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List of antibiotics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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List of antibiotics
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of antibiotics, sorted by class. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and
bacteriostatic antibiotics. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing.
However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior. In practice, both can prevent a bacterial
infection.[1]
See also pathogenic bacteria for a list of antibiotics sorted by target bacteria.

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Antibiotics by class
Generic name

Brand names

Common uses[2]

Possible side effects[2]

Mechanism of
action

Aminoglycosides
Amikacin

Amikin

Gentamicin

Garamycin

Kanamycin

Kantrex

Neomycin

Neo-Fradin[3]

Netilmicin

Netromycin

Tobramycin

Nebcin

Paromomycin

Humatin

Streptomycin
Spectinomycin(Bs)

Infections caused by
Gram-negative bacteria,
such as Escherichia coli
and Klebsiella
particularly
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa. Effective
against Aerobic bacteria
(not obligate/facultative
anaerobes) and
tularemia.

Hearing loss
Vertigo
Kidney damage

Tuberculosis
Trobicin

Binding to the
bacterial 30S
ribosomal
subunit (some
work by binding
to the 50S
subunit),
inhibiting the
translocation of
the
peptidyl-tRNA
from the A-site
to the P-site and
also causing
misreading of
mRNA, leaving
the bacterium
unable to
synthesize
proteins vital to
its growth.

Gonorrhea
Ansamycins

Geldanamycin

Experimental, as
antitumor antibiotics

Herbimycin
Rifaximin

Xifaxan

Traveler's diarrhea
caused by E. coli
Carbacephem

Loracarbef

Lorabid

prevents
bacterial cell
division by
inhibiting cell
wall synthesis.

Discontinued

Carbapenems
Ertapenem
Doripenem
Imipenem/Cilastatin

Invanz
Doribax
Primaxin

Bactericidal for both


Gram-positive and
Gram-negative
organisms and therefore
useful for empiric
broad-spectrum
antibacterial coverage.
(Note MRSA resistance

Gastrointestinal
upset and diarrhea
Nausea

Inhibition of cell
wall synthesis

Seizures
Headache

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Rash and allergic


Meropenem

to this class.)

Merrem

reactions

Cephalosporins (First generation)


Cefadroxil

Duricef

Cefazolin

Ancef

Same mode of
action as other
upset and diarrhea beta-lactam
Nausea (if alcohol antibiotics:
disrupt the
taken
synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
concurrently)
Allergic reactions layer of bacterial
cell walls.
Gastrointestinal

Cefalotin or Cefalothin

Keflin
(discontinued)

Cefalexin

Keflex

Good coverage against


Gram-positive
infections.

Cephalosporins (Second generation)


Cefaclor
Cefamandole
Cefoxitin
Cefprozil
Cefuroxime

Distaclor
Mandol
(discontinued)
Less Gram-positive
Mefoxin
cover, improved
(discontinued)
Gram-negative cover.
Cefzil
Ceftin, Zinnat
(UK)

Same mode of
action as other
upset and diarrhea beta-lactam
Nausea (if alcohol antibiotics:
disrupt the
taken
synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
concurrently)
Allergic reactions layer of bacterial
cell walls.
Gastrointestinal

Cephalosporins (Third generation)


Cefixime

Suprax

Cefdinir

Omnicef,
Cefdiel

Cefditoren

Spectracef,
Meiact

Cefoperazone [Unlike
most third-generation
agents, cefoperazone is
active against
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa]
Cefotaxime
Cefpodoxime

Improved coverage of
Cefobid
Gram-negative
(discontinued) organisms, except
Pseudomonas. Reduced
Gram-positive cover.
But still not cover
Claforan
Mycoplasma and
Vantin
Chlamydia

Ceftazidime [Unlike
most third-generation
agents, ceftazidime is
active against
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa]

