11l1roduct;on
Fig 5.1 (a) shows such a floating body, which is in equilibrium under the action of
two equal and opposite forces, namely, its weight W acting vertically downwards
through its centre of gravity G, and the buoyancy force, of equal magnitude W, acting
condition for stable equilibrium would be that G should lie below 8. However, this is
not so.
I'
~G
w
(a)
(b) Stable
(c) Unslable
If, as shown on Fig 5(b), the weight and the buoyancy forces
together produce a couple which acts to restore the vessel to its initial position,
the equilibrium is stable. If however, the couple acts to move the vessel even
further from its initial position, as in Fig S(c), then the equilibrium is unstable.
The special case when the resulting couple is zero represents the condition of neutral
stability. It will be seen from Fig 5.1 (b) that it is perfectly possible to obtain stable
equilibrium when the centre of gravity G is located above the centrc of buoyancy B.
In thc following text, we shall show how the stability may he investigated
experimentally, and then how a theoretical calculation can be used to predict the
results.
r= ex
w
._x. '",""""'/
~{
'
,!
i.._./.
x '."f
l:
UX
'x..J
W=wV
(b)
(a)
(c)
The centre of
gravity G may be shifted sideways by moving a jockey of weight \Vj across the width
of the body. When the jockey is moved a distance xi> as shown in Fig 5.2(b), the
centre of gravity of the whole assembly moves to G'. The distance GO', denoted by
xg , is given from elementary statics as
xg
WX
W
_J_J
(5.1)
I' 1
1
1
The shift of the centre of gravity causes the body to tilt to a new equilibrium position.
al a small angle
[0
upthrust through B' intersect the original line of upthrust SG at tbe point M. called the
metacentre. We may now regard the jockey movement as having caused the floating
body to swing about the point M.
GM~
where
e is
result
W. x
GM =  ' .  '
W S
(5.2)
The dimension GM is called the metacentric height.
e, obmined by
1.
l
,,
moment. first consider the element of moment exened by a small clement of change
in displaced volume, as indicated on Fig 5.2(c). An element of width 8x, lying at
distance x from B. has an additional depth
Its length.
as shown in the plan view on Fig 5.3(c), is L. So the volume OV cfthe element is
8V
= S.x.L.ox = SLx8x
8F
= we Lx8x
w.8V
where \\" is the specific weight of water. The element of momenl about B produced by
the element of force is 8M. where
oM
= of.x
The total moment about 8 is obtained by integration over the whole of the plan area
of the body. in the plane of the water surface:
:'\ow this moment represents the movement of the upthrust wV from B to B namely,
,
[0
wV.BB'
weI
BB'
= e.BM
BM
I
V
(5.4)
For the particular case ofa body with a rectangular planfonn of width 0 and length L,
the second moment I is readily found as:
0/1
I;"
0/1 1
fLx ' dX = L fx dx = L
Dr
Df2
[ ']0/1
=
D/2
LD'
12
(5.5)
42
I_
I_
Now the distance BG may be found from the computed or measured positions of B
th~
lI .,
I .,
I.
I.
lI
III ,III.
II
geometrical relationship
GM
BM BG
(5.6)
This gives an independent check on the result obtained experimentally by traversing a
jockey weight across the floating body.
Experimental Procedure
The pontoon shown in Fig 5.3 has a rectangular platfonn, and is provided with a rigid
sail. A jockey weight t may be traversed in preset steps and at various heights across
the pontoon, along slots in the sail. Angles of tilt are shown by the movement of a
plumbline over an angular scale. as indicated in Fig 5.3(a).
The height of the centre of gravity of the whole floating assembly is first measured.
for one chosen height of the jockey weight. The pontoon is suspended from a hole at
one side of the sail, as indicated in Fig 5.3(b), and the jockey weight is placed at such
a position on the line of symmetry as to cause the pontoon to hang with its base
roughly vertical. A pumbline is hung from the suspension point. The height of the
centre of gravity G of the whole suspended assembly then lies at the point where the
plumbline intersects the line of symmetry of the pontoon.
position of G for this particular jockey height. The position of G for any other jockey
height may then be calculated from elementary statics, as will be seen later.
After measuring the external width and length of the pontoon. and noting the weights
of the various components. the pontoon is floated in water.
Wilh the jockey weight on the line of symmetry, small magnetic weights are used
trim the assembly to even keel. indicated by a zero reading on the angular scale.
[0
Th~
jockey is then moved in steps across the width of the pontoon. the corresponding
angle of tilt (over a range which is typically 8) being recorded at each step. This
procedure is then repeated with the jockey traversed at a number of different heights.
}I'
,
Suspension
Jockey
weight
rl Gi =
U


