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NAME ..............................................

IB DIPLOMA
BIOLOGY
TEST
ON
HOMEOSTASIS
There are 25 marks available for the 8 questions.

1.

Which of the following is closely associated with lowering of high body temperature?
A.

Constriction of blood vessels in the skin

B.

Vasodilation of blood vessels in the skin

C.

Increased shivering

D.

Decreased sweat production


(1)

2.

Which cells secrete insulin?


A.

-cells of the pancreas

B.

Cells of the liver

C.

-cells of the pancreas

D.

Epithelial cells of the intestine


(1)

3.

How do endocrine glands function when they are involved in homeostasis?


A.

They release hormones directly into the blood system.

B.

They release hormones through ducts to where they are used.

C.

They release digestive enzymes from the pancreas.

D.

They cause positive feedback in the bodys structures.


(1)

4.

In thermoregulation, what would happen over a short period of time in each of these areas, if a
person was placed in water at 15C ?
Peripheral circulation

Sweat glands

Liver

Skeletal muscle

A Increased blood flow

Increased secretion Decreased temperature

Decreased shivering

B Decreased blood flow

Decreased secretion Decreased temperature

Increased shivering

C Decreased blood flow

Increased secretion No change in temperature Increased shivering

D Decreased blood flow

Decreased secretion No change in temperature Increased shivering


(1)

5.

The diagram shows how the body regulates glucose levels in the blood.
G lu c o s e in c re a s e

X re le a s e d

G lu c o s e n o rm a l

Y re le a s e d

G lu c o s e d e c re a s e

What is Y?
A.

Amylase

B.

Insulin

C.

Glucagon

D.

Glycogen
(1)

6.
Intravenous nutrition is used in patients who cannot feed by mouth. Introducing
nutrients directly into veins bypasses the rate at which the digestive system absorbs them. Scientists
studied the effect of injecting six different glucose concentrations into rats. They measured the
glucose concentration in the urine per day and the glucose concentration in blood plasma per day.
These values were compared to control rats that received the same six glucose concentrations
through the mouth. The percentage of rats that died during the experiment (mortality) was
measured. The results for all control rats orally fed with six different glucose concentrations were
the same and are shown in the table below.
Urine glucose concentration /
3
mmol dm

Blood plasma glucose


3
concentration / mmol dm

Mortality / %

10

The results for the injected rats are shown in the line graph below.

(a)

State the mortality for rats when injected with 110 mmol dm glucose.

zero / none died / 0 / 0%


(1)

(b)
Estimate the difference in blood plasma glucose concentration between rats injected
with 145 mmol dm3 glucose and the blood plasma glucose concentration of control rats orally fed
145 mmol dm3 glucose.
3

52 mmol dm 10 mmol dm = 42 (1) mmol dm (units required)

(1)

(c)

Using the data, explain the conclusions that can be drawn about the ability of the rats to
regulate blood plasma glucose levels successfully.

intravenous after 85 mmol dm , the glucose starts appearing in urine /


glucose is no longer reabsorbed in kidneys / tubules;
3

up to 110 mmol dm , the values in blood serum are close to normal / glucose
excreted through urine / no mortality;
3

above 110 mmol dm / 115 mmol dm , rats start dying / blood levels still
close to normal / excreted through urine;
3
after 115 mmol dm , values of glucose in blood / mortality start
increasing drastically;
(3)

(d)

Suggest reasons for the differences between rats that were injected and the rats that were
orally fed high levels of glucose concentrations.

the excess glucose in orally fed rats is egested / not absorbed;


in orally fed rats it enters body more gradually;
in orally fed rats it goes straight to liver while in injected rates it goes straight
to rest of body;
3

in orally fed rats, insulin regulates blood sugar at all levels (10 mmol dm );
2 max

(2)
(Total 7 marks)

7.
The effect of different types of meals before exercise was tested on metabolism and
performance for twelve competitive cyclists. The cyclists ingested either high fat or high
carbohydrate meals before the start of exercise.
The test consisted of:
1 hour of cycling at half peak power (pre-load)
followed by five 10 minute incremental increases in intensity (load)
and a 50 km time trial.

The concentration of various hormones in the blood plasma of the cyclists was measured. The
graphs on the next page indicate the change in insulin and glucagon levels before and during the
cycling test.
P re lo a d

In c re m e n ta l
te s t (lo a d )

50 km
tim e tria l

80
60
40
30
In s u lin c o n c e n tra tio n /
m U d m 3
(lo g s c a le )

20
15
10
5
K ey:

H ig h fa t
H ig h c a rb o h y d ra te

240
200
160

G lu c a g o n c o n c e n tra tio n /
n g d m 3
(lo g s c a le )

120
100
80
60
50
40
30
20
100

60

20

20
60
100
T e s t d u ra tio n / m in

140

160

[Source: Rowlands and Hopkins, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism,
(2002), 12, page 318]

(a)

Describe the changes in insulin concentration during the course of the exercise period for those
cyclists who ate a high carbohydrate meal.
3

insulin levels at start of test are very high / 60 mU dm ;


insulin levels decreased after exercise began;
insulin levels reached a minimum level at the end of the exercise period /
3
5 mU dm ;
insulin levels decreased most during the beginning of the pre-load period;
insulin levels drop and then increases at a lower rate during pre-load period;
2 max

(2)

(b)

Compare the changes in insulin and glucagon concentration during the pre-load and
incremental test period.

overall insulin levels decrease and glucagon increase (for both meals);
preload insulin levels decreased (for both meals) while glucagon levels remained
constant / decrease slightly (for high fat) / decreased (for high carbohydrate);
insulin levels decreased during the incremental test while glucagon increased;
final levels of insulin and glucagon at end of incremental test for both meals
almost equal;
2 max

(2)

(c)

Using the data provided, outline how the changes illustrate negative feedback of insulin
and glucagon.
after meal glucose / fat levels increase causing insulin secretion;
exercise decreases blood glucose levels causing glucagon levels to increase;
in negative feedback, blood glucose levels that are higher / lower than the set
point cause the pancreas to secrete insulin / glucagon;
2 max
Accept inverse
statements.

(2)
(Total 6 marks)

8.

(a)
(i)

(i)

Define the term homeostasis.

homeostasis maintains the internal environment at a constant


level / between narrow limits

(1)

(ii)

(ii)

State which two systems are involved in the control of homeostasis.

nervous system and endocrine system


Both are required for [1].

(1)

(b)

Describe the roles of the kidney in homeostasis.


helps to maintain water balance (of the organism);
by retaining or excreting water;
helps to maintain blood pH;
excretion of urea / salts / gets rid of wastes;
2 max
(2)

(c)

Using an example, explain the role of negative feedback in homeostasis.

a rise in level would feedback to decrease production;


as levels drop to low this would feedback to increase production;
eg blood glucose concentration / body temperature;
Award [2 max] if example given is inappropriate.

(3)
(Total 7 marks)