Fortaz

Ceftibuten

Cedax

Same mode of
action as other
upset and diarrhea beta-lactam
Nausea (if alcohol antibiotics:
disrupt the
taken
synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
concurrently)
layer of bacterial
Allergic reactions
cell walls.
Gastrointestinal

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Ceftizoxime

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Cefizox
(discontinued)

Ceftriaxone [IV and IM,


not orally, effective also
for syphilis and
Rocephin
uncomplicated
gonorrhea]
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
Same mode of
action as other
upset and diarrhea beta-lactam
Nausea (if alcohol antibiotics:
disrupt the
taken
synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
concurrently)
Allergic reactions layer of bacterial
cell walls.
Gastrointestinal

Cefepime

Maxipime

Covers pseudomonal
infections.

Cephalosporins (Fifth generation)

Ceftaroline fosamil

Ceftobiprole

Teflaro

Used to treat MRSA

Same mode of
action as other
beta-lactam
Gastrointestinal
antibiotics:
upset and diarrhea disrupt the
Allergic reaction synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
layer of bacterial
cell walls.

Zeftera

Used to treat MRSA


(methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus),
penicillin-resistant
Streptococcus
pneumoniae,
Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, and
enterococci

Same mode of
action as other
upset and diarrhea beta-lactam
Nausea (if alcohol antibiotics:
disrupt the
taken
synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
concurrently)
Allergic reactions layer of bacterial
cell walls.
Gastrointestinal

Glycopeptides
Teicoplanin
Vancomycin
Telavancin
Dalbavancin
Oritavancin

Targocid (UK) Active against aerobic


and anaerobic
Vancocin
Gram-positive bacteria
including MRSA;
Vibativ
Vancomycin is used
Dalvance
orally for the treatment
Orbactiv
of C. difficile

inhibiting
peptidoglycan
synthesis

Lincosamides(Bs)

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Clindamycin

Cleocin

Lincomycin

Lincocin

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Serious staph-,
pneumo-, and
streptococcal infections
in penicillin-allergic
patients, also anaerobic
infections; clindamycin
topically for acne

Possible C. difficilerelated
pseudomembranous
enterocolitis

Bind to 50S
subunit of
bacterial
ribosomal RNA
thereby
inhibiting protein
synthesis

Lipopeptide

Daptomycin

Cubicin

Bind to the
membrane and
cause rapid
depolarization,
resulting in a loss
of membrane
potential leading
to inhibition of
protein, DNA
and RNA
synthesis

Gram-positive
organisms

Macrolides(Bs)

Azithromycin

Zithromax,
Sumamed,
Xithrone

Nausea, vomiting,
and diarrhea
(especially at

Clarithromycin
Dirithromycin

Erythromycin

Biaxin

Streptococcal
infections, syphilis,
Dynabac
upper respiratory tract
(discontinued)
infections, lower
respiratory tract
Erythocin,
infections, mycoplasmal
Erythroped
infections, Lyme disease

Roxithromycin
Troleandomycin

Tao
(discontinued)

Telithromycin

Ketek

Pneumonia

Spiramycin

Rovamycine

Mouth infections

inhibition of
bacterial protein
Prolonged cardiac
biosynthesis by
QT interval
binding
reversibly to the
(especially
subunit 50S of
erythromycin)
the bacterial
Hearing loss
ribosome,
thereby
(especially at
inhibiting
higher doses)
translocation of
peptidyl tRNA.
Jaundice

higher doses)

Visual Disturbance,
Liver Toxicity.[4]

Monobactams

Aztreonam

Azactam

Gram-negative bacteria

Same mode of
action as other
beta-lactam
antibiotics:
disrupt the
synthesis of the

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peptidoglycan
layer of bacterial
cell walls.
Nitrofurans
Furazolidone

Furoxone

Bacterial or protozoal
diarrhea or enteritis

Nitrofurantoin(Bs)

