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DOI 10.1007/s11242-005-2720-3

Springer 2006

in Porous Media

ZHENGWEN ZENG and REID GRIGG

Petroleum Recovery Research Center, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology,

Socorro, NM 87801, U.S.A. e-mails: {zeng,reid}@prrc.nmt.edu

(Received: 28 October 2003; accepted: 11 February 2005)

Abstract. Non-Darcy behavior is important for describing uid ow in porous media in

situations where high velocity occurs. A criterion to identify the beginning of non-Darcy

ow is needed. Two types of criteria, the Reynolds number and the Forchheimer number,

have been used in the past for identifying the beginning of non-Darcy ow. Because each

of these criteria has different versions of denitions, consistent results cannot be achieved.

Based on a review of previous work, the Forchheimer number is revised and recommended here as a criterion for identifying non-Darcy ow in porous media. Physically,

this revised Forchheimer number has the advantage of clear meaning and wide applicability. It equals the ratio of pressure drop caused by liquidsolid interactions to that by

viscous resistance. It is directly related to the non-Darcy effect. Forchheimer numbers are

experimentally determined for nitrogen ow in Dakota sandstone, Indiana limestone and

Berea sandstone at owrates varying four orders of magnitude. These results indicate that

supercial velocity in the rocks increases non-linearly with the Forchheimer number. The

critical Forchheimer number for non-Darcy ow is expressed in terms of the critical nonDarcy effect. Considering a 10% non-Darcy effect, the critical Forchheimer number would

be 0.11.

Key words: non-Darcy behavior, Reynolds number, Forchheimer number, critical value.

Nomenclature

sample cross-sectional area, cm2

characteristic length of the porous media, cm

pore throat diameter, cm

particle diameter, cm

non-Darcy effect

critical non-Darcy effect

Forchheimer number

critical Forchheimer number

permeability, 1015 m2

permeability at zero velocity, 1015 m2

sample length, cm

A

d

dt

Dp

E

Ec

Fo

F oc

k

k0

l

58

M

p

p1

p2

Q

Qp

r

R

Re

T

u

v

x

X

y

Y

z

Z

pressure, atm

pressure at sample inlet, atm

pressure at sample outlet, atm

owrate, cm3 /h

owrate in the pump, cm3 /h

radius of pore throat, cm

universal gas constant, atm-cm3 /(g-mol-K)

Reynolds number

temperature, K

intrinsic velocity of the uid, cm/s

supercial velocity of the uid, cm/s

dummy variable

direction of uid ow

dummy variable

direction normal to uid ow

gas compressibility factor

direction normal to uid ow

non-Darcy coefcient, 108 m1

porosity

uid viscosity, Pa-s

uid density, g/cm3

uid density in the pump, g/cm3

1. Introduction

Fluid ow in porous media is an important dimension in many areas of

reservoir engineering, such as petroleum, environmental and groundwater

hydrology. Accurate description of uid ow behavior in the porous media is

essential to the successful design and operation of projects in these areas.

Darcys law depicts uid ow behavior in porous media. According to

Darcys law, the pressure gradient is linearly proportional to the uid velocity

in the porous media. The one-dimensional Darcy equation can be written as

dp v

=

,

(1)

dX

k

where p is the pressure, X is the direction of uid ow, is the viscosity,

v is the supercial velocity, and k is the permeability.

The Darcy equation is an empirical relationship based on experimental observations of one-dimensional water ow through packed sands at

low velocity. Efforts have been made to derive it theoretically via different

approaches. Using the volumetric averaging theory, Whitaker (1969) derived

the permeability tensor for the Darcy equation under low velocities. Following a continuum approach, Hassanizadeh and Gray (1980) developed a

set of equations to describe the macroscopic behavior of uid ow through

porous media. Linearization of these equations yields a Darcy equation at

low velocities. All these and other similar work indicate that Darcys law

59

media, and is valid under a limited range of low velocities.

Experimentally, uid ow deviations from Darcys law have long been

observed. Various terms, such as non-Darcy ow, turbulent ow, inertial

ow, high velocity ow, etc., have been used to describe this behavior

(Firoozabadi and Katz, 1979). Many attempts have been made to correct the Darcy equation. Forchheimer (1901) added a second order of the

velocity term to represent the microscopic inertial effect, and corrected the

Darcy equation into the Forchheimer equation:

dp v

+ v 2 ,

=

k

dX

(2)

Considering the macroscopic shearing effect between the uid and the

pore walls, Brinkman (1947) added the second-order derivatives of the

velocity to the Darcy equation, resulting in the Brinkman equation (Civan

and Tiab, 1991):

2

p v

v

2v

+

,

(3)

X

k

Y 2 Z 2

where X, Y and Z are mutually perpendicular directions.

