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UNIVERSITATEA DE TIINE AGRICOLE

I MEDICIN VETERINAR
ION IONESCU DE LA BRAD IAI

FACULTATEA DE AGRICULTUR
Specializarea Agricultur
NVMNT LA DISTAN

OLGA PNZARU

LIMBA ENGLEZ
Vol. I

Iai 2011

Cuvnt nainte
Obiectivul disciplinelor de limbi strine n instituiile de nvmnt
superior cu profil nefilologic l constituie n majoritatea cazurilor introducerea
studenilor n limbajul textelor de specialitate prin familiarizarea cu
particularitile stilului tiinific, cu modalitatea de formare a vocabularului de
specialitate i cu diferite tehnici de traducere care s le permit cursanilor s
consulte literatura de profil n limba strin respectiv.n acord cu acest deziderat,
lucrarea de fa este destinat tuturor celor ce studiaz n domeniul agriculturii, ct
i celor care lucreaz deja n acest domeniu i care au nevoie de elemente de
limbaj specializat n viaa lor profesional.
Cursul poate fi utilizat de oricine aflat deja la un nivel mediu sau avansat
de cunoatere a limbii engleze i care dorete s-i mbunteasc bagajul de
cunotine de specialitate.
Obiective generale:
Formarea i dezvoltarea competenelor de comunicare oral i scris
ale studenilor (limbaj general i de specialitate)
Formarea i dezvoltarea deprinderilor de studiu academic, informare i
comunicare de profil
Competene:
1. cognitive
Consolidarea elementelor de construcie a comunicrii n limba
englez nsuite n ciclurile de colaritate anterioare (elemente de fonetic,
lexic, morfosintax, semantic, organizarea discursului);
mbogirea cunotinelor de limba englez cu elemente de construcie
a comunicrii noi, cu accent pe: lexic de specialitate, organizarea
discursului profesional, texte din domeniul agronomic;
Identificarea, n mesaje orale i texte scrise de profil, a ideilor
principale i a informaiilor/detaliilor specifice, i corelarea lor, n mod
coerent, pentru a rezolva o sarcin de lucru;
Oferirea i solicitarea, oral / n scris, de informaii i instruciuni clare i
precise pentru ndeplinirea unei sarcini de lucru
Prezentarea, oral / n scris, de descrieri clare i detaliate, pe subiecte
legate de domeniul de specializare
Susinerea, cu argumente relevante, a unui punct de vedere n cadrul
unei discuii/dezbateri/ al unui schimb de mesaje scrise, pe teme de
specialitate
Avansarea, oral sau n scris, a unor ipoteze i formularea de rspunsuri
adecvate la ipotezele emise de ceilali
Traducerea, oral i / sau n scris, din limba englez n limba matern/
din limba matern n limba englez a unor texte/ mesaje de dificultate
medie i ridicat, din domeniile de interes.

2. profesionale:
Completarea de formulare i redactarea de texte funcionale, cu respectarea
conveniilor specifice
Documentarea n literatura de specialitate
Dobndirea unor cunotine profesionale necesare desfurrii unei
activiti n limba englez n ntreprinderi sau n alte organizaii din
domeniul specializrii
3. afectiv-valorice:
Pe parcursul studierii limbii engleze n ciclul universitar se va avea n
vedere cultivarea i dezvoltarea la studeni a urmtoarelor valori i
atitudini:
Manifestarea flexibilitii n cadrul schimbului de idei i n
cadrul lucrului n echip n diferite situaii de comunicare
Contientizarea rolului limbii engleze ca mijloc de acces la
piaa muncii i la patrimoniul culturii universale
Disponibilitatea pentru acceptarea diferenelor i pentru
manifestarea toleranei prin abordarea critic a diferenelor i a
stereotipurilor culturale
Dezvoltarea interesului pentru descoperirea unor aspecte
socio-culturale i profesionale specifice, prin receptarea unei
varieti de texte n limba englez
Derularea activitilor
Lucrarea este mprit n uniti. Fiecare unitate este structurat
dup o schem comun i conine:

un text suport

explicarea termenilor de specialitate (EXPLANATORY NOTES;


Words and Phrases)

activiti de nvare/aprofundare (COMPREHENSION)

un test de autoevaluare (SELF-EVALUATION)

o lucrare de verificare/control din care o parte din exerciii vor


constitui materia pentru evaluare (PROGRESS TEST; TEST
PAPER)

bibliografie

Cursul este structurat tematic. Activitile vor fi parcurse n ordinea


prezentrii.Textele selecionate din diverse tratate, manuale, cursuri i lucrri din
literatura de specialitate englez i romn, au fost organizate dup criterii ale
disciplinelor de predare cu profil agricol pentru a facilita asimilarea fireasc a
unor expresii i cuvinte de uz curent. Fiecare text de specialitate, pe lng
cuvintele i expresiile englezeti cu echivalentele lor din limba romn este nsoit
de un numr de exerciii lexico gramaticale care au drept scop fixarea
elementelor de vocabular i a noiunilor de gramatic. O atenie deosebit se
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acord activitilor de traducere i retroversiune, considerndu se c acestea


ilustraz cel mai bine competena lingvistic a cursanilor, iar exerciiile creative
solicit opinii personale din partea cursanilor privind problema abordat.
Evaluarea
Tematica evalurii semestriale va constitui o opiune indicat de ctre
profesor a unor subiecte i exerciii prezentate la finalul fiecrei uniti sub titlul
Test paper.
Media semestrial va fi constituit din:

60% rspunsuri la colocviu

15% activiti aplicative asistate

25% lucrare de control


Autoarea

CONTENTS
CUPRINS
MODULE 1 ................. 7
UNIT 1
THE PARTS OF A PLANT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS ......... 7
Exercises ............10
UNIT 2
ROOTS ......12
Exercises ..... 16
UNIT 3
STEMS ..... 18
Exercises ......... 23
UNIT 4
LEAVES .......... 27
Exercises ......... 31
UNIT 5
FLOWERS ........... 34
Exercises .................. 38
UNIT 6
SEEDS AND FRUITS ............. 41
Exercises .......... 47
BIBLIOGRAPHY MODULE 1.......................................................................... 51
MODULE II............ 53
UNIT 7
THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PLANT ........... 53
Exercises ..... 58
UNIT 8
PLANT CLASSIFICATION ...... 61
Exercises ..... 66
UNIT 9
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PLANT GROWTH.......... 69
Exercises ...................... 77
UNIT 10
PLANT NUTRITION ................. 80
Exercises............................................................................................................... 87
BIBLIOGRAPHY MODULE II.......................................................................... 91
5

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(MODULE I VIII)............................................................................................ 93

MODULE 1

UNIT 1
THE PARTS OF A PLANT AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
The importance of plant life on earth cannot be overemphasized. Without
plants, life on earth could not exist. Directly or indirectly, plants are the primary
source of food for humans and animals. Whether people eat plants or eat animals
that feed on plants, plant life is vital as a food source.
Plants play another essential role by producing oxygen. Without oxygen,
life on earth could not exist. Plants are the major producers of oxygen on this
planet. All plant life, from the smallest plankton in the ocean to the giant redwood
tree, works to produce oxygen.
In addition to supplying food and oxygen, plants help to keep us cool,
renew the air, slow down the wind, hold soil in place, provide a home for wild
life, beautify our sourroundings, perfume the air, and furnish building materials
and fuel.
A plant is a living organism. It is made up of different parts, each of which
has a particular purpose, or specialized function. If one part of the plant is not
functioning properly the whole plant will suffer. But we may cut flowers off the
plant or prune the roots. Such damage is only temporary and so the plant will
continue to grow.

Internal plant parts


Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of plants. Most plant
reactions (cell division, photosynthesis, respiration, etc.) occur at the cellular
level. Plant tissues ( meristems, xylem, phloem, etc) are large, organized groups
of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. A unique feature
of plant cells is that they are readily totipotent. In other words, almost all plant
cells retain all of the genetic information (encoded in DNA) necessary to develop
into a complete plant. This characteristic is the main reason that vegetative
7

(asexual) reproduction works. For example, the cells of a small leaf cutting from
an African violet have all of the genetic information necessary to generate a root
system, stems, more leaves, and ultimately flowers. Specialized groups of cells
called meristems are a plant's growing points. Meristems are the site of rapid,
almost continuous cell division. These cells either continue to divide or begin to
differentiate into other tissues and organs. How they divide, and whether they
ultimately become a tissue or an organ, are controlled by a complex array of
internal plant hormones but also can be influenced by environmental conditions.
In many cases, you can manipulate meristems to make a plant do something you
want, such as change its growth pattern, flower, alter its branching habit, or
produce vegetative growth.

External plant parts


External plant structures such as
leaves, stems, roots, flowers,
fruits, and seeds are known as
plant organs. Each organ is an
organized group of tissues that
works together to perform a
specific

function.

These

structures can be divided into


two

groups:

sexual

reproductive and vegetative.


Sexual

reproductive

produce

seed;

they

parts
include

flower buds, flowers, fruit, and


seeds. Vegetative parts (Figure
1) include roots, stems, shoot
buds, and leaves; they are not
directly

involved

in

sexual

reproduction. Vegetative parts often are used in asexual forms of reproduction


such as cuttings, budding, or grafting.
http:// extension. oregonstate.edu

The basic parts of a plant are the root system, which is below the ground,
and the shoot system above. The root of a plant has two main functions. It takes
in, or absorbs, water and minerals from the soil through the root hairs, which are
single cells near the tip of each root. The other main function of the root is to hold,
or anchor, the plant firmly in position in the soil.
The shoot system above the ground consists of the stem, the leaves,
flowers and fruit. One of the functions of the stem is to support the plant. Another
important function is to enable water and minerals to pass up from the roots to the
leaves and flowers. Organic materials such as sugar travel down the stem to the
roots. The leaves grow out of the side of the stem. Their main job is to make food
for the plant by the process known as photosynthesis. For this process sunlight is
necessary.
Water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air are converted into
sugars and other carbohydrates. During the process oxygen is formed and released
into the air.
The flower contains the reproductive organs of the plant. The stamens
produce the male sex cells, or spermatic, which are carried in the pollen grains.
The carpel produces the female sex cells, or ovules. The fruit, the ripened ovary of
the flower, encloses the seeds and protects them while they are developing. The
seed itself consists of an embryo and foodstore. The embryo is the part which will
develop into another plant and the footsore is necessary to provide nourishment
for the young plant while it is growing.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases


meristem = plant tissue in the process of formation; vegetative cells in a state of
active division and growth, e.g., those at the apex of growing-stems and roots
xylem = water-conducting tissue.
totipotent = possessing the ability to grow into a complete plant from any single
cell of that plant

phloem = photosynthate-conducting tissue


to prune = a tia, a scurta (crci, ramuri)
root system = sistem radicular
root hairs = peri absobani (radiculari)
stamen pl. stamina = stamin
pollen grains = grunciori de polen
root tip = vrful rdcinii
leaf (pl. leaves) = frunz, foaie, foi
shoot = lstar

# EXERCISES

COMPREHENSION
1. Complete the following text by filling in the blank spaces with the
expressions given below. A dotted line .. requires a phrase to be
added and a straight line _______ requires a word to be added.
roots

shoot system

soil

soil air

carbon dioxide

photosynthesis

made up of

ripened ovary

water and minerals

seed

living

such as

function

specialized

more fertile

by

reproductive organs

consists of

their roots

orgnic materials

process

conversion

are produced

carbohydrates

A plant is a living organism . different parts each of which has a


_______ function. The basic parts of a plant are the root system and the ..
The root absorbs water and minerals from the _________.
The shoot system . the stem, the leaves, flowers and fruit. An
important ________ of the stem is to enable . to pass up to the leaves and
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flowers and . such as sugar to travel down to the _________. In the leaves
__________ takes place. The process results in the ________ of water from th soil
and . from the air into sugars and other _________. During the _______
oxygen is formed and released into the air. The plants . are contained in
the flower. The spermatia . by the stamens and the ovules are produced
________ the carpel. The fruit, the . of the flower, encloses and protects
the _________.
SELF - EVALUATION
2. Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words printed in italics
with
expressions from the text which have the same meaning.
EXAMPLE
The roots of plants take in water and minerals from the soil.
The roots of plants absorb water and minerals from the soil.
a) The single cells near the tip of each root increase their surface area by
extending outwards from the root.
b) The root holds the plant firmly in position in the soil.
c) Sunlight provides the energy for the process of converting water from the soil
and carbon dioxide from the air into sugars and other carbohydrates.
While growing, the seeds are protected by the ripened ovary of the flower.

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian:


Plants are essential to life on earth. Either directly or indirectly, they are
the primary food source for humans and other animals. Additionally, they provide
fuel, replenish the earth's oxygen supply, prevent soil erosion, slow down wind
movement, cool the atmosphere, provide wildlife habitat, supply medicinal
11

compounds, and beautify our surroundings. Many plants are familiar to us, and we
can identify and appreciate them based on their external structures. However, their
internal structures and functions often are overlooked. Understanding how plants
grow and develop helps us capitalize on their usefulness and make them part of
our everyday lives.
TEST PAPER
Translate into Romanian:
The function of the embryo in the seed is to develop into an adult plant.
The first stage in the process whereby this is done is called germination. In this
process the seed awakens from its dormant state and starts growing.
The function of the flower is to bring about the reproduction of the plant.
The first stage in the process whereby this is done is called pollination. In this
process the pollen grains are transferred from the stamens to the stigma of the
female parts. The next stage is called fertilization. In this process one of the male
gametes from the pollen unites with the female gamete in the ovule.

UNIT 2
ROOTS
Often roots are
overlooked, probably
because they are less
visible than the rest
of the plant.
However, it's
important to
understand plant root
systems because they
have a pronounced effect on a plant's size and vigor, method of propagation,
adaptation to soil types, and response to cultural practices and irrigation.
http:// extension. oregonstate.edu
12

Roots typically originate from the lower portion of a plant or cutting. They
have a root cap, but lack nodes and never bear leaves or flowers directly. Their
principal functions are to :

anchor the plant in the soil, and hold it upright.

absorb water and minerals from the soil and conduct them to the
stem.

store large quantities of plant food.

propagate or reproduce some plants.

The first three functions are essential to all plants.