Macrodantin,
Macrobid

Urinary tract infections


Oxazolidinones(Bs)
Thrombocytopenia
Peripheral

Linezolid

Zyvox

neuropathy

VRSA

Serotonin
Syndrome
Posizolid

Phase II
clinical trials

Radezolid

Phase II
clinical trials

Torezolid

Phase II
clinical trials

Protein synthesis
inhibitor;
prevents the
initiation step

Penicillins
Amoxicillin

Novamox,
Amoxil

Ampicillin

Principen
(discontinued)

Azlocillin
Carbenicillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin

Flucloxacillin

Mezlocillin

Geocillin
(discontinued)
Wide range of
Tegopen
(discontinued) infections; penicillin
used for streptococcal
Dynapen
infections, syphilis, and
(discontinued) Lyme disease
Floxapen
(Sold to
European
generics
Actavis
Group)

Gastrointestinal

Same mode of
upset and diarrhea action as other
Allergy with
beta-lactam
antibiotics:
serious
disrupt the
anaphylactic
synthesis of the
peptidoglycan
reactions
layer of bacterial
Brain and kidney
cell walls.
damage (rare)

Mezlin
(discontinued)

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Methicillin

Staphcillin
(discontinued)

Nafcillin

Unipen
(discontinued)

Oxacillin

Prostaphlin
(discontinued)

Penicillin G

Pentids
(discontinued)

Penicillin V

Veetids
(Pen-Vee-K)
(discontinued)

Piperacillin

Pipracil
(discontinued)

Penicillin G

Pfizerpen

Temocillin

Negaban (UK)
(discontinued)

Ticarcillin

Ticar
(discontinued)

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Penicillin combinations

Amoxicillin/clavulanate Augmentin

Ampicillin/sulbactam

Unasyn

Piperacillin/tazobactam

Zosyn

Ticarcillin/clavulanate

Timentin

Both
Amoxicillin/clavulanate
and
Ampicillin/sulbactam
are effective against
non-recurrent acute
Otitis media[5] Only a
few oral-antibiotics
active for skin and soft
rowspan="4"
tissue infections, one of
it is
Amoxicillin/clavulanate.
Not to be given to
children with less than
40 kilograms weight, for
children are heavier, the
dosage is same with
adult, twice daily [6]

The second
component
prevents
bacterial
resistance to the
first component

Polypeptides

Bacitracin

Eye, ear or bladder


infections; usually
applied directly to the
eye or inhaled into the

Kidney and nerve


damage (when given by
injection)

Inhibits
isoprenyl
pyrophosphate, a
molecule that

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carries the
building blocks
of the
peptidoglycan
bacterial cell
wall outside of
the inner
membrane[7]

Colistin

Interact with the


Gram-negative
bacterial outer
membrane and
cytoplasmic
membrane,
displacing
bacterial
counterions,
which
destabilizes the
outer membrane.
Act like a
detergent against
the cytoplasmic
membrane,
which alters its
permeability.
Polymyxin B
and E are
bactericidal even
in an isosmotic
solution.

lungs; rarely given by


Coly-Mycin-S injection, although the
use of intravenous
colistin is experiencing a
resurgence due to the
emergence of multi drug
resistant organisms.

Polymyxin B

Quinolones/Fluoroquinolone
Ciprofloxacin

Cipro,
Ciproxin,
Ciprobay

Enoxacin

Penetrex

Gatifloxacin

Tequin

Gemifloxacin

Factive[8]

Levofloxacin

Levaquin

Lomefloxacin

Maxaquin

Moxifloxacin

Avelox

Nalidixic acid

NegGram

Norfloxacin

Noroxin

Ofloxacin

Floxin
(discontinued),
Ocuflox

Urinary tract infections,


bacterial prostatitis,
community-acquired
pneumonia, bacterial
diarrhea, mycoplasmal
infections, gonorrhea

inhibit the
bacterial DNA
Nausea (rare),
gyrase or the
irreversible damage to
topoisomerase
central nervous system IV enzyme,
(uncommon), tendinosis thereby
(rare)
inhibiting DNA
replication and
transcription.

