...
5. You had better not fail any classes ...
6. You'd better pay the tuition money back ...
7. You'd better not stay out late.
8. You'd better remember how hard you worked to go to college ...
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9. You'd better stay out of trouble ...
10. You'd better leave now ...
Exercise 4.6
1. had better; 2. should/ought to; 3. had better; 4. should/ought to; 5. should; 6. had better; 7. should/ought to; 8.
should.
Exercise 4.7
Here are a few suggestions:
1. You should be more careful with your allowance. I can't give you more money every time you need some.
2. Do you think I ought to major in chemistry?
3. You had better quit smoking if you want to live much longer.
4. You shouldn't drive this car on the motorway. It's too old to go that fast.
Exercise 4.8
1. must not; 2. should; 3. must not; 4. should; 5. had better; 6. must; 7. had better; 8. had better; 9. should; 10.
should.
Exercise 4.9
1. must; 2. should/ought to; 3. had better; 4. should/ought to; 5. had better; 6. must; 7. had better; 8. must; 9.
should; 10. had better.
Exercise 4.10
Answers will vary, depending on your advice and opinions.
Exercise 4.11
(1) should; (2) could; (3) could; (4) could; (5) could; (6) could; (7) should; (8) should; (9) should; (10) should; (11)
should.
Exercise 4.12
Sentences will vary greatly.
1. He must bring a ... to the Bureau of Motor Vehicles. Explanation: identification is required. Must implies that it is
absolutely necessary.
2. He could fail the ... if he doesn't learn all the rules of the road. Explanation: It's a possibility, but not a certainty.
3. He shouldn't be nervous if his has studied enough for the test. Explanation: It's normal to be nervous before a
test.
4. He ought o ... before the test. Explanation: it's a good idea to practice parallel parking. This is simple friendly
advice.
5. Angelica must get ... . Explanation: this is required for registration.
6. She ought to ... . Explanation: It's a good idea to register early so she can get the classes she wants.
7. She should find ... . Explanation: It's not necessary, but it's a good idea.
8. I must remember to buy her ... . Explanation: It's no obligatory, and I am free to do what I choose, but I will feel
terrible if I don't, so a strong model is used.
9. I could bake ... . Explanation: It's a possibility or option.
10. I'd better remind my father about it. Explanation: My mother would be seriously hurt if he forgot about it, so it's
very important that I remind him.
11. They ought to start ... . Explanation: It's always a good idea.
12. They must type .... . Explanation: It's obligatory. The teacher will not accept hand written papers.
13. They mustn't turn... . Explanation: They are required to turn it in on time, or take a lower grade.
14. David ought to call ... . Explanation: It's a good idea, especially if he's not sure what's wrong.
15. He should get ... . Explanation: It's a good idea.
16. He could take ... if he has a headache or fever. Explanation: It's one possibility or option.
Exercise 4.13
Answers will vary.
Exercise 4.14
2. e; 3. j; 4. g; 5. h; 6. i; 7. b; 8. c; 9. f; 10. a.

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Exercise 4.15
1. too; 2. not enough; 3. not ... enough; 4. too; 5. enough; 6. enough; 7. enough; 8. enough; 9. enough; 10.
enough; 11. too; 12. too, 13. too.
Exercise 4.16
Answers will vary.
2. ... not old enough/too young. 3. ... was too small/wasn't big enough. 4. ... have had enough/have eaten too
much. 5. ... am not old enough to vote/too young to vote. 6. ... are too tight (for me to wear). 7. ... is too salty. 8. ...
is too heavy for me to carry.
Exercise 4.17
wasn't enough room too little room foe everyone
only had a few chairs had too few chairs
weren't enough glasses were too few glasses
didn't get very much to drink got too little to drink
wasn't enough cake was too little cake for everyone
not enough people wanted to dance too few people wanted to dance
didn't bring enough film brought too little film
only has about ten wedding photographs has too few wedding photographs
Exercise 4.18
(1) too many; (2) too few; (3) too much; (4) too much; (5) too little; (6) too little; (7) too many; (8) too much; (9)
enough; (10) too few.
Exercise 4.19
2. too hot to; 3. too small to carry; 4. too; 5. very; 6. very; 7. too busy to call; 8. too; 9. very; 10. too; 11. very; 12.
too.
Exercise 4.20
(2) not/n't bit enough; (3) enough; (4) too small to eat in; (5) enough; (6) very; (7) too, (8) too many; (9) not/n't
enough; (10) too much; (11) enough; (12) enough; (13) too little; (14) too many; (15) not enough; (16) too busy to;
(17) enough; (18) enough.
Reading Digest 5
Exercise 5.1.A
1 Marks & Spencer
2 Confectionery Selector
3 She has to sample chocolates everyday.
4 15 years
Exercise 5.1.B
1 binge
2 to sample