Structure
Internally, there are three major parts of a root :

The meristem is at the tip and manufactures new cells; it is an area of cell
division and growth.

Behind the meristem is the zone of elongation. In this area, cells increase
in size through food and water absorption. As they grow, they push the
root through the soil.

The zone of maturation is directly beneath the stem. Here, cells become
specific tissues such as
epidermis, cortex, or
vascular tissue.

The internal structure of a


root is much like that of a stem.
Older roots of shrubs and trees
have phloem ( corklike bark ) on
the outside, a cambium layer, and
xylem ( wood ) inside, just as stems do. The phloem carries manufactured food
down to the root for food and storage and the xylem carries water and minerals up
to the stem. A root's epidermis is its outermost layer of cells (Figure 3). These
13

cells are responsible for absorbing water and minerals dissolved in water. Cortex
cells are involved in moving water from the epidermis to the vascular tissue
(xylem and phloem) and in storing food. Vascular tissue is located in the center of
the root and conducts food and water.
The external structure of the root is very different form that of the stem.
There are two areas of importance: the root cap and the root hairs (Figure 2).
Whereas the stem has a terminal bud which initiates new growth, roots have a root
cap. Just behind the root cap are many root hairs. Side roots of increasing size
form as the root grows older. The root cap is the root's outermost tip. It consists
of cells that are sloughed off as the root grows through the soil. The root cap
produces a continous supply of new cells which rub off to lubricate a path and
protect the cap and new root as the root pushes its way through the soil. Its
function is to protect the root meristem.
The root hairs (Figure 3b) absorb moisture and minerals which are
conducted to the larger roots and to the stem of the
plant.
They are delicate, elongated epidermal cells
that occur in a small zone just behind the root's
growing tip. They generally appear as fine down to
the naked eye. Root hairs usually live 1 or 2 days.
When a plant is transplanted, they are easily torn off
or may dry out in the sun.
http:// extension. oregonstate.edu

Types of roots
There are two major types of roots: primary and lateral. A primary root
originates at the lower end of a seedling's embryo. If the primary root continues to
elongate downward, becomes the central feature of the root system, and has
limited secondary branching, it is called a taproot. Carrots have taproots. A
lateral, or secondary, root is a side or branch root that arises from another root. If
the primary root ceases to elongate, and numerous lateral roots develop, a fibrous

14

root system is formed. These lateral roots branch repeatedly to form the network
of feeding roots found on most plants.
Some plants, such as grasses, naturally produce a fibrous root system. In
other cases, severing a plant's taproot by undercutting it can encourage the plant to
produce a fibrous root system. Nurseries use this technique with trees that
naturally produce a taproot because trees with a compact, fibrous root system are
transplanted more successfully.
Fibrous Root System v. Tap Root System. Plants with fibrous root system
are much easier to transplant than plants which have tap root systems.The tap root
system has longer and fewer roots. Because of this, much of the root system is cut
off when a plant is dug. The ends of the roots which are lost in the cutting contain
many root hairs necessary in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil.
The larger roots serve only to conduct and store water, nutrients, and food. If too
many of the small roots are lost, the plant may not be able to replenish the
moisture lost by the leaves, and the plant will dry out and die. Heavy pruning of
the top of the plant may prevent this from happening.

Roots as food
In addition to their function within the plant itself, many roots are
important as cash crops for food. An enlarged root is the edible portion of several
vegetable crops. Sweet potatoes are a swollen tuberous root; and carrots, beets,
radishes, parsnips, salsify, are elongated taproots.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases


xylem

= s. xilem, esut lemons

cambium

= s. cambiu

root cap

= s.piloriz (scufia sau caliptra )

fibrous root = s. rdcin fibroas


taproot

= rdcin pivotant

phloem

= s. floem, esut liberian


15

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Answer the following questions:
1.What is the importance of plant root system?
2.Where do roots typically originate from?
3. How is the internal structure of a root?
4. What is the main function of root hairs?
5. Which are the two major types of roots?
6. Which are the differences between Fibrous Root System and Tap Root
System ?

SELF EVALUATION
Which of the following is not a function of roots ?
a) storage of food
b) absorption of water
c) anchoring of plants
d) manufacture of food
Plants are easier to transplant if they have a:
a) tap root system
b) large root system
c) fibrous root system
d) small root system
The major function of root hairs is to:
a) grow into larger roots
b) absorb water and minerals from the soil
c) protect the root as it pushes through the soil
d) keep the root warm

16

The root cap is found on the tip of the root to protect the actively dividing
root meristem

a) true
b) false

Water and nutrients are primarily absorbed through the:


a) leaves
b) stems
c) roots
d) bark

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian :


The following factors are important in root growth:

Roots in water-saturated soil do not grow well and ultimately may die due
to lack of oxygen.

Roots penetrate much deeper in loose, well-drained soil than in heavy,


poorly drained soil.

A dense, compacted soil layer can restrict or terminate root growth.

Container plants not only have a restricted area for root growth, but also
are susceptible to cold damage because the limited amount of soil
surrounding their roots may not provide adequate insulation.

In addition to growing downward, roots grow laterally and often extend


well beyond a plant's dripline. Keep this extensive root system in mind
when disturbing the soil around existing trees and shrubs.

17

TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Rdcina este un organ principal vegetativ al cromofitelor. Crete de
obicei n sol i are ca funcii specifice fixarea plantei la substrat i absorbia din
sol a apei cu srurile minerale. Pe lng fuciile specifice, n rdcin au loc
procese fundamentale ale vieii, cum ar fi: hrnirea, respiraia, creterea, ca i
unele funcii deosebite, ca urmare a faptului c rdcina poate suferi uneori
procese de metamorfozare.

UNIT 3
STEMS
Stems have two main functios: (1) the movement of materials, such as the
movement of water and minerals from roots upward to the leaves, and the
movement of manufactured food from the leaves down to the roots and (2) the
support of the leaves and reproductive structures (flowers and fruit or seeds).
Stems are also used for food storage, and for the reproduction methods which
involve stem cuttings or grafting. Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do.

Stem

Terminology

Shoot - A young stem (1 year old or


less) with leaves.
Twig - A young stem (1 year old or
less) that is in the dormant
winter stage (has no leaves).
Branch A stem that is more than 1 year
-

old, typically with lateral stems


radiating from it.

Trunk A woody plant's main stem.


-

18

Structure
External Stem Structure. The outside of the stem consist of lenticels, or
breathing pores, bud scale scars and leaf scars.Bud scale scars indicate where a
terminal bud has been located a previous year. The distance between two scars
represents one year of growth.Leaf scars show where leaves were attached.
Internal Stem Structure. The stem of woody plants is composed of bark
called phloem and wood called xylem. Water and minerals travel up the sapwood,
or xylem, and manufactured food travels down the bark, or phloem. These two
layers are separated by the cambium. The cambium is a layer of meristematic
tissue that separates the xylem and phloem and continuously produces new xylem
and phloem cells. This new tissue is responsible for a stem's increase in girth. The
vascular cambium is important to gardeners. For example, the tissues on a grafted
scion and rootstock need to line up. In addition, careless weed trimming can strip
the bark off a tree, thus injuring the cambium and causing the tree to die. The
vascular systems of monocots and dicots differ (Figure 5).

http:// extension. oregonstate.edu

Although both contain xylem and phloem, these structures are arranged
differently in each. In a monocot, the xylem and phloem are paired in bundles,
which are dispersed throughout the stem. In a dicot, the vascular system is said to
be continuous because it forms rings inside the stem. The ring of phloem is near
the bark, and eventually becomes part of the bark in mature woody stems. The
xylem forms the inner ring. In woody plants, it is called the sapwood and
heartwood.
19

The difference in the vascular systems of monocots and dicots is of


practical interest to gardeners because some herbicides affect only one group. For
example, 2,4-D kills only plants with a continuous vascular system (dicots).
Nonselective herbicides, on the other hand (e.g., glyphosate), kill plants regardless
of their type of vascular system.

Types of stems
Stems may be long, with great distances between the leaves and buds (e.g.,
branches of trees, runners on strawberries) or compressed, with short distances
between buds or leaves (e.g., crowns of strawberry plants, fruit spurs, and African
violets). Although stems commonly grow above ground, they sometimes grow
below ground in the form of rhizomes, tubers, corms, or bulbs. All stems must
have buds or leaves to be classified as stem tissues.
Specialized aboveground stems
Some plants have specialized aboveground stems known as crowns,
spurs, or stolons (Figure 7). Crowns (on strawberries, dandelions, and African
violets) are compressed stems with leaves and flowers on short internodes. Spurs
are short, stubby, side stems that arise from a main stem. They are the fruitbearing stems on pear, apple, and cherry trees. If severe pruning is done close to
fruit-bearing spurs, they can revert to nonfruiting stems, thus eliminating the
year's potential fruit crop.

20

Figure 7. Diversified aboveground stem development.


http:// extension. oregonstate.edu

Stolons are fleshy or semiwoody, elongated, horizontal stems that often lie
along the soil surface. Strawberry runners are stolons that have small leaves at the
nodes. Roots develop from these nodes, and a daughter plant is formed. This type
of vegetative reproduction is an easy way to increase the size of a strawberry
patch. Spider plants also produce stolons, which ultimately can become entirely
new plants.

BUDS
A bud is an undeveloped shoot from which leaves or flower parts grow. The
buds of temperate-zone trees and shrubs typically develop a protective outer layer
of small, leathery scales. Annual plants and herbaceous perennials have naked
buds with green, somewhat succulent, outer leaves.
21

Buds of many plants require exposure to a certain number of days below a


critical temperature before resuming growth in the spring. This period, often
referred to as rest, varies for different plants. During rest, dormant buds can
withstand very low temperatures, but after the rest period is satisfied, they are
more susceptible to damage by cold temperatures or frost.
A leaf bud is composed of a short
stem with embryonic leaves. Leaf buds
often are less plump and more pointed
than flower buds (Figure 10a). A flower
bud is composed of a short stem with
embryonic flower parts. In the case of
fruit crops, flower buds sometimes are
called fruit buds. This terminology is inaccurate, however; although flowers have
the potential to develop into fruits, they may not do so because of adverse weather
conditions, lack of pollination, or other unfavorable circumstances.

Location
Buds are named for their location on
the stem (Figure 10b). Terminal buds are
located at the apex (tip) of a stem. Lateral
(axillary) buds are located on the sides of a
stem and usually arise where a leaf meets a
stem (an axil). In some instances, an axil
contains more than one bud.
http:// extension. oregonstate.edu

Adventitious buds arise at sites other than the terminal or axillary


position. They may develop from roots, a stem internode, the edge of a leaf blade,
or callus tissue at the cut end of a stem or root. Adventitious buds allow stem, leaf,
and root cuttings to develop into entirely new plants.

22

EXPLANATORY NOTES
Words and Phrases
terminal bud / lateral bud = mugure terminal / mugure lateral
leaf scar = s. cicatricea frunzei
bark = s.scoar,coaj
woody stems = tulpini lemnoase
propagation = nmulire, cretere, cultivare
grafting = s. altoire
stock = s. (bot.) portaltoi
pruning = s. tiere, scurtare (crci, ramuri)

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Put each of the following words and phrases into its correct place in
the passage below:
air, branching head, climb, erect, ground, liquids, reproduction, shrubs, soft,
spread, storage, tall, tissue, trunk, woody plants
STEMS
Stems are parts of plants that may be organs for food or of.They
may be useful in moving . from one part of the plant to another, or they
may merely hold certain parts high in the . The .. of stems may be
.. and weak or hard and woody. The different groups of .. are vines,
trees and shrubs. Vines are rarely . They ., wind, or over some
support. Trees have a single trunk, with a .. and are, when
mature, normally over three meters ... ., on the other hand, do not have
a . They usually branch close to the .. and are not very tall.

23

SELF EVALUATION

Choose the correct answer:

1. My mother very fine roses in her garden.


a) breeds

b) develops

c) grows

d) raises

2. As the flowers had she threw them away.


a) dead

b) discoloured

c) faded

d) fallen

3. Playing games in the flower garden is ..


a) defended

b) dismissed

c) forbidden

d) refused

4. Look, he has brought you a beautiful of flowers.


a) branch

b) bunch

c) bush

d) twig

5. I am going into the garden to .. some flowers.


a) grip

b) pick

c) seize

d) snatch

6. The roses were still . in December when the first snow began to fall.
a) blooming

b) blossoming

c) fading

d) growing

7. He .. his rose bushes carefully with insecticide every week.


a) distributed

b) spat

c) sprayed

d) spread

Two main functions of stems are :


a) to store food and move water up to the leaves
b) movement of materials and support of plant parts
c) to manufacture food and store it for future use
d) to furnish food for human beings and other animals
The xylem, or wood, of a stem:
a) conducts manufactured food down to the roots
b) is very hard
c) is green in color
d) conducts water and minerals up to the leaves

The principal tissue involved in moving water and nutrients from the roots to
the top of the plants is:
24

a) cortex
b) phloem
c) xylem
d) epidermis

Which of the following is not a function of roots?


a) storage of food
b) absorption of water
c) anchoring of plants
d) manufacture of food
Runners found in plants such as strawberries are elongated horizontal stems
that lie on the ground and are known as:
a) rhizomes
b) stolons
c) spurs
d) crowns
Which of the following are NOT means by which climbing plants attach
themselves to fences, buildings, or their types of structures?
a) tendrils with disc-like adhesive tips
b) rhizomes
c) aerial rootlets
d) stomatal cells
Potato tubers, strawberries runners, iris rhizomes and tulip bulbs are all
forms of a stem.
a) true
b) false
25

Rhizomes have nodes; roots dont.


a) true
b) false

PROGRESS TEST
Translate into Romanian:
In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants
have underground stems. A stem develops buds and shoots and usually grows
above the ground. Inside the stem, materials move up and down the tissues of the
transport system.
Stems have four main functions which are:

Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits. The stems keep
the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its flowers
and fruits.

Transport of fluids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and
phloem.

Storage of nutrients.

The production of new living tissue. The normal life span of plant cells is
one to three years.

