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Universitatea Nicolae Titulescu

nvmnt la Distan
Facultatea de Drept
Anul I

LIMBA ENGLEZ

Lect.univ.dr. Camelia NEAGU

Acest modul este structurat n 13 uniti de nvare.


Structura
modulului
n primul semestru se vor studia primele 7 uniti de nvare, dup cum
(sem. I+II)
urmeaz:
Unitatea de nvare 1 ORDINEA CORECT A CUVINTELOR
N LIMBA ENGLEZ (60 de minute) Acest capitol expune regulile de
organizare a cuvintelor n propoziie, aplicate n limba englez.
Unitatea de nvare 2 - THE UK - A CONSTITUTIONAL
MONARCHY (90 de minute) prezint noiunile de baz privind rolul i
structura Parlamentului Marii Britanii, rolul Monarhului n conducerea
Statului, atribuiile Primului Ministru i ale Cabinetului condus de
acesta.
Unitatea de nvare 3 - VORBIREA DIRECT I INDIRECT (90
de minute) prezint noiunile de baz privind folosirea corect a vorbirii
indirec te limba englez.
Unitatea de nvare 4 - THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH LAW (90 de
minute) prezint principalele surse ale legislaiei din Marea Britanie.
Unitatea de nvare 5 - VERBUL (THE VERB). TIMPURILE
VERBULUI (VERB TENSES) (90 de minute) prezint dou timpuri
folosite n mod frecvent n limba englez: prezentul simplu i prezentul
continuu.
Unitatea de nvare 6 - THE JUDICIARY (80 de minute) prezint
noiuni generale privind sistemul judiciar din Marea Britanie.
Unitatea de nvare 7 THE PAST TENSES (90 de minute) prezint
regulile de folosire a trecutului simplu i trecutului continuu, dou dintre
cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze.
n al doilea semestru se vor studia ultimele 6 uniti de nvare, dup
cum urmeaz:
Unitatea de nvare 8 COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED
KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN (90 de minute) prezint instanele
de judecat din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.
Unitatea de nvare 9 THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
SIMPLE (90 de minute) recapituleaz regulile de folosire a unuia dintre
cele mai uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze prezentul perfect simplu.
Unitatea de nvare 10 THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
CONTINUOUS (60 de minute) - recapituleaz unul dintre cele mai
uzuale timpuri ale limbii engleze prezentul perfect continuu.
Unitatea de nvare 11 THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM (90 de

minute) prezint atribuiile profesionale care i revin unui avocat n


Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.
Unitatea de nvare 12 - THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
AND THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS (100 de
minute) prezint regulile de folosire a dou timpuri: trecutul perfect
simplu (past perfect simple) i trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect
continuous).
Unitatea de nvare 13 THE EUROPEAN UNION (90 de minute)
prezint studia un scurt istoric privind formarea Uniunii Europene i
rolul principalelor instituii din cadrul UE.
Pregtirea i
evaluarea
studenilor
(sem. I)

Pn la data primului tutorial din semestrul unu, studenii vor


parcurge unitile de nvare 1, 2, 3 i 4. i vor nsui cunotinele
teoretice i vor rspunde la toate sarcinile incluse n acestea.
Rspunsurile la exerciii i referatele se vor redacta n scris (sunt
acceptate i n form electronic document Word) i vor fi transmise
tutorelui.
Pn la data celui de-al doilea tutorial, inclusiv, studenii vor parcurge
unitile de nvare 5, 6 i 7. i vor nsui cunotinele prezentate n
cadrul unitilor 5, 6 i 7 i vor rezolva temele de control.
Nivelul de pregtire al studenilor se apreciaz astfel:
Lucrare scris
o traduceri
o exerciii de completare a spaiilor libere
o ntrebri de verificare a cunotinelor acumulate
o exerciii de parafrazare (rephrasing)
o eseu/referat/articol
Evaluarea temelor de control.
Ponderea referatelor i lucrrilor de control este de 30%. Lucrarea scris
are o pondere de 70%.

Pregtirea i
evaluarea
studenilor
(sem. II)

Pn la data primului tutorial din semestrul doi, studenii vor parcurge


unitile de nvare 8, 9 i 10. i vor nsui cunotinele teoretice i vor
rspunde la toate sarcinile incluse n acestea. Rspunsurile la exerciii i
referatele se vor redacta n scris (sunt acceptate i n form electronic
document Word) i vor fi transmise tutorelui.
Pn la data celui de-al doilea tutorial, inclusiv, studenii vor parcurge
unitile de nvare 11, 12 i 13.
i vor nsui noiunile expuse n unitile 11, 12 i 13 i vor rezolva
temele de control.
Nivelul de pregtire al studenilor se apreciaz astfel:
Lucrare scris
o traduceri
o exerciii de completare a spaiilor libere
o exerciii de reformulare (rephrasing)
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o exerciii de transformare (de la diateza activ la diateza pasiv


sau de la vorbirea direct la vorbirea indirect)
o ntrebri de verificare a cunotinelor acumulate
o exerciii de parafrazare (rephrasing)
o eseu/referat/articol
Evaluarea temelor de control.
Ponderea referatelor i lucrrilor de control este de 30%. Lucrarea scris
are o pondere de 70%.

UNIT I
ORDINEA CORECT A CUVINTELOR N LIMBA ENGLEZ
(Word Order)
1.1.
Introducere
Acest capitol expune regulile de organizare a cuvintelor n propoziie, aplicate
n limba englez. Studenii ar trebui s acorde o atenie sporit acestui capitol
deoarece necunoaterea regulilor de organizare a cuvintelor n propoziie atrage
dup sine comiterea unui numr foarte mare de greeli de topic n limba
englez.
1.2.

Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare

Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:


s foloseasc n ordine corect prile de propoziie n limba englez,
semnalnd diferenele de topic existente ntre englez i romn;
s sesiseze poziia corect a adverbelor de frecven n propoziie
(observnd diferenele care apar n funcie de predicat i de timpurile
folosite).
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de
nvare este de 1 or.
CONINUTUL UNITII DE NVARE
Folosirea corect a ORDINII CUVINTELOR N PROPOZIIE prezint o importan
deosebit n limba englez. Limba englez este o limba analittic, avnd puine forme
flexionare, de aceea, locul pe care-l ocup cuvintele n propoziie are un rol important n
identificarea funciilor lor sintactice.
Ordinea cuvintelor n propoziie trebuie studiat i datorit diferenelor de topic dintre
romn i englez.
n limba romn, poziia prilor de propoziie difer de cea a cuvintelor englezeti n dou
privine:
a) Limba romn are mai multe forme flexionare i deci locul cuvintelor nu este att de
important, iar subiectul nu este exprimat de obicei, verbul romnesc fiind marcat
formal pentru persoan i numr:
I never see him there (engl.)
Niciodat nu-l vd acolo (romn)
(Eu) Nu-l vd niciodat acolo.
(Eu) Nu-l vd acolo niciodat.
b) Unele pri de propoziie n limba romn ocup de obicei alte locuri dect prile de
propoziie corespunztoare din limba englez.
Englez:
Romn:
He speaks English well.
El vorbete bine englezete.
(Subiect + predicat + compl. direct +
(Subiect + predicat + circ. mod.

00:30

circ. mod)

+ compl. direct)

Exemple
1. Comparai topica propoziiei englezeti cu topica
propoziiei romneti, observnd c n romn
topica este mult mai flexibil:
(Compl. circ. de timp)Subiect + Predicat + Compl. direct + Compl. indir. +
Compl. circ. de mod + Compl. circ. de loc + (Compl. circ. de timp).
(After dinner) She said good night to them quickly in the hall (after dinner).
(Dup cin) le-a spus noapte bun repede n hol (dup cin) sau
(Dup cin) le-a spus repede noapte bun n hol (dup cin).
2. Adverbele de frecven (usually*, sometimes*, never, often, rarely/seldom, always) stau
naintea predicatului dac acesta este exprimat printr-un verb aflat la un timp simplu (deci
NU continuu** sau perfect***):
She never pleads in criminal cases.
Law students often simulate cases as part of their academic training.
* Usually and sometimes can be placed at the beginning/at the end of the sentence or
immediately before the predicate:
E.g. (Usually) we prepare our pleadings carefully (usually).
sau
We usually prepare our pleadings carefully.
(Sometimes) she asks this senior counsel for advice (sometimes).
She sometimes asks this senior counsel for advice

sau

** Adverbs of frequency are used between the verb to be and the present participle (with
continuous tenses):
E.g. They are always asking me questions about the day of the crime because they suppose I
am the real offender!
*** Adverbs of frequency are used between the verb to have and the past participle (with
perfect tenses):
E.g. She has never agreed with such a clause in the contract!
!!! If adverbs of frequency are used with the verb to be, they are placed after this verb:
Mr. Johanson is always on time when he expects a client at the office.

Corectai greelile din propoziiile de mai jos:


I appreciate very much this internship period.
.
The witness testified yesterday without hesitation.

She checks her knowledge in this law encyclopedia often.

S ne reamintim
Topica limbii engleze este diferit de cea din limba romn ntr-o mare
msur. Ca limb sintetic, romna i-a conservat formele flexionare, de aici
flexibilitatea topicii romneti. n schimb, engleza, ca limb analitic, a
pierdut foarte multe forme flexionare, ceea ce a dus la rigidizarea topicii ei.
1.3.
Rezumat
- n limba englez, nu se pune niciodat un complement circumstanial ntre
predicat i complementul direct/ complementul indirect;
- Complementele circumstaniale au o ordine strict de folosire n limba
englez: C.C.M + C.C.L + C.C.T(Adverbial of Manner + Adv. of Place +
Adv. of Time);
- Urmtoarele complemente circumstaniale de timp pot sta la nceputul sau la
sfritul propoziiei: last week/month/year, next week/month/year, this
week/month/year, in 2010, at noon/at midnight/at weekend, in the future/in the
morning/in the afternoon, during the 1st semester, on Monday/Friday etc.
1.4.

Test de evaluare a cunotinelor:

I. Schimbai ordinea complementelor. Folosii


complementului indirect.
Ex: Show us the album. Show the album to us.
1. Please, pass me the dictionary.
2. Fetch me a glass of water.
3. Please, send your parents my regards.
4. He didnt forget to buy his sister a ticket.
5. Tell the children this funny story.
6. He offered everyone flowers.
7. Andrew owes Betty some money.
8. William handed her some pictures.
9. I have written John a letter.
10. They told us the news.
11. She offered everyone present a copy of the text.

to

sau

for naintea
00:30

II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Completai spatiile libere cu prepoziiile care lipsesc pentru a forma complemente


prepoziionale:
She never speaksthis subject.
He still depends.. his parents.
Do you agree . me?
She waited. you for half an hour.
The boy insisted doing it himself.
Please, look . the book Ive bought.
1.5.

Test de autoevaluare a cunotinelor:

I. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez:


1. Descrie-ne tot ce ai vzut ieri la locul faptei, te rog.
2. Te rog, citete-mi declaraia martorului.
3. Comunic-ne rezultatul procesului imediat ce-l afli!
4. I-am cumprat sptmna trecut asistentei noastre un dicionar explicativ de termeni
juridici.
5. Medalia de aur a fost acordat echipei romne pentru performana ei extraordinar la
concursul de procese simulate.
6. Nu este nevoie s-mi napoiezi cursul de drept constituional. i-l fac cadou.
II. Completai spaiile libere cu termenii de mai jos (conform exemplului dat):
authority
law enforcement agency
legislation

court
lawyers
Rule

to govern
legal action
the judiciary

Judge
legal system
tribunal

1. A body that is appointed to make a judgement or inquiry. tribunal


2. A countrys body of judges.
3. An act or acts passed by a law-making body.
4. Legal proceedings.
5. An official body that has authority to try criminals, resolve disputes, or make other legal
decisions.
6. An organization responsible for enforcing the law especially the police.
7. A senior official in a court law.
8. The body or system of rules recognized by a community that are enforceable by
established process.
9. The control resulting from following a communitys system of rules.
10. Members of the legal profession.
11. To rule a society and control the behavior of its members.
12. Behavior recognized by a community as binding or enforceable by authority.
1.6. Tem de control
I.

Punei n ordinea corespunztoare cuvintele de mai jos:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
II.

The/is/about/like/thing/I/this faculty/great/research department/its.


A/smuggling/building/man/apprehended/in/ was/who/this/dealt with.
We/read/the/before/file/must/and/about/forgotten/it/have.
Unfortunately/caused/year/are/crimes/juveniles/by/every/many.
An/by/injured/rescued/from/the/burning /a/dog/was/woman/building.
Punei complementele circumstaniale din paranteze la locul potrivit n
propoziie, preciznd funcia lor sintactic:

1. I am working on my graduation project (now).


2. He has had his dinner (already).
3. The last lesson was difficult (unusually); this one is easy (enough).
4. I have believed them (never).
5. His behavior cannot be explained (entirely).
6. You can excuse yourself for the reason (hardly).
7. He goes to the seaside (usually, in July).
8. Look at those sentences (tonight).
9. He speaks English (in the classroom, always).
10. He comes (sometimes, on Saturdays, to my place).