3 entire

Exercise 5.1.C
1F
2T
3F

5T

4T

4 tasting

5 airy

4 Emma
10 Hannah

5, 6 Emma, Jo

Exercise 5.3.C
1 Sam
2 Jo
7 Hannah
8 Emma

3 Sam
9 Jo

Exercise 5.3.D
1 to enter (a new career)
4 to be noticed

2 to succeed (finally)
5 to travel

Exercise 5.3.E
1 talent scout/booker
5 skinny

2 hindrance
6 chaotic

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6 overwhelming

3 to organise (yourself)
6 to follow

3 fashion shoots
7 weird

4 timeless
8 bearable

7 to postpone

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Exercise 5.4
1 brought
8 moved 9 to
Exercise 5.5
1 for
8 every
15 can

2 after
10 in

3 in
11 and

4 by
12 lot

2 she
9 of

39
10 very

4 only
11 your

5 went
13 in
59
12 9

6 for
14 the

7 into
15 visiting

6 might
13 made

7a
14some

Grammar Digest 5
Exercise 5.1
1. b & c; 2. a & b & c.
Exercise 5.2
True sentences: 1, 2, 6, 8, 9 and 11.
Exercise 5.3
(2) you do; (3) Does she have to; (4) she doesn't; (5) Do we have to; (6) must; (7) do we have to; (8) mustn't/must
not; (9) have got to; (10) Do we have to; (11) mustn't/must not; (12) have to; (13) must; (14) have to.
Exercise 5.4
1. You must/have to/have got to know how to drive.
2. You must/have to/have got to take an eye test.
3. You must/have to/have got to take a written test.
4. You must/have to/have got to pass a driving test.
5. You must/have to/have got to drive on the right.
Exercise 5.5
1. have got to; 2. have to; 3. have got to; 4. have to; has got to.
Exercise 5.6
1. have to; 2. have got to; 3. does Irene have to; has to; 4. have got to; 5. has got to; 6. has got to; 7. have to; 8.
have to; 9. have to/have got to.
Exercise 5.7
1. You mustn't dive ... 2. You mustn't go in ... 3. You mustn't take ... 4. You mustn't push. 5. You mustn't
bring/have ... 6. You mustn't break ... 7. You mustn't have/bring pets/that dog here. 8. You mustn't eat or drink ...
9. You mustn't hit...
Exercise 5.8
Answers will vary.
1. Peter has to lift weights on Monday.
2. He doesn't have cycle on Friday.
3. He must not exercise on Thursday.
4. He must not drink milk on Wednesday.
5. He doesn't have to swim on Tuesday.
6. He has to run twenty miles on Friday.
7. He has to rest and eat high calorie food on Thursday, but he doesn't have to take a sauna.
Exercise 5.9
1. must not/mustn't; 2. have to; must not/mustn't; 3. doesn't have to; 4. don't have to; 5. you have got to/have to;
6. must not/mustn't; 7. has to; 8. doesn't have to; 9. have to.
Exercise 5.10
(1) had to; (2) had to; (3) did you have to;(4) didn't have to; (5) don' have to; (6) Don't you have to; (7) don't have
to; (8) has to/must.

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Exercise 5.11
(1) will have to; (2) will have to; (3) will have to; (4) will have to; (5) will have to; (6) won't have to; (7) won't have
to; (8) won't have to.
Exercise 5.12
In some cases, several answers are possible.
(1) has to/has got to; (2) does he have to; (3)has to; (4) must/have got to/have to; (5) must/have to/have got to;
(6) have got to/must/have to; (7) have got to/must; (8) don't have to; (9) will have to/must; (10) had to; (11) didn't
have to.
Reading Digest 6
Exercise 6.2.B
1 toxic
2 alarming
5 prone to
6 priority