Translate into Romanian:


Enlarged buds or parts of buds form the edible portion of some
horticultural crops. Cabbage and head lettuce are examples of unusually large
terminal buds. Succulent axillary buds are the edible part of Brussels sprouts. In
the case of globe artichoke, the fleshy basal portion of the flower bud's bracts is
eaten, along with its solid stem. Broccoli is the most important horticultural plant
with edible flower buds. In this case, portions of the stem, as well as small leaves
associated with the flower buds, are eaten.
26

TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Tulpina este un organ vegetativ, care ia natere din muguraul embrionului
(plumula). Tuplina d natere la muguri, susine frunzele, florile i mai trziu
fructele i stabilete legtura morfo-fiziologic ntre aceste organe i rdcin.
esuturile produse de meristemele primare formeaz structura primar a tulpinei.

UNIT 4
LEAVES

Function and structure


Leaves are the food factory of the
plant, producing all food that is used by the
plant and stored for later use by the plant or
by animals. The principal function of leaves
is to absorb sunlight to manufacture plant
sugars

through

process

called

photosynthesis.
External leaf structure. Leaves consist of
the petiole, or leaf stalk, and the blade, a larger, usually flat part of the leaf. A leaf
is held away from its stem by a stem-like appendage called a petiole, and the base
of the petiole is attached to the stem at a node.

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Petioles vary in length or may be lacking entirely, in which case the leaf
blade is described as sessile or stalkless. The blade is the expanded thin structure
on either side of the midrib and usually is the largest, most conspicuous part of a
leaf (Figure 11) Notice that the leaf blade has veins and midrib. The midrib is the
27

large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend. The node where a petiole
meets a stem is called a leaf axil. The axil contains single buds or bud clusters,
referred to as axillary buds. They may be either active or dormant; under the right
conditions, they will develop into stems or leaves.
Internal leaf structure. Internally, leaves have specialized cells which
perform very important tasks. The skin of the leaf, called the epidermis, is a
single layer of cells. Its chief function is to protect the leaf from loss of too much
moisture. The cuticle is part of the epidermis. It produces a waxy layer called
cutin, which protects the leaf from dehydration and disease. The amount of cutin
on a leaf increases with increasing light intensity. There are special cells in the
leaf skin known as guard cells. These cells open and close a small space or pore
on the underside of the leaf called a stoma to allow the leaf to breathe and
transpire, or give off moisture. Conditions that would cause plants to lose a lot of
water (high temperature, low humidity) stimulate guard cells to close. In mild
weather, they remain open. Guard cells also close in the absence of light.
In the center of the leaf are food-making cells which contain
chloroooplasts. The green color of the chloroplasts, which gives green leaves
their colour, comes from the chlorophyll they contain.These cells , through a
process called photosynthesis, manufacture food. Food manufactured in the leaves
moves downward through the stem to the roots. It is then used by the plant or
stored in the stem or root in the form of sugar, starch, or protein.The leaves
themselves are also used as food for various animals , including human
beings.They are often the most nutritious part of the plant.

Leaves and plant identification


The veins of the leaf form its strucural framework.Most leaves have one of
the forms: oval, needle, cordate, ovate, round, spatulate, lanceolate, linear, wedge
shaped.Leaves have different margins: entire, undulate, crenate, dentate, serrate,
incised. Awareness of different leaf margins assists in plant identification.
Common blade shapes (Figure 14)
Lanceolate - Longer than wide and tapering toward the apex and base.
Linear - Narrow, several times longer than wide, and of approximately the same
28

width

throughout.

Cordate (heart-shaped) - Broadly ovate, tapering to an acute apex, with the base
turning in and forming a notch where the petiole is attached.
Elliptical - About two or three times as long as wide, tapering to an acute or
rounded apex and base.
Ovate - Egg-shaped, basal portion wide, tapering toward the apex.

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Common margin forms (Figure 15)
Entire - Having a smooth edge with no teeth or notches.
Crenate - Having rounded teeth.
Dentate - Having teeth ending in an acute angle pointing outward.
Serrate - Having small, sharp teeth pointing toward the apex.
Incised - Having a margin cut into sharp, deep, irregular teeth or incisions.
Lobed - Having incisions that extend less than halfway to the midrib.

29

Common apex and base shapes (Figure 16.)


Acute - Ending in an acute angle, with a sharp, but not acuminate, point.
Acuminate - Tapering to a long, narrow point.
Obtuse - Tapering to a rounded edge.
Cuneate - Wedge-shaped; triangular with the narrow end at the point of
attachment.
Cordate - Turning in and forming a notch.

Figure 16: Common leaf apex and blade shapes


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Leaf arrangement along a


stem also is used in plant
identification (Figure 18).
There are four types of leaf
arrangement:

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Opposite leaves are positioned across the stem from each other, with two
leaves at each node.

Alternate (spiral) leaves are arranged in alternate steps along the stem,
with only one leaf at each node.

Whorled leaves are arranged in circles along the stem.


30

Rosulate leaves are arranged in a rosette around a stem with extremely


short nodes.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases

leafstalk = s. peiol
blade = s. (bot.) limb
vein = s. (bot.) nervur
stalk / petiole = s. peiol
midrib = s. nervur principal
guard cell = s. celul protectoare

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Answer the following questions:
1.What is the principal function of leaves?
2.Which are the parts of a leaf ?
3.How is called the skin of the leaf and what is its chief function?
4.Which are the common blade shapes?
5.Which are the common margin forms?
6. Which are the common apex and base shapes?
SELF EVALUATION

The green color of leaves is caused by tiny particles in the food-

producing cells called :


a) guard cells
b) epidermis
c) chloroplasts
d) starch
31

Green plants are able to manufacture food only in the presence of


a) light
b) carbon dioxide
c) water
d) all of these

Green plants cannot live without light because:


a) it is necessary to manufacture food
b) they need light to breathe
c) light helps to warm them to the optimum temperature for growth
d) none of the above

Water loss to the atmosphere from the leaves occurs primarily


through the:
a) stomates
b) vacuoles
c) petioles
d) xylem

The three basic parts of a leaf from a broadleaf plant are:


a) stem, sheath, and midrib
b) petiole, blade, and sheath
c) petiole, midrib, and blade
d) petiole, sheath, and blade

Cutin protects leaves from dehydrating and its thickness can be


governed by light intensity:
a) true
b) false

Stomata are little microscopic holes on the upper and lower side od
leaves that allow for the exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and
water:
32

a) true
b) false

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian:


External leaf characteristics (such as shape, margin, hairs, etc.) are
important for identifying plant species, and botanists have developed a rich
terminology for describing leaf characteristics. These structures are a part of what
makes leaves determinant; they grow and achieve a specific pattern and shape,
then stop. Other plant parts like stems or roots are non-determinant, and will
usually continue to grow as long as they have the resources to do so.
Classification of leaves can occur through many different designative schema, and
the type of leaf is usually characteristic of a species, although some species
produce more than one type of leaf.

TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Frunza este alctuit n general din trei pri componente: limb (sau
lamin), peiol, i teac.Aceast frunz, la care deosebim cele trei pri
componente, se numete frunz complet; adesea, ns, lipsesc peiolul i teaca
sau numai teaca, sau lipsesc limbul,i peiolul, n aceste cazuri fiind vorba de
frunze incomplete.Limbul este partea turtit a frunzei, de culoare verde, strbtut
de nervuri. Limbul este i partea cea mai important a frunzei, fiindc ndeplinete
fotosinteza. Dup forma limbului se definete tipul de frunz.

33

UNIT 5
FLOWERS
To most people, flowers are something of beauty meant to be seen and
enjoyed. Some people usually think of fruits and seeds as healthful foods. The
parts that are admired and enjoyed by human beings, however , have an entirely
different purpose for the plant. Flowers, which generally are the showiest part of a
plant, have sexual reproduction as their sole function. Their beauty and fragrance
have evolved not to please humans but to ensure continuance of the species.
Fragrance and color attract insects or birds that play an important role in the
reproductive process. In their visits for nectar or pollen, these pollinators fertilize
the flower by means of a process called pollination. This is the beginning of fruit
and seed formation. The fruits and seeds are made attractive to animals and birds
so that they are collected, eaten, and spread. This, in turn, reproduces the plant.
Flowers are important for plant classification. The system of plant
nomenclature we use today was developed by Carl von Linn (Linnaeus) and is
based on flowers and/or reproductive parts of plants. One reason his system is
successful is because flowers are the plant part least influenced by environmental
changes. Thus, a knowledge of flowers and their parts is essential for anyone
interested in plant identification.
Flowers differ in such features as size, shape, and color, but generally
have the same basic parts. These basic parts are necessary for the production of
seeds.

Structure
The complete flower contains four main parts: sepals, petals, stamen, and
pistil.

34

As a plant's reproductive part, a flower


contains a stamen (male flower part)
and/or pistil (female flower part), plus
accessory parts such as sepals, petals, and
nectar glands (Figure 19).
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The stamens make up the male reproductive part of the flower.The stamen
consists of a short stalk called a filament and a sac-like structure on top of the
filament called an anther.The anther contains pollen, which is the male sex cell.
The filament holds the anther in position, making the pollen available for
dispersement by wind, insects, or birds.
The pistil, located in the center of the flower, is the female part of the
flower. It generally is shaped like a bowling pin. It produces the female sex cells,
the eggs. The pistil has three main parts. These include a sticky stigma, on top to
catch pollen and a style, a tube which leads to the third part, the ovary. The ovary
contains eggs, which reside in ovules. If an egg is fertilized, the ovule develops
into a seed. After fertilization, the ovary grows to become a fruit or a seed coat.
Sepals are small, green, leaflike structures located at the base of a flower.
They protect the flower bud. Collectively, the sepals are called a calyx.
Petals generally are the highly colored portions of a flower. Like nectar
glands, petals may contain perfume. Collectively, the petals are called a corolla.
The number of petals on a flower often is used to help identify plant families and
genera. Flowers of dicots typically have four or five sepals and/or petals, or
multiples thereof. In monocots, these floral parts typically come in threes or
multiples of three.

35

Types of flowers
If a flower has a stamen, pistil, petals, and sepals, it is called a complete
flower (Figure 19). Roses are an example. If one of these parts is missing, the
flower is called incomplete.
The stamen and pistil are the essential parts of a flower and are involved in
seed production. If a flower contains both functional stamens and pistils, it is
called a perfect flower, even if it does not contain petals and sepals. If either
stamens or pistils are lacking, the flower is called imperfect. Pistillate (female)
flowers possess a functional pistil or pistils, but lack stamens. (Figure 20)
Staminate (male) flowers contain stamens, but no pistils.

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Plants with imperfect flowers are further classified as monoecious or


dioecious.
Monoecious plants have separate male and female flowers on the same
plant (e.g., corn and pecan). Some monoecious plants bear only male flowers at
the beginning of the growing season, but later develop both sexes (e.g., cucumbers
and squash).
Dioecious species have separate male and female plants. Examples include
holly, ginkgo, and pistachio. In order to set fruit, male and female plants must be
planted close enough together for pollination to occur. In some instances (e.g.,
36

holly), the fruit is desirable. In the case of ginkgo, however, the fruit generally is
not desirable due to its putrid smell when ripe.

How seeds form


Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma, either by
wind or by pollinators. Species pollinated by insects, animals, or birds often have
brightly colored or patterned flowers that contain fragrance or nectar. While
searching for nectar, pollinators transfer pollen from flower to flower, either on
the same plant or on different plants. Plants evolved this ingenious mechanism in
order to ensure their species' survival. Wind-pollinated flowers often lack showy
floral parts and nectar because they don't need to attract pollinators. A chemical in
the stigma stimulates pollen to grow a long tube down the style to the ovules
inside the ovary. When pollen reaches the ovules, it releases sperm, and
fertilization typically occurs.
Fertilization is the union of a male sperm nucleus from a pollen grain
with a female egg. If fertilization is successful, the ovule develops into a seed. It is
important to remember that pollination is no guarantee that fertilization will occur.
Cross-fertilization combines genetic material from two parent plants. The
resulting seed has a broader genetic base, which may enable the population to
survive under a wider range of environmental conditions. Cross-pollinated plants
usually are more successful than self-pollinated plants. Consequently, more plants
reproduce by cross-pollination than by self-pollination.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases

peduncle = s. peduncul
receptacle = s. receptacul
anther = s. anter
style = s.(bot.) stil
ovule = s. (bot.) ovul
37

embryo sac = sac embrionar


pollination = s.polenizare
cross-pollination = s.polenizare ncruciat
calyx pl. calyces = s.caliciu

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Put each of the following words or phrases into its correct place in the
passage below:
animals; apple; blossom; botanists; cattle; colourless; flowering; food; grains;
include; man; mean; produces; reproductive; roots; roses; seeds; sheep;
stem; vegetables
FLOWERS
The word flower may . either 1) the blossom or 2) the whole plant.
used the word flower to mean only the . of a plant. They call the whole plant
-- blossom, ./., leaves, and / . --a flowering plant.
Any plant that . some sort of flower, even a tiny, one, is a flowering
plant. Flowers are the . part of .. plants. The plant could not
develop and reproduce without them. .. depends completely on
flowers and flowering plants for his . Flowering plants . almost all of
our , fruits, and .. Even the .. that we use for food, such as
./, pigs, and /. live on flowering plants.
SELF EVALUATION
Pollination is sexual process in which pollen is deposited on the stigma of the
plant.It starts the process of fertilization and
38

a) growth of the polen tube


b) seed formation
c) production of a fruit or seed coat
d) all of the above
The stamen is:
a) the male part of the flower
b) the part of the flower that produces pollen
c) the part of the flower that holds the anther
d) all of the above
The four main parts of a flower are:
a ) pollen, ovary, pistil, and stamen
b) sepal, petal, stamen, and pistil
c ) sepal, pistil, ovary, and stigma
d) none of these