UNIT II
THE UK - A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
2.1.
Introducere
Studiind aceast unitate de nvare, vei dobndi noiunile de baz privind
rolul i structura Parlamentului Marii Britanii, rolul Monarhului n
conducerea Statului, atribuiile Primului Ministru i ale Cabinetului condus
de acesta, precum i despre alegerile generale din Regatul Unit al Marii
Britanii.
2.2.
Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s ofere informaii generale despre puterea legislativ din Marea
Britanie;
s precizeze atribuiile Monarhului Britanic n guvernarea
statului;
s ofere informaii generale despre puterea executiv din Marea
Britanie.
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90
minute.
Coninutul unitii de nvare
THE UK - A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy and
a unitary state, which is made up of Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) and of
Northern Ireland. All four countries of the Kingdom are represented in Parliament at
Westminster, which is the supreme legislative authority in the United Kingdom.
The three main powers in the British state are: the legislative power, the executive power and
the judiciary. The legislative power is the power of making, altering or repealing the laws and
it belongs to Parliament.
The Parliament is the legislative body, which is constitutionally composed of the Monarch,
the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The judiciary is represented by the Supreme
Court and all the other courts of law in the UK.
The Queen represents the people as the Head of State, but the real power lies in Parliament.
The House of Commons or the Lower House consists of 650 Members of Parliament (MPs)
who each represent a constituency. They are salaried members elected by universal adult
suffrage. Members of the House of Commons are elected at a General Election, which must
be held every five years, but it is often held at more frequent intervals.

10

00:30

The House of Lords or the Upper House has around 1,200 members and is made up of
hereditary and life peers and peeresses, including the law lords appointed to undertake
judicial duties of the House, and the archbishops and bishops of the Church of England.
The Sovereign formally summons and dissolves Parliament and generally opens new sessions
of Parliament with a speech from the throne. The Queen reigns but does not rule.
The full duration of Parliament is five years. No bill can become law until it has been
sanctioned or read three times by both Houses and has finally received the royal assent.
The Constitutional principles, rules and practices of the United Kingdom have never been
codified; they derive from state law, from common law and from the conventions of the
constitution.
General Elections are held every five years, though the Prime Minister may call one earlier
and if a MP dies or retires a by-election is held in her or his constituency. MPs win their seats
in Parliament by a majority vote.
The Party which wins sufficient seats at a General Election to command a majority of
supporters in the House of Commons forms the Government; its leading members are chosen
by the Prime Minister (PM) who forms the Cabinet.
The Party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the official Opposition.
Parliaments main functions are debating, passing legislation and examining the actions of the
Government.
The Speaker of the House of Commons is elected from the members to preside over the
House immediately after each new Parliament is formed. He is required to be impartial over
parliamentary procedure and the traditional guardian of the rights and privileges of the House
of Commons.
The Government consists of the ministers appointed directly by the Crown on the
recommendation of the Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister is the Head of the government and presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
He consults and advises the Monarch on government business, supervises and, to some
extent, coordinates the work of the various ministries and departments and is the principal
spokesman for the Government in the House of Commons.
The Cabinet is the nucleus of government; its members consist of a small group of the most
important ministers who are selected by the Prime Minister. The size of the Cabinet is about
23 and its main function is to determine, control and integrate the policies of the government
for submission to Parliament.
The Lord Chancellor and the Law Officers of the Crown.
The Lord High Chancellor and the Law Officers of Great Britain presides over the House of
Lords both in legislative capacity and as a final court of appeal.
Corectai greelile din propoziiile de mai jos:
a. The Lord Chancellor is the head of the Cabinet of Ministers.
.
b. Norther Ireland is a part of Great Britain.

11

c. The Speaker is the head of the House of Lords.

S ne reamintim
-Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este o monarhie constituional, ceea ce
nseamn c Regele/Regina este eful statului, dar acesta/aceasta nu poate
aciona dect n limitele impuse de prevederile Constituiei.
- n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, puterea legislativ a statului i revine
exclusiv Parlamentului;
- n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, Puterea executiv este reprezentat de
Primul Ministru (eful Guvernului) i de Cabinetul de Minitri (ale crui
edine sunt prezidate de Primul Ministru).
2.3.Rezumat
- Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii este o monarhie constituional;
- n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, Parlamentul este bicameral (the House of
Lords & the House of Commons);
- The Lord Chacellor este Presedintele Camerei Lorzilor, n timp ce the
Speaker este Presedintele Camerei Comunelor;
- n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, alegerile generale se organizeaz o dat la 5
ani;
- pentru Camera Lorzilor nu se organizeaz alegeri, membrii acestei camere
fiind alei de Monarh la recomandarea Primului Ministru sau a Camerei
Lorzilor.
2.4. Test de evaluare a cunotinelor:

00:60

I.

Completai spaiile libere cu cuvintele corespunztoare:

assent, Constitution, repealing, branches, duration, executive, that is, altering, convoke,
prorogue, power, law, sanctioned, retires, both, but, earlier, held, elections, constituency
1. The British. consists of two great . , the legislative and the . power.
2. The legislative power, . the power of making, . or . the laws, belongs to
Parliament.
3. The Queen alone can Parliament or . , or dissolve it.
4. The full .. of an MP`s term of office is 5 years.
5. No bill can become until it has been or read three times by .. Houses and has
received the royal .
6. General . are held every five years, . the Prime Minister may call one.., and if a
MP dies or . a by-election is . in her or his
II.

Rspundei la urmtoarele ntrebri:

12

1. What does Parliament consist of?


2. What does the Sovereign formally do?
3. Who are the members of the House of Lords?
4. What do the terms peer and peeress mean?
5. What does the House of Commons consist of?
6. At what intervals must a General Election be held?
7. What is the Prime Ministers first duty?
8. Who becomes the official Opposition?
9. What does the Speaker do during debates in Parliament?
10. What are the criteria that must be take into account in electing the Speaker?
2.5.Test de autoevaluare a cunotinelor:
I.

Traducei n englez urmtoarele propoziii:


00:60

1. Camera Comunelor este format din 630 membrii salariai alei prin
sufragiu universal de ctre populaia adult.
2. Primul Ministru alege membrii Guvernului din partidul care ctig
majoritatea locurilor n Parlament.
3. Preedintele Camerei Comunelor este propus de Guvern dup
consultri cu opoziia.
4. n Camera Lorzilor, autoritatea suprem Lordul Cancelar are
puteri mai mici ca Preedintele Camerei Comunelor (The Speaker).
5. Membrii Camerei Comunelor reprezint autoritatea final n
emiterea legilor.
II.

Traducei n limba romn urmtorul text:

Laws can be seen as a set of rules which are meant to govern behavior between people.
Law, the body of official rules and regulations, generally found in constitutions and
legislation, is used to govern society and to control the behavior of its members. In
modern societies, a body with authority, such as a court or the legislature, makes the law;
on the other hand the police makes sure the law is observed.
In addition to enforcement, a body of expert lawyers is needed to apply the law.
This is the role of the judiciary, the body of judges in a particular country.
2.6. Tem de control
I. Completai spaiile libere cu adverbele potrivite:
annually mainly impartially dangerously usually fluently
carefully.
1.
2.
3.
4.

He was fined because he was driving ..


You must cross the road
He speaks English..
An arrested person will be granted bail if he cannot be brought before
the court within a day.
5. The Pleading competition is held
6. Criminal law is concerned with crimes against the community as a
whole.
13

7. Judges must act


II. Answer to the following questions (using, if necessary, information
from Wikipedia):
1. What is the difference between a constitutional monarchy and
an absolute monarchy?
1. Give examples of other constitutional monarchies.
What does it mean that the Queen reigns but does not rule?
2.7.

Bibliografie specifica

Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept,


Ed. Compania, 2004.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy

14

UNIT III
VORBIREA DIRECT I INDIRECT
(Direct and Indirect Speech)
3.1.

Introducere

n aceast unitate de nvare, vei putea revizui/consolida noiunile de baz


privind folosirea corect a vorbirii indirecte n limba englez.
Vorbirea indirect este folosit frecvent n limbajul de zi cu zi, iar buna
cunoatere a acesteia este strns legat de regulile concordanei timpurilor,
specifice limbii engleze.
3.2.

Obiectivele/competenele unitii de nvare

Dup studierea acestei uniti de nvare, studentul trebuie s fie


capabil:
s foloseasc n mod corect vorbirea indirect n limba englez
s evite greelile frecvente de concordan a timpurilor.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


VORBIREA DIRECT I INDIRECT
Exist dou posibiliti de redare a spuselor cuiva: prin vorbire direct i indirect.
n vorbirea direct (Direct speech) se reproduc ntocmai cuvintele persoanei care le-a rostit:
He asked me: Where is Dan?
M-a ntrebat: - Unde este Dan?
Folosirea timpurilor n vorbirea direct nu este afectat de timpul predicatului din propoziia
principal:
He is saying, Ill see you tomorrow.
He has said, I met her last night.
He said, Ive just arrived.
n vorbirea indirect (Indirect/Reported speech) o a treia persoan red spusele cuiva, fr a
reproduce totdeauna ntocmai cuvintele sale:
John said to Peter, Shall I meet you at the station tomorrow?
John suggested that he should meet Peter at the station the next day.

15

00:45

Transformarea vorbirii directe n vorbire indirect (change from Direct to Indirect


Speech).
Cnd spusele cuiva sunt trecute de la vorbirea direct la cea indirect, procedeu frecvent
utilizat n conversaie au loc anumite schimbri att n propoziia principal ct i n cea
completiv direct:
Modificrile sunt de dou feluri:
A. Generale, care afecteaz orice fel de enun reprodus;
B. Specifice, caracteristice fiecrui tip de propoziie: enuniativ, interogativ,
exclamativ, imperativ.
1. Modificrile generale
b. Pronumele personal, reflexiv si posesiv se schimb dup neles: persoana I i
a II-a devin persoana III-a.
pronumele rmne neschimbat cnd vorbitorul i reproduce propriile lui
cuvinte.
c. Pronumele/adjectivele demonstrative i adverbele de loc i timp sunt nlocuite
cu altele care exprim deprtarea:
This that
These those
Here there
Now then

Today
Yesterday
The day before yesterday
Tomorrow
The day after tomorrow
Next week
Last week
A year ago

- That day
- The day before
- Two days before
- The next day/ following day
- In two days time
- The next/following week
- The previous week/ the week before
- A year before/ the previous year

d. Folosirea timpurilor n vorbirea indirect


Present devine Past
Past Tense devine Past Perfect
Present Perfect Tense devine Past Perfect
Past Perfect rmne neschimbat
Future devine Future in the Past
Exemplu:
Mr. Brown said to his wife: Ive been very busy today.
Mr. Brown told his wife that he had been very busy that day.
1. Modificrile specifice se refer la verbele care trebuie folosite n
fiecare fel de propoziie reprodus (enuniativ, interogativ,
exclamativ, imperativ).
a. Propoziiile enuniative
Verbul to say cnd nu este urmat de complement indirect se pstreaz;
n celelalte cazuri to say devine tell + complement indirect
Cathy said she didnt understand the lesson.
Cathy told the teacher she didnt understand the question.
b. Propoziiile interogative
16

Verbul to say este nlocuit cu verbe ca: to ask, to wonder, to want, to know, to inquire.
Why is Tom angry?. Helen said to me.
Helen wondered why Tom was angry.
Propoziia secundar se va introduce cu conjuncia if, whether, how, when, where.
Would you attend our meeting? the students asked their professor.
The students wanted to know whether their professor would attend their meeting.
Schimbrile de timp n propoziiile interogative au loc la fel ca n cele enuniative:
Where have you been?
What is Tom doing?
When will you leave?

He wanted to know where


we had been.
He wanted to know what
Tom was doing.
He wanted to know when
they would leave.

c. Propoziiile exclamative
Ele devin propoziii enuniative n vorbirea indirect.
Exclamaiile cu what, how, Oh! Ah! Devin completive directe introduse de that:
How very kind of him to help us with our luggage! mother said.
Mother exclaimed that it was very kind of him to help them with their luggage.
d. Propoziiile imperative
Ele devin n vorbirea indirect propoziii infinitive
Afirmative:
He said, Sit down, Peter.
He told Peter to sit down.
Negative:
He said, Dont interrupt the speaker please.
He asked them not to interrupt the speaker.
Verbul la imperativ se transform n verb la infinitiv cu to/not to.
Corectai greelile n frazele de mai jos:
1. The witness swore he will say the truth.
2. The lawyer wondered how he has entered the room.
3. We will become good practitioners when we will start working in law firm
or in the Bar.
S ne reamintim
Vorbirea indirect reproducere spusele unei persoane, folosind verbe specifice
(reporting verbs) n acest scop: to ask, to say, to comment, to exclaim, to wonder,
to order, to underline, to offer etc.
Vorbirea direct este marcat prin ghilimele, deoarece n limba englez nu se
folosete linia de dialog. n schimb, vorbirea indirect nu este marcat prin
ghilimele.