3 cocktail
7 seal

4 lung
8 curbed

6 in
14 on

8 to

Exercise 6.2.C
1D
2C
3D
Exercise 6.3
1 in
2 to
9 at
10 of

3 in
11 to

4 for
12 in

Exercise 6.4.B
1 wood used for making things
3 plants grown for food
5 at the moment
Exercise 6.5
1 believed/thought/said
6 the
11 created/made

2 from
7 with
12 under

Exercise 6.6.A
1A
2E
3G

4C

5 of
13 on

2 a family of plants or animals


4 a period of ten years
6 something you buy
3 have
8 led
13 it
5F

Exercise 6.6.B
1 volcanologist 2 temporarily
5 maddened
6 torrential rain
Exercise 6.7
1B
2D
9B
10 D

3A
11 B

Exercise 6.8
1 hidden
6 regularly

2 probably
7 unpacking

4A
12 B

7 to
15 of

5C
13 A

6B

4 that
9 still
14 as
7H

3 bankrupt
7 survived

4 on the grounds that

6B
14 B

8A

3 terrorists
8 lost

7D
15 B

4 explosions
9 unzipping

Grammar Digest 6
Exercise 6.1
1. Where would you like to sit? Would you like a table by the window?
2. Would you like something to drink?
3. Would you like sugar or cream with your coffee?
4. Would you like to order now?
5. Would you like me to get you something to eat?
6. How would you like your eggs?
7. Would you like me to tell the cook to make them over easy?
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5 hit/struck
10 which
15 few