In most porous media, pore diameter is very small and the change of

velocity across the pore throat is negligible; thus the Brinkman equation

will not be further discussed in this work, and the term non-Darcy is used

in place of inertial effect.

Non-Darcy behavior has shown signicant inuence on well performance. Holditch and Morse (1976) numerically investigated the non-Darcy

effect on effective fracture conductivity and gas well productivity. Their

results show that at the near-wellbore region, non-Darcy ow could reduce

the effective fracture conductivity by a factor of 20 or more, and gas production by 50%. Non-Darcy effect on hydraulically fractured wells has also

been conrmed by others (Guppy et al., 1982; Matins et al., 1990).

Due to the importance of the non-Darcy effect, efforts have been made

to include it in well performance simulations (Ewing et al., 1999). However,

its inclusion dramatically increases the expense of numerical simulation

with a high order of approximation (Garanzha et al., 2000). A criterion for

predicting non-Darcy ow in porous media is needed.

The earliest work on the criterion for non-Darcy ow behavior in

porous media was apparently published by Chilton and Colburn (1931).

Due to previous belief that non-Darcy ow in porous media was similar to

turbulent ow in a conduit, the Reynolds number for identifying turbulent

ow in conduits was adapted to describe non-Darcy ow in porous media.

60

redened the Reynolds number, Re, as

Re =

Dp v

,

(4)

where Dp is the diameter of particles. Their experiments show that the critical Reynolds number for non-Darcy ow to become signicant is in the

range of 4080.

Fancher and Lewis (1933) owed crude oil, water, and air through unconsolidated sands, lead shot, and consolidated sandstones. Using Chilton and

Colburns denition of the Reynolds number, their experimental results show

that non-Darcy ow occurs at Re = 10 1000 in unconsolidated porous

media and at (Re) = 0.4 3 in loosely consolidated rocks. Here the particle

diameter for the loosely consolidated rocks was obtained by screen analysis

from the carefully ground rock samples.

Realizing the difculty of determining the particle diameter, Green and

Duwez (1951) used permeability, k, and non-Darcy coefcient, , to redene the Reynolds number, which can be written as

Re =

kv

.

(5)

metal samples. Results show that non-Darcy behavior started at Re = 0.1

0.2.

By including porosity, , and using intrinsic velocity, u (the true velocity of the uid in the pores), Ergun (1952) modied Chilton and Colburns

denition, which can be written as

Re =

Dp u 1

.

1

(6)

a critical value of Re = 310.

In comments on previous work, Bear (1972) suggested a critical Reynolds

number of 3 to 10; while in a review, Scheidegger (1974) noted a range of

0.175. Hassanizadeh and Gray (1987) believed critical value Re = 1 15,

and suggested Re = 10 as a critical value for non-Darcy ow; from this

assumption they concluded that non-Darcy ow behavior is due to the

increase of the microscopic viscous force at high velocity.

Since the late 1980s, numerical modeling on this topic has increased rapidly. Blick and Civan (1988) used a capillaryorice model to simulate uid

ow in porous media. Based on that model, the critical Reynolds number dened in Equation (4) for non-Darcy behavior is 100, below which

Darcys law is valid.

61

uid ow in porous media. They derived a relationship between porosity

and tortuosity, which further led to a correlation between Reynolds number and tortuosity. Their results show that a critical Re can be from 3 to

17.

Ma and Ruth (1993) numerically simulated non-Darcy behavior using a

divergingconverging model. They dened Reynolds number as

Re =

dt u

(7)

Fo=

k0 v

,

(8)

where dt is the throat diameter, and k0 is the permeability at zero velocity from Darcys law. From that work, the authors found that the critical

Reynolds number is 310 while the corresponding Forchheimer number is

0.0050.02.

Andrade et al. (1998) modeled uid ow in a disordered porous media.

Following the denition of Equation (5), they showed that the critical Reynolds number is 0.010.1.

Thauvin and Mohanty (1998) used a network model to simulate the

porous media. They dened the Reynolds number as

rv

Re =

,

(9)

where r is the pore throat radius. Their result shows that critical Reynolds

number is 0.11.