A perfect flower has:


a)

both stamens and pistils

b)

both petals and sepals

c)

only petals

d)

only stamens

The parts of a female flower (pistil) are:


a)

stigma, style, and anther

b)

stigma, style, and filament

c)

ovules, pollen, and anthers

d)

stigma, style, and ovary

The parts of a male flower (stamen) are:


a)

stigma, style, and anther

b)

anther, filament and style

c)

ovules, and seed


39

d)

anther and filament

The collective term for the petals of a flower is:


a)

crown

b)

corolla

c)

calyx

When fertilized, the eggs in the ovary grow into:


a)

fruit

b)

seedcases

c)

seeds

d)

flowers

Choose the word that best keeps the meaning of the original sentence
if it is substituted for the capitalized word or phrase.
1. The rose may grow as a low bush or as a tree, depending on how it is
PRUNED.
a) nourished

b) planted

c) trimmed

d) watered

2. The flower is the MOST ATTRACTIVE, most colourful and most fragrant part
of many plants.
a) prettiest

b) rarest

c) softest

d) strongest

3. The flowers will WITHER in a few hours.


a) bloom;

b) dry up

c) open

d) revive

4. Roses are POPULAR flowers in Romanian gardens.


a) accustomed

b) favourite

c) ordinary

d) vulgar

5. The orchid is an EXOTIC plant to see blooming in many European gardens.


a) a beautiful

b) a colourful

c) a common

d) an unusual

6. Leeks are CULTIVATED throughout much of the world.


a) cooked

b) dried

c)grown

d) seen

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian:

40

Flowers and herbs have been held in high regard since ancient times, when
people first began associating flowers with symbols. Many flower meanings are
derived from their individual traits. For example, the lotus, which grows along the
muddy waters of the Nile, may lie dormant for many years during droughts, only
to bloom again at the first hint of rain. Ancient Egyptians came to view the lotus
as symbolizing resurrection and eternal life, and used it in burial rituals.
Victorians regarded the symbolism of flowers as a means of self-expression.
Ardent suitors carefully considered the message they wanted to convey before
selecting flowers for their intended love. Women carried handkerchiefs scented
with a recognizable flower scent to evoke a certain image or feeling. Today,
flower symbolism is considered less frequently, with the exception of weddings
and funerals. Below are the meanings of some popular flowers. The general
meaning of each flower is given, although the meaning may change slightly or
significantly, depending on the color of the blooms.
TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Seminele rezultate n urma autopolenizrii sunt inferioare n ceea ce
privete creterea, supravieuirea i capacitatea de germinare, comparativ cu
seminele rezultate n urma polenizrii ncruciate. Majoritatea speeciilor au
suferit o selecie natural favoriznd polenizarea ncruciat. Plantele care se
autopolenizeaz au o motenire genetic destul de redus, iar dup cteva
generaii dezvolt adesea mutaii care le amenin supravieuirea. Adesea aceste
plante dispar nainte de a evolua n alte specii cu noi adaptri.

UNIT 6
SEEDS
The formation of the seed is intimately connected with the development
of the embryo, and as the latter grows within the embryo sac the integuments
surrounding the ovule keep pace with its enlargement. When it has ceased
41

increasing in size, the ovule begins to lose water and the outer integument
especially forms a mechanically resistant and impervious layer of cells, the seed
coat or testa. The considerable range of form of the mature seed coat of different
plants depends on the mode of development and differentiation of these cells. The
most familiar seeds are those with dry coats, usually hard and leathery. These
hard, resistant coats afford protection from dessication, mechanical injury etc. The
impervious testa also prevents germination from taking place too soon, so that the
essential internal changes which must take place during a seeds obligatory
dormancy can be completed. In addition to the changes in the ovule which lead to
the formation of the seed, other parts of the flower, especially the ovary, enter a
new phase of development after fertilization. The result is a structure exclusive to
flowering plants, the fruit. A seed contains all of the genetic information needed to
develop into an entire plant. It is made up of three parts (Figure 22):

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The embryo is a miniature plant in an arrested state of development. It


will begin to grow when conditions are favorable.

The endosperm (and in some species the cotyledons) is a built-in food


supply (although orchids are an exception), which can be made up of
proteins, carbohydrates, or fats.

The seed coat, a hard outer covering, protects the seed from disease and
insects. It also prevents water from entering the seed and initiating
germination before the proper time.

Germination
Germination is a complex process whereby a seed embryo goes from a
dormant state to an active, growing state (Figure 23). Before any visual signs of
42

germination appear, the seed must absorb water through its seed coat. It also must
have enough oxygen and a favorable temperature. Some species, such as celery,
also require light. Others require darkness.

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If these requirements are met, the radicle is the first part of the seedling to
emerge from the seed. It develops into the primary root and grows downward in
response to gravity. From this primary root, root hairs and lateral roots develop.
Between the radicle and the first leaflike structure is the hypocotyl, which grows
upward in response to light. The seed leaves, or cotyledons, encase the embryo.
They usually are shaped differently than the leaves the mature plant will produce.
Monocots produce one cotyledon, while dicots produce two. Because seeds are
reproductive structures and thus important to a species' survival, plants have
evolved many mechanisms to ensure their survival. One such mechanism is seed
dormancy. Dormancy comes in two forms: seed coat dormancy and embryo
dormancy.
In seed coat dormancy, a hard seed coat does not allow water to
penetrate. Many ornamental trees and shrubs exhibit this type of dormancy.
A process called scarification is used to break or soften the seed coat. In
nature, scarification is accomplished by means such as the heat of a forest fire,
digestion of the seed by a bird or mammal, or partial breakdown of the seed coat
by fungi or insects. It can be done mechanically by nicking the seed coat with a
file, or chemically by softening the seed coat with sulfuric acid. In either instance,
it is important to not damage the embryo.
43

Embryo dormancy is common in ornamental plants, including elm and


witch hazel. These seeds must go through a chilling period before germinating. To
break this type of dormancy, stratification is used. This process involves storing
seeds in a moist medium (potting soil or paper towels) at temperatures between
32 and 50F. The length of time required varies by species
For non-dormant seeds, germination starts when a seed is provided with
water as long as the temperature is appropriate. The uptake of water by dry seed is
called imbibition (imbibition means to drink: seeds imbibe water). As seeds
imbibe water, they expand and enzymes and food supplies become hydrated.
Hydrated enzymes become active and the seed increase its metabolic activities to
produce energy for the growth process. In addition, the water causes turgor
pressure to increase in the cells and they are able to enlarge. The first part of the
seedling to emerge from the seed coat is the root (also called the radical). The
emergence of the root is typically used as the first indication that a seed is viable.
Eventually the shoot will also expand and emerge from the seed. If germination
occurs in darkness, root growth slows after the shoot emerges and shoot
elongation accelerates. This behavior increases the chance that the seedling will
emerge from soil into the light where it will be able to obtain energy from sunlight
by photosynthesis. Once a seedling emerges into the light, the plant undergoes
dramatic changes such as turning green and producing leaves. This lightdependent developmental transformation is called photomorphogenesis.

FRUITS
After fertilization, the ovary enclosing the ovule becomes the fruit
enclosing the seed. The biological significance of fruits is that they afford greater
protection, and possibly improved nutrition, to the maturing seed, while later they
provide some specialized means of dispersal for the seed. Although the simplest
fruits are derived from the ovary alone, many include in their structure parts
derived from the style, the receptacle, parts of the perianth, the pedicel and
peduncle, or even bracts and bracteoles. Thus, a fruit may be defined as a structure
developed from a flower, usually after it has been fertilized. It consists of one or
more mature ovaries, together with any accessory structures derived from other
44

floral parts, and is concerned with the protection and commonly the later dispersal
of the seeds contained within it.

Structure
Fruit consists of fertilized, mature ovules (seeds) plus the ovary wall,
which may be fleshy, as in an apple, or dry and hard, as in an acorn. In some
fruits, the seeds are enclosed within the ovary (e.g., apples, peaches, oranges,
squash, and cucumbers). In others, seeds are situated on the outside of fruit tissue
(e.g., corn and strawberries). The only part(s) of the fruit that contain genes from
both the male and female flowers are the seed(s). The rest of the fruit arises from
the maternal plant and is genetically identical to it.

Types of fruit
Fruits are classified as simple, aggregate, or multiple (Figure 21). Simple
fruits develop from a single ovary. They include fleshy fruits such as cherries and
peaches (drupe), pears and apples (pome), and tomatoes (berries). Although
generally referred to as a vegetable, tomatoes technically are a fruit because they
develop from a flower. Squash, cucumbers, and eggplants also develop from a
single ovary and are classified botanically as fruits. Other types of simple fruit are
dry. Their wall is either papery or leathery and hard, as opposed to the fleshy
examples just mentioned. Examples are peanuts (legume), poppies (capsule),
maples (samara), and walnuts (nut).

45

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An aggregate fruit develops from a single flower with many ovaries.
Examples are strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries. The flower is a simple
flower with one corolla, one calyx, and one stem, but it has many pistils or
ovaries. Each ovary is fertilized separately. If some ovules are not pollinated
successfully, the fruit will be misshapen.
Multiple fruits are derived from a tight cluster of separate, independent
flowers borne on a single structure. Each flower has its own calyx and corolla.
Pineapples and figs are examples.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases

integument = s. tegument, nveli


testa pl.testae = s.(bot.) coaja dur a unei semine
dessication = deshidratare
46

funicle = s. (bot.) funicul


hilum = s. (bot.) hil
aril = s. (bot.) aril
seed = s. smn. germene
seed bed = rzor de smn
seeding = s. rsad. buta
seed time = perioad de nsmnare
dormancy = stare latent
fruit = s. (bot.) fruct, fructe, rod, poam
aggregate fruit = fruct agregat
multiple fruit = fruct multiplu
spurious fruit = fruct fals
drupe = s. (bot.) drup
pome = poam
samara = s. (bot.) samar
blackberry = s. (bot.) mur
gooseberry = s. (bot.) agri

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Put in the following fruit and vegetables next to their definitions:
apple, banana, cherry, lemon, lettuce, onion, pepper, strawberry, tomato

1.) Children love this red, soft, sweet fruit. ......


2.) Red or yellow round fruit, growing on in trees in Europe. Pick in the
autumn. It is the size of a tennis ball. ......
3.) Red vegetable from which ketchup is made. ......
4.) Small, round, red fruit with stones growing in trees.
5.) Tropical, yellow, sour fruit with vitamin C. .......
6.) Sweet or hot vegetable or spice growing in shrubs. .......
47

7.) Green vegetables with big leaves.


8.) White, round, hot vegetable, you cry when cutting.
9.) Sweet, tropical, long, yellow fruit.

SELF EVALUATION

Apple is a
a) pome
b) drupe
c) berry

Tomato is a:
a) pome
b) drupe
c) berry

Pear is a :
a) pome
b) drupe
c) berry

Cherry is a :
a) pome
b) drupe
c) berry

Fill in these words related to plants:


bark, chlorophyll, flowers, leaves, needle, roots, snowdrop, vegetables, winter
1.) Pine trees have instead of leaves.
2.) Some plants die in
3.) The first spring flower is called
48

4.) The leaves of plants have a green pigment called


5.) The on trees drop off in autumn.
6.) We grow fruit and in the garden.
7.) Tough protecting covering of the trunk, branches and roots of trees is
called
8.) We like arranging in the vase.
9.) The are the bottommost parts of plants.

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian:


Even when environmental requirements for seed germination are met and
dormancy is broken, other factors also affect germination:

The seed's age greatly affects its viability (ability to germinate). Older seed
generally is less viable than young seed, and if it does germinate, the
seedlings are less vigorous and grow more slowly.

The seedbed must be properly prepared and made up of loose, finetextured soil.

Seeds must be planted at the proper depth. If they are too shallow, they
may wash away with rain or watering; if too deep, they won't be able to
push through the soil.

Seeds must have a continual supply of moisture; however, if over-watered,


they will rot.
Many weed seeds are able to germinate quickly and under less than

optimal conditions. This is one reason they make such formidable opponents in
the garden.

49

TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Dup procesul de fecundaie, n flori se produc transformri mari: unele
pri ale florii se ofilesc i cad, altele ns se modific att cantitativ, ct i
calitativ. Toate aceste modificri care se petrec n floare, n urma fecundaiei,
constituie procesul de fructificaie sau de formare a fructului. Termenul de fruct
apare la Angiosperme i desemneaz ceea ce rezult dup fecundarea i maturarea
ovulului. La unele specii, la formarea fructului alturi de ovar mai pot participa i
alte pri ale florii : receptaculul, stilul i nveliurile florale. Transformarea
ovarului n fruct este asociat cu modificri histologice n urma crora peretele
ovarului devine peretele fructului, numit pericarp.

50

BIBLIOGRAPHY
MODULE 1 (UNIT 1- UNIT 6)

ALEXANDRESCU C., ndreptar de limb englez pentru agronomi, Ed.


Ceres, Bucureti, 1984.
CHILRESCU M., PAIDOS C., Practical Course of English, Ed.
Polirom, Iai, 2006
CHIROBOCEA

OTILIA,

English

for

natural

sciences,

upper,

intermediate, advanced, Ed. Ovidius University Press, Constana, 2005


LEVICHI LEON, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti,
1967
LUNGU SMARANDA ANDA, Agricultural English extension course, Ed.
Salgo, Sibiu, 2008
MISZTAL M., Test your vocabulary, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1994
MISZTAL M., Test your English Grammar, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1996
MUNTEAN LEON C., BORCEAN I., AXINTE M., Fitotehnie, Ed.
Didactic i pedagogic, Bucureti, l995
MURPHY RAYMOND, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University
Press, 2003
PUNESCU ANCA, Course for Agriculture English, Ed. Arves, Craiova,
2008
RAVEN PETER H. , Biology of plants, Worth Publishers, New York,
1986
SIDE R., GUY W., Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced
and Proficiency, Longman, Edinburgh, 2004
SWAN MICHAEL, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press,
1992
YATES, C. ST., Agriculture (English for Academic Purposes Series),
Cassel Publishers Limited, l989
ZAHARIE OANA, Dicionar Romn-Englez specialitate agronomic, Ed.
Sitech, Craiova, 2008

51

DICIONARE

Dicionar englez romn, Ed. Acad. Romn, 1974


Dicionar romn englez, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, 1973
Dicionar agricol n opt limbi, Praga, 1970
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1964
Collins Business English Dictionary, London 1989

http:// extension. oregonstate.edu


Britanica Concise Encyclopedia

52

MODULE II
UNIT 7

THE LIFE CYCLE OF A PLANT


The life cycle of a typical annual plant can be divided into several stages.
The first stage is germination. Seeds remain dormant, or in a resting state, if they
are kept cool and dry. When the amount of moisture and the temperature level are
right, the seeds germinate and start growing.
Certain conditions are necessary for this to happen. An essential condition
is that the seeds must be alive. Sometimes seeds are dried at a temperature which
is too high. This has two effects: the water content in the seeds is reduced too
much, and certain essential proteins are destroyed. As a result, the seeds die.
Other conditions for germination concern the amount of moisture in the
soil. If dry seeds are planted in a dry soil, they will not germinate until it rains. On
the other hand, if there is too much water in the soil, the seeds will not germinate
either. This is because wet soils remain cold for a longer period of time than drier,
well/drained soils. If the soil is too cold germination will not occur. An additional
reason for seeds not germinating is that badly drained soils may lack sufficient
oxygen. Dormant seeds require very little oxygen in order to stay alive, but when
they start to germinate they require more.
In the first stage of germination the primary root, or radicle, emerges. Then
the stem pushes its way upward until it appears above the surface of the soil. At
the same time the root system grows downward, and begins to spread through the
soil. In the early stages of development the seedling depends entirely on the
foodstore in the seed but as soon as the first leaves are produced, it is able to
manufacture food for itself. The seedling begins photosynthesis. Next, the plant
enters the stage of rapid growth. In this stage of the life cycle, the plant begins to
grow to its full size. When it is mature enough, it flowers, and when this happens
pollination and fertilization are ready to take place. In the process of pollination
the pollen is carried by wind or insects from the stamens to the stigma of the

53

carpel. It germinates on the stigma and grows down the style into the ovary, where
fertilization takes place.