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Trovafloxacin

Trovan

Withdrawn

Grepafloxacin

Raxar

Withdrawn

Sparfloxacin

Zagam

Withdrawn

Temafloxacin

Omniflox

Withdrawn
Sulfonamides(Bs)

Mafenide

Sulfamylon

Sulfacetamide

Sulamyd,
Bleph-10

Sulfadiazine

Micro-Sulfon

Silver sulfadiazine

Silvadene

Sulfadimethoxine

Di-Methox,
Albon

Sulfamethizole

Thiosulfil
Forte

Sulfamethoxazole

Gantanol

Urinary tract infections


(except sulfacetamide,
used for eye infections,
and mafenide and silver
sulfadiazine, used
topically for burns)

Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine

Azulfidine

Sulfisoxazole

Gantrisin

TrimethoprimSulfamethoxazole
(Co-trimoxazole)
(TMP-SMX)

Bactrim,
Septra

Folate synthesis
inhibition. They
are competitive
inhibitors of the
enzyme
dihydropteroate
synthetase,
Nausea, vomiting, DHPS. DHPS
catalyses the
and diarrhea
conversion of
Allergy (including PABA (paraskin rashes)
aminobenzoate)
to
Crystals in urine
dihydropteroate,
Kidney failure
a key step in
Decrease in white folate synthesis.
Folate is
blood cell count
necessary for the
Sensitivity to
cell to synthesize
nucleic acids
sunlight
(nucleic acids
are essential
building blocks
of DNA and
RNA), and in its
absence cells
cannot divide.

Sulfonamidochrysoidine
Prontosil
(archaic)
Tetracyclines(Bs)
Demeclocycline

Declomycin

Doxycycline

Vibramycin

Minocycline

Minocin

Oxytetracycline

Terramycin

Syphilis, chlamydial
infections, Lyme
disease, mycoplasmal
infections, acne
rickettsial infections,
*malaria *Note: Malaria
is caused by a protist
and not a bacterium.

inhibiting the
binding of
Gastrointestinal
aminoacyl-tRNA
upset
to the
Sensitivity to
mRNA-ribosome
complex. They
sunlight
do so mainly by
Potential toxicity
binding to the
to mother and
30S ribosomal
subunit in the
fetus during
mRNA
pregnancy
translation
Enamel hypoplasia complex. But

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(staining of teeth;
Tetracycline
cannot be taken
permanent)
together with all
dairy products,
transient
aluminium, iron
depression of bone and zinc
growth
minerals.
potentially
Tetracycline

Sumycin,
Achromycin V,
Steclin

Drugs against mycobacteria


Clofazimine

Lamprene

Antileprotic

Dapsone

Avlosulfon

Antileprotic

Capreomycin

Capastat

Antituberculosis

Cycloserine

Seromycin

Antituberculosis,
urinary tract infections

Ethambutol(Bs)

Myambutol

Antituberculosis

Ethionamide

Trecator

Antituberculosis

Isoniazid

I.N.H.

Antituberculosis

Pyrazinamide

Aldinamide

Antituberculosis

Inhibits peptide
synthesis

Rifampicin (Rifampin in Rifadin,


US)
Rimactane

mostly Gram-positive
and mycobacteria

Reddish-orange sweat,
tears, and urine

Rifabutin

Mycobutin

Mycobacterium avium
complex

Rash, discolored urine,


GI symptoms

Rifapentine

Priftin

Antituberculosis

Streptomycin

Antituberculosis

Binds to the
subunit of RNA
polymerase to
inhibit
transcription

Neurotoxicity,
ototoxicity

As other
aminoglycosides

Rarely: aplastic anemia.