_/
=  . 
~
.~


Angular
scale
, Plumbline
o/centre ofgravity
2.430 kgf
Weight ofjockey Wj
0.391 kgf
2.821 kgf
2.821 x IO3 m 3
Breadth of pontoon D
201.8 mm = 0.2018 m
Length of pontoon L
360.1 mm
7.267 x 102 m 2
LO
0.3601
0.3601 m
0.2018
L0 3
0.360 I x 0.20183
Second Moment of Area I =   = ,.,''"'12
12
3
V
2.821 x 10Depth of immersion OC =  = c:ccc::c,
A
7.267 x 10 2
3.88
102 m = 38.8 mm
= BC
OC 19.4 mm
o
Fig 5.4
o is OG.
o is Yj'
Yj
345 mm
92 mm
The value of 00 may now be detcnnined for any other value of Yj. If Yj changes by
.6Yj. then this will produce a change in 00 of Wj..6y/W. The vertical separation of
the slots in the sail is 60 mm, so 00 will change in steps 0[0.391 x 60/2.821
Yi
(mm)
105
165
225
285
345
OG
(mm)
58.7
67.1
75.4
83.7
92.0
8.32
mm. Table 5. J shows the values of 00 calculated in this way for the 5 different
heights Yj of the jockey weight.
45
Table 5.2 shows the re.sults obtained when the pontoon was tilted by traversing the
jockey weight across its width l .
Jockey
Xj
(mm)
Height
y; (mm)
45
30
15
15
30
45
105
7.8
5.2
2.7
0.0
2.6
5.2
7.8
165
6.2
3.1
0.0
3.2
6.2
225.
7.7
3.8
0.0
3.9
7.8
285
5.2
0.0
5.2
345
7.5
0.1
7.4
5.76 mm/deg
dO
5.76 x 57.3
3330.0mm/rad
mm/rad
330.0
GM
330.0
45.7 mm
This value, and corresponding values for other jockey heights, are entered in the
fourth column of Table 5.3. Values of 8M are also shown, derived as follows (refer
to Fig 5.4 for notation):
BM
BG+GM
OGOB+GM
OG+GM19.4mm
l The preset sleps in Xj shown in the table are 15 rnm. To provide accuracy, this has been reduced to
7.5 mm in later versions of the equipment.
40
~
=.
,, 20
~
Ol~~:::
...=~I
is.
.'""
>,
~ 20
..,o
u
40
8
6
80
E
E 60
eo
BG~BM
+
~+~
+~
c.:>
0
Angle of tilt
100

J
2
4
'"
+~
+
40
20+''''''
2
3
4
o
1
5
6
Gradient of stability IiDe dx/de (mml")
Fig 5.6 Variation a/stability with me/acentric height
47
Jockey
Metacentric
BM
OG
xj/9
(mm)
(mm/")
105
58.7
5.76
45.7
85.0
165
67.1
4.82
38.3
86.0
225
75.4
3.88
30.8
86.8
285
83.7
2.88
22.9
87.2
345
92.0
2.01
16.0
886
height
.,
height GM
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
.,
.,
As 8M depends only on the mensuration and total weight of the pontoon, its value
should be independent of the jockey height, and this is seen to be reasonably verified
by the experimental results. The value computed from theory is
8M
1
V
2.466
2.821
X
X
104
103
8.74
102 m
87.4 mm
x/e.
intersects the BG axis at the value 90 mm. As BG approaches this value, x/S ). O.
Namely, the pontoon may be then tilted by an infinitesimal movement of the jockey
weight; it is in the condition of neutral stability. Under this condition, the centre of
gravity coincides with the metacentre, viz. BM
BM
90 mm.
.
..
..
Di.,.cussiOIl ofResults
established experimentally by moving the centre of gravity sideways across the body.
The value established in this way agrees satisfactorily with that given by the
analytical result BM = JlV.
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