Plant growth and development

Photosynthesis, respiration,
and transpiration are the three major
functions that drive plant growth and
development . All three are essential
to a plant's survival. How well a plant
is able to regulate these functions
greatly affects its ability to compete
and reproduce.

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Photosynthesis
One of the major differences between plants and animals is plants' ability
to manufacture their own food. This process is called photosynthesis,which
literally means "to put together with light." To produce food, a plant requires
energy from the sun, carbon dioxide from the air, and water from the soil. During
photosynthesis, it splits carbon dioxide into carbon and oxygen, adds water, and
forms carbohydrates (starches and sugars). Oxygen is a by-product.

54

The formula for photosynthesis can be written as follows:


Carbon dioxide + Water + Sunlight = Sugar + Oxygen
or
6 CO2 + 6 H20 + Energy => C6H1206 + 6 02
After producing carbohydrates, a plant either uses them as energy, stores
them, or builds them into complex energy compounds such as oils and proteins.
All of these food products are called photosynthates . The plant uses them when
light is limited, or transports them to its roots or developing fruits. Photosynthesis
occurs only in the mesophyll layers of plant leaves and, in some instances, in
mesophyll cells in the stem. Mesophyll cells are sandwiched between the leaf's
upper and lower epidermis and contain numerous chloroplasts where
photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplasts are incredibly small. Chlorophyll, the
pigment that makes leaves green, is found in the chloroplasts. It is responsible for
trapping light energy from the sun. Often chloroplasts are arranged perpendicular
to incoming sun rays so they can absorb maximum sunlight. If any of the
ingredients for photosynthesis--light, water, and carbon dioxide--is lacking,
photosynthesis stops. If any factor is absent for a long period of time, a plant will
die. Each of these factors is described below.
Respiration
Carbohydrates made during photosynthesis are of value to a plant when
they are converted to energy. This energy is used for cell growth and building new
tissues. The chemical process by which sugars and starches are converted to
energy is called oxidation and is similar to the burning of wood or coal to produce
heat. Controlled oxidation in a living cell is called respiration and is shown by this
equation:
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 => 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy
This equation is essentially the opposite of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis
is a building process, while respiration is a breaking-down process (Table 2).

55

Table 2. Photosynthesis and Respiration.


Photosynthesis

Respiration

produces food

uses food

stores energy

releases energy

uses water

produces water

uses

produces carbon dioxide

dioxide

uses oxygen

releases oxygen

occurs in the dark as well

occurs

carbon

in

as light

sunlight

Unlike photosynthesis, respiration does not depend on light, so it occurs at


night as well as during the day. Respiration occurs in all life forms and in all cells.
Transpiration
When a leaf's guard cells shrink, its stomata open, and water is lost. This
process is called transpiration. In turn, more water is pulled through the plant from
the roots. The rate of transpiration is directly related to whether stomata are open
or closed. Stomata account for only 1 percent of a leaf's surface but 90 percent of
the water transpired. Transpiration is a necessary process and uses about 90
percent of the water that enters a plant's roots. The other 10 percent is used in
chemical reactions and in plant tissues. Transpiration is responsible for several
things:

Transporting minerals from the soil throughout the plant.

Cooling the plant through evaporation.

Moving sugars and plant chemicals.

Maintaining turgor pressure.

The amount and rate of water loss depends on factors such as temperature,
humidity, and wind or air movement. Transpiration often is greatest in hot, dry
(low relative humidity), windy weather.

56

In order for a plant to grow and develop properly, it must balance


photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration. Left to their own devices, plants do
a good job of managing this intricate balance. If a plant photosynthesizes at a high
rate, but its respiration rate is not high enough to break down the photosynthates
produced, photosynthesis will either slow down or stop. On the other hand, if
respiration is much more rapid than photosynthesis, the plant won't have adequate
photosynthates to produce energy for growth. Hence, growth either will slow
down or stop altogether.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Words and Phrases
dormancy = stare latent
primary root = rdcin principal
emerge = a iei (la iveal), a rsri
seedling = rsad, puiet
foodstore = rezerv de hran
pollination = polenizare
fertilization = fecundare
stamen = stamin
stigma = stigmat
germination = germinare, ncolire
style = stil
ovary = ovar
photosynthesis = fotosintez
pollen grains = grunciori de polen
root hair = perior absorbant
stigma. pl stigmata
gamete = gamet
male gamete = gamet mascul
ovule = ovul, gemul
testa pl. testae = coaj tare a unei semine
radicle = radicul
plumule = tij embrionar
57

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION

Rewrite the following sentences replacing the words printed in italics

with expressions from the text which have the same meaning.
a) The seed starts growing when there is enough air or water and the
temperature is right.
b) A seed will only germinate when there is enough air in the soil.
c) Seeds which are in a resting state require very little air to remain alive.
d) As soon as the stem and leaves appear above the surface of the soil, they
begin to manufacture food.
e) After the plant has appeared above the surface of the soil it enters the stage
of life when it begins to grow to its full size.
f) The process of carrying the pollen to the stigma is brought about by wind
or insects.
SELF EVALUATION
STAGES IN THE LIFE-CYCLE OF A PLANT
Put the following stages of the life-cycle of a plant in the correct order:
1. First

a. flowers appear

2. Next

b. the fruit forms

3. Soon

c. germination begins

4. At this stage

d. leaves also start to sprout

5. Subsequently

e. the plant decomposes

6. Meanwhile

f. the plant dies

7. Later

g. pollination takes place

8. Then

h. roots begin to develop

9. During this process

i. the seed begins to swell

10. Afterwards

j. the seed is sown

11. Eventually

k. the seed needs water

12. Finally

l. the stigma receives pollen

58

Match the names of the processes in the list on the left to the

identifying descriptions of their course of action in the list on the right.

NAME OF PROCESS
a) transpiration
b) germination

DESCRIPTION OF COURSE OF ACTION


i) one of the male gametes unites with the female
gamete in the ovule
ii) pollen grains are transferred from the stamen to
the stigma of the female parts

c) pollination

iii) water passes through the leaf cells and evaporates


into the air

d) fertilization

iv) nutrients in the soil pass through the cell


membranes into the root hairs

e) osmosis

v) the seed awakens from its dormant state and


starts growing

The metabolic process in which a plant uses carbohydrates produced


during photosynthesis for growth is known as:
a) transpiration
b) absorption
c) respiration
Photosynthesis produces simple sugars from the folowing materials:
a) sunlight, nitrogen, water
b) oxygen, sunlight, water
c) nitorgen, oxygen, water
d) carbon dioxide, sunlight, water
The three major plant functions that are the basics for plant growth
and development are:
a) photosynthesis, energy, and osmosis
b) photosynthesis, respiration, and active transport
c) ptotosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration
59

PROGRESS TEST
Translate into Romanian:
Fertilization is the process whereby one of the male gametes from the
pollen unites with the female gamete in the ovule. Firstly, the pollen carrying the
male gametes germinates on the stigma. Then, one of the male gametes goes down
the style into the ovary chamber. Finally, it fertilizes the female gamete in the
ovule by uniting with it.
The life cycle of a plant is the period of time during which the plant grows
from a seed, flowers and dies. The first stage of plant growth is the germination of
the seed. This forms the beginnings of the stem and root systems. As soon as the
stem appears above the ground food manufacture, or photosynthesis, begins. After
that, the plant enters the period of rapid growth. During this time the vegetative
parts grow to full size. When the plant flowers it is ready for pollination and
fertilization. During this stage, pollen is transferred from the stamens to the stigma
where it germinates. Next, fruit and seeds are produces. This is followed by the
decay of the vegetative parts. Finally, the seeds are dispersed by insects, animals
or wind, and the plant dies.
Germination is the process whereby the seed awakens from its dormant
state and begins to grow. The first stage in the germination of a bean is the
splitting of the testa. The radicle emerges from the testa and starts to grow
downwards. Next, the plumule, which is curved to protect the growing point,
begins to grow up towards the light. When the young plant breaks the soil surface,
food manufacture by photosynthesis can begin. Also at this stage below the soil
surface secondary roots develop. Finally, the main shoot grows upwards sprouting
leaves; at the same time the root system spreads through the soil.
Photosynthesis is the process whereby the plant manufactures food for
itself. First of all, carbon dioxide from the air is taken in through the leaf cells.
This is combined with water from the soil in the presence of sunlight. The sunlight
provides the energy to bind CO2 and H2O together to form sugars and other
carbohydrates. Subsequently, the carbohydrates go to the growing points in the
plant, enlarging tissues. At the same time oxygen is given off as a gas. We may
summarize this chemical process as follows:
60

6 CO2 + 6 H2O => C6H12O6

+ 6 O2

TEST PAPER
Translate into English :
Fr plante nu ar exista via pe Pmnt. Ele sunt productorii primari care
susin existena celorlalte forme de via, ntruct sunt singurele organisme
capabile s-i produc singure hrana necesar. Organismele animale, incapabile de
acest lucru, depind direct sau indirect de plante. Prin intermediul procesului
complex numit fotosintez, plantele transform energia solar, dioxidul de carbon
din atmosfer, apa i mineralele din sol n resurse de hran proprie i oxigen.
Frunzele plantelor sunt principalii participani la procesul de fotosintez. Acestea
capteaz i folosesc lumina solar pentru a transforma apa i dioxidul de carbon
din aer n zaharuri i alte forme de hran care le asigur energia necesar creterii,
producerii florilor i seminelor. Pe lng oxigen i surs de hran pentru animale
i om, plantele devin, datorit coninutului lor n substane active, adevrate
miracole vindectoare ale naturii.

UNIT 8
PLANT CLASSIFICATION
The classification of plants undoubtedly goes back to very early man.He
depended upon them for food, shelter, and probably clothing.He fashioned
weapons from them for his protection and to capture animals for food.Possibly he
classified them into groups based upon their uses, such as for food, fiber,
weapons, medicineand religion.
The early scholars always wrote in Latin or Greek, so naturally, when they
described plants or animals, they gave them scientific Latin or Latinized Greek

61

names..However, this way of naming plants also caused problems; the names
were often long and difficult.
The famous Swedish botanist, Linnaeus simplified the matter by
developing the binominal (two-name) system for naming plants.He gave all plants
just two Latin names as their scientific names.This system is still used today. The
first name is knowm as the generic name; this is the plants group name. All
plants having the same generic name are said to belong to the same genus All
plants belonging to the same genus have similar characteristics and are more
closely related to each other than they are to the members of any other genus.The
second name is the specific name or special name. All plants with the same
specific name belong to the same species. The Latin word species means
kind . It is difficult to define exactly what a species is, but we can say that plants
of the same species have the same characteristics and will consistently produce
plants of the same type. Today, species are often subdivided into varieties. One
variety of a species resembles that of another variety, but there are always one or
two differences that are consistent and inherited.
The generic name is usually a noun and the species name an adjective.The
species name, because it is an adjective, often gives information about the plant.
Sometimes, it tells us the colour of the plant (e.g. Betula alba) or gives
geographical information about where a plant occurs naturally (e.g. Anemone
virginiana ).
Related genera (plural of genus) with similar flower structures are
grouped together into major units known as families.
When the Latin

names of plants are printed, they are expressed in

italics.This is because when names and phrases are written in a language other
than our own, it is conventional to print them in italics or underline them if they
are typewritten or hand written. Also, by convention, the generic name is always
written first and the species name last. The generic name always begins with a
capital letter; the species name with a small letter. Sometimes, when a number of
species all belonging to the same genus is the subject, the generic name is
abbreviated and the first letter is used.
Scientists who identify and classify plants are known as taxonomists. An
international set of rules has been drawn up to ensure that every different species
has a different binominal name and that the scientific name assigned to the plant is
the oldest binominal name ever used for that plant. This international set of rules
62

is

known

as

the

INTERNATIONAL

CODE

OF

BOTANICAL

NOMENCLATURE.
The internationally accepted method of naming plants, that is the
BINOMINAL SYSTEM cannot be applied arbitrarily and a precise set of rules
must be followed. Thus, every plant must belong to a variety, every variety to
species, every species to a genus, every genus to a tribe or family, every family to
an order, every order to a class, every class to a division (phylum), each phylum
to the plant kingdom.
A complete categorization of common wheat, Triticum aestivum, is as
follows: Kingdom-Planta; Division-Spermatophyta; Class-Monocotyledonae;
Order-Graminales; Family-Gramineae; Genus- Triticum; Species-aestivum.