5 bought
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8. And you sir? Would you like eggs too?
9. Would you like anything else?
10. Would you like some ketchup for the omelette?
11. Would you like anything else?
Exercise 6.2
1. Would you like to ...; 2. Would you like to ...; 3. Would you like to ... coat; 4. Do you want/ Would you like a
chair?/Would you like me to get you a chair? 5. Would you like...; 6. Do you want/ Would you like ...; 7. Would you
like ...; 8. Do you want/ Would you like me to ...; 9. Would you like more coffee?
Exercise 6.3
First Date:
(2) Yes, thank you. I'd like that very much.
(3) What kid of restaurant would you like to go to?
(4) I prefer French or Italian restaurants.
(5) What movie would you like to see?
(6) Well, I'd really like to see...
One year later:
(7) (Do you) want to stay home and watch the football game?
(8) Well, I'd really rather go country-western dancing.
(9) Do you want to order out for pizza?
(10) No, I'd rather have Chinese food.
(11) Well, do you want to go bowling and eat at the bowling alley instead?
(12) Sure.
Exercise 6.4
Answers will vary.
1. Would you like some more ... (coffee)...?
2. Would you like some more ... (soup/cake)...?
3. Would you like to see ... (a photograph of something/my new ...)?
4. Would you like a blanket?/Would you like me to turn up the heat?
5. Would you like me to help you with that?/Would you like me to carry that for you?
6. Would you like to ...?
7. Would you like to borrow ...?
Exercise 6.5
Answers will vary. All offers include Would ... like ...? All positive responses should include Thank you or Yes,
please. All refusals should include reason for refusing and/or Sorry, but ... or Thanks anyway ....
Suggested offers:
1. Would you like me to turn the video on? 2. ... some more pie? 3. ... my seat?/ ... to sit here? 4. ... me to mail
these for you? 5. ... a ride to work? 6. ... a ride?
Task
(A) 2; (B) 8; (C) 6; (D) 3; (E) 5; (F) 7; (G) 9; (H) 1; (I) 4.
Exercise 6.6
Sentences will vary.
1. Would you tell me which bus goes to the beach, please?
2. Could you tell me how often it stops here?
3. Would you mind opening the door for me? I've got my hands full here.
4. Will you wake me up half an hour early, please?
5. Could you show us where our seats are, please?
6. Could you bring your daughter along as well? Our daughters won't get bored together.
7. Could you please pick up the kids? I have a lot of work on my hands and I'll be late.
8. Can you lend me some eggs, please? I've run out and I'm making a cake.
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9. Could you tell me where the immigration building is, please?
Exercise 6.7
Answers will vary.
1. Could you please tell me what time it is?
2. Could I have change for this dollar, please?
3. Would you mind holding my place in line?
4. Could you please move your chair?
5. Would you turn on the light, please?
6. Would you close the door, please?
7. Could you please speak a little more loudly?
Exercise 6.8
Sentences may vary.
(1) I'd like to, but I don't know where the cutlery is.
(2) I'm sorry, but I have no idea where the dishes are.
(3) I'm afraid I can't help you, the salt is not in the kitchen.
(4) I'm sorry, but you know I'm allergic to cactus.
(5) I'd like to, but I've used mine already.
(6) Sorry, I'm afraid you're on a diet too. You aren't supposed to eat chocolate.
(7) I'm sorry, I'm running late, I have to go.
(8) I'm afraid I have to be in bed, as I have to get up early tomorrow morning.
Exercise 6.9
Sentences will vary.
1.
Could you sit back in the chair, open your mouth and point to the tooth that hurts?
Yeah, sure.
2.
Can you move it a little more to the left/right?
No problem.
3.
Could you use the wall to get your spine in a straight position.
OK.
4.
Can you scratch my back?
You bet.
More to the left, please.
5.
Would you mind not smoking?
Yeah, no problem.
Exercise 6.10
Answers will vary.
1. Sure, I'd be glad to.
2. Yes, I will.
3. Of course.
4. Certainly, no problem.
5. Yes, I will.
6. I'd be happy to.
7. Yes, I will.
8. Sure, why not.
9. I'd be glad to.
10. Yeah, I guess so.
11. Yes, I will.
12. Certainly, no problem.
Exercise 6.11
Requests for permission: 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11.
General requests: 2, 4, 5, 7, 9.
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Exercise 6.12
Questions will vary.
1. May I spend the night at Suzie's?
2. Could you excuse me for a moment?
3. Do you mind if I smoke?
4. Would you mind if I brought a friend to class?
5. May I put one of these posters in your window, please?
6. Do you mind if I leave work early today?
7. My I open the window a little, please?
8. May I check this out?
9. Can I park here?
Exercise 6.13
Answers will vary. All requests and requests for permission include: Can ...?, Could ...?, Will ...?, Would ...?, May
...?, and possibly please or Would you mind ...?
1. Would you mind if I handed in my assignment late?
2. May I close the window?
3. Can I ask a question, please?
4. May I speak to ....
5. Can I talk to ....
6. Could I have a cookie?
7. May I have another ....
8. May I help you?
Exercise 6.14
Answers will vary. All requests and requests for permission include: Can ...?, Could ...?, Will ...?, Would ...?, May
...?, and possibly please or Would you mind ...? Responses can be non-verbal or they can include short answers,
such as Yeah, sure. If requests for permission are refused, they should include a reason and/or Sorry, but ... or
another "softening phrase".
1. May I use the phone?
2. Could you repeat that, please?
3. Could you please tell me if Flight #125 is on time?
4. May I borrow your car?
5. Will you mind buying me some film?
6. May I leave the room now?
7. Can I/would you shut the window, please?
8. Can you spare some time to talk with me?
9. Could I please change my appointment?
10. Can I have some tea?
11. Would you like to sit down?
12. May I hold your baby?
Reading Digest 7
Exercise 7.1.B
1 for
2 would 3 9
99
10 goes 11 9

