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GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME

PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)


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MOLE CONCEPT, STOICHIOMETRIC CALCULATIONS
Learner Note: The mole concept is carried forward to calculations in the acid an
d base section, as well as in the chemical equilibrium. It is important to know
this section well.
Question 1: 5 minutes (Taken from DoE Nov 2007)
(Revise calculations of molecular mass. Remember chemical calculations need form
ulae, substitution and an answer with the correct unit.)
The compound NaHCO3 is commonly known as baking soda. A recipe requires 1,6 g of
baking soda, mixed with other ingredients, to bake a cake.
1.1 Calculate the number of moles of NaHCO3 used to bake the cake. (3)
1.2 How many atoms of oxygen are there in1,6 g baking soda? (4)
(7)
Question 2: 10 minutes (Taken from MED Nov 2009)
(The sum of all the percentages equals yes, 100. Therefore, in a 100 g of the subs
tance the ratio will be the same. Learn the method the steps are always repeated.
The elements are mostly given in the same order as they appear in the formula)
One of the active ingredients in vinegar is Ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid has a m
olecular mass of 60 g.mol-1 and the following percentage composition
39,9 % carbon
6,7 % hydrogen
53,4 % oxygen
2.1 Define the concept empirical formula (2)
2.2 Determine the empirical formula of Ethanoic acid (5)
2.3 What is the molecular formula of Ethanoic acid? (3)
(10)
Question 3: 10 minutes (Adapted from MED Nov 2009)
The contact process is given by the equation below.
SO2 (g) + O2 (g) ? SO3 (g)
3.1 Balance the chemical equation (2)
In an investigation 256 g SO2 reacts with 80 g O2 in a reaction vessel.
3.2 Calculate the number of moles of each reactant present at the start of the r
eaction(5)
3.3 Identify the limiting reagent in the reaction and justify your answer. (2)
(Limiting reagents are frequently asked
the one that limits the reaction is the
one that will be used up first. You must first work out the number of moles repr
esented by the given masses of the reactants, then determine the limiting reagen
t by using the moll ratio)
3.4 Calculate the mass of SO3 produced in the reaction (4)
(13)
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
Page 2 of 8
Question 4: 5 minutes
(It is a common mistake to interpret the dot as a multiply function. This is the w
ater
that is trapped in the crystal during crystallisation and must be ADDED to the m
ass of
the ionic compound.)
4.1 Calculate the percentage water of crystallisation in CuSO4 . 5 H2O (4)
4.2 Calculate the concentration of a 250 ml solution of sodium hydroxide if 10 g
of the
solute is dissolved. (4)
(8)
Question 1
1.1 M (NaHCO3)
= 23 + 1 + 12 + 3(16)
= 84 g.mol-1

?
n =
M
m
n =
84
1,6 ?
= 0,02 mol ? (rounded to 2 decimal places)
1.2 Each atom has three oxygen atoms, there is 0,02 mol of atoms
1 mol = 6,023 x 1023 particles
therefore 0,02 mol ? x 3 atoms? x 6,023 x 1023 particles? = 3,44 x 1022 oxygen
atoms?
SECTION B: SOLUTIONS AND HINTS
Learner Note: Emphasize the correct use of formulae and layout. Use the correct
unit
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
Page 3 of 8
Question 2
2.1 Empirical formula
the simplest ratio of atoms in a molecule??
Elements C H O
In 100g 39,9 g 6,7 g 53,4 g ?
Convert mass to
mol
n =
M
m
12
39,9
= 3,325 mol
1
6,7
= 6,7 mol
16
53,4
= 3,3375 mol ?
Divide by
smallest answer 3.325
3.325
= 1
3.325
6,7
= 2,01
3.325
3.3375
= 1
Ratio of
elements in the
empirical
formula
1 2 1 ?
Empirical formula CH2O ??
2.3 M (CH2O)
= 12 + 2(1) + 16
= 30 g.mol-1 ?
Molecular mass is double empirical formula mass therefore molecular formula is
C2H4O2 ??
Question 3
(It is important to balance chemical equations before doing the calculations. Th
e only

time where the balancing coefficients are used will be in the ratio step.)
3.1 2 ?SO2 (g) + O2 (g) ? 2 ?SO3 (g)
3.2 n =
M
m
n =
64
256
n = 4 mol SO2
n =
M
m
n =
32
80
n = 2,5 mol O2
Learner Note: If the steps are followed, the questions become relatively simple.
Remember we are working out what the ratio of the elements are in the molecule
therefore when you determine the number of mol the element mass is usedregardles
s
of whether the element is diatomic!
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
Page 4 of 8
3.3 A ratio of 2 mol SO2 is needed for 1 mol O2 according to reaction?. Therefor
e 2,5 mol
O2 needs 5 mol SO2 to react completely, the SO2 is therefore the limiting reagen
t?
3.4 4 mol SO2 reacts and 4 mol SO3 is produced?
n =
M
m
4 =
80
m
?
m = 320 g SO3 made ??
Question 4
4.1 M (CuSO4 . 5 H2O)
= 63,5 + 32 + 4(16) + 5 (1 + 1 + 16)
= 159,5 + 90
= 249,5 g.mol-1 ?
% water =
249,5
90
x 100 ?
= 36 % water ??
4.2 c =
MV
m
c =
40x0,25
10
c = 1 mol.dm-3
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
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The Mole
The mole is one of the base units of the SI and is the base unit of the amount o
f matter of