PLANT GROUPS
Plants can be divided into annuals, biennials and perennials according to
their total length of life (life cycle).
ANNUALS. Typical examples are wheat, barley and oats which complete
their life history in one growing season, i.e. starting from the seed, in 1 year they
develop roots, stems and leaves and then
produce flowers and seed before dying.
An annual, such as a zinnia, completes its
life cycle in 1 year. There are both winter
and

summer

understanding

annual
a

weed's

weeds,
life

cycle

and
is

important in controlling it. Summer annuals


complete their life cycle during spring and
summer; most winter annuals complete their
growing season during fall and winter.
BIENNIALS. These plants grow for 2 years. Sugar beet, carrots, parsley,
turnips are typical biennials, although the farmer treats these crops as annuals,
harvesting them at the end of the first year when all the foodstuff is stored up in
the root.
63

A biennial requires all or part of 2 years to


complete its life cycle. During the first
season, it produces vegetative structures
(leaves) and food storage organs. The plant
overwinters and then produces flowers, fruit,
and seeds during its second season.
Sometimes

biennials

go

from

seed

germination to seed production in only one


growing season. This situation occurs when extreme environmental conditions,
such as drought or temperature variation, cause the plant to pass rapidly through
the equivalent of two growing seasons. This phenomenon is referred to as bolting.
Sometimes bolting occurs when biennial plant starts are exposed to a cold spell
before being planted in the garden.
PERENNIALS. They live more than 2 years, and, once fully developed,
they usually produce seeds each year. Many of the grasses and legumes are
perennials.
Perennial plants are grouped into two
categories: herbaceous perennials and
woody perennials. Herbaceous perennials
have soft, nonwoody stems that generally die
back to the ground each winter. New stems
grow from the plant's crown each spring.
Trees and shrubs, on the other hand, have
woody stems that withstand cold winter
temperatures. They are referred to as woody
perennials.
Plants are also classified as dicotyledons and monocotyledons according to
the structure of the seeds. In several cases, we will distinguish between
monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Sometimes called monocots and
dicots for short, these plants have several important distinguishing characteristics.
For example, monocots (e.g., grasses and cereal grains) produce only one seed
leaf, while dicots have two. The vascular systems, flowers, and leaves of the two
64

types of plants also differ (Table 1). These differences will become important in
our discussion of plant growth and development.

Table 1. Comparison between monocots and dicots.


Structure

Monocot

Dicot

Seed leaves

Vascular system

Xylem and phloem are

Xylem and phloem inside

paired in bundles, which the stem. The ring of


are dispersed throughout phloem is near the bark;
the stem.

the xylem forms the inner


ring.

Floral parts

Leaves

Usually in multiples of

Usually in multiples of

three.

four or five.

Often parallel-veined.

Usually net-veined.

DICOTYLEDONS. A good example of a dicotyledon seed is the broad


bean because it is large and easy to study. If a pod of the broad bean plant is
opened when it is nearly ripe it will be seen that each seed is attached to the inside
of the pod by a short stalk called funicle.All the nourishment which the
developing seed requires passes through the funicle from the bean plant. If a bean
is soaked in water the seed coat can be removed easily and all that is left is largely
made up of the embryo (germ).This consists of two seed leaves, or cotyledons,
which contain the food for the young seedling.Lying between the two cotyledons
is the radicle.
MONOCOTYLEDONS. This class includes all the cereals and grasses
and it is, therefore, very important.The wheat grain is a typical example.It is not a
true seed (it should be called a single seeded fruit). The seed completely fills the
whole grain, being practically united with the inside wall of the grain or fruit.This
fruit wall is made up of many different layers which are separated on milling into
65

varying degrees of fineness, e.g. bran and pollards, and these are valuable
livestock feed. Most of the interior of the grain is taken by the floury
endosperm.The embryo occupies the small raised area at the base. The scutellum,
a shield-like structure, separates the embryo from the endosperm.The scutellum
can be regarded as the cotyledon of the seed. There is only one cotyledon present
and so wheat is a monocotyledon.

EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases

taxonomy = taxonomie, tiina clasificrii


phylum, pl. phyla = ncrengtur
order = s. ordin, sistem
genus, pl. genera = s. gen, clas
species, pl. species = s. specie; clas
variety = s. varietate; soi; specie
cultivar = s. cultivar; soi, hibrid, linie consangvinizat
pod = s. (bot.) pstaie;teac
stalk = s. (bot.) lujer; tulpin
funicle = s. (bot.) funicul
hilum = s. (bot.) hil
micropyle = s. (bot.) micropil
radicle = s. (bot.) radicul
plumule = s. (bot.) plumul

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION

Put each of the following words into its correct place in the passage
below:

agriculture;

bright;

darkness;

enormous, environment, horticulture, hot,

imaginable, naked, pine, science, seaweed, small, snow, yeast

66

THE APPEARANCE OF PLANTS


Plants can be almost any colour They may be , or so small that
you cannot see them with the . eye. A giant . is just as much a plant as a
tree, . plant, or a bacterium which is too . to see. Some plants
flourish in .. climates, while others live equally successfully on .. and
ice. Some carry out their life processes in total , while others are at their best
in sunlight. A whole .. known as ecology has grown up to help us
understand the relationship between the

and living things there.

, forestry, and are the sciences of learning how to make living


things do what we want them to do in a given place.
Put each of the following words and phrases into its correct place in
the passage below:
bacteria; breeds; cheese; forests; fungi; grasses; plant kingdom; plants; rocks;
scientists, seed-bearing; shrubs; species; stems; varieties; world

KINDS OF PLANTS
know that there are more than 335,000 different of plants.
Actually, if we travelled all over the we could see more different kinds of
plants than these, but some of these are merely .. much as dogs are merely
different . of one basic kind of animals. The simplest plants found in the
are one-celled . and algae, and . that are like the molds often
seen growing on bread and The next group of relatively simple
includes the mosses and lichens that are found in .., on bare , on
rooftops, and elsewhere. Some of these plants have . and leaves, but no roots.
After that, the next group includes ferns and bracken. Finally, there is the group of
plants. Such plants include our common . and
vegetables, and most trees, . and flowers.
SELF EVALUATION

Match the terms on the left with their definitions on the right:

67

1. species

a) a term used in classification, signifing a group of


related genera

2. genus

b) a systematic unit including geographic races and


varieties and included in a genus

3. family

c) a group of closely related species

4. order

d) family and classes

5. class

e) a division of a phylum and divided into orders

6. phylum

f) a primary division in classification

7. kingdom

g) the primary division in classification

8. variety

h) an agricultural variety that is the product of


artificial selection by human being

9. cultivar

i) a local variation in a species natural population

Fiind the terms in the text above which describe the following:
1. it attaches a seed to the inside of a pod.
2. it separates the embryo from the endosperm.
3. a plant that has only one seed leaf.

A biennial plant grows from seed to flower and ultimately dies in:
one growing year
two growing seasons
four growing seasons
a biennial lives indefinitely

Carrots require two growing seasons to produce seeds.


true
false

Knowing whether a weed is a monocot or a dicot will help in


determining which herbicide can be used to control it?
true
false

How many seed leaves have seeds from monocotyledonous plants?


one
68

two

How many seed leaves have seeds from dicotyledonous plants?


one
two

PROGRESS TEST
Explain the differences between an annual, a biennial and a perennial.
TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Toate plantele cunoscute astzi n natur sunt mai mult sau mai puin
nrudite ntre ele i deriv din tipuri mai vechi prin transformri nencetate pe care
le-au suferit sub influena factorilor de mediu, dobndind caractere noi, diferite de
ale strmoilor lor.
Botanica sistematic (sistematica vegetal) este tiina care se ocup cu
descrierea tuturor plantelor cunoscute i clasificarea n grupuri, categorii sau
uniti sistematice de diferite valori numite taxoni.

UNIT 9

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING PLANTS


GROWTH

The essence of the weatheragriculture interaction for the farmers lies in


wise adaptation of operations to the local climate and in techniques for
manipulating or modifying the local environment (microclimate) to minimize
69

weather stresses on plants and animals. Many of these techniques have been
practiced for centuries: seeding and cultivation, irrigation, frost protection, animal
shelters, windbreaks, and others are methods of altering the microclimate. The
climatic factors and their relation to plant growth in terms of protective techniques
are important.
Just as the entire plant is influenced by the underground environment of
the plant roots, the entire plant is also affected by the environment surrounding the
top of the plant. The aboveground environment may be explained in terms of the
factors affecting plants. These include: 1) light, 2) temperature, 3) water, 4)
humidity, (4) plant diseases, (5) insects, and (6) gases or particles in the air.
Plant growth and geographic distribution are greatly affected by the environment.
If any environmental factor is less than ideal, it limits a plant's growth and/or
distribution. For example, only plants adapted to limited amounts of water can
live in deserts. Either directly or indirectly, most plant problems are caused by
environmental stress. In some cases, poor environmental conditions (e.g., too little
water) damage a plant directly. In other cases, environmental stress weakens a
plant and makes it more susceptible to disease or insect attack. With a basic
understanding of these factors, you may be able to manipulate plants to meet your
needs, whether for increased leaf, flower, or fruit production. By recognizing the
roles of these factors, you also will be better able to diagnose plant problems
caused by environmental stress.
LIGHT
Light must be present before plants can manufacture food. No green plant
can exist for very long without light, whether that source is sunlight or light from
an artificial source. Plants vary in the amount of light they require for best
growth. Some plants prefer full sunlight; others prefer varying degrees of shade.
Light affects plants in other ways. Some plants, such as chrysanthemum, bloom
only when the days begin to shorten. (Long nights are necessary for flower buds
to form). This response to different periods of day and night is called
photoperiodism.
Plants may respond both to directional and nondirectional stimuli. A
response to a directional stimulus, such as gravity or sunlight is called a tropism.
A response to a nondirectional stimulus, such as temperature or humidity, is a
70

nastic movement. Tropism in plants are the result of differential cell growth, in
which the cells on one side of the plant elongate more than those on the other side,
causing the part to bend toward the side with less growth.
Among the common tropisms seen in plants is phototropism, the bending
of the plant toward a source of light. Phototropism allows the plant to maximize
light exposure in plants which require additional light for photosynthesis, or to
minimize it in plants subjected to intense light and heat.
Geotropism allows the roots of a plant to determine the direction of
gravity and grow downwards. Tropisms generally result from an interaction
between the environment and production of one or more plant hormones.
In contrast to tropisms, nastic movements result from changes in turgor
pressure within plant tissues, and may occur rapidly. A familiar example is
thigmonasty (response to touch) in the Venus fly trap, a carnivorous plant. The
traps consist of modified leaf blades which bear sensitive trigger hairs. When the
hairs are touched by an insect or other animal, the leaf folds shut. This mechanism
allows the plant to trap and digest small insects for additional nutrients. Although
the trap is rapidly shut by changes in internal cell pressures, the leaf must grow
slowly to reset for a second opportunity to trap insects.

Phototropism

71

Geotropism

http// en.wikipedia.
Flowering is one way in which plants react to varying periods of light and
dark. Plants may be classified in three groups according to this flowering reaction.
Short day plants, such as chrysanthemum, flower when days are short and nights
are long. Long day plants, such as lettuce, flower when days are long and nights
are short. Indifferent plants are plants that do not depend upon certain periods of
light or darkness to flower. Plants grow toward their source of light because the
plant stem produces more greowth hormones on the shady side, causing the stem
on that side to grow to a greater length. Three principal characteristics of light
affect plant growth: quantity, quality, and duration.
Quantity
Light quantity refers to the intensity, or concentration, of sunlight. It varies
with the seasons. The maximum amount of light is present in summer, and the
minimum in winter. Up to a point, the more sunlight a plant receives, the greater
its capacity for producing food via photosynthesis..
Quality
Light quality refers to the color (wavelength) of light. Sunlight supplies
the complete range of wavelengths and can be broken up by a prism into bands of
red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Blue and red light, which
plants absorb, have the greatest effect on plant growth. Blue light is responsible

72

primarily for vegetative (leaf) growth. Red light, when combined with blue light,
encourages flowering.
Plants look green to us because they reflect, rather than absorb, green light.
Knowing which light source to use is important for manipulating plant growth.
For example, fluorescent (cool white) light is high in the blue wavelength. It
encourages leafy growth and is excellent for starting seedlings. Incandescent light
is high in the red or orange range, but generally produces too much heat to be a
valuable light source for plants. Fluorescent grow-lights attempt to imitate
sunlight with a mixture of red and blue wavelengths, but they are costly and
generally no better than regular fluorescent lights.
TEMPERATURE
The temperature of the air has one of the strongest effects on plant growth.
Some plants, such as lettuce, cabbage grow best in cool temperatures. Others,
such as corn, beans, and tomatoes, prefer hot weather. There are temperatures
above which all plant growth stops. At the other extreme, temperatures near and
below freezing also stop plant growth and, in fact, kill tender crops. Generally the
plant growth rate increases as temperature increases up to about 90

F. This

varies, but is a good general rule, providing that moisture is available to the plant
and wilting does not occur. Temperature influences most plant processes,
including photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration, germination, and flowering.
As temperature increases (up to a point), photosynthesis, transpiration, and
respiration increase. When combined with day-length, temperature also affects the
change from vegetative (leafy) to reproductive (flowering) growth. Depending on
the situation and the specific plant, the effect of temperature can either speed up or
slow down this transition.
Germination
The temperature required for germination varies by species. Generally,
cool-season crops (e.g., spinach, radish, and lettuce) germinate best at 55 to 65F,
while warm-season crops (e.g., tomato, petunia, and lobelia) germinate best at 65
to 75F.

73

Flowering
Sometimes horticulturists use temperature in combination with day length
to manipulate flowering. For example, a Christmas cactus forms flowers as a
result of short days and low temperatures. If temperatures are high and days are
long, cool-season crops such as spinach will flower (bolt). However, if
temperatures are too cool, fruit will not set on warm-season crops such as tomato.
Crop quality
Low temperatures reduce energy use and increase sugar storage. Thus,
leaving crops such as ripe winter squash on the vine during cool, fall nights
increases their sweetness. Adverse temperatures, however, cause stunted growth
and poor-quality vegetables. For example, high temperatures cause bitter lettuce.
Photosynthesis and respiration
Thermoperiod refers to daily temperature change. Plants grow best when
daytime temperature is about 10 to 15 degrees higher than nighttime temperature.
Under these conditions, plants photosynthesize (build up) and respire (break
down) during optimum daytime temperatures and then curtail respiration at night.
However, not all plants grow best under the same range between nighttime and
daytime temperatures. Temperatures higher than needed increase respiration,
sometimes above the rate of photosynthesis. Thus, photosynthates are used faster
than they are produced. For growth to occur, photosynthesis must be greater than
respiration. Daytime temperatures that are too low often produce poor growth by
slowing down photosynthesis. The result is reduced yield (i.e., fruit or grain
production).