17

3.3.
Rezumat
Trecerea de la vorbirea direct la cea indirect presupune efectuarea urmtoarelor
modificri:
- de persoan (pers.1 => pers. a 3-a);
- de timp (toate timpurile coboar cu o treapt: prezentul devine trecut, iar trecutul
devine trecut perfect, n timp ce viitorul cu will se transform n viitor-n-trecut);
- de compl.circ. de timp/loc (now => then, here => there etc.);
- de pronume demonstrativ (this => that, these => those)
3.4. Test de evaluare:
I. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la vorbirea indirect, fcnd schimbrile de
pronume necesare:
1. Our teacher says, If you work hard, you will succeed.
2. They always say, These exercises are too difficult for us.
3. Doris is saying, Behave yourself, Peter.
4. The teacher has said to the students, I want to have a look at your homework.
5. I always say, I dont like to be late.
6. John and Tom are saying, We havent done our homework.
II. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii la vorbirea indirect opernd schimbrile de timp
i adverbe, dup un verb la Past Tense:
He said (That). sau He told me/us (that)
1. I read this book a long time ago.
2. They are having an English class now.
3. Ill give you an answer as soon as I can.
4. We watched TV last night.
5. Weve never been here before.
6. I know what the teacher will say.
7. I cant answer this question; its too difficult for me.
8. I shall try to finish this today.
9. I talked to them yesterday.
10. Ill be very busy next week.
3.5. Test de autoevaluare:
I. Trecei urmtoarele propoziii n vorbirea indirect folosind n propoziia
principal verbe la Past Tense (say, tell, ask, wonder, promise, order, advise):
00:45

1. What are you studying?


2. Has Paul left any message for me?
3. Could you make up this prescription for me?
4. I dont take sugar in my tea.
5. What a lovely day!
6. Ill be back in half an hour.
7. Why should I do this?
8. Lets play tennis, now!
II. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez.
1. Voia s tie de ce prietenii mei au plecat aa devreme.

18

2. Profesorul i-a ntrebat pe studeni dac au neles lecia sau nu.


3. Funcionarul ne-a sftuit s citim cu atenie instruciunile nainte s deschidem
cutia.
4. Doctorul ne-a spus ca nimeni nu are voie sa vorbeasc cu pacientul pn a doua
zi.
5. Ei au spus ca ar fi ajuns la timp dac n-ar fi pierdut autobuzul.
3.6. Tem de control:
I. Dup ce ai tradus propoziiile de mai sus n limba englez, trecei
propoziiile n vorbirea direct.
II. Dai echivalentul romnesc la fiecare din cuvintele de mai jos, apoi alctuii cte o
propoziie cu fiecare din ele:
1. Barrister
2. Solicitor
3. Prosecutor
4. Judge
5. To take an oath

6. Minister of Justice
7. Attorney General
8. Solicitor General
9. to pursue
10. Law graduates

3.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

19

UNIT IV
THE SOURCES OF ENGLISH LAW
4.1.

Introducere

n aceast unitate de nvare, vei studia principalele surse ale legislaiei din
Marea Britanie, dobndind o mai bun nelegere a ctorva principii
fundamentale specifice pentru dreptul anglo-saxon, cunoscut sub numele de
common law.
4.2.

Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare

Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:


s precizeze sursele principale ale legislaiei britanice.

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de


nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


From the aspect of their sources, laws are traditionally divided into two main categories: they
may be written or unwritten. The expression written law signifies any law that is formally
enacted, whether reduced to writing or not, and the expression unwritten law signifies all
unacted law.
In England unwritten law is predominant, for more of their law derives from judicial
precedents than from legislative enactment.
Two principal sources of law are worth to be mentioned: Legislation and Judicial Precedent.
Legislation is enacted law and it was studied at Constitutional Law (Constitution and
Government).
Judicial Precedent is the principle of justice enforced in English law by the rule of stare
decisis (keep to what has been decided previously).
English law is, to a large extent, based on case-law. The rules of common law have been
evolved inductively from decision to decision involving similar facts.
A distinctive feature of the English system is that, because the English judge has power to
make new law, his position in the legal system is central.
The judge may simply be obliged to consider the former decision as part of the material on
which his present could be based or he may be obliged to decide in the same way as that in
which the previous case was decided. In the latter case the precedent is said to be binding.
So another feature of the English system is the doctrine of the binding case.
20

00:30

Cases of first impression are based upon facts, which bear no resemblance to the facts of
any previous case.
The administration of justice is not a simple process of matching precedents. The judges have
a field of choice in making their decisions. But they do not exercise their discretion in an
arbitrary way; they rest their judgments upon general principles.
Corectai greelile n enunurile de mai jos:
The common law system is specific for France and Belgium.
The judicial precedent does not ensure a homogenous jurisprudence in the UK.
Romanian law is primarily based on case-law.
S ne reamintim
n sistemul de drept anglo-saxon, dreptul cutumiar este un important izvor al
dreptului.

4.3.
Rezumat
In sistemul de drept anglo-saxon, jurisprudenta (case-law) este un important
izvor de drept. Common-law se constituie din: hotarrile judecatoresti si
obiceiurile juridice. Judecatorul este un creator al legii, el nu doar interpreteaz
legea. Totodat, o cauz poate fi soluionat pe baza unui precedent care a fost
pronunat cu mult timp n urm.
4.4. Test de evaluare:
I. Punei cuvintele de mai jos n spaiile libere ale textului :
Common Law
Napoleonic Code

Roman Law
The Ten Commandments

.. , which evolved in the 8th century BC, was still largely a blend of custom and
interpretation by magistrates of the will of the gods.
.. evolved from the tribal and local laws in England. It began with common
Customs, but over the time it involved the courts in law-making that was responsive
to changes in society. In this way the Anglo-Norman rulers created a system of
centralized courts that operated under a single set of laws that replaced rules laid
down by earlier societies.
. formed the basis of all Israelite legislation. They can also be found in the laws of
other ancient peoples.
. refers to the entire body of French law, contained in five codes dealing with
civil, commercial, and criminal law.
II. Completai spatiile libere cu verbele cu particul separabil de mai jos:
To break down To look down upon
smb.
To put up
To go down
21

00:60

To make up for
To cut down

To break up
To make up (a
quarrel)

To turn down
1. You have to with your new job.
2. I hear prices have already
3. Im sorry for being late but my car
4. Many foreign tourists at the hotel in Brasov.
5. He has missed for a month, so he has to for his absence.
6. I dont like her because she on people.
7. You have to your expenses.
8. You cannot their invitation to dinner.
9. Im happy that they their quarrel.
10. School in June.
4.5.

Test de autoevaluare:

I. Explain the principle of the judicial precedent.


II. Alctuii zece propoziii folosind urmtorii termeni folosii n tribunale:
1. to deprive smb. of liberty = a priva pe cineva de libertate
2. to make an appeal = a face recurs
3. to give evidence = a depune mrturie
4. to comply with a decision = a se supune unei hotrri
5. to impose a fine = a impune o amend
6. to state the cause = a-i apra cauza
7. to punish with imprisonment = a pedepsi cu nchisoarea
8. to plead not-guilty = a pleda pentru nevinovie
9. to discharge a defendant = a pune n libertate un acuzat
10. to pass a sentence = a pronuna o sentin.
4.6.

Tem de control:

I. Descriei sistemul de guvernare din Romnia n comparaie cu cel din Anglia.


Urmrii n descrierea dumneavoastr urmtoarele puncte:
The Head of State: appointment, function and powers, relationship with
other state organs;
The Legislative: composition, function and powers, relationship with
other state organs;
The Executive: composition, function and powers, relationship with
other state organs;
II. Translate into Romanian, using, if necessary, a dictionary (you can check your answers by
reading the Romanian Constitution):
Art. 73
(1) Parliament passes constitutional, organic, and ordinary laws.
22

(2) Constitutional laws shall be pertaining to the revision of the Constitution.


(3) Organic laws shall regulate:
a) the electoral system; the organization and functioning of the Permanent Electoral
Authority;
b) the organization, functioning, and financing of political parties;
c) the statute of Deputies and Senators, the establishment of their emoluments and other
rights;
d) the organization and holding of referendum;
e) the organization of the Government and of the Supreme Council of National Defence;
f) the state of partial or total mobilization of the armed forces and the state of war;
g) the state of siege and emergency;
h) criminal offences, penalties, and the execution thereof;
i) the granting of amnesty or collective pardon;
j) the statute of public servants;
k) the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts;
l) the organization and functioning of the Superior Council of Magistracy, the courts of law,
the Public Ministry, and the Court of Audit;
m) the general legal status of property and inheritance;
n) the general organization of education;
o) the organization of local public administration, territory, as well as the general rules on
local autonomy;
p) the general rules covering labour relations, trade unions, employers' associations, and
social protection;
r) the status of national minorities in Romania;
s) the general statutory rules of religious cults;
t) the other fields for which the Constitution stipulates the enactment of organic laws.
(Constitution of Romania)

4.7.

Bibliografie:

Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


Constituia Romniei, Regia autonom Monitorul Oficial, Bucureti, 2003
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept, Ed.
Compania, 2004.

23

UNIT V
VERBUL (THE VERB)
Timpurile verbului (Verb Tenses)
5.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, se vor revizui dou timpuri folosite n mod
frecvent n limba englez:
- prezentul simplu
- prezentul continuu.
5.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti de nvare, studentul trebuie s fie
capabil:
s deprindei folosirea corect a prezentului simplu i continuu
s evitai confuziile dintre cele dou timpuri, frecvente n cazul
vorbitorilor de romn
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de
nvare este de 90 minute.

00:30

Coninutul unitii de nvare


Categoria gramatical a timpului (Tense), categorie specific verbelor, se refer la ordinea
evenimentelor n timp, aa cum este perceput aceasta de vorbitor n momentul vorbirii.
TIMPUL PREZENT
Timpul prezent simplu (Present Tense Simple)
o Se folosete pentru aciuni repetate, cu caracter obinuit sau permanent;
adverbele cu care este cel mai des ntlnit sunt : usually, frequently, generally,
ever, never, often, seldom; every day, month, week, year; once/twice/three
times a week, etc;
o Pentru o stare sau aciune permanent, care nu se raporteaz la timp.
o Pentru adevruri general valabile.
E.g.:

I always teach English.


He works in a bank.
They go to the university every day.

Timpul present continuu (Present Tense Continuous)

24

00:30

o Se folosete pentru aciuni n desfurare n momentul vorbirii; adverbele


folosite sunt: now; at the moment; today.
o Pentru aciuni care reflect un proces, o dezvoltare, o evoluie.
o Se mai folosete cu valoare de viitor, cnd intervine voina vorbitorului.
o Format din:
To be (present) + vb. ing
E.g. :

Look ! It is raining.
It is getting dark.
Im studying, now.
What are you doing tonight?
Im visiting my mother tomorrow.

N.B. Verbe care nu se folosesc la aspectul continuu :


Verbe care arat percepii senzoriale :
To feel, to hear, to see, to taste, to smell, to touch, to notice
Verbe care arat sentimente:
To love, to hate, to wish, to desire, to like, to dislike, to prefer
Verbe care arat posesia:
To own, to owe, to belong to, to keep, to possess, to hold, to have
Dar: To have se poate folosi la aspectul continuu dac nu se refer la posesie:
Im having lunch.
Verbe care arat procese mentale:
To know, to intend, to believe, to trust, to doubt, to forget, to find, to mean, to
remember, to think, to understand, to expect.
Verbele modale (can, must, may, shall, will, need, dare).

