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Court

2. Stipulation of the parties.


- Place where persons appointed as magistrates or
judges officiate in administration of justice.
May be changed by the written agreement
- An institution that the government sets up to
settle disputes through a legal process.
Establishes a relation between plaintiff and
- A tribunal, often a governmental institution, with
defendant, or petitioner and respondent.
the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between
GR: Not a ground for a motu proprio
parties and carry out the administration of justice
in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in
XPN: In cases subject to summary
accordance with the rule of law.
- Also used to refer to the presiding officer or
officials, usually one or more judges.
Jurisdiction
- The power and authority of a court to try, hear,
and decide a case and to carry its judgments into
effect.
- The practical authority granted to a formally
constituted legal body or to a political leader to
deal with and make pronouncements on legal
matters and, by implication, to administer justice
within a defined area of responsibility.
- Generally describes any authority over a certain
area or certain persons.
- May also refer to the origin of a court's authority.
- Can also be used to define the proper court in
which to bring a particular case. In this context, a
court has either original or appellate jurisdiction
over a case.
- Refers to the inherent authority of a court to hear
a case and to declare a judgment. When a plaintiff
seeks to initiate a suit, he or she must determine
where to file the complaint. The plaintiff must file
suit in a court that has jurisdiction over the case. If
the court does not have jurisdiction, the defendant
may challenge the suit on that ground, and the
suit may be dismissed, or its result may be
overturned in a subsequent action by one of the
parties in the case.
- The power and authority constitutionally conferred
upon (or constitutionally recognized as existing in)
a court or judge to pronounce the sentence of the
law, or to award the remedies provided by law,
upon a state of facts, proved or admitted, referred
to the tribunal for decision, and authorized by law
to be the subject of investigation or action by that
tribunal, and in favor of or against persons (or a
res) who present themselves, or who are brought,
before the court in some manner sanctioned by
law as proper and sufficient.

Substantive
Fixed by law and cannot be t
the agreement of the parties.
Establishes a relation between
the subject matter.
It is a ground for a motu proprio

Jurisdiction of RTC

Civil Cases
Criminal Cases
Exclusive Original
1. Actions in which the
1. Criminal cases not within
subject of litigation is exclusive jurisdiction of
incapable of pecuniary any court, tribunal or
estimation;
body (Sec. 20, BP 129).
2. Actions involving title to a. Includes criminal cases
or possession of real
where
the
penalty
property or any interest
provided
by
law
therein
where
the
exceeds
6
years
assessed value exceeds
imprisonment
P20K or P50K in Metro
irrespective of the fine
Manila, except forcible
(R.A. 7691).
entry
and
unlawful b. Includes criminal cases
not falling within the
detainer;
3. Actions in admiralty and
exclusive
original
maritime
jurisdiction
jurisdiction
of
the
where demand or claim
Sandiganbayan where
exceeds P300K or P400K
the imposable penalty
in Metro Manila;
is imprisonment more
4. Matters
of
probate,
than 6 years and none
testate
or
intestate,
of
the
accused
is
where gross value of
occupying
positions
estate exceeds P300K or
classified as Grade
P400K in Metro Manila;
27 and higher (Sec. 4,
5. Cases not within the
P.D. 1606 as amended
exclusive jurisdiction of
by R.A. 8249).
any
court,
tribunal,
2. Cases where the only
person or body exercising penalty provided by law
judicial or quasi-judicial is
a
fine
exceeding
function;
P4,000;
6. Civil actions and special3. Other
laws
which
proceedings
falling
within
specifically
lodge
Venue
exclusive
original jurisdiction in the RTC:
- The place or the geographical area where an
action is to be filed and tried. In civil cases, it
jurisdiction of Juvenile a. Law
on
written
relates only to the place of the suit and not to the
and Domestic Relations
defamation or libel;
jurisdiction of the court.
Court
and
Court
of b. Decree on Intellectual
Property;
Agrarian Reforms;
Jurisdiction vs. Venue
c.
Violations of Dangerous
7. Other cases where the
- Venue is similar to, but separate from, jurisdiction.
Drugs Act regardless of
demand,
exclusive
of
The venue of a case is the physical location of the
the imposable penalty
interest,
damages,
court in which the case is tried. If more than one
except
when
the
attorneys fees, litigation
court has both subject matter and personal
offender is under 16
jurisdiction over a case, the court that first
expenses and costs, or
receives the case can send the case, upon request
and there are Juvenile
value of property in
of one of the parties, to a court in another
and Domestic Relations
controversy
exceeds
jurisdiction. Unlike jurisdiction, venue does not
Court in the province.
P300K or P400K in Metro
involve a determination of a court's inherent
4. Cases falling under the
Manila
(Sec.
19,
BP
129
authority to hear a case.
as amended by R.A. Family Courts in areas
where there are no
7691); and
8. Intra-corporate
contro- Family Courts (Sec.24,
VENUE
JURISDICTION
geographical area where an Power or authority of the courtversies
to hear
and Sec. 5.2 of B.P. 129).
under
5. Election
offenses
e filed and tried
decide a case
the
Securities
and
(Omnibus
election
code)
d by:
Cannot be waived
Regulation Code.
even
if
committed
by
an
object through a motion to
official with salary grade
ough an affirmative defense.