Inhibits bacterial
protein synthesis
by binding to the
50S subunit of
the ribosome

Others
Spirochaetal infections
(obsolete)

Arsphenamine

Salvarsan

Chloramphenicol(Bs)

Meningitis, MRSA,
topical use, or for
low-cost internal
treatment. Historic:
Chloromycetin
typhus, cholera.
Gram-negative,
Gram-positive,
anaerobes

Fosfomycin

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Monurol,
Monuril

This antibiotic is not


recommended for
Acute cystitis in women
children and 75 up of
age

Inactivates
enolpyruvyl
transferase,
thereby blocking

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cell wall
synthesis
Fusidic acid

Metronidazole

Fucidin

Flagyl

Produces toxic
free radicals that
disrupt DNA and
proteins. This
Infections caused by
Discolored urine,
non-specific
anaerobic bacteria; also
headache, metallic taste, mechanism is
amoebiasis,
nausea; alcohol is
responsible for
trichomoniasis,
contraindicated
its activity
giardiasis
against a variety
of bacteria,
amoebae, and
protozoa.

Ointment for impetigo,


cream for infected cuts

Inhibits
isoleucine
t-RNA
synthetase
(IleRS) causing
inhibition of
protein synthesis

Thiamphenicol

Gram-negative,
Gram-positive,
Rash. Lacks known
anaerobes. Widely used anemic side-effects.
in veterinary medicine.

A
chloramphenicol
analog. May
inhibit bacterial
protein synthesis
by binding to the
50S subunit of
the ribosome

Tigecycline(Bs)

Slowly Intravenous.
Indicated for
complicated skin/skin
structure infections, soft
tissues infections and
complicated intraabdominal infections.
Effective for gram
positive and negative
and also anaerob
antibiotics, against
multi-resistant
antibiotics bacteries
such as Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA) and
Acinetobacter
baumannii, but not

Similar structure
with
tetracycline, but
5 times stronger,
big volume
distribution and
long half-time in
the body

Mupirocin

Bactroban

Platensimycin
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Synercid

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Tigacyl

Teeth discoloration and


same side effects as
Tetracycline. Not to be
given for children and
pregnant or lactate
women. Relatively safe
and no need dose
adjusted when be given
for mild to moderate
liver function or renal
patients

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effective for
Pseudomonas spp and
Proteus spp
Tinidazole

Tindamax
Fasigyn

Protozoal infections

Trimethoprim(Bs)

Proloprim,
Trimpex

Urinary tract infections

Generic Name

Brand Names

Common Uses[2]

Upset stomach, bitter


taste, and itchiness

Possible Side Effects[2]

Mechanism of
action

Note: (Bs): Bacteriostatic

References
1. ^ Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R. (1999) Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific Host Resistance, In:
Microbiology Conceptsand Applications, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, U.S.A. pp. 478-479.
2. ^ a b c d For common Uses and possible side effects reference is: Robert Berkow (ed.) The Merck Manual of Medical
Information - Home Edition. Pocket (September 1999), ISBN 0-671-02727-1.
3. ^ "Neomycin Drug Information" (http://www.uptodate.com/contents/neomycindrug-information?source=search_result&search=neomycin&selectedTitle=1~135). uptodate. Retrieved 2/11/2012.
Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)(subscription required)
4. ^ Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter (March 2006). "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek". Internal Medicine News.
5. ^ "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in
Argentinean children" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16061111). Retrieved July 23, 2014.
6. ^ "APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 500mg/125 mg Tablets" (http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2
/bhcmed.nsf/pages/txcamoxy/$File/txcamoxy.pdf). Retrieved November 27, 2014.
7. ^ Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl Pyrophosphate
(http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/68/12/3223) K. John Stone and Jack L. Strominger
8. ^ "List of Antibiotics" (http://www.emedexpert.com/lists/antibiotics.shtml). Retrieved February 7, 2014.

See also
Timeline of antibiotics, listed by year of introduction
Pathogenic bacteria
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