S ne reamintim
Spre deosebire de limba romn, verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu,
continuu, perfect i perfect continuu.
Aspectul continuu al verbului indic faptul c o aciune este n curs de
desfurare la un moment dat, n timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la
aciuni care se petrec n mod obinuit i nu la un moment dat.
5.3. Rezumat
Prezentul simplu se folosete pentru a exprima:
- aciuni repetate, obinuite
- adevruri general-valabile
- aciuni viitoare care sunt parte a unui program oficial (a se vedea mersul
trenurilor, de exemplu);

25

Prezentul continuu se folosete pentru a exprima:


- aciuni care se afl n curs de derulare n momentul de fa
- aciuni temporare
-aciuni viitoare planificate.
Corectai greelile din enunurile de mai jos:
The smuggler is thinking that no one has noticed him while crossing the border
with the stolen jewels.
The court clerk is hating to work for so many hours in court every day.
Do not disturb the manager now, he discusses with the secretary.
5.4. Test de evaluare:
I. Alegei forma corect a verbelor date n parantez (prezentul simplu sau
continuu):

00:60

1. My passport (to expire) on 30th of October this year.


2. I usually (to write) for an hour or two every evening.
3. Leave me alone, I (to work) now.
4. this paper (to belong) to you?
5. I (to want) to know how to cross a check.
II. Mai jos avei cteva expresii tipice folosite n limbajul de drept. Ce prepoziii
folosii cu aceste expresii ?
1. To accuse someone of something.
2. To be liable something.
3. To sentence someone a punishment.
4. To claim damages something.
5. To be entitled compensation.
6. To bring a case someone.
7. To be guilty an offence.
8. To fine someone something.
9. To bring an action somebody.
10. To comply a decision.
- Folosii aceste expresii n propoziii alctuite de dumneavoastr.
5.5. Test de autoevaluare:
I. Alegei forma corect a verbelor date n parantez (prezentul simplu sau
continuu):
1. I (to write) a letter now.
2. I (to drink) tea every morning.
3. you (to understand) me now?

26

00:45

4. I (not to work) today.


5. He always (to work) at home on Saturdays.
6. We (to translate) the lesson now.
7. Where you (to work) this week? In Bucharest or in New York?
8. What you (to do) next week?
9. She (to like) swimming.
10. The telephone (to ring) at the moment.
II. Traducei n englez:
1. Cte ore de englez avei pe sptmn?
2. Casa aceasta mi aparine.
3. Mergei la birou n fiecare diminea ?
4. In Anglia plou destul de des.
5. Cresc preurile. Luna aceasta totul este mai scump.
6. Cine este brbatul cu care vorbete n acest moment ?
7. Mergem la teatru sau la opera o dat pe lun.
8. Verioara mea lucreaz la o firm de publicitate.
9. Cnd se deschide banca ?
5.6. Tem de control:
I.Traducei n englez:
00:45

1. mi vizitez prinii n fiecare sptmn.


2. Preul acestei cri este foarte mare. Nu-mi permit s mi-o cumpr.
3. Astzi lansm pe pia un nou produs.
4. Despre ce discutai acum? De ce nu suntei ateni?
5. Calculatorul nu face niciodat greeli.
6. Sptmna aceasta lucrez numai dup-amiaz.
II. Traducei urmtorul text n romn :
The Law Course at Cambridge is intended to give a grounding in the principles of law
viewed from an academic rather than a vocational perspective. There are opportunities to
study the history of law and to consider the subject in its wider social context. The emphasis
is on principle and technique.
Skills of interpretation and logical reasoning are developed, and students are encouraged to
consider broader questions such as ethical judgement, political liberty and social control.
Although many undergraduates who read law do so with the intention of practicing, many do
not, preferring instead to go into administration, industrial management or accountancy.
Candidates intending to read law need not to have studied only particular subject at school. It
is as common for undergraduates to have a scientific or mathematical background at A-level
as it is for them to have studied history or languages.
(Cambridge University Prospectus, 1988-1989).

27

5.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureti, 2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

UNIT VI
THE JUDICIARY
6.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, vei studia noiuni generale privind sistemul
judiciar din Marea Britanie.
Totodat, n setul de exerciii de la sfritul unitii de nvare, vei avea ca
tem de cas studierea a dou articole din Constituia Romniei privind
statutul judectorilor n ara noastr.
6.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s ofere informaii generale cu privire la puterea judectoreasc din
Marea Britanie
s expun modul de ierarhizare a instanelor de judecat din ara
noastr
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 80 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


Responsibility for the administration of the juridical system lies with the Lord Chancellor and
with the Home Secretary, the Secretary of the State for Scotland, and the Minister of Home
Affairs for Northern Ireland.
Judges are appointed by the Crown, on the advice of the Prime Minister. A judge holds office
until he retires, and his judicial independence is guaranteed.
Magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor, the Secretary of
State for Scotland, or the Governor of Northern Ireland.
There is no single body of law in the U.K. There is, however, a similarity between the
separate systems of England and Wales and of Northern Ireland.
A feature common to all systems of law in Britain is that there is no complete code.
The sources of law include Acts of Parliament and subordinate legislation made under powers
conferred by Parliament and a large amount of unwritten or common law.

28

00:20

Another feature is the distinction between Criminal law concerned with the wrongs against
community and Civil law concerned with the rights, duties and obligations of individual
members of the community.
Most prosecutions in England and Wales are initiated and conducted by the police.
The police service in Great Britain is linked with the local government and subject to the
influence and control of the Home Secretary and the Secretary of State for Scotland. In
Northern Ireland it is controlled by an Inspector General. In Scotland, the police make the
preliminary investigations but the Public Prosecutor decides whether or not to prosecute.
Throughout the U.K. it is the law that as soon as anyone is arrested, he must be charged and
brought before the court with the least possible delay. If he cannot be brought before the court
within a day, he will usually be granted bail.
S ne reaminitim
Numirea magistrailor se face n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii de ctre
Monarh, la recomandarea Primului Ministru. Judectorii sunt independeni i
inamovibili.
6.3. Rezumat
Lordul Cancelar mpreun cu Minitrii de interne ai Angliei, Scoiei i
Irlandei de Nord rspund de buna administrare a justiiei n Regatul Unit al
Marii Britanii.
Judectorii numii de Coroan, la sugestia Primului Ministru britanic, sunt
independeni i inamovibili.
Cercetarea penal este desfurat de organele de poliie judiciar.
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
In the UK magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Speaker.
Acts of Parliament are not considered sources of law in the UK.
The Prime Minister does not have any role in appointing judges in the UK.
6.4. Tem propus pentru evaluare:
I.Dai echivalentele romneti la urmtoarele cuvinte i expresii apoi alctuii
propoziii cu ele:
Responsibility lies with;
To hold office;
To be concerned with;
Minister of Home Affairs;
Criminal law;
Civil law;
On behalf of;
Decisions of the courts;
To prosecute;

29

00:60

To be brought before the court;


To be charged;
To be granted bail.
II. Alegei echivalentele romneti pentru cuvintele i expresiile englezeti:
1. To be entitled to vote
2. By-election
3. Suffrage
4. To resign
5. Constituency
6. House of Lords
7. To summon
8. Archbishop
9. Minister of Home Affairs
10. To appoint

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

Circumscripie electoral
Sufragiu
Alegeri pariale
A avea drept de vot
A demisiona
Ministru de interne
Camera lorzilor
A convoca
A numi (ntr-o funcie)
Arhiepiscop

6.5. Tem propus pentru autoevaluare:


I. Alegei cuvntul corect i completai spatiile libere:
1. The.. met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide Government policy on the
economic crisis.
a. civil service; b. ministries; c. Cabinet of Ministers
2. Generally, a Bill becomes an Act of Parliament when it has received the . of
both Houses of Parliament and the Sovereign.
a. assent; b. ratification; c. consent; d, enactment
3.The President of the House of Lords is called the
a. Speaker; b. Lord Chancellor; c. Prime Minister; d. peer
4. The House of Commons consists of 650 Members of Parliament who each
represent a .
a. state; b. house; c. county; d. constituency
5. If an MP dies or retires or is given a peerage a is held on his or her
constituency.
a. by-election; b. general election; c. electoral roll; d. election
6.The three parts of the Parliament are the monarch, lords and
a. people; b. government; c. commons; d. bishops
7.No. can become law until it has been sanctioned or read three times by both
houses and received the royal assent.
a. bill; b. act; c. code; d. ratification
II. Traducei n romn:
The Government is formed by the party with majority support in the Commons. The
Queen appoints its leader as Prime Minister. As head of the Government the Prime
Minister appoints about 100 ministers. About 20 ministers make up the Cabinet, the
senior group making the major policy decisions. Ministers are collectively
responsible for government decisions and individually responsible for their own
departments. The second largest party forms the official Opposition, with its own
leader and 'shadow cabinet'. (http://www.britannia.com/gov/gov4.html)
30

6.6. Tem de control:


Traducei n romn urmtoarele fragmente din Constituia Romniei:
ARTICLE 124
(1) Justice shall be rendered in the name of the law.
(2) Justice shall be one, impartial, and equal for all.
(3) Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law.
ARTICLE 125
(1) The judges appointed by the President of Romania shall be irremovable,
according to the law.
(2) The appointment proposals, as well as the promotion, transfer of, and sanctions
against judges shall only be within the competence of the Superior Council of
Magistracy, under the terms of its organic law.
(3) The office of a judge shall be incompatible with any other public or private
office, except for academic activities.
(The Romanian Constitution)
6.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureti, 2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

31

UNIT VII
THE PAST TENSES
7.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, vei recapitula trecutul simplu i trecutul
continuu, dou dintre cele cele mai importante timpuri ale limbii engleze.
7.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s folosii corect trecutul simplu i continuu
s evitai confuziile dintre cele dou timpuri, frecvente n cazul
vorbitorilor de romn
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


A.THE SIMPLE PAST
The Simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding ed to the infinitive.
Infinitive: to look
Simple past: looked
Verbs ending in e add d only:
Infinitive: to love
Simple past: loved

00:60

Irregular verbs vary in their simple past form:


Infinitive: to see,
to speak,
to leave,
to eat
Past tense: saw
spoke
left
ate
The simple past form of each irregular verb therefore must be learnt.
1. The same form is used for all persons in affirmative even if we have a regular or irregular
verb.
I worked
We worked
I spoke
We spoke
You worked
You worked
You spoke
You spoke
He/she worked
They worked
He/she spoke
They spoke
2. The negative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with:
did + not (didnt) + the infinitive
I did not work
We did not work
You did not work
You did not work
He/she/it did not work They did not work

I did not speak


We did not speak
You did not speak
You did not speak
He/she/it did not speak They did not speak

3. The interrogative of regular and irregular verbs is formed with:


did + subject + infinitive

32

Did I work?
Did you work?
Did he/she/it work?

Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?

Did I speak?
Did you speak?
Did he/she/it speak?

Did we speak?
Did you speak?
Did they speak?

4. Negative interrogative is formed with:


didnt + subject + infinitive
Didnt I work?
Didnt we work?
Didnt you work?
Didnt you work?
Didnt he/she/it work? Didnt they work?

Didnt I speak?
Didnt we speak?
Didnt you speak?
Didnt you speak?
Didnt he/she/it speak? Didnt they speak?

Past Tense is used for the relation of past events:


It is used for actions completed in the past at a definite time:
e.g.
I met him yesterday.
When did you meet him last?
I bought this car in London (here the action took place at a definite
time though this time is not mentioned).
It is also used for an action whose time is not given but which occupied a period of
time now terminated:
e.g.
He worked in that bank for four years (but he doesnt work there now).
Did you ever hear Maria Callas sing?
The simple past is also used for a past habit:
e.g.
He always carried an umbrella.
She never drank wine.
The simple past is used in conditional sentences for the use of the unreal past:
e.g.
If I lived near my office Id be in time for work (but I dont live near
my office).
If I were you Id go to see a doctor (but I am not you).
B. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
This tense is formed by:
The past tense of the verb to be (was, were) + the present participle (ing)
2. Affir
mati
ve
I was speaking
You were speaking
He/she/it was speaking
We were speaking
You were speaking
They were speaking

Negative

Interrogative

I was not speaking


You were not speaking
He/she/it was not speaking
We were not speaking
You were not speaking
They were not speaking

Was I speaking?
Were you speaking?
Was he/she/it speaking?
Were we speaking?
Were you speaking?
Were they speaking?

Some of the verbs cannot be used in the continuous tenses:


Verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe, look, taste, as link verbs.
Verbs expressing feelings and emotions: admire, adore, appreciate, desire, dislike,
fear, hate, like, love, want, wish.