WATER
Most growing plants contain about 90 percent water. Water plays many
roles in plants. It is:

A primary component in photosynthesis and respiration

74

Responsible for turgor pressure in cells (Like air in an inflated balloon,


water is responsible for the fullness and firmness of plant tissue. Turgor is
needed to maintain cell shape and ensure cell growth.)

A solvent for minerals and carbohydrates moving through the plant

Responsible for cooling leaves as it evaporates from leaf tissue during


transpiration

A regulator of stomatal opening and closing, thus controlling transpiration


and, to some degree, photosynthesis

The source of pressure to move roots through the soil

The medium in which most biochemical reactions take place


HUMIDITY
Most plants are not affected drastically by a minor change in humidity, the

moisture level of air. Most plants grow best in the 40 to 80 percent relative
humidity range. Relative humidity is the amount of moisture in the air as
compared to the percentage of moisture that the air could hold at the same
temperature if it were completely saturated. Some plants are more sensitive to
humidity than others. Provided that the roots are able to replenish moisture lost
through plant leaves as fast as it is lost and that the plants do not wilt, low
humidity is not a great problem for most crops.When the humidity is very high
(8o to 100 percent relative humidity), other problems may arise. For example,
high humidity may cause the spread of fungus diseases.

PLANT DISEASES AND INSECTS DAMAGE


Economically, one of the most important areas of research in
environmental physiology is that of phytopathology, the study of diseases in
plants and the manner in which plants resist or cope with infection. Plant are
susceptible to the same kinds of disease organisms as animals, including viruses,
bacteria, and fungi, as well as physical invasion by insects and roundworms.
Because the biology of plants differs from animals, their symptoms and responses
are quite different. In some cases, a plant can simply shed infected leaves or
flowers to prevent to spread of disease, in a process called abscission. Most
animals do not have this option as a means of controlling disease. Plant diseases
organisms themselves also differ from those causing disease in animals because
plants cannot usually spread infection through casual physical contact. Plant
75

pathogens tend to spread via spores or are carried by animal vectors. One of the
most important advances in the control of plant disease was the discovery of
Bordeaux mixture in the nineteenth century. The mixture is the first known
fungicide and is a combination of copper sulfate and lime. Any time a plant is
suffering from disease or insect damage, production is reduced. The amount of
reduction depends on how severe the damage is and what percentage or part of the
plant is able for producing food, the more leaves that are lost, the more severely
total production is reduced. Some diseases and insect damage may be prevented
by the use of varieties of plants that are resistant to disease and/or insects, or by
crop rotation or chemical sprays.

GASES AND AIR PARTICLES


Carbon dioxide is vital to plants for the production of food. There is rarely
a severe enough shortage of carbon dioxide to cause damage to plants. However,
greenhouse operators find that by adding carbon dioxide to the air, the growth rate
of certain crops may be increased enough to more than pay for the added cost of
the carbon dioxide. Other growth-restricting factors such as lack of water are
usually more important to outside crops and therefore given more consideration.
EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases

crop rotation = s. ( agr. ) asolament


to wilt = vt. a se veteji, a se ofili
wavelength = s. (fiz) lungime de und
ground water = ap freatic
lack of water = lips de ap
water-storage capacity = capacitate de reinere a apei
water percolation = s. ap de scurgere
global warming =

an increase in the temperature of the Earth's

troposphere. Global warming has occurred in the past as a result of natural


influences, but the term is most often used to refer to the warming

76

predicted by computer models to occur as a result of increased emissions


of greenhouse gases.
greenhouse effect = the progressive, gradual warming of the earth's
atmospheric temperature, caused by the insulating effect of carbon
dioxide and other greenhouse gases that have proportionately increased in
the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect disturbs the way the Earths
climate maintains the balance between incoming and outgoing energy by
allowing short-wave radiation from the sun to penetrate through to warm
the earth, but preventing the resulting long-wave radiation from escaping
back into the atmosphere. The heat energy is then trapped by the
atmosphere, creating a situation similar to that which occurs in a car with
its windows rolled up.
greenhouse gases (GHGs) include the common gases of carbon dioxide
and water vapor, but also rarer gases such as methane and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) whose properties relate to the transmission or
reflection of different types of radiation. The increase in such gases in the
atmosphere, which contributes to global warming, is a result of the
burning of fossil fuels, the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere, and
deforestation.

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Here are some statements about the environment in Britain. The words in
each sentence have been jumbled. Put them in order:
1. today; cars; in; are; million; Britain; than; there; more; twenty-five.
2. world; Britain; seas; around; some; the; are; the; of; dirtiest; in; the.
3. nuclear; other; countries; accepts; from; waste; Britain.
4. are; rain; acid; from; polluted; Britain; many; Europe; lakes; in; Northern;
by.
5. power; British; against; nuclear; protest; often; environmentalists.
77

SELF - EVALUATION

As the outside temperature increases, plant growth normally


a) increases if moisture is available
b) decreases because plants become too hot
c) decreases because the plant cannot receive moisture fast enough
d) increases because humidity always increases with the temperature

Green plants cannot live without light because


a) it is necessary for the manufacture of food
b) they need light to breath
c) light helps to warm them to the optimum temperature for growth
d) none of the above

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian:


Tropisms are directional movement responses that occur in response to a
directional stimulus. Plants are not able to relocate if they happen to start growing
where conditions are suboptimal. However, plants can alter their growth so they
can grow into more favorable conditions, To do so requires the ability to detect
where the conditions are better and then alter their growth so they can "move" in
the appropriate direction. One of the most commonly observed tropic responses in
plants is phototropism, in which plant stems grow towards light. Another
commonly observed tropic responses is gravitropism, where a plant will grow so
that it stays oriented relative to the source of gravity (the earth). Thus, if a plant is
knocked down the shoot will grow faster on the lower side until the shoot is moreor-less standing up again. Tropic responses result from differential growth.
Phototropism is a blue-light-dependent response controlled by the action of
specific blue light photoreceptors called phototropins. Gravitropism is dependent
on the presence of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) in specialized cells.

78

Global warming is an environmental problem affected by and felt by all


countries. Much of the increased buildup of carbon dioxide and other gases is the
result of fossil-fuel combustion in developed countries, but burning of forests is
also a major cause. As carbon dioxide and other gases accumulate in the
atmosphere, they may trap heat, creating the so-called greenhouse effect. If world
temperature rise, average sea level may rise, thus threatening coastal lands.Violent
storms, monsoons, droughts, floods,and generally increased weather variability
are likely.While a warmer world is not necessarily less favorable to agriculture,
regional impacts are harder to predict. And global warming could be very hard on
certain animal species because their ecosystem may shift while the property-lime
boundaries of their preserves do not.

TEST PAPER
Translate into English :

Intervalul de temperatur n care plantele supravieuiesc i respectiv desfoar


procesul de fotosintez este destul de larg, de la temperaturi joase, aproape de
nghe, pn la peste 30C.
Randamentul fotosintezei i respiraiei plantelor crete direct proporional cu
creterea temperaturii. De aceea, climatul unei regiuni determin speciile de
plante care supravieuiesc n zona respectiv. Dezvoltarea unei anumite specii de
plante este influenat de factori precum intensitatea luminii solare, temperatur,
precipitaii, tipul de sol, animalele, etc. prezente n zona respectiv.

79

UNIT 10
PLANT NUTRITION
Plant Nutrients
Plant nutrition is often confused with fertilization. Plant nutrition refers
to a plant's need for and use of basic chemical elements. Fertilization is the term
used when these materials are added to the environment around a plant. A lot must
happen before a chemical element in a fertilizer can be used by a plant. Sixteen
chemical elements are known to be important to a plants growth and survival.The
sixteen chemical elements are divided into two main groups: non-mineral and
mineral. Non-mineral nutrients are: hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and carbon (C).
These elements are found in the air and water. In a process called photosynthesis,
plants use energy from the sun to change carbon dioxide and water into starches
and sugars. These starches and sugars are the plants food. Since plants get
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen from air and water, there is little farmers and
gardeners can do to control how much of these nutrients a plant can use. The 13
mineral nutrients, which come from the soil, are dissolved in water and absorbed
through a plants roots. There are not always enough of these nutrients in the soil
for a plant to grow healthy. This is why many farmers ahe gardeners use
fertilization to add the nutrients to the soil. The mineral nutrients are divided
into two groups: macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrients
Macronutrients can be broken into two more groups: primary and
secondary nutrients. The primary nutrients are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and
potassium (K). These major nutrients usually are lacking from the soil first
because plants use large amounts for their growth and survival. The secondary
nutrients are calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). There are usually
enough of these nutrients in the soil so fertilization is not always needed. Also,
large amounts of Ca, and Mg are added when lime is applied to acidic soils. Sulfur

80

is usually found in sufficient amounts from the slow decomposition of soil organic
matter.
Micronutrients
Micronutrients are those elements essential for plant growth which are
needed in only very small (micro) quantities. These elements are sometimes called
trace elements. The micronutrients are boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), chloride
(Cl), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn).
Most of the nutrients a plant needs are dissolved in water and then absorbed by its
roots. In fact, 98 percent are absorbed from the soil-water solution, and only about
2 percent are actually extracted from soil particles.
Green plants convert light, water, air, and plant nutrients into forms useful to
people and animals.

http:// agrienvarchive.ca
Macronutrients:
Nitrogen (N)
1.) is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins,
enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of
energy
2.) is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is
responsible for photosynthesis
3.) helps plants with rapid growth, increasing seed and fruit production
and improving the quality of leaf and forage crops
4.) often comes from fertilizer application and from the air (legumes get
their N from the atmosphere, water or rainfall contributes very little
nitrogen)
81

Phosphorus (P):
1.) is an essential part of the process of photosynthesis
2.) is involved in the formation of all oils, sugars, starches, etc.
3.) helps with the transformation of solar energy into chemical energy;
proper plant maturation; withstanding stress
4.) effects rapid growth
5.) encourages blooming and root growth
6.) often comes from fertilizer, bone meal, and superphosphate

Potassium (K):
1.) is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element
except nitrogen and in some cases, calcium
2.) helps the building pf protein, photosynthesis, fruit quality and
reduction of diseases
3.) is supplied to plants by soil minerals,organic materials and fertilizer
Calcium (Ca):
1.) an essential part of plant cell wall structure, provides for normal
transport and retention of other elements as well as strength in the plant. It
is also thought to counteract the effect of alkali salts and organic acids
within a plant
Magnesium (Mg):
1.) is part of the chlorophyll in all green plants and essential for
photosynthesis
2.) helps activate many plant enzymes needed for growth
3.) soil minerals, organic material, fertilizers and dolomitic limestone are
sources of magnesium for plants
Sulfur (S):
1.) essential plant food for production of protein
2.) promotes activity and development of enzymes and vitamins
82

3.) helps in chlorophyll formation


4.) improves root growth and seed production
5.) helps with vigorous plant growth and resistance to cold
6.) may be supplied to the soil from rain water. The use of gypsum
increases soil sulfur levels
Micronutrients:
Boron(B):
1.) helps in the use of nutrients and regulates other nutrients
2.) aids production of sugar and carbohydrates
3.)essential for seed and fruit development
4.) sources of boron are organic matter and borax
Copper (Cu):
1.) important for reproductive growth
2.) aids in root metabolism and helps in the utilization of proteins
Chloride (Cl):
1.) aids plant metabolism
2.) is found in the soil
Iron (Fe):
1.) essential for formation of chlorophyll
2.) sources of iron are the soil, iron sulfate, iron chelate
Manganese (Mn):
1.) functions with enzyme systems involved in breakdown of
carbohydrates, and nitrogen metabolism
2.) soil is a source of manganese
Molybdenum (Mo):
1.) helps in the use of nitrogen
2.) soil is a source of molybdenum
Zinc (Zn):
83

1.) essential for the transformation of carbohydrates


2.) regulates consumption of sugars
3.) part of the enzyme systems which regulate plant growth
4.) sources of zinc are soil, zinc oxide, zinc sulphate, zinc chelate

Nutrient Cycling
All essential nutrients are equally important for healthy plant growth, but
there are large differences in the amounts required. N, P, and K are primary
macronutrients with crop requirements generally in the range of 50 to 150
lbs/acre. Ca, Mg, and S are secondary macronutrients, required in amounts of
about 10 to 50 lbs/acre. Micronutrient requirements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and
Cl) are generally less than 1 lb/acre.
Sources of Plant Nutrients in the Soil
Plants obtain mineral nutrients through root uptake from the soil solution.
Sources of these soluble nutrients in soil include:

Decomposition of plant residues, animal remains, and soil microorganisms

Weathering of soil minerals

Fertilizer applications

Manures, composts, biosolids (sewage sludge), kelp (seaweed), and other


organic amendments such as food processing byproducts

N-fixation by legumes

Ground rock products including lime, rock phosphate, and greensand

Inorganic industrial byproducts such as wood ash or coal ash

Atmospheric deposition, such as N and S from acid rain or N-fixation by


lightning discharges

Deposition of nutrient-rich sediment from erosion and flooding

Losses of Plant Nutrients from the Soil


Mineral nutrients also can be lost from the soil system and become
unavailable for plant uptake. Nutrient losses are not just costly and wasteful, they

84

can be a source of environmental contamination when they reach lakes, rivers, and
groundwater. Nutrient losses occur through:

Runoff loss of dissolved nutrients in water moving across the soil


surface

Erosion loss of nutrients in or attached to soil particles that are removed


from fields by wind or water movement

Leaching loss of dissolved nutrients in water that moves down through


the soil to groundwater or out of the field through drain lines

Gaseous losses to the atmosphere primarily losses of different N forms


through volatilization and denitrification (see Nitrogen Cycle on page 5)

Crop removal plant uptake and removal of nutrients from the field in
harvested products

Fertilizers
Fertilizers are materials containing plant nutrients that are added to the
environment around a plant. Generally, they are added to the water or soil, but
some can be sprayed on leaves. This method is called foliar fertilization. It
should be done carefully with a dilute solution, because a high fertilizer
concentration can injure leaf cells. The nutrient, however, does need to pass
through the thin layer of wax (cutin) on the leaf surface. Fertilizers are not plant
food! Plants produce their own food from water, carbon dioxide, and solar energy
through photosynthesis. This food (sugars and carbohydrates) is combined with
plant nutrients to produce proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and other elements
essential to growth.