1.
2.

1.

2.

1.

2.

3.

4.
5.

6.

of 27 or higher.
of status of children as
violence that result, or
Concurrent
abandoned, dependent or
likely
to
result
in
With SC, SB and CA
neglected
children,
physical,
sexual
or
Writ of amparo
Petitions for the issuance
petitions for voluntary or
psychological harm or
Writ of habeas data
of writ of amparo and writ
involuntary commitment
suffering to women;
of habeas data
of
children,
the
and other forms of
With SC
suspension, termination,
physical abuse such as
Actions
affecting
or restoration of parental
battering or threats and
ambassadors and other
authority and other cases
coercion which violate
public
ministers
and
cognizable under PD 603,
a womans personhood,
consuls [Sec. 21 (2) of BP
EO 56 (Series of 1986)
integrity and freedom
129]
and other related laws;
of movement;
With SC and CA
b. Children

which
and
Certiorari, prohibition and
7. Petitions
for
the
include the commission
mandamus against lower
constitution of the family
of all forms of abuse,
courts and bodies;
home
(rendered
neglect,
cruelty,
Habeas corpus and quo
unnecessary
by
Art.
153,
exploitation,
violence
warranto;
Family Code) (Sec. 5, R.A.
and discrimination and
With MTC
8369).
all
other
conditions
Cases
involving
prejudicial
to
their
enforcement or violations
development (Sec. 5,
of
environmental
and
R.A. 8369)
other related laws, rules
and regulations (Sec. 2,
Jurisdiction of MTC/MCTC/MTCC/MeTC
Rule 1, A.M. No. 09-6-8SC).
Civil Cases
Criminal Cases
Special
Exclusive Original
SC may designate certain branches of RTC to try 1. Actions
involving
1. All offenses punishable
exclusively criminal cases, juvenile and domestic
personal property where with imprisonment not
relations cases, agrarian cases, urban land reform
the value of the property exceeding
6
years
cases not falling within the jurisdiction of any quasidoes not exceed P300K irrespective
of
the
judicial body and other special cases in the interest of
or,
in
Metro
Manila amount of fine and
justice (Sec. 23, BP 129).
P400K;
regardless
of
other
Appellate
2. Actions for claim of imposable accessory or
GR: All cases decided by lower courts (MTC etc.) in
money
where
the other penalties;
their respective territorial jurisdictions.
demand does not exceed
2. In
offenses
involving
XPN: Decisions of lower courts in the exercise of
P300K or, in Metro Manila damage
to
property
delegated jurisdiction.
P400K;
through
criminal
3. Probate
proceedings, negligence where the
testate
or
intestate, imposable fine does not
Jurisdiction of Family Courts
where the value of the exceed P10,000 (Sec. 32,
estate does not exceed BP 129 as amended by
Civil Cases
Criminal Cases
P300K or, in Metro Manila R.A. 7691);
Exclusive Original
Petitions
for
1. Where one or more of the
P400K;
3. Where the only penalty
guardianship, custody of accused is/are below 18 a. Note: In the foregoing, provided by law is a fine
claim must be exclusive not exceeding P4,000
children, habeas corpus years of age but not less
of
interest,
damages, (Admin. Circular No. 09in relation to minor;
than 9 years of age;
Petitions for adoption of2. When one or more of the
attorneys fees, litigation 94, June 14, 1994); and
children
and
its victims is a minor at the
expense, and costs (Sec.4. Those covered by the
revocation;
time of the commission
33, BP 129 as amended Rules
on
Summary
Complaints for annulment of the offense (R.A. 8369,
by R.A. 7691).
Procedure, i.e.
and declaration of nullity Act
of
traffic
establishing
the 4. Actions involving title to a. Violations
of marriage and those family courts);
or possession of real
laws,
rules
and
relating to marital status3. Cases
against
minors
property or any interest
regulations;
and property relations of cognizable under the
therein where the value b. Violations of the rental
law;
spouses or those living Dangerous Drugs Act, as
or amount does not
c.
Violations of municipal
together under different amended; and
exceed P20K or, in Metro
or city ordinances;
4. Violations of R.A. 7610 or
status and agreements;
Manila P50K exclusive of
d.
Violations of BP 22
the
Special
Protection
of
and
petitions
for
interest
damages,
(A.M. No. 00-11-01-SC);
dissolution of conjugal Children Against Child
attorneys fees, litigation
e. All other criminal
Abuse, Exploitation and
partnership of gains;
expense, and costs;
cases
where
the
Petitions
for
support Discrimination Act, as 5. Maritime claims where
penalty
is
and/or acknowledgment;
amended by R.A. 7658;
the demand or claim does
imprisonment
not
Summary
judicial and
not exceed P300K or, in
exceeding 6 months
proceedings under the
5. Cases
of
domestic
Metro Manila P400K (Sec.
and/or a fine of P 1,000
Family
Code
of
the violence against:
33, BP 129 as amended
a. Women involving acts
irrespective of other
Philippines;
by R.A. 7691);
Petitions for declaration
of
gender-based 6. Inclusion or exclusion of
penalties
or
civil