33

Verbs of mental activity: agree, believe, assume, expect, forget, know, mean,
recognise, suppose, think, trust.
Verbs of possession: belong, owe, own, possess.
Main uses of the past continuous tense:
The past continuous is used for past actions which continued for some time but whose
limits are not known;
Used without a time expression it can indicate a gradual development;
Used with a point in time, it expresses an action which began before that time and
probably continued after:
e.g. At eight he was having breakfast.
Used in descriptions:
e.g. A wood fire was burning, a cat was sleeping in front of it. A girl was
playing the piano.
It can be also used as a past equivalent of the present continuous:
Direct speech: He said: I am living in London.
Indirect speech: He said he was living in London.
We may also use past continuous for apparently parallel actions:
e.g. Between one and two I was doing the shopping and walking the dog.
o This tense is normally used in this way with a time expression such as today,
last night, in the afternoon, which could either be regarded as points in time or
as periods.
o In questions about how a period was spent, the continuous often appears more
polite than the simple past:
e.g. What were you doing before you came here? Sounds more polite than:
What did you do before you came here?
S ne reaminitim
Spre deosebire de limba romn, verbul englezesc are patru aspecte: simplu,
continuu, perfect i perfect continuu.
Aspectul continuu al verbului indic faptul c o aciune este n curs de
desfurare la un moment dat, n timp ce aspectul simplu face referire la
aciuni care se petrec n mod obinuit i nu la un moment dat.
7.3. Rezumat
Trecutul simplu este folosit pentru a exprima:
- aciuni ncheiate ntr-o perioad de timp trecut;
- aciuni obinuite, repetate din trecut (cu adverbe de frecven);
- aciuni care s-au desfurat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp ncheiate (cu
prepoziia for);
- o condiiei ireal (n Condiionalele de tipul II).
Trecutul continuu este folosit pentru a exprima:
- o aciune care se afla n continu desfurare la un moment dat n trecut;
- o aciune aflat n desfurare n trecut i ntrerupt de o alt aciune;
- aciuni aflate care s-au aflat n desfurare n trecut, n acelai timp;
- descrierea unor secvene din trecut.

34

Corectai greelile de mai jos:


1. When we arrived at court, the witness testified so we could listen to his
testimony.
2. The muggers hid in the old building when the police officers approached the
scene of the crime.
7.4. Test de evaluare:
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense:
1. I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day.
Who (be) tried?
A man called Tom Brown.
Was he acquitted?
I dont know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).
2. As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some
stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car.
3. While he (make) his speech, the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone
(bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
4. The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He
(wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
5. I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank.
6. At 3 a.m. Mrs. Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) she (think) that someone (try)
to get into the house.
7. When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where
she (go) and she (say), London, but I dont think she (speak) the truth,
because there (not be) any train for London at that time.
8. The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys,
who (smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the
desk and (hope) for the best.
9. A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. You (smoke)
when I (come) in ? he (ask).
10. I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.
7.5. Test de autoevaluare:
I. Put the verbs in the following sentences into: a) the negative; b) the
interrogative:
1. They broadcast an appeal for money.
2. The police caught the thief.
3. We heard a terrible noise.
4. His son wrote a novel.
5. I read a chapter of that novel last night.
6. His wife came at 8.00 p.m.
7. The action of the play took place in Italy.

35

8. She found her watch.


9. I sent it to the laundry.
10. They lent you enough money.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. Which optional course did you choose for this semester?
2. Where did you write the homework task for today?
3. Did you lend the English course book to anyone last week?
4. How much did the books for the 1st year of study cost you?
5. When did this academic year begin?
6. How many options did you have when you decided to become a student at this
university?
7. When did you write this homework?
8. Where did you meet your best friend/colleague?
9. Who (m) did you consult with when you decided to take up studying law?
10. Where did you hear about our law faculty?
7.6. Tem de control:
Choose the right answer:
1. What did you do when your husband called?
I put the book down.
I was reading a book.
2. What was Tom doing while Bill was fishing?
He sat on the bank and waited.
He was swimming in the river.
3. The door bell rang was ringing at about eight oclock. It was Tom.
4. When he was calling called, I read was reading a book, but I put
down was putting down my book, and was going went to make a
cup of coffee for him.
5. Alice visited was visiting her mother at that time, and I never know
where she puts anything does she put anything.
6. First, I wasnt finding couldnt find the coffee and I spent ten minutes
looking at for it. Then Ive Id found it I couldnt find wasnt
finding the coffee-pot.
7. When I went back was going back into the lounge, it was half past
eight.
8. Tom looked at for the clock. What did you do were you doing in
the kitchen at all that time? he asked me. I made was making
coffee for you, I told said him.
7.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex,
Bucureti, 2003
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept,
Ed. Compania, 2004.

36

UNIT VIII
COURTS OF LAW IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN
8.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, vom analiza n linii mari instanele de judecat
din Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.
Totodat, la sfritul capitolului, vom expune, n limba englez, instanele de
judecat din ara noastr.
8.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s dobndii informaii generale cu privire la ierarhizarea instanelor de
judecat din Marea Britanie
s expunei modul de ierarhizare a instanelor de judecat din ara
noastr.
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


In the English System three different types of institutions have been set up to resolve legal
problems. These institutions are: Criminal Courts, Civil Courts and Appelate Courts.
1. CRIMINAL COURTS are concerned with wrongs against community. In England and
Wales they include:
a. Magistrates Courts try less serious offences. They consist of two to seven unpaid or lay
magistrates known as Justices of the peace. The Jury is made up of twelve ordinary people
aged between 18 and 65. When they have heard the evidence and the judges summing-up,
they retire to a special room to decide whether to return a verdict of guilty or no guilty. If they
all agree, they have reached a unanimous verdict. If the accused is found guilty, he or she has
the right to appeal and ask for the case to be heard by a higher court.
b. Courts of Quarter Session try most of the serious offences. These Courts are presided
over by a bench of justices under a chairman. The Courts of Quarter Session sit at least four
times a year in the counties and boroughs.
c. Courts of Assize generally try the gravest offences. These Courts are branches of High
Court. They are presided over by High Court judges. There are such Courts of Assize in
London, at the Old Bailey, Central Criminal Court, at Liverpool and Manchester.
All trials at quarter session and assizes are held with a jury.

37

00:30

2. CIVIL COURTS are concerned with rights, duties and obligations of individual members
of the community between themselves. The courts concerned with civil jurisdiction in
England and Wales are:
a. Magistrates Courts are mainly related to domestic proceedings. They have limited civil
jurisdiction.
b. County Courts where the most ordinary civil actions are heard and tried.
c. The High Court is divided into: the Chancery Division, the Probate Division, the Divorce
Division, Admiralty Division and the Queens Bench Division.
The High Court forms part of the Supreme Court of Judicature.
In Scotland, civil cases of first instance are heard at the Sheriff Courts (they correspond to the
County Courts in England and Wales) and the Outer House of the Court of Session (this one
is the supreme court in Scotland).
3.APPEALS
They may be heard in the High Court, the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal (the most
important appeals) and a few appeals are heard before the House of Lords, this one being the
ultimate court of appeal in civil cases.
There is also another classification of these institutions:
Courts of First Instance in which cases are heard for the first time.
Appelate Courts in which people appeal for reconsideration of the decisions of the Courts of
First Instance.
As to the latest legal journals there are many English Courts which exercise purely civil or
criminal cases and some others hear both criminal and civil cases, as for instance: the House
of Lords and the Court of Appeal.
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
1. In Courts of First Instance cases are heard again for a better judgment
thereof.
2. Magistrates Courts try very serious offences.
S ne reaminitim
Modul de ierarhizare a instanelor de judecat din Regatul Unit al Marii
Britanii este diferit de cel din ara noastr.
n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, cauzele civile se judec n urmtoarele
instane: Magistrates Courts, County Courts, Courts of Assize, iar cele penale,
n: Magistrates Courts, Courts of Quarter Session,

38

Courts of Assize.

8.3. Rezumat
n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii, cauzele penale se judec n urmtoarele
instane:
- Magistrates Courts (pentru infraciuni minore), n cadrul crora lucreaz
Judectorii de pace (Justices of the Peace);
- Courts of Quarter Session (pentru majoritatea infraciunilor grave)
- Courts of Assize (infraciunile deosebit de grave).
Cauzele civile se judec n urmtoarele instane:
-Magistrates Courts (conflicte familiale)
-County Courts (majoritatea litigiilor civile)
- The High Court.
Apelurile i recursurile se judec n: The High Court, the Civil Division of the
Court of Appeal i The House of Lords.
n Romnia, Justiia se realizeaz prin urmtoarele instane judectoreti:
a) nalta Curte de Casaie i Justiie;
b) curi de apel;
c) tribunale;
d) tribunale specializate;
e) instane militare;
f) judectorii. (v. Legea 304/2004)
8.4. Test de evaluare:
I.Answer the following questions:
00:50

1. What are the main criminal courts in England and Wales andwhat do they try?
2. What are the courts of civil jurisdiction in England, Wales and Scotland?
3. Where may appeals be heard?
II.Fill in the blanks with the missing words: try, branches, quarter, held, the gravest,
over, Assize Court, Supreme, part, heard, offences.
1.Courts of Assize try . offences.
2. Magistrates Courts the less serious .. .
3. These Courts are . of the High Court presided by High Court judges.
4. The High Court forms . of the .. Court of Judicature.
5. The Central Criminal Court in London at the Old Bailey is an . .
6. All trials at .. sessions and assizes are .. with a jury.
7. Appeals may be . in the High Court.

39

III.One way of classifying and understanding the law is by subject matter. Lawyers
often divide the law and the legal system into two: criminal law and civil law. Classify
the following terms into the appropriate column below. Two terms can appear in both
columns:
compensation / contract/ crime / damages / family law /
intellectual property / plaintiff / police / private individual / prosecution /
the accused/ the defendant / theft / to bring a case /
to bring an action / to fine/ to charge someone with something
Criminal
To charge someone with something

Civil
Plaintiff

8.5. Test de autoevaluare


I. Now complete the following text contrasting criminal and civil law by
choosing the words/phrases above.
Criminal Law vs. Civil Law
One category is the criminal law the law dealing with crime.
A case is called a _________(1). The case is instituted by the prosecutor, who takes
over the case from the __________ (2) who have already decided _______ (3) the
defendant (or ________) (4) with specified crimes. The civil law is much more wideranging. The civil law includes the law of _______ (5) and ______ (6).
In a civil case, the __________ (7), normally a _________ (8) or company,
________ (9) in order to win ______ (10). If the case is proven (on the balance of
probabilities, meaning that one is more sure than not), the defendant normally pays
the plaintiff __________ (money) (11).
II. Every jurisdiction organises the administration of justice in different ways.
In England, the basic division between criminal and civil law is reflected in the
court system. Choose from the following to complete the description that refers
to each Court:
Court of Justice of the European Communities
House of Lords
Court of Appeal
Magistrates Court
Crown Court
High Court, Criminal Division
High Court, Civil Division
County Court
1. Claims of lesser value will start in a County Court. There are 250 of these around
40

the country. They can also deal with divorce and bankruptcy matters.
2. Matters of important legal dispute arising in the Crown Court may be appealed to
the __________.
3. From the Court of Appeal, there can be an appeal to the ________ on fact or law,
but usually appeal is only allowed on matters of legal importance.
4. If the case involves a serious crime, it is heard in the ______.
5. In less serious criminal cases (which comprise over 90% of criminal cases), the
case is sent for trial in one of over 400 _______ .
6. More substantial civil claims (over around 25,000) are heard in the ________.
7. The __________ was set up under the Treaty of Rome 1957, by which the
European Community was established. The court can overrule all other courts on
matters of Community law.
8. Under the system of appeals in civil cases, it is possible to appeal from a County
Court or the High Court to the ______.
8.6. Tem de control
Translate into Romanian
ARTICLE 126
(1) Justice shall be administered by the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and
the other courts of law set up by the law.
(2) The jurisdiction of the courts of law and the judging procedure shall only be
stipulated by law.
(3) The High Court of Cassation and Justice shall provide a unitary interpretation
and implementation of the law by the other courts of law, according to its
competence.
(4) The composition of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the regulation
for its functioning shall be set up in an organic law.
(5) It is prohibited to establish extraordinary courts of law. By means of an organic
law, courts of law specialized in certain matters may be set up, allowing the
participation, as the case may be, of persons outside the magistracy.
(6) The judicial control of administrative acts of the public authorities, by way of
the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts, is
guaranteed, except for those regarding relations with the Parliament, as well as the
military command acts. The administrative courts, judging contentious business
have jurisdiction to solve the applications filed by persons aggrieved by statutory
orders or, as the case may be, by provisions in statutory orders declared
unconstitutional.
(The Romanian Constitution)
8.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2003
LEGEA Nr. 304 privind organizarea judiciar din 28 iunie 2004, republicat n
Monitorul Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 827 din 13 septembrie 2005
Constituia Romniei, Regia autonom Monitorul Oficial, Bucureti, 2003

41

Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept, Ed.


Compania, 2004.