Nutrient Absorption
Anything that reduces or stops sugar production in leaves can lower
nutrient absorption. Thus, if a plant is under stress because of low light or extreme
temperatures, nutrient deficiency may develop. A plant's developmental stage or
rate of growth also may affect the amount of nutrients absorbed. Many plants have
a rest (dormant) period during part of the year. During this time, few nutrients are
absorbed. Plants also may absorb different nutrients as flower buds begin to
develop than they do during periods of rapid vegetative growth.
85

Successful crop production depends on proper nutrient management. All


of the nutrients we eat originally came from soil or air. Most of the nutrients,
however, cannot be used directly by people or livestock. Crop production
repackages plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium
(K) and energy into forms that we and other animals can use. The crops will
grow properly if they obtain in the correct amounts, at the appropriate times. Soils
can supply many of the nutrients needed by crops, bur often require additional
nutrients from sources such as commercial fertilizers, manures, and other organic
sources.
Nutrients, whether in fertilizer or other materials, are both an essential
input and a major cost for crop production. Some farmers apply nutrients in
excess of recommended rates in hopes of attaining higher yields. This is not a best
management practice if it ignores costs, profits, and environmental quality.
Neither is it a best management practice to apply too few nutrients. Yield and
profits will drop.

Determining nutrient needs


Determination of a crops nutrient needs is an essential aspect of fertilizer
technology. The appearance of a growing crop may indicate need of fertilizer; in
some plants, however, the need for more or different nutrients may not be easily
observable. If such a problem exists, its nature must be diagnosed, the degree of
deficiency must be determined, and the amount and kind of fertilizer needed for a
given yield must be found. There is no substitute for detailed examination of
plants and soil conditions in the field, followed by simple fertilizer tests, quick
tests of plant tissues, and analysis of soils and plants.
Sometimes plants show symptoms of poor nutrition. Chlorosis (general
yellow or pale-green colour), for example, indicates lack of sulfur and nitrogen.
Iron deficiency produces white or pale-yellow tissue. Symptoms can be
misinterpreted, however. Plant disease can produce appearances resembling
mineral deficiency, as can various organisms. Drought or improper cultivation or
fertilizer application each may create deficiency symptoms. After field diagnosis,
the conclusions may be confirmed by experiments in a greenhouse or by making
strip tests in the field. In strip tests, the fertilizer elements suspected of being
86

deficient are added, singly or in combination, and the resulting plant growth
observed. Next, it is necessary to determine the extent of the deficiency.
EXPLANATORY NOTES

Words and Phrases

decomposition = s. descompunere, putrezire


available nutrient = substan nutritiv disponibil
weathering = s. alterare
to leach = vt. a filtra (un lichid); a spla; a extrage (o substan chimic)
leaching = levigare, splare
acidic soil = sol acid
alkaline soil = sol alcalin
neutral soil = sol neutru

# EXERCISES
COMPREHENSION
Answer the following questions:
1.What does plant nutrition mean?
2. How many chemical elements are known to be important to a plants growth
and survival?
3. How do plants obtain mineral nutrients from the soil solution?
4. Do losses of plant nutrients from the soil occur frequently? Why?
5. What are fertilizers?
6. What does foliar fertilization mean?
7. Which are some of the symptoms of poor nutrition shown by the plants?

87

SELF - EVALUATION

Complete the following text by filling in the blank spaces. Some of the

expressions you will require are given below. A dotted line ..


requires a phrase to be added and a straight line ____________ requires a
word.
therefore

constituent

deficient in

essential elements

plant food

plant nutrition

soil fertility

calcium pectate

stunted growth

nitrogen

promotes

nutrients

ammonium sulphate

potassium

acid

Fertilizers are of crucial importance in maintaining and improving


. by ensuring an adequate supply of plant ______________ for
satisfactory plant ______________. For example, nitrogen promotes rapid
_____________ and gives plants a healthy green colour. If a soil is deficient in
_____________ plants will be stunted in _____________ and the leaves
yellowish in colour. However, this _____________ can be corrected by adding to
the soil a such as urea. To take another example:
phosphorous stimulates early growth and root formation, and ___________ fruit
and seed production. If there is a ____________ of ____________ in the soil,
plants will be stunted in growth with bluish green leaves and poor
... development.
To remedy this situation a .. such as superphosphate
should be applied.

The most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizer is

ammonium sulphate which supplies the soil with both ___________ and
____________. There are other fertilizers which contain nitrogen including urea,
which is made from ammonia and carbon dioxide. _____________ contains
about

46

____________,

more

than

double

the

amount

in

. It is, ____________, a valuable fertilizer to use in soils


which are .. nitrogen, as in the tropics, for example.
One result of nutrient deficiency is an increase in soil acidity. The effect of
____________ is to make certain elements unavailable to plants. To correct this,
lime should be ____________. The main _____________ of lime is calcium,
88

itself an essential . which combines with pectin in


plants to form . , an essential element of cell walls. But
the main effect of lime is to make .. of plant food
available to plants. Thus, _____________, phosphorous and _____________ are
more easily available in a well-limed soil than in an _____________ soil.

PROGRESS TEST

Translate into Romanian:


There are at least 16 essential chemical elements for plant growth. Carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen, obtained in large amounts from air and water, make up the
bulk of plant dry matter in the products of photosynthesis, but usually are not
included as nutrient elements. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K),
calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc
(Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), and chlorine (Cl) are obtained
from the soil and required by all plants. Sodium, silicon, and nickel are essential
elements for some plant species and, although not required, have positive or
beneficial effects on the growth of other species. Cobalt is essential for nitrogen
fixation by legumes. Additional elements, such as selenium and iodine, are not
required by plants, but can be important in plant nutrition because they are
essential nutrients for humans and other animals that consume plants.
TEST PAPER
Translate into English:
Azotul absorbit din sol este transformat prin diverse reacii chimice n
aminoacizi asimilabili care asigur creterea frunzelor, tulpinii, dezvoltarea
sistemului radicular. Carena azotului n nutriia plantelor duce la nglbenirea
frunzelor, la ncetinirea sau oprirea creterii acestora. Excesul de azot duce la
prelungirea perioadei de vegetaie i la formarea abundent a frunzelor.
Fosforul asimilat de plante sub form de acid fosforic sau anhidrid
fosforic intervine n funcionarea sistemului imunitar, crescnd rezistena plantei
la condiiile atmosferice, la atacul duntorilor i administrarea insecticidelor.
Fosforul se acumuleaz n organele tinere i n semine. n lipsa lui plantele rmn
89

mici, rdcinile sunt lungi i rare, tulpina rigid, culoarea frunzelor devine
purpurie.

90

BIBLIOGRAPHY
MODULE II (UNIT 7-UNIT 10)

ALEXANDRESCU C., ndreptar de limb englez pentru agronomi, Ed.


Ceres, Bucureti, 1984.
CHILRESCU M., PAIDOS C., Practical Course of English, Ed.
Polirom, Iai, 2006
CHIROBOCEA

OTILIA,

English

for

natural

sciences,

upper,

intermediate, advanced, Ed. Ovidius University Press, Constana, 2005


GORE AL., Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, Pinguin
Books, USA, 1993
LEVICHI LEON, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. Stiinific, Bucureti,
1967
LUNGU SMARANDA ANDA, Agricultural English extension course, Ed.
Salgo, Sibiu, 2008
MISZTAL M., Test your vocabulary, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1994
MISZTAL M., Test your English Grammar, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1996
MUNTEAN LEON C., BORCEAN I., AXINTE M., Fitotehnie, Ed.
Didactic i pedagogic, R.A. Bucureti, l995
MURPHY RAYMOND, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University
Press, 2003
PUNESCU ANCA, Course for Agriculture English, Ed. Arves, Craiova,
2008
RAVEN PETER H. , Biology of plants, Worth Publishers, New York,
1986
SIDE R., GUY W., Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced
and Proficiency, Longman, Edinburgh, 2004
SWAN MICHAEL, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press,
1992
YATES, C. ST., Agriculture (English for Academic Purposes Series),
Cassel Publishers Limited, l989
ZAHARIE OANA, Dicionar Romn-Englez specialitate agronomic, Ed.
Sitech, Craiova, 2008
91

DICIONARE

Dicionar englez romn, Ed. Acad. Romn, 1974


Dicionar romn englez, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, 1973
Dicionar agricol n opt limbi, Praga, 1970
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1964
Collins Business English Dictionary, London 1989

http:// agrienvarchive.ca
http:// extension. oregonstate.edu
http://environment.nsw
http://5e.plantphys.net
http// en.wikipedia.

92

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(MODULE I-VIII)
ALEXANDRESCU C., ndreptar de limb englez pentru agronomi, Ed.
Ceres, Bucureti, 1984.
ALEXANDRESCU C., Limba englez pentru horticultori, Ed. Moldova,
1998
ALTIERI MIGUEL, Agroecology: the Science of Sustainable Agriculture,
Westview Press, Boulder, Co, 1995
ANDREI LUMINIA, Business English Grammar, Ed. Timpul, Iai, 2006
BLAKE FRANCIS, Organic Farming and Growing, WBC

Book

Mnufactures Ltd., Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan, 1990


BUTLER RICHARD, HALL C. MICHAEL, Tourism and Recreation in
Rural Areas, John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Baffins Lane, West Sussex, 1998
CALLUT JEAN PAUL, Business Vocabulary Based on English for
Managers (a selection of texts ), Louvain la Neuve 1988
CHEFNEAUX GABRIELA, Techniques of communication, Ed. Univ
Transilvania, Braov, 2008
CHILRESCU M., PAIDOS C., Practical Course of English, Ed.
Polirom, Iai, 2006
CHIROBOCEA

OTILIA,

English

for

natural

sciences,

upper,

intermediate, advanced, Ed. Ovidius University Press, Constana, 2005


CICIUC OLEA, TNSESCU EUGENIA, English for Business
Purposes, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1998
DAVID FRANCIS , Family Agriculture (Tradition and Transformation),
Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, l994
DUDE ROXANA, High speed English for tourism and the hospitality
industry, Ed. Pro Universitaria, Bucureti, 2006
EKINS PAUL, Economic growth and environmental sustainability : the
prospects for green growth, London: Routledge, 2000
GEPTS P., A Comparison between Crop Domestication, Classical Plant
Breeding, and Genetic Engineering, Crop Science 42, 2002
GLAVAN VASILE, Turism rural. Agroturism. Turism durabil. Ecoturism,
Editura Economic, Bucureti, 2003
93

GORE AL., Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit, Pinguin
Books, USA, 1993
HOHAN, LUCIA TRANCOT, tii s redactai o scrisoare n limba
englez ?, Ed. Albatros, Bucureti, 1984
IUGA ANA MARIA, English for professional communication in a crosscultural context, Ed.Alma Mater, Sibiu, 2006
JULES N. PRETTY, Regenerating Agriculture (Policies and Practice for
Sustainability and Self-Reliance), Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, l995
LEVICHI LEON, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. Stiinific, Bucureti,
1967
LUNGU SMARANDA ANDA, Agricultural English extension course, Ed.
Salgo, Sibiu, 2008
MARIN MONICA, First steps into marketing, Ed. Uranus, Bucureti,
2005
MISZTAL M., Test your vocabulary, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1994
MISZTAL M., Test your English Grammar, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1996
MUNTEAN LEON C., BORCEAN I., AXINTE M., Fitotehnie, Ed.
Didactic i pedagogic, Bucureti, l995
MURPHY RAYMOND, English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University
Press, 2003
NORTON, GEORGE W., JEFFREY ALWANG , Introduction to
Economics of Agricultural Development, (McGraw-Hill Book Co.), l993
PUNESCU ANCA, Course for Agriculture English, Ed. Arves, Craiova,
2008
RAVEN PETER H. , Biology of plants, Worth Publishers, New York,
1986
SIDE R., GUY W., Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced
and Proficiency, Longman, Edinburgh, 2004
STANCIU GH., Romnia, cartea european a spaiului rural, Editura
Ceres, Bucureti 1996
SWAN MICHAEL, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press,
1992
TYLER V. E., FOSTER S., Tyler's Honest Herbal (rev. ed. 1999); The
Physicians' Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines, Haworth Herbal Press, 1999

94

VINEAN ADRIANA, Communication skills in business English, Ed.


Psihomedia, Sibiu, 2006
YATES, C. ST., Agriculture (English for Academic Purposes Series),
Cassel Publishers Limited, l989
ZAHARIE OANA, Dicionar Romn-Englez specialitate agronomic, Ed.
Sitech, Craiova, 2008

DICIONARE

Dicionar englez romn, Ed. Acad. Romn, 1974


Dicionar romn englez, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, 1973
Dicionar agricol n opt limbi, Praga, 1970
Dicionar

de

tiina

solului,

Ed.

tiinific

enciclopedic,

Bucureti,1977
Dicionar de economie romn englez i englez romn, Ed. Niculescu
S.R.L., Bucureti,1997
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1964
Collins Business English Dictionary, London 1989

http:// agrienvarchive.ca
http:// extension. oregonstate.edu
http://5e.plantphys.net
http://www. tettafertil.
http://www.enjoy-your-garden.co
http: //www.listpicurare.ro
http:// www.home. staffworks.com
http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au
95

http://www.soilerosion.net
http://www.environment.nsw
http://www.answers.com
http://www.agricultor.ro
http://www. wisteme.com
http://edugreen.teri.res
http: // agricultura-romania.ro
http// en.wikipedia.
http://www.GeneticEngineering.org/
http://www.realitatea.net
http://www.naturalnews.com
http://ecology. uedavis.edu
http// en.wikipedia.org./wiki/Biodiversity
http://www europass.cedefop europa.eu
http://www revista.ferma ro
http://recipes.wikia.com
http://www.hempowered.com
http://www.canepa-romaneasca.ro
http://www.articole.cartiagricole.ro
http://www. naturalelixir.com
http://www.sci.ac.uk
Britanica Concise Encyclopedia on line
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
Food and Culture Encyclopedia on line
McGraw-Hill Science and Technology Encyclopedia

96