In summary, there have been two types of criteria for non-Darcy ow in

porous media: Type-I represented by Equation (4), and Type-II by Equation (5). Critical values for non-Darcy ow vary from 1 to 100 for the

Type-I criterion, and from 0.005 to 0.2 for the Type-II criterion. The TypeI criterion has been applied mainly for columns of packed particles in

which characteristic length, usually representative particle diameter, is available, whereas the Type-II criterion has been used mainly in numerical models, except for one in articial porous metal samples.

Due to inconsistency in denitions and thus in critical values, no widely

accepted criterion for non-Darcy ow in porous media is available. This

paper addresses this problem. The following questions will be answered: (1)

Which criterion is recommended? (2) What is the physical meaning of this

criterion? (3) What is the critical value for the beginning of a signicant

non-Darcy effect? And (4) using this criterion, what is the error if the nonDarcy effect is ignored?

62

Historically the term Reynolds number was used in both the Type-I and

Type-II criteria as shown in the previous section. The term Forchheimer

number was later introduced to represent the Type-II criterion (Ma and

Ruth, 1993). In order to avoid future confusion, the Type-I criterion is

hereafter called the Reynolds number, Re, and redened as

Re =

dv

,

(10)

The Type-II criterion is termed the Forchheimer number, Fo, and redened as

Fo=

kv

.

(11)

only applicable to columns of packed particles, unconsolidated or loosely

consolidated sands. The Reynolds number has its root in the similar criterion for turbulent ow in a conduit. A logical result of this genetic connection is the inclusion of a characteristic length of the porous media in the

denition, Equation (10). This characteristic length is similar to the roughness of the conduit in the denition for turbulent ow in a pipe. However,

due to the complexity of the porous media structure, such a characteristic

length is not easily dened and determined. In the case of packed particles, a representative diameter can be used as the characteristic length. In

unconsolidated or loosely consolidated sands, this representative diameter

can be determined through analysis of particle-size distribution from the

crushed samples. However, the widely scattered critical values of this criterion indicate the need for a more well-dened representative diameter of the particles. Compared to its counterpart in the conduit ow,

the physical meaning of the particle diameter needs to be better dened.

For consolidated rocks, this criterion is not applicable without an acceptable denition of characteristic length. Therefore, the Reynolds number criterion is not recommended.

In contrast, the Forchheimer number has the advantage of clear denition, sound physical meaning, and wide applicability. In Equation (11),

all the involved parameters are clearly dened, and can be determined.

It is obvious that this revised denition can be applied to all types of

porous materials, as long as the permeability and non-Darcy coefcient can

be determined experimentally, or empirically when no experimental data is

available (Li and Engler, 2001). In fact, several researchers have expressed

their preference for using this type of criterion (Geertsma, 1974; Martins

63

et al., 1990; Gidley, 1991). For all these reasons, the Forchheimer number

revised in Equation (11) is recommended as the criterion for non-Darcy

ow in porous media.

3. Theoretical Analysis of the Forchheimer Number

In the Forchheimer equation, Equation (2), the left-hand-side term,

(dp/dX), is the total pressure gradient. The rst term in the right-handside, (v/k), can be considered as the pressure gradient required to overcome

viscous resistance. Similarly, the second term, v 2 , is the pressure gradient

needed to overcome liquidsolid interactions. The ratio of the liquid-solid

interaction pressure gradient to that by viscous resistance leads to (kv/),

which is the Forchheimer number dened in Equation (11). Therefore, the

Forchheimer number is the ratio of liquidsolid interaction to viscous resistance.

Dening the non-Darcy effect, E, as the ratio of pressure gradient consumed in overcoming liquidsolid interactions to the total pressure gradient, from Equation (2), leads to

E=

v 2

dp

dX

(12)

combining Equations (11) and (12) gives

E=

Fo

.

1+Fo

(13)

Thus from Equation (13), it can be seen that the Forchheimer number is

directly connected to the non-Darcy error, i.e. the error of ignoring nonDarcy behavior. Such a connection will be useful to numerical simulation

of uid ow in porous media for practitioners to determine the trade-off

on whether to include the non-Darcy effect or not in their model.

4. Determination of Forchheimer Number

4.1. measurement of

and

According to Equation (11), the determination of the Forchheimer number, Fo, requires the permeability, k, the non-Darcy coefcient, , the uid

density, , the supercial velocity, v and the viscosity, . In this section, Forchheimer numbers of three representative rocks (Dakota sandstone, Indiana limestone, and Berea sandstone) under a range of owrates

are determined using experimentally measured k and .