42

UNIT IX
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
9.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, se recapituleaz unul dintre cele mai uzuale
timpuri ale limbii engleze presentul perfect simplu. Prin folosirea acestui
timp, vorbitorul stabilete o legtur ntre trecut i prezent n sensul generrii
unui efect prezent de ctre o cauz trecut sau n sensul continurii unei
situaii de fapt n viaa cuiva/a unei comuniti etc.
De asemenea, se remarc un grad sporit de dificultate pe care l presupune
folosirea corect a acestui timp i care este dat i de posibilitatea traducerii lui
n limba romn fie sub forma unui prezent simplu, fie a perfectului compus.
9.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s folosii corect prezentul perfect simplu sesiznd particularitile de
folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul simplu
s identificai situaiile de folosire a prezentului perfect simplu n
vorbirea curent
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


The Present Perfect Tense is formed with:
The present tense of HAVE + the past participle of the verb to be conjugated
For the regular verbs the past participle has exactly the same form as the simple past.
In irregular verbs, the past participle varies.
The negative is formed by adding not to the auxiliary.
The interrogative is formed by inverting the auxiliary and the subject.
Affirmative
I have looked
You have looked
He/she/it has looked
We have looked
You have looked
They have looked

Negative
I have not looked
You have not looked
He/she/it has not looked
We have not looked
You have not looked
They have not looked

Negative interrogative: has he/she it not looked? etc.

43

Interrogative
Have I looked?
Have you looked?
Has he/she/it looked?
Have we looked?
Have you looked?
Have they looked?

00:45

This tense may be said to be a sort of mixture of present and past. It implies a strong
connection with the present and is mainly used in conversations, letters, newspapers and
television and radio reports.
The Use of Present Perfect
a) it is used with just for a recently completed action:
He has just gone out.
Just must be placed between the auxiliary and the main verb.
b) it is used for past actions whose time is not definite:
I have read the instructions but I dont understand them.
Have you had breakfast? No, I havent had it yet.
c) recent actions in the present perfect often have results in the present:
The lift has broken down (we have to use the stairs).
actions expressed by the present perfect + yet usually have results in the
present.
He hasnt come yet (so we are still waiting for him).
d) it can also be used for actions which occur in the past, provided the connection with
the present is still maintained, that is that the action could be repeated in the present:
Ann Cox has written a number of short stories (that is she is still alive and can write
more).
e) it is used for actions occurring in an incomplete period:
the incomplete period may be indicated by today or this morning / afternoon /
evening / week / month / year / century, etc.
Have you seen him today? Yes, I have.
Has the postman come this morning?
Note: the present perfect can be used with this morning, this afternoon only up to about one
oclock or five oclock, because after that this morning or this afternoon becomes a
completed period, and actions occurring in it must be put into the simple past.
lately, recently used with the present perfect also indicate an incomplete period of time:
He has recently bought this house.
He has had a lot of luck lately.
it can be used similarly with ever, never, always, occasionally, often, several times:
I have never been to London.
He has always answered my letters.
This is the worst book I have ever read.
f) it is used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period:
time expressions include for, since, all day/night/week/all the time.
He has been in the army for two years (He is still in the army).
I have smoked since I left school (I still smoke).
the action usually begins in the past and continues past the time of speaking in
the present;
sometimes, the action finishes at the time of speaking:
I havent seen you for ages (but I see you now).
It has been very cold lately but its just beginning to get warmer.
for used with the simple past denotes a terminated period of time.
We lived here for ten years (but we dont live there now).
for used with the present perfect denotes a period of time extending into the
present:
We have lived in London for ten years (and we still live there).

44

g) it is also used with the verbs to be, to see, to know, to believe:


I have been here for a quarter of an hour.
I have often thought that I should have emigrated.
h) note that a conversation about a past action often begins with a question and answer in
the present perfect:
Where have you been? ~ Ive been to the pictures.
it is also used in letters:
I am so sorry I havent written to you but Ive been very busy lately as my
husband has been away.
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
1. Did you win any important case recently?
2. Since 2009 she studies EU law at our university.
3. I never imagined that working in a law firm can be so tiring.
9.3. S ne reamintim
Presentul perfect simplu este o combinaie ntre trecut i prezent, aa cum
arat i numele lui.
Spre deosebire de timpul trecut, prezentul perfect simplu nu va indica
niciodat cu precizie momentul n care loc o aciune. Din contra, prezentul
perfect simplu folosete, de regul, adverbe de timp de genul: recently, so far,
ever, never, always, today, this week, this month, this year, lately/of late etc.
Rezumat
Aciunea exprimat prin prezentul simplu poate indica faptul c producerea
acesteia genereaz un efect prezent.
E.g. He has prepared his speech. (=> he is ready to speak)
The prisoner has fallen ill. (=> he cannot appear in court)
!!! prezentul perfect nu se folosete niciodat pe lng un adverb de timp
trecut:
Wrong: He has met him yesterday.
Right: He has met him (=> they have talked etc.)
Prezentul perfect simplu indic adesea faptul c o situaie/stare de fapt dureaz
de un anumit timp:
We have been students for a few weeks.
They have had this business since 2008.

00:45

45

9.4. Test de evaluare


Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past tense
e.g.

You (see) Mary on Monday? ~


Did you see Mary on Monday?

Yes, I______
Yes, I did.

1. Where is Tom?
I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that hed be in for dinner.
2. He (serve) in the First World War.
When that war (begin)?
It (begin) in 1914 and (last) for four years.
3. You (see) todays paper?
No, anything interesting (happen)?
Yes, two convicted murderers (escape) from the prison down the road.
4. How long you (know) your new assistant?
I (know) him for two years.
What he (do) before he (come) here?
I think he (be) in prison.
5. Who you (vote) for at the last election?
I vote for Mr. Pitt.
He (not be) elected, (be) he?
No, he (lose) his deposit.
6. That house (be) empty for a year.
But they just (take) down the For sale sign, so I suppose someone (buy) it.
7. What are all those people looking at?
There (be) an accident.
You (see) what (happen)?
Yes, a motor cycle (run) into a lorry.
9. I (phone) you twice yesterday and (get) no answer.
10. I just (be) to the film War and Peace. You (see) it?
No, I_______. Is it like the book?
I (not read) the book.
I (read) it when I (be) at school.
When Tolstoy (write) it?
He (write) it in 1868.
He (write) anything else?
11. She (say) that shed phone me this morning, but it is now 12.30 and she (not
phone) yet.

46

9.5. Test de autoevaluare


Insert the Past or the Present Perfect Tense:
A.
John: ______ you_____ (write) a letter to your friend at last?
Mike: Yes, I_______.
John: When ______you _____ it?
Mike: I ______it last night.
John: And why _______ you not _____(send) it yet?
Mike: I ______ (leave) it at home in the morning and I ______ (be) busy since I
________ (return) home.
B.
Father: ________Jane______(come) home?
Mother: Not yet.
Father: I am very anxious about her. When _____she_____ (leave)?
Mother: She ______ (leave) home at 6 oclock and she _____(go) straight to the
dentist. Dont worry. Im sure the doctor _____ (detain) her.
Father: But its 9 oclock now, so she ______ (be) away from home for three.
9.6. Choose the right answer:
1. When ________________ the firm?
a) have you joined b) did you joined c) did you join
2. ___________________ in Paris?
a) Did you ever worked b) Have you ever worked c) worked you
3. That's the best pleading ______________
a) I've ever heardb) I didn't hear c) I used to hear
4. This is the most difficult case _____________________
a) I ever had b) I have ever had c) I've ever had to do.
5. ___________________ to him last week.
a) I talked b) I've talked c) I didn't talked
6. ______________ a binding contract last year and it is still valid.
a) We have concluded b) We concluded c) We haven't concluded
7. The reason she looks so sad is that she _______________ proved guilty in
court.
a) has been b) was c) had been
8. The number of customers ________ in 2009 but then _____in 2010.
a) rised falled b) rose fell c) have risen have fallen
9. You ____________ to a question ____________, of course I am angry with
you!
a) listened, I haven't asked
b) didn't listen, I asked
c) haven't listened, I've asked.
10. It's obvious that ________________ this report.
a) you haven't written b) you didn't write c) you don't write.

47

00:30

9.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993

48

UNIT X
THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
10.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, se recapituleaz unul dintre cele mai uzuale
timpuri ale limbii engleze prezentul perfect continuu. Acest timp
precizeaz durata de cnd se desfoar o aciune nceput n trecut, care
continu n momentul vorbirii.
De asemenea, trebuie precizat faptul c prezentul perfect continuu se
folosete cu verbe care exprim aciuni propriu-zise i nu stri/situaii de
via (aa cum se ntmpl n cazul prezentului perfect simplu).
10.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s folosii corect prezentul perfect continuu sesiznd particularitile de
folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la prezentul perfect simplu
s identificai situaiile de folosire a prezentului perfect continuu n
vorbirea curent.
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 60 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


FORM:
the present perfect of the verb to be + the present participle
Affirmative:

I have been working


You have been working
He/she/it has been working

We have been working


You have been working
They have been working

Negative:

I have not been working


You have not been working
He/she/it has not been
working

We have not been working


You have not been working
They have not been working

Negative interrogative:

Have I not been working?/ Havent I been working, etc

The Use of Present Perfect Continuous tense


This tense is used for an action, which began in the past and is still continuing or has only just
finished. The beginning of the action in the past is pointed out by since and the duration is
represented by for.

49

00:30

Note that the present perfect continuous expresses an action, which is apparently
uninterrupted; we do not use it when we mention the number of time a thing has been done.
There is, however, a difference between a single action in the simple present perfect and an
action in the present perfect continuous:
a) Ive polished the car, means that the job has been completed.
b) Ive been polishing the car, means: this is how Ive spent the last hour, it does not
mean that the job is completed.
Verbs not normally used in continuous tenses are:
-Verbs of senses: feel, hear, see, smell, notice, observe, listen, look, stare;
-Verbs expressing emotion: admire, adore, appreciate, dislike, fear, hate, love, respect;
-Verbs of mental activity: agree, assume, believe, expect, forget, know, realize, recognize.
Where have you been? ~ Ive been downtown.
Have you known him for a long time?
I havent seen her for ages.
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
1. Have you been knowing your manager for a long time?
2. Your eyes look red, did you cry?
3. Look at the level of water in the bottle, it is clear that someone is drinking
from it for some time. The level is lower and lower day by day.
S ne reamintim
Prezentul perfect continuu se folosete pentru a msura de ct timp se petrece o
aciune care a nceput n trecut i care continu n momentul de fa.
10.3. Rezumat
Dac prezentul perfect simplu indic situaii/stri care dureaz de ceva vreme n
viaa cuiva, prezentul perfect continuu indic aciuni propriu-zise care dureaz
de ceva vreme.
Comparai:
She has been a prosecutor for 2 years. (the verb to be is a verb of state)
prez.perf.simplu
They have been working hard for drawing up the report for 2 days. (the verb
to work indicates an action and not a state) prez. perf. cont.
1.4. Test de evaluare
Complete the sentences with the Simple or Continuous form of the Present
Perfect Tense of the verbs in brackets. The underlined adverbs should be put
in their correct position:
1.I already (to write) the letter, so perhaps you would post it for me.

50

00:30

2. A: How long (to know) you the truth?


B: I only just (to find out) but I (to find out) a lot of other things just recently.
3. You look very upset. What (to happen)?
4. A: What you (to do) for the last half hour?
B: I (to sit) here working at this problem.
5. I wonder if Tom (to forget) my number. I (expect) him to call for the past two
hours.
6. Im sorry were late. You (to wait) long?
7. How you (to keep)? Well, I hope.
8. We always (to live) in a flat, so it will seem strange we move into a house with
a garden round it.
9. You (not to finish) that book yet? You (to read) it for more than a week.
10.We (to argue) about this for two hours now. Dont you think we should stop?
10.5. Test de autoevaluare:
Translate into English, using the Present Perfect Tense, Simple and
Continuous:
1.Eu n-am mai citit o povestire aa de interesant. Ar trebui s-o publici !
2.ncerc s iau legtura cu el de mai bine de o sptmn.
3.El a stat n nchisoare timp de un an, nu-i aa?
4.Sora ta s-a schimbat mult n ultima vreme.
5. Prietenul meu traduce legislaia din 1999.
6. Am studiat dreptul timp de patru ani iar n prezent m pregtesc pentru a obine
o diplom de masterat.
7. Nu l-am mai vzut de cnd a terminat facultatea.
8. n ultima vreme am fost att de ocupat c am i uitat ce m-ai rugat.
9. Unde ai mai fost de cnd ai sosit n Bucureti?
10. Au plecat la facultate acum trei ore i nc nu s-au ntors.
10.6. Tem de control:
Fill in the gaps with the right tense (past tense simple, present perfect simple)
Jane: Look! I ________just_____ (receive) a letter from mother.
Angela: _______anything______ (happen)?
Jane: Brother _______(fall) ill.
Angela: Ill again! He________(be) ill last month.
Jane: Yes. At first doctors ________(say) it was the flu. But then he ______
(feel) worse, and they ______(take) him to the hospital. Mother writes he
______(be) ill for more than a week already, but the doctors told her he would
soon be well again.
10.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Vianu, Lidia, English with a Key, Ed. Teora, 1996.