4 in
12 any

Exercise 7.2.B
1A
2A
3D

4C

5C

6A

Exercise 7.3
1B
2C

4C

5C

6B

3C

5 when
13 much

6 if
14 where

7 are
15 yet

8 very

7A

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Exercise 7.4
1E
2D

3A

4G

Exercise 7.5
1 so
9 yourself

2 of
10 9

Exercise 7.6
1G
2A
Exercise 7.7
1C
2A
9A
10 D

6F

7C

3 in
4 it
11 with 12 9

5 for
13 as

6 one
14 be

3F

4D

5B

6H

7E

3B
11 B

4D
12 A

5A
13 A

6C
14 C

7A
15 A

Exercise 7.8
1 unsurprising
6 endless

5B

2 anger
7 understanding

3 pretense
8 arguments

7 this
15 9

8 some

8C

4 dramatic
9 outcome

5 caught
10 unreasonable

Grammar Digest 7
Exercise 7.1
1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. F; 5. T; 6. T; 7. F; 8. T; 9. F; 10. T.
Exercise 7.2
1.
b. Madonna didn't use to be a singer; she used to be a dancer.
c. She used to be poor.
d. She used to live in Michigan.
2.
a. Bruce Springsteen used to have straight hair.
b. He used to play football in high school.
c. In addition, he used to live in New Jersey.
d. He used to sing about blue-collar life.
Exercise 7.3
Answers will vary, but all will include used to/didn't used to + verb. Questions are:
1. Where did you use to live?
2. ... what did you use to play?
3. ... what did you use to do after school?
4. ... did your parents use to read to you?
5. ... did you use to have?
6. What did you use to look like?
7. Who used to be ...?
8. Did you use to live ...?
9. Where did you use to ...?
10. Did you use to wear glasses?
Exercise 7.4
(1) used to; (2) used to; (3) anymore; (4) used to; (5) anymore; (6) anymore; (7) anymore; (8) used to; (9)
anymore; (10) used to; (11) anymore; (12) used to; (13) used to; (14) anymore; (15) used to; (16) anymore; (17)
used to; (18) anymore.
Exercise 7.5
1.
a. Madonna used to have a big nose, but she doesn't anymore.
b. Madonna used to be a dancer, but she isn't anymore.
c. Madonna used to be poor, but she isn't anymore.
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d. Madonna used to live in Michigan, but she doesn't anymore.
a. Bruce Springsteen used to have straight hair, but he doesn't anymore.
b. Bruce Springsteen used to play football in high school, but he doesn't anymore.
c. He used to live in New Jersey, but he doesn't anymore.
d. He used to sing about blue-collar life, but he doesn't anymore.
Exercise 7.6
but not anymore; no one has time; no one walks; don't have to think; don't use their heads; nobody eats; don't
talk; isn't.
2.