64

using a high pressure/high temperature gas ooding device (Zeng et al.,

2003). Cylindrical samples of 2.54 cm (1-in.) diameter by 5.08 cm (2-in.)

length were put in a triaxial coreholder. Hydrostatic pressure of 272 atm

(4000 psi) was applied. After thermal equilibrium was reached in the sample at 311 K (100 F), nitrogen started to ow through the sample. The

owrate, controlled by an accurate pump, varied from 25 to 10,000 cm3 /h

under 136 atm (2,000 psi) and 300 K (80 F) in the pump. At each owrate,

the pressures, p1 and p2 , at the inlet and outlet of the sample were measured when ow equilibrium was reached. Using these experimental measurements, k and were calculated as follows.

Under the gas ow experimental conditions, Equation (2) can be rewritten as:

MA p12 p22

p Qp

1

,

(14)

= +

2zRT lp Qp k

A

where M is the molecular weight of the gas (nitrogen), A is the cross-sectional area of the sample, p1 is the pressure at the sample inlet, p2 is the

pressure at the sample outlet, z is the gas compressibility factor, R is the

universal gas constant, T is the temperature in the sample, is the gas

viscosity in the sample, l is the sample length, p is the gas density in the

pump, and Qp is the gas owrate in the pump (Cornell and Katz, 1953).

In Equation (14), M and R are constants; l and A are sample size; T

and Qp are preset variables; p1 and p2 are measured under owrate Qp ;

p is calculated using phase behavior simulators with preset pump pressure

and temperature (CALSEP, 2002); and z and are calculated using phase

behavior simulator with temperature and mean gas pressure, (p1 + p2 )/2, in

the sample. Thus, only k and are unknowns.

For the sake of simplicity, denote p Qp /A as x, and MA(p12 p22 )/

2zRT lp Qp as y. Equation (14) then simplies to

1

y = + x.

(15)

k

Equation (15) denes a linear equation in the xy coordinate system, with

slope and intercept on y-axis 1/k. This sets the foundation for the determination of k and .

At each ow rate, a pair of (p1 , p2 ) are measured, and a pair of (x, y)

are calculated. For different owrates, different pairs of (x, y) are obtained,

and the straight line in the xy coordinate system is dened. From this

straight line, k and are determined. Figure 1 shows the determination of

k and in Dakota sandstone. Similarly, k and in Indiana limestone and

Berea sandstone are determined. Results of k and together with porosity

of these three rocks are shown in Table I (Zeng et al., 2004).

65

1000

y = 157.88x + 287.36

R2 = 0.99

y, 1012 m -2

800

600

400

k = (287.36*1012m-2)-1 = 3.48*10-15m2

8 -1

= 157.88*10 m

200

0

0

x, 104m -1

experiment in Dakota sandstone at 311 K (100 F), 34 atm (500 psi) pore pressure

and 272 atm (4000 psi) hydrostatic conning pressure.

Table I. Measured permeability and non-Darcy coefcient

Parameter

Dakota sandstone

Indiana limestone

Berea sandstone

k, 1015 m2

, 108 m1

3.48

157.88

0.14

21.6

36.00

0.15

196

2.88

0.18

The supercial velocity, v, in the sample is calculated for each owrate as

follows: Assuming there is no loss of nitrogen in the ow system due to

leakage, reaction or any other reasons, the mass owing out from the pump

equals that owing through the sample. Therefore, the mass owrate in the

pump is the same as that in the core sample at ow equilibrium, though

the volumetric owrates can be different due to the change of pressures

and temperatures. On the other hand, the mass owrate equals the product of the density and the volumetric owrate, therefore,

Q = p Qp ,

(16)

under the sample conditions. Similar to the calculation of z and , the

density of nitrogen in the sample is calculated using phase behavior simulators (CALSEP, 2002).

Q can be dened as

Q = vA,

(17)

v=

p Qp

.

A

(18)

66

4.3. calculation of

Fo

So far, all the variables in Equation (11) have been dened. Therefore

the Forchheimer number can be calculated. Table II shows the supercial

velocity and the Forchheimer number of the three rocks under each owrate. Figure 2 shows that the Forchheimer number increases and is nonlinear, with supercial velocity. This implies that supercial velocity alone

does not serve as a criterion for the non-Darcy behavior. Referring to the

permeability of these three rocks shown in Table I, it is observed that the

higher the permeability, the higher the owrate required to deviate from

the linear relationship. This is consistent with the fact that non-Darcy

behavior is more severe in low permeability porous media.