voters (Sec. 138, BP 881);


liabilities
arising
7. Those covered by the
therefrom.
Rules
on
Summary
5. All offenses committed
Procedure: a. Forcible by public officers and
entry
and
unlawful employees in relation to
detainer; b. Other civil their office,
including
cases
except
probate government-owned or
where the total amount of controlled corporations,
the plaintiffs claims does and
by
private
not exceed P100K or, in individuals charged as
Metro
Manila
P200K co-principals,
exclusive interest and accomplices
or
costs (as amended by accessories, punishable
A.M. No. 02-11-09-SC).
with imprisonment not
b. 8. Those covered by the more than 6 years or
Rules on Small Claims, where
none
of
the
i.e. actions for payment accused holds a position
of money where the claim classified as Grade 27
does not exceed P100K and higher (Sec. 4, P.D.
exclusive of interest and 1606 as amended by R.A.
costs.
8249).
Delegated
Cadastral
or
land
registration
cases
covering lots where:
a. There is no controversy
or opposition;
b. Contested but the
value does not exceed
P100,000 (Sec. 34, BP
129 as amended by R.A.
7691).
Note: The value shall be
ascertained
by
the
affidavit of the claimant
or agreement of the
respective
claimants
(Sec. 34, BP 129 as

amended by R.A. 7691).


Special
Petition for habeas corpus Application for bail in the
in the absence of all RTC absence of all RTC judges
judges in the province or in the province or city.
city (Sec. 35, BP 129).
Concurrent
With RTC
Cases
involving
enforcement or violations
of
environmental
and
other related laws, rules
and regulations (Sec. 2,
Rule 1, A.M. No. 09-6-8SC).
Trial vs. Hearing
The judge will ordinarily conduct a hearing and allow
both sides to make arguments and/or offer evidence
limited to the point in dispute. At the conclusion of
the hearing, the judge will determine which side
prevails in that particular matter, but this pretrial
ruling generally will not resolve the entire case.
When the day of trial comes, however, both sides will
present all of the argument and evidence necessary
to decide the entire case. After all of the argument
and evidence is presented, either the judge will make
a decision that once-and-for-all determines which side
wins the entire case.
For example, one side may make a pretrial motion for
change of venue. At the venue hearing, the judge
may agree with the other side that the case should
remain in the court where it was filed, but that ruling
will not resolve the case. At some later point, there
will be a trial to determine who wins and who loses,
and just because the party lost at the venue hearing
doesnt mean that they might not ultimately win at
trial.