51

UNIT XI
THE BRITISH LEGAL SYSTEM
11.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, vom studia atribuiile profesionale care i revin
unui avocat n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii.
11.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s precizeze atribuiile profesionale care i revin unui avocat membru al
baroului (barrister) i unui avocat consultant (solicitor)
s i nsueasc n mod corect terminologia juridic necesar pentru a
descrie atribuiile care i revin fiecreia din aceste profesii.
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


The Victorian prestige of the law is expressed in the Royal Courts of Justice, built in 1880.
The Law and the Church are powerfully interlocked with the History of Britain.
Both have been conservative and resistant to change as their votes in the House of Lords
showed.
The conservatism of English lawyers is reinforced by their strict division into solicitors and
barristers. Solicitors are allowed to deal directly with the public. They perform all routine
cases, but when they have to take a case to the central courts, they must employ a barrister to
plead.
A barrister is required to have reached an accepted educational standard and to have passed
the legal examinations conducted by the Council of Legal Education. Finally, he must
become a member of the Inns of Court. Half of the barristers in Britain work in one of the
four Inns of Court Grays Inn, Lincolns Inn, the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple.
The oldest one is the Inner Temple, which has produced the largest number of judges.
Lincolns Inn is entirely frequented by chancery lawyers, and Grays Inn, the newest of them,
is known for its number of provincial barristers.
A barrister who has a substantial junior practice may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a
patent appointing him Queens Counsel.
Most higher judicial appointments are made from common barristers who have become
Queens Counsels, a proceeding known as taking the silk. Their professional conduct is
subject to the scrutiny of the General Council of the Bar, but disciplinary powers are vested
exclusively in the Senate of the Inns of Court.

52

00:30

A prospective solicitor is considered suitable by the appropriate committee of the Law


Society, which is a professional organisation of solicitors. He/she must enter into articles of
clerkship with a practising solicitor of not less than five years standing before he can begin
his/her professional career. The articles last for three or five years and this depends upon the
educational qualifications of the student.
An articled clerk must pass the necessary examinations held by the Law Society and unless
he has been a barrister or is a law graduate of a university, he is required to attend a course of
studies at a recognised law school. Once a solicitor is qualified, he may become a member of
the Law Society.
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
A solicitor is a member of the Bar.
A barrister usually assists a solicitor in court.
A Queens Counsel is a lawyer with little practice in court.
S ne reamintim
n Marea Britanie, exist trei categorii de avocai:
- solicitor
- barrister
- Queens Counsel
11.3. Rezumat
Cele trei categorii de avocai existente n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii
presupun parcurgerea unor etape profesionale de instruire i stagiatur diferite.
Avocaii consultani (solicitors) nu susin examenul de intrare n Barou, spre
deosebire de avocaii pledani (barristers).
Avocaii consultani redacteaz contracte/testamente pentru clieni sau rezolv
sarcinile de rutin dintr-o firm de avocatur. De asemenea, ei pot oferi sugestii
avocailor pledani n ceea ce privete soluionarea anumitor litigii. Avocaii
consultani pot, totodat, soluiona n instan litigii minore.
Un avocat pledant (barrister) reprezint clienii n instanele de judecat. Acesta
poate ine cont de sugestiile avocailor consultani, dac apreciaz c acestea
sunt, ntr-adevr, utile i pertinente.
Avocaii emerii (Queens Counsels) reprezint treapta profesional cea mai
nalt la care poate ajunge un avocat n Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii. Procesul
de numire a unui avocat drept Queens Counsel poart numele de taking the silk
(aluzie la roba de mtase pe care o poart avocaii emerii).

53

11.4. Tem de evaluare:


Answer the following questions:
1.
What is the Victorian prestige of the law expressed?
2.
What is the conservatism of English lawyers reinforced by?
3.
How are the English lawyers divided?
4.
What lawyers are allowed to plead?
5.
What educational standard is a barrister required to have reached?
6.
Whom are the legal examinations conducted by?
7.
Who may apply to the Lord Chancellor for a patent appointing him/her Queens
Counsel?
8.
By whom must a prospective solicitor be considered suitable?
9.
How many years standing must the practising solicitor have when entering into the
articles of clerkship?
10. What does the term article depend upon?
11. What authority holds the necessary examinations?
12. What is an articled clerk required to attend?
13. What does a solicitor become, once he/she is qualified?
14. Where do half of the barristers in Britain work?
15. What institution has produced the largest number of judges in Great Britain?
Choose one of the words or expressions in the following list to fill in the blanks in the
text:
a) advocacy
d) called to the Bar
g) practising solicitor
j) Queens Counsel
m) wig and pen folk

b) articled clerks
e) gown
h) professional training
k) standing
n) wigs

c) barristers chambers
f) graduated in law
i) pupillage
l) taking the silk

After having (1)______________, a trainee lawyer usually serves a period of


(2)______________.
Two basic patterns emerge. The majority of lawyers work as (3)____________ before
becoming (4)________________.
Anyone wishing to specialize in (5)_____________ in order to become a barrister must
first undergo a period of (6)______________ in (7)____________ after being
(8)_________. If a junior barrister has several years (9)_________, he or she may
become a senior barrister, known (10) as ____________. This promotion is called
(11)_________, because of the silk (12)___________ they wear in court as well as their
(13)________. The traditional dress of barristers and judges has earned members of the
legal profession the generic term (14)__________.
11.5. Tem de autoevaluare:
I. Complete the terms (1-7) with the words or expression (A-G). Then match each

54

00:60

profession to its definition (I-VII).


1. Attorney
2. Justice
3. legal
4. Crown
5. clerk
6. duty
7. Queens

A. to the justices
B. of the Peace
C. Counsel
D. prosecutor
E. General
F. solicitor
G. adviser

I. A senior barrister appointed by the Crown.


II. Someone employed by a firm to help settle legal matters.
III. A lawyer with at least five years standing appointed to assist magistrates in court.
IV. Those responsible for prosecuting in the lower courts (Magistrates Courts).
V. A lawyer who appears in lower courts to assist defendants who should otherwise be
unrepresented.
VI. Someone whose principal function is to sit as a magistrate in the magistrates
court.
VII. In Great Britain, the principal law officer of the Crown. In the USA, the Minister
of Justice.
II. Using the translations of the following Romanian words, make-up sentences in
Past tense (simple or continuous).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

judectori de pace
a pronuna o sentin
asisten juridic
drept constituional
competena unui tribunal
11.6. Tem de control:
Make-up sentences with the following words and phrases:
1. to deal with
2. prospective solicitor
3. standing
4. to enter into articles of clerkship
5. taking the silk
6. to depend upon
7. society
8. to conduct an examination
9. to apply to
10. to attend a course at a law school
11.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2003

55

Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept, Ed.


Compania, 2004.

UNIT XII
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
AND
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
12.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, vom studia dou timpuri: trecutul perfect simplu
(past perfect simple) i trecutul perfect continuu (past perfect continuous).
Vom observa c trecutul perfect simplu (care corespunde mai-mult-caperfectului romnesc) se traduce n romn fie printr-o form de perfect
compus fie printr-o form de mai-mult-ca-perfect fie printr-o form de
imperfect.
Trecutul perfect continuu se traduce n romn prin imperfect.
12.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s folosii corect trecutul perfect simplu sesiznd particularitile de
folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul simplu
s identificai situaiile de folosire a trecutului perfect simplu n
vorbirea curent
s folosii corect trecutul perfect continuu sesiznd particularitile
de folosire ale acestui timp prin raportare la trecutul perfect simplu
s identificai situaiile de folosire a trecutului perfect continuu n
vorbirea curent
Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de
nvare este de 100 minute.
Coninutul unitii de nvare
PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE
It is formed with:
Had + the past participle
Affirmative:
Negative:

I had looked
You had looked
He/she/it had looked
I had not looked/ hadnt looked

56

We had looked
You00:30
had looked
They had looked
We had not looked

Interrogative:

You had not looked


He/she/it had not looked
Had I looked?
Had you looked?
Had he/she/it looked?

You had not looked


They had not looked
Had we looked?
Had you looked?
Had they looked?

Negativeinterrogative:

Had I not looked? / Hadnt I looked? Etc.

The Past Perfect Tense is used to show that one action was completed before another action
in the past.
Let us take two examples:
Pedro learned English. and He came to England.
Both these actions took place in the past, so we use the Simple Past learned and came. But
suppose we want to show that one of these actions took place before the other one. Suppose
we want to say that Pedro learned English before he came to England. Then we use the Past
Perfect Tense for the action that took place first, and we use the Simple Past Tense for the
other action.
1. Pedro had learned English before he came to England.
2. Mrs. Thompson came to tell us she had made the coffee.
3. After she had chatted for a little time, Mrs. Beck went to see about the dinner.
4. The Past Perfect can be used with till, until and before to emphasize the completion of an
action.
5. He did not wait till we had finished our meal.
6. It was a very expensive town. Before we had been here a week we had spent all our money.
7. He had stayed in his fathers firm till his father died. Then he had started his own business
and was now a very successful man.
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS
FORM:
00:30

Had been + present participle


The form is the same for all persons:
Affirmative: I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had been working.
Negative:

I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they had not/ hadnt been working

Interrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they been working?


Negativeinterrogative: Had I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they not/hadnt been working?
It is not used with verbs, which are not used in the continuous forms, except with want and
sometimes wish.
The boy was delighted with his new bike.
He had been wanting one for a long time.

57

The Use of Past Perfect Continuous Tense


1. When the action began before the time of speaking in the past, and continued up to
that time, or stopped just before it, we can often use either form:
It was now six and he was tired because he had worked since dawn.
It is now six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn
2. A repeated action in the past can sometimes be expressed as a continuous action by
the past perfect continuous:
He had been trying to get her on the phone.
3. But there is a difference between a single action in the simple past perfect and an
action in the past perfect continuous:
By six oclock he had repaired the engine (this job had been completed).
He had been repairing the engine (tells us how he had spent the previous hour/half
hour, etc. It does not tell us whether or not the job was completed).
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
1. When we arrived, the jury already returned the verdict. (we arrived too
late)
2. The trial started at 9 a.m. At 11 a.m. the judge was hearing the witnesses
testimonies for 2 hours.
S ne reamintim
Trecutul perfect simplu se folosete mai ales pentru a exprima anterioritatea n
trecut a unei aciuni fa de un moment/alt aciune din trecut.
Trecutul perfect continuu se folosete mai ales pentru a preciza de ct timp se
petrecea o aciune la un moment dat n trecut.
12.3. Rezumat
Trecutul perfect simplu exprim o aciune care s-a petrecut nainte de alt
aciune din trecut.
Trecutul perfect simplu msoar de cnd dura/a durat
o situaie/o stare care a nceput n trecut i care a continuat pn la un
moment dat tot n trecut.
Trecutul perfect continuu msoar de ct timp dura o aciune propriu-zis (nu
o stare/situaie) care a nceput n trecut i care a continuat pn la un moment
dat tot n trecut.
12.4. Tem de evaluare:
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Tense:
1. He told me that he never (to meet) you.
2. The lights hardly (to go out) when a strange noise was heard.
3. They (to be married) for five years when they finally had a child.
4. As we (not to eat) yet, we all felt very hungry.

58

00:40

5. The policeman wanted to know why she (to come) to that bank.
6. When he got to the airport, the plane already (to arrive).
7. She answered my question after I (to repeat) it four times.
8. At last my secretary handed me the letters she (to type).
9. She told me that they (to see) that film by Friday.
10. Although they (not to see) each other for a long time, Mary bought tickets for
the theatre that evening.
II. Rewrite the sentences, using the Past Simple or Past Perfect of the verbs in
brackets as appropriate:
1. We (get down) to business as soon as we (introduce passive) to each other.
2. Nothing (move-passive) in the room until after the police (take) photographs.
3. None of his teachers (understand) how he (manage) to fail the examination.
4. The results last year (be) better than anyone (expect).
5. I (write) to the suppliers asking why the goods (not to arrive) yet. They
(reply) to say that they already (send passive).
6. The motorist (discover) to his relief that he (not to take) the wrong road after
all.
7. I (call) at the managers office, but (discover) I just (miss) him. He (go) on
holidays.
8. The scientist suddenly (see) the answer to the problem that (occupy) his mind
for the last two months.
9. Once they (settle) the agenda, the committee (circulate) it to all members of
the company.
10. When Queen Victoria (die) in 1901, she (reign) for over 60 years.
12.5. Tem de autoevaluare :
Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Noi am locuit la Cluj timp de doi ani nainte de a ne muta la Bucureti.
2. Ne plimbam prin parc de o jumtate de or, cnd i-am ntlnit pe prietenii
notri.
3. Ieri pe vremea aceasta cltoream cu maina de o or.
4. Cnd am ajuns acas, mi-a artat traducerea pe care o fcea de la ora 5.
5. A predat franceza timp de un an nainte de a ncepe s predea engleza.
12.6. Tem de control:
I. Read and retell:
A woman is in a hurry and takes a taxi. The taxi goes at great speed and
narrowly misses some lamp posts, trams and policemen. The woman is
frightened and says to the taxi driver: Please, be careful! This is the first time
Ive been in a taxi. Thats all right, maam answers the taxi driver. This is
the first time I have driven one.
II. Change the following sentences, as to the pattern below:
Model:

59

This time yesterday he was translating an article.