One reason that a new criterion is needed is the inconsistency of a critical

value for the beginning of non-Darcy ow behavior from existing criteria.

If a critical value can be given, it would be very helpful for practitioners

to decide when to include, or not to include, non-Darcy behavior in calculating uid ow in porous media.

Previous efforts have focused on nding the starting point of the departure

of the linear Darcy prediction from the observed, non-linear performance in

Table II. Forchheimer number and supercial velocity in the three rocks at 311 K (100 F),

34 atm (500 psi) pore pressure and 272 atm (4000 psi) hydrostatic conning pressure

Pump owrate

Dakota sandstone

Indiana limestone

Berea sandstone

Qp , cm3 /h

25

50

100

200

300

400

600

800

1000

1500

2000

3000

4000

6000

8000

10,000

v, cm/s

0.006

0.011

0.022

0.044

0.066

0.087

0.127

0.166

0.203

0.286

0.363

0.489

0.592

0.755

0.876

0.975

v, cm/s

Fo

v, cm/s

Fo

0.041

0.062

0.082

0.123

0.163

0.203

0.301

0.396

0.576

0.742

1.035

1.280

1.489

0.069

0.104

0.139

0.208

0.277

0.347

0.520

0.693

1.037

1.380

2.060

2.732

3.395

0.107

0.170

0.192

0.320

0.426

0.637

0.846

1.256

1.658

2.046

0.125

0.200

0.225

0.376

0.502

0.753

1.004

1.505

2.008

2.509

Fo

0.006

0.012

0.024

0.048

0.071

0.095

0.143

0.190

0.237

0.355

0.471

0.701

0.928

1.373

1.804

2.227

67

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

Dakota SS

Indiana LS

0.5

Berea SS

0.0

0

1

2

3

Forchheimer number

Figure 2. Change of supercial velocity with Forchheimer number in Dakota sandstone, Indiana limestone and Berea sandstone.

different forms. The most commonly mentioned ones include friction factor

versus Reynolds number curve, and the pressure drop versus owrate curve.

Because of the restriction of resolution, the visually identied critical point

for the starting of non-Darcy behavior is usually not accurate, and thus less

dependable.

On the other hand, the Forchheimer number is directly related to the

non-Darcy effect, as shown in Equation (13). Denoting Ec as the critical

value for non-Darcy effect, from Equation (13) the critical Forchheimer

number would be

F oc =

Ec

.

1 Ec

(19)

Equation (19) offers the user the choice of selecting the critical Forchheimer

number based on the features of the problem.

For example, if 10% is the limit of the non-Darcy effect, Equation (19)

would give a critical Forchheimer number of 0.11. Although this value is

much higher than that from numerical simulation (Ma and Ruth, 1993),

it is quite close to the critical value observed in experiments of gas ow

through porous metal samples (Green and Duwez, 1951). Values can easily

be selected that are within ranges that can be experimentally determined in

reservoir core samples and thus can be considered as a good reference for

the critical Forchheimer number.

6. Conclusions

(1) The two types of non-Darcy criteria, the Reynolds number and

the Forchheimer number, for uid ow in porous media have been

reviewed. A revised Forchheimer number dened in Equation (11) is

recommended due to the clear meaning of variables involved.

68

(2) The Forchheimer number represents the ratio of pressure drop consumed by liquidsolid interactions to that by viscous resistance. It has

a direct relation to non-Darcy effect, as shown in Equation (13).

(3) Forchheimer numbers for nitrogen ow at varied owrates in Dakota

sandstone, Indiana limestone and Berea sandstone are determined using

experimentally measured permeability and non-Darcy coefcient. The

results add considerably to the array of Forchheimer numbers for characterizing uid ow in consolidated rocks.

(4) An expression for the critical Forchheimer number is given in terms of

non-Darcy effect limit. This non-Darcy effect-based expression allows

the user to dene the critical Forchheimer number according to the features of the problem, and should be scientically more reasonable in

comparing to a xed critical value. A good reference for the critical

Forchheimer number is 0.11, which corresponds to a 10% non-Darcy

effect.

Acknowledgements

The experiments were conducted in the gas ooding laboratory at the New

Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (PRRC) with the assistance

of S. Ganda, D. B. Gupta, and Bob Svec. Elizabeth Bustamante located

some obscure literature for this research. The research is nancially supported by the US Department of Energy and the state of New Mexico,

USA.

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