Exercise 7.7
1. T; 2. T; 3. F; 4. T; 5. F; 6. F; 7. F; 8. T; 9. T; 10. F.
Exercise 7.8
1. anymore; 2. still; 3. still; 4. anymore; 5. still; 6. still; 7. anymore.
Exercise 7.9
1. She always used to go dancing on weekends./She used to go dancing very often.
2. No, she didn't (use to have children).
3. Yes, she sometimes helps them/the kids with their homework.
4. She often used to travel.
5. No, she seldom/hardly ever used to cook and clean.
6. Yes, she often cooks and cleans now.
7. No, she doesn't. (She never goes dancing anymore.)
8. Yes, she does./Yes, she still goes to the beach.
9. No, she seldom/hardly ever goes out to eat (anymore).
10. She does the laundry every day.
Exercise 7.10
Before accident:
2. He had never seen so many doctors.
3. He had never felt so much pain.
4. He had played tennis.
5. He had sailed.
6. He had had a dog.
7. He had been engaged to Debbie
After accident:
2. He had a lot of operations.
3. He had to learn to get around in a wheelchair.
4. He needed a specially trained dog.
5. He got Bridget.
Now:
2. He's learning to play table tennis.
3. He sails.
4. He competes in races.
5. He's engaged to Patty.
Exercise 7.11
1. How many times had you been in hospital before the accident? Never./I had never been in hospital.
2. What sports had you played before the accident? I had played tennis and (I had) sailed.
3. Had you run in races? No, I hadn't.
4. Before Bridget, had you had a dog? Yes, I had.
5. Had you been engaged to Patty? No, I hadn't./I'd been engaged to Debbie.
Exercise 7.12
Events which happened first (designated number: 1): 1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. a; 8. b.
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1. He took the bus because his car had broken down.
2. Charlotte was depressed because she had failed he English exam.
3. Tanya's skin was very red because she had sat in the sun all afternoon.
4. We were really hungry because we hadn't eaten all day.
5. Brenda's clothes were too tight because she hadn't exercised for several months.
6. Neville couldn't sleep because he had drunk several cups of very strong coffee.
7. We thought the test was very easy because we had studied hard for three weeks.
8. The brothers fell asleep immediately because they had played soccer for several hours.
Exercise 7.13
1. He slept late because nobody had .../ Because nobody had set the alarm, he ...
2. Nobody had done the laundry, so Allen didn't have ...
3. There wasn't any coffee because nobody had gone .../ Because nobody had gone grocery shopping, there ....
4. There wasn't any gas in the car, because Allen had forgotten to .../ Because Allen had forgotten to go to the
gas station, there ....
5. His boss had told him not to be late anymore, so he was ...
6. He realized that he hadn't cashed hi paycheck when he got .../ When he got to the gas station, he realized that
he hadn't ....
7. While he was driving, he looked in the mirror and saw that he hadn't combed ....
8. As soon as he got to work, Allen found that he had .../ Allen found that he had left his wallet at the gas station
as soon as ....
9. When he noticed there were no cars in the parking lot, he realized that he had forgotten.../ He realized that he
had forgotten it was Saturday when he noticed there were ....
Exercise 7.14
2.
He 1/locked the doors, 2/turned off the lights, and 3/went upstairs.
3.
When he 2/got upstairs, he 3/realized that he had 1/forgotten to take out the garbage.
4.
He 1/went back downstairs and 2/took out the garbage.
5.
When he 1/went upstairs to brush his teeth, he 2/heard a noise.
6.
By the time Mr. Wilson 2/got to the door, the noise 1/had stopped.
7.
He 1/went back upstairs and 2/heard the noise again. It 3/sounded like someone crying.
8.
He 1/went back downstairs, and again, before he 3/reached the door, the noise 2/had stopped.
9.
By that time, Mr. Wilson 1/had gone up and down the stairs so many times that he 2/was dizzy. He
3/went to bed.
10.
The next morning when Mr. Wilson 2/went outside to get the newspaper, he 3/saw what 1/had caused
the noise the night before.
11.
He 2/was surprised to see that the cat 1/had had kittens!
3: 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.
Exercise 7.15
1. Yes, he had let the cat out.
2. He was going upstairs to brush his teeth.
3. He went (back) downstairs when he heard the noise.
4. To take out the garbage./ He first went back downstairs to take out the garbage.
5. After he went upstairs./ He heard the noise after he went upstairs.
6. He felt dizzy because he had gone up and down the stairs so many times.
7. He had walked the dog and let the cat out.
8. He had walked up the stairs four times.
9. The cat had./ The cat had caused the noise.
Exercise 7.16
1. Sue (had) studied several maps before she decided .../ Before Sue decided ..., she (had) studied several
maps.
2. She checked the tires on her bike after she (had) .../ After she (had) changed ....
3. She (had) put fresh water in her bottle before .../ Before she left home, she (had) put ....
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LIMBA ENGLEZ
4. She came to a very steep hill after she (had ridden)/rode .../ After she (had ridden)/rode for several miles, she
....
5. She (had ridden)/rode to the top of the hill before she stopped .../ Before she stopped to drink some water and
enjoy the view, she (had ridden)/rode ...
6. She got a flat tire after she (had ridden)/rode .../ After she (had ridden)/rode for ten more miles, she ....
7. She fixed the flat tire before she .../ Before she continued her ride, she ....
8. She decided to go home after it (had) .../ After it (had) started to rain, she ....
9. By the time she got home, she had ridden .../ She had ridden over 30 miles by the time ....
10. She ate a huge plate of pasta after she (had taken)/took .../ After she (had taken)/took along, hot shower, she
ate ....
Exercise 7.17
1. because he had eaten
2. Jan was really confused
3. Graham has gone home
4. Howard was a lucky man / he has traveled
5. she had broken her leg
6. Before he had left the house
7. after she has graded them / Professor Westerfield always returned
8. your plane had left
9. they had missed the bus
Exercise 7.18
(1) has not gone; (2) graduated; (3) had made / made; (4) broke; (5) was painting; (6) lost; (7) did not go; (8) has
not visited; (9) has never been; (10) got married; (11) had not been; (12) came; (13) has met; (14) has not been.

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ANCA CEHAN TEFAN COLIBABA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Badalamenti, Victoria i Stanchina Henner, Carolyn, 1997, Grammar Dimensions, Book One, Heinle
and Heinle
Eastwood, John, 1992, Oxford Practice Grammar, OUP
Kenny, Nick, 1996, First Certificate Passkey, Macmillan Heinemann
Murphy, Raymond, 1995, English Grammar in Use, CUP
ONeill, R., Duckworth M. si Gude K., 1987, Success at First Certificate, OUP
Riggenbach Heidi si Samuda, Virginia, 1993, Grammar Dimensions, Book 2, Heinle and Heinle
Veres, G., Cehan Anca, si Andriescu I., 1998, A Dictionary of English Grammar, ed. II, Polirom, Iasi

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