This time yesterday he had been translating an article for half an hour.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

This time yesterday my grandfather was working in the garden.


This time yesterday she was practising in the language laboratory.
This time yesterday they were drawing up a report for that case.
This time yesterday we were getting about the city.
This time yesterday they were travelling by motor coach.
This time yesterday she was translating an article from Romanian into
English.
7. This time yesterday they were visiting the National Gallery of Art.
8. This time yesterday Mary was doing her morning exercises.
9. This time yesterday the secretary was typing the last page of the report.
10. This time yesterday they were making the arrangements for
accommodation.
11. Mi-a spus c tocmai s-a ntors de la birou unde a avut o zi obositoare.
12.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Vianu, Lidia, English with a Key, Ed. Teora, 1996.

60

UNIT XIII
THE EUROPEAN UNION
13.1. Introducere
n aceast unitate de nvare, vom studia un scurt istoric privind formarea
Uniunii Europene i rolul principalelor instituii din cadrul UE.
13.2. Obiectivele/competentele unitii de nvare
Dup studierea acestei uniti, studentul trebuie s fie capabil:
s putei furniza informaii cu privire la istoricul UE i principalele
instituii din cadrul UE

Durata medie de parcurgere acestei uniti de nvare este de 90 minute.

Coninutul unitii de nvare


The Treaty of Rome in 1957 established the European Economic Community (now
referred to as the European Union). It arose from the success of the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC), which sought to promote co-operation between Coal and Steel
companies in Europe. This programme succeeded in reducing tariffs and quotas in the coal
and steel markets between the participating countries.
Following the Treaty of Rome, the EU became a reality on January 1, 1958. The
founder members of the EU were France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux Countries
(Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg). It remained in this form until Britain, Ireland
and Denmark joined in 1972. The Union was extended further by admission of Greece in
1981 and then Spain, Portugal and Austria.
The objectives of the EU have changed over the years. Initially, the aims were to
abolish all internal quotas and tariffs and to impose a common external tariff on countries
outside the Union. These measures meant that as far as imports and exports went, the Union
acted as one country.
Components of the European Union
The parallel of the Union acting as a single nation now extends beyond preliminary
objectives. It has its own executive, legislative, secretariat and judiciary.
The Executive of the EU is made up of the Council of Ministers. This is composed of
elected politicians from each of the member countries. When the Council of Ministers is
considering finance matters, it will be made up of all the Finance Ministers (in the UK, this is
the Chancellor of Exchequer). The Heads of State meet as the Council of Ministers when
particularly important items are under consideration. The Presidency of the Council rotates
between the 27 members of the Union every six months. Under this system, the head of state
of the country, which holds the presidency, also assumes the title President of the Council of
Ministers of the European Union. When the UK held presidency in the first six months of
1993, Prime Minister Major also held the office of President of the Council of Ministers of

61

00:30

the European Union. The Council of Ministers is the highest authority in the EU. It must
endorse and authorise EU policy and any applications for membership or significant change.
The Secretariat or Administration is based in Brussels and is called the European
Commission. Unlike the Council of Ministers, the employees of the Commission are not
elected they are the European equivalent of civil servants. The Commission is also
responsible for drafting and proposing legislation for the Council of Ministers to vote and
approve, amend or reject. The Commission is controlled by a President and a number of
Commissioners. The larger countries send two Commissioners to Brussels and the smaller
ones, just one.
The legislative is in Strasbourg, France and is called the European Parliament.
This is composed of over 500 elected Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).
Like in the UK, MEPs sit in the Parliament according to their political leanings rather
than nationality. Because the EU is not a state as such, the Parliament does not assume the
same degree of power that a national Parliament does. The number of MEPs from each
member country depends upon its size. The UK, Germany, France and Italy each send over
80 MEPs to Strasbourg, whereas Luxembourg sends just 6. Because the Parliament has little
authority over the affairs of the EU (it does not control the finance budget or key political
areas), its role has been criticised. The longer term plans for EU include closer links between
the member countries and this will involve a more prominent role for Strasbourg.
The European judiciary is the European Court of Justice. It is presided over by 27
judges (at least one from each country) and an overall President, elected from among the
judges.
Corectai greelile de mai jos:
1. Following the Treaty of Rome, the EU became a reality on January 1,
1955.
2. The founder members of the EU were France, Germany, Italy, the UK, the
Netherlands and Spain.
3. The European Commission is the highest authority in the EU.
S ne reamintim
Prin Tratatul de la Roma (1957) a luat fiin Comunitatea Economic
European (European Economic Community)
Comunitatea European a Crbunelui i Oelului (1951) a fost instituit
prin Tratatul de la Paris, pe care l-au semnat urmtoarele ri: Frana,
Germania de Vest, Italia, Belgia, Luxemburg i Olanda. Rolul CECO este de a
partaja resursele de oel i crbune ale statelor membre, n vederea prevenirii
unui nou rzboi n zona european.
13.3. Rezumat
Uniunea European nu este federaie (cum este cazul SUA).
rile membre UE sunt naiuni independente i suverane. Ele i exercit o
parte din suveranitate n comun cu scopul de a deveni, pe plan internaional, o
putere economic i politic.

62

n UE, exist trei instituii principale:

Parlamentul European care reprezint cetenii UE i este ales direct


de ctre acetia;
Consiliul Uniunii Europene care reprezint statele membre
Comisia Euroepan care susine interesele Uniunii, n ansamblu.

Un rol esenial l joac i: Curtea de Justiie i Curtea de Conturi.


Cea dinti egheaz la respectarea dreptului european, iar cea de a doua
verific modul n care se efectueaz finanarea activitilor Uniunii.
13.4. Tem de evaluare:
00:60

I. Translate the following text into English:


Parlamentul European este format din peste 500 de parlamentari alei n funcie de orientrile
lor politice. Deoarece Uniunea European nu are un statut propriu-zis de stat, Parlamentul nui asum acelai grad de autoritate ca un parlament intern. Numrul de parlamentari din
fiecare ar depinde de mrimea rii respective: astfel ri ca Frana, Germania, Italia, pot
trimite chiar peste 80 de parlamentari, n timp ce Luxemburgul are doar 6. Parlamentul i va
mari rolul pe viitor, pe msur ce se vor dezvolta legturi mai apropiate ntre rile membre.
II. Decide whether the following statements are true or false:
a. One of the first goals of the EU was to impose a common external tariff on countries,
which do not belong to the Union.
b. Ireland and Britain were among the founder members of the EU.
c. The head of State of the country holding the presidency automatically becomes
President of the Council of Ministers of the EU.
d. Each country sends one Commissioner to Brussels, where the Administration is based.
e. Criticism regarding the European Parliament has focussed on the way it handles
problems of finance and key policy areas.
13.5. Tem de autoevaluare

I. Put each of the following words or phrases in its correct place below. The text will help
you:
rotates
Authority
domestic

authorise elected
abolish
as far as
assume

Initially, the aims of the EU were to a). all internal quotas and tariffs. These measures
meant that b) imports and exports went, the Union acted as one country.
63

The Council of Ministers is composed of c). politicians from each of the member
countries. The Presidency of the Council d) between the fifteen members of the
Union every six months.
As in the case of the e).. executive, the Council of Ministers is the highest f)
.. in the EU. It must endorse and g). EU policy and any applications
for membership.
Because the EU is not a state as such, the Parliament does not h). the same
degree of power that a national Parliament does.
II. Use the following words and phrases in sentences of your own:
- to abolish
- to hold the presidency
- to hold office of
- to endorse the policy
- domestic executive
- to draft legislation
- to amend
- Civil servants
- political leanings
- internal quotas and tariffs.
13.6. Tem de control
Write an essay using the material in your text above with the following title:
Romania on the way to full European Integration.
13.7. Bibliografie:
Banta, Andrei, Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti,
2003
http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_ro.htm
Brookes, Michael, Treutenaere, Christiane, 1000 de cuvinte cheie n Drept, Ed.
Compania, 2004.

64

IRREGULAR VERBS

INFINITIVE

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

to arise
to awake
to be
to bear

arose
awoke/awaked
was/were
bore

to beat
to become
to begin
to bend
to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to blow
to break
to breed

beat
became
began
bent
bid
bound
bit
bled
blew
broke
bred

arisen
awaked
been
borne
born
beaten
become
begun
bent
bid
bound
bitten
bled
blown
broken
bred

to bring
to build
to burn
to burst
to buy
to cast
to catch
to choose
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to know
to lay
to lead
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to lose
to make
to mean
to meet
to pay
to put
to read

brought
built
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chose
came
cost
crept
cut
knew
laid
led
left
lent
let
lay
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read

brought
built
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chosen
come
cost
crept
cut
known
laid
led
left
lent
let
lain
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read

65

TRANSLATION
INTO ROMANIAN
a se ridica
a se trezi
a fi
a purta
a nate
a bate
a deveni
a ncepe
a ndoi
a ruga
a lega
a muca
a sngera
a sufla
a sparge
a crete
a educa
a aduce
a cldi
a arde
a crpa
a cumpra
a arunca
a prinde
a alege
a veni
a costa
a se tr
a tia
a ti
a pune
a conduce
a lsa
a mprumuta
a lsa
a zcea
a pierde
a face
a nsemna
a ntlni
a plti
a pune
a citi

to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to shake
to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to sleep
to speak
to spend
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to strike
to swear
to sweep
to swim
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to throw
to understand
to wake
to wear
to weep
to win
to wind
to write

rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
shook
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
spoke
spent
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
struck
swore
swept
swam
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
wept
won
wound
wrote

ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
shaken
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
spoken
spent
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
struck
sworn
swept
swum
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
worn
wept
won
wound
written

66

a clri
a suna
a rsri
a alerga
a spune
a vedea
a cuta
a vinde
a trimite
a pune
a scutura
a mpuca
a arta
a se strnge
a nchide
a cnta
a se scufunda
a edea
a dormi
a vorbi
a cheltui
a izvor
a sta
a fura
a lipi
a lovi
a jura
a mtura
a nota
a lua
a nva
a rupe
a spune
a se gndi
a arunca
a nelege
a se trezi
a purta
a plnge
a ctiga
a rsuci
a scrie

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Constituia Romniei, Regia autonom Monitorul Oficial, Bucureti, 2003
LEGEA Nr. 304 privind organizarea judiciar din 28 iunie 2004, republicat n Monitorul
Oficial al Romniei, Partea I, nr. 827 din 13 septembrie 2005
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 1982
Banta, Andrei

Essential English, Ed. Teora, 1993


1000 de cuvinte - cheie n Drept, Ed. Compania, 2004

Brookes, Michael,
Treutenaere, Christiane
Colectiv,

English for Business, co-ordinated by the British


Council, Romania, Covalliati Publishing House,
Bucureti, 1999

Eckersley, C.E.

Essential English, Foreign Languages, Press, Sofia,


1966

Gleanu Frnoag Giorgiana

Exerciii de gramatic englez, Ed. Albatros, Bucureti,


1979

Gleanu Frnoag Giorgiana

Sinteze de gramatic englez, Ed. * Bucureti, 1990

Beizadea, Coziana Marina


Levichi, Leon

English for Law, Ed. Lumina, LEX, 2001.


Dicionar romn-englez, Ed. Thousib, Sibiu, 1994

Merealbe, Emanuel

Limba englez pentru juriti, Ed. Eficient, Bucureti,


1998

Niculescu, Adrian

S vorbim englezete, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, 1964

Oprescu, Simona

Limba englez pentru studenii facultilor de drept i


pentru juriti, Ed. Oscar Print, Bucureti, 1999

Thomson, A.J.
Martinet, A.V.

A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press,


2003
English with a Key, Ed. Teora, 1996

Vianu, Lidia,
Turcu, Fulvia,
Nstsescu, Violeta

Engleza de afaceri, Ed. Uranus, Bucureti.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutional_monarchy
http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/index_ro.htm

67

http://www.britannia.com/gov/gov4.html
OPTIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brooks, Michael, Holden, Engleza pentru juriti, Editura Teora, Bucureti, 2003.
David, Hutchinson, Wesley,
Hanga, Vladimir,
Dicionar juridic englez-romn i romn-englez, Editura
Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2003.

68