substance.
A mole of any substance always has the same number of atoms.
Definition: A mole of any substance is that amount of substance which contains a
s many
elementary particles as there are atoms in 12g of carbon-12.
The amount of matter or substance is not the same as the mass of the substance.
While one
mole of a substance contains the same number of particles, their masses are not
the same.
The formula used to calculate the number of moles in a substance:
In symbols n =
M
m
Avogadro s Number
One mole of any substance is approximately equal to 6,02x1023 elementary particl
es.
This very large number is known as Avogadro s number or Avogadro s constant and has
the
symbol NA or L.
Therefore: Number of particles = Avogadro s number x number of moles
In symbols Np = NA x n
Molar Volumes of Substances
Molar volume is the volume of one mole of a substance and can be measured in dm3
/mol.
One mole of any gas occupies a volume of approximately 22,4dm3 at Standard Tempe
rature
and Pressure (STP). Standard Temperature is 0oC (273K) and Standard Pressure is
101,3kPa.
Equal volumes of all gases at STP contain the same number of molecules.
Therefore: molar volume = volume of substance
Number of moles of substance
n = 22,4 dm3
V
Empirical formula
smallest ratio of atoms in a molecule
True Formula or molecular formula
actual ratio of atoms in a molecule eg. the Em
pirical
Formula of a substance is COH2 but its molecular formula is C2O2H4
Percentage Composition shows percentage of each element in a compound compared t
o
its molecular mass
SECTION C: ADDITIONAL CONTENT NOTES
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
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Learner Note: Revise steps for each type of calculation and follow the prescribe
d method. Attempt all questions and refer to notes when in doubt.
Question 1: 25 minutes
1.1 Calculate the relative formula mass of KClO3 (3)
1.2 Calculate how many times a molecule of methanol (CH3OH) is heavier than a mo
lecule of water (5)
1.3 Calculate the empirical formula of the substance with the following composit
ion
45,3 % O; 43 % Na; 11,3 % C (5)
1.4 How many potassium atoms are there in 2 g K2SO4 (5)
1.5 Fe + S ? FeS
Which of the two substances will be used up if 10 g Fe and 10 g S are mixed and
heated (7)
(25)
SECTION D: HOMEWORK
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME

PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)


Page 7 of 8
1.1 When H atoms approach each other, the valence electron of the two atoms attr
act the nucleus of the other atom, ? these attractive forces are stronger than t
he repulsive forces between the atoms. ? The protons and electrons of respective
atoms attract the atoms to form the bond. The atoms move closer together and th
e potential energy becomes negative. The atoms are most stable at the lowest val
ue of potential energy
when the orbitals overlap and bonding occurs. ? The two h
ydrogen atoms each share an electron during bonding; there is a net electrostati
c force of attraction between the atoms. H2 is formed. ?
When an H atom approach oxygen atom, the valence electron of the atoms attracts
the nucleus of the other atom, ? these attractive forces are stronger than the r
epulsive forces between the atoms. ?The protons and electrons of respective atom
s attract the atoms to form the bond. The atoms move closer together and the pot
ential energy becomes negative. The atoms are most stable at the lowest value of
potential energy
when the orbitals overlap and bonding occurs. ?The hydrogen an
d oxygen atom share an electron during bonding, there is a net electrostatic for
ce of attraction between the atoms. H2O is formed. ?
1.2 Both H atoms require an electron to fill the orbital and obtain the noble st
ructure which is of lower energy. Its valence energy level is not filled. ? The
H atoms share an electron pair, there is a net electrostatic force of attraction
, bonding occurs ?
1.3 The Helium atom is in the noble state, it has a filled last energy level, ?
it is stable and requires a large amount of energy to remove an electron. No bon
ding occurs. ?
1.4 A bond is a net electrostatic force between two atoms. ? Atoms bond to obtai
n a filled valence orbital
octet rule
8 electrons in valence orbital increases s
tability. Except hydrogen which follows the rule of two
its valence orbital can ha
ve a maximum of 2 electrons. ? When two atoms approach each other, the valence e
lectrons of the two atoms attract the positive nucleus of the other atom; these
attractive forces are stronger than the repulsive forces between the atoms. The
protons and electrons of respective atoms attract the atoms to form the bond whe
n orbitals overlap to get a full valence orbital. The atoms move closer together
and the potential energy becomes negative. The atoms are most stable at the low
est value of potential energy when the orbitals overlap and bonding occurs. The
two atoms each share electrons during bonding, there is a net electrostatic forc
e of attraction between the atoms. ?
1.5a. Different atoms, each with an unpaired valence electron can share these el
ectrons to
form a chemical bond ?
SECTION E: SOLUTIONS TO SESSION 10 HOMEWORK
GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME
PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grade 11 SESSION 11 (LEARNER NOTES)
The SSIP is supported by
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b. Different atoms with paired valence electrons called lone pairs of electrons,
cannot share these four electrons and cannot form a chemical bond ?
c. Different atoms, with unpaired valence electrons can share these electrons an
d form a chemical bond for each electron pair shared (multiple bond formation) ?
d. Atoms with an incomplete complement of electrons in their valence shell can s
hare a lone pair of electrons from another atom to form a co-ordinate or dative
covalent bond ?
Question 2
2.1 a.
?
b. ?
2.2 a.
??
b.
??

c.
? ?
2.3 a.
? ?
b. Lewis base ?
c. Lewis acid ?
Cl
He
F
F
O
H
H
N
H
H
H
H+
N
H
H
H