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Welcome to Adams/Driveline

2

Adams/Driveline

About Adams/Driveline

About Adams/Driveline

You can use Adams/Driveline, part of the MD Adams 2010 ® suite of software, stand alone or as a plugin for Adams/Car. You use Adams/Driveline to model drivelines: to create virtual prototypes of driveline subsystems and analyze the virtual prototypes much like you would analyze the physical prototypes.

Using Adams/Driveline, you can quickly create assemblies of suspensions and full vehicles, including driveline components, and then analyze them to understand their performance and behavior. Learn about

Building Models.

You create assemblies by defining vehicle subsystems, such as front and rear suspensions, steering gears, anti-roll bars, and bodies. You base these subsystems on their corresponding Adams/Driveline templates. For example, Adams/Driveline includes templates for engine, gearbox, prop shafts, and differentials.

If you have expert-user access, you can also base your subsystems on custom templates that you create using the Adams/Driveline Template Builder (see Interface Modes).

When you analyze an assembly, Adams/Driveline applies the Analysis inputs that you specify. For example, for a full-vehicle analysis you can specify inputs to:

Apply a specific torque to your driveline model (impulse, step, ramp, loadcase, and so on).

Define a different friction coefficient for different wheels in your model.

Define a slope of your road to study the performance of your driveline model.

Based on the analysis results, you can quickly alter the driveline geometry and analyze the driveline again to evaluate the effects of the alterations. Once you complete the analysis of your model, you can share your work with others. You can also print plots of the vehicle dynamic responses. In addition, you can access other users’ models without overwriting their data.

Benefits of Adams/Driveline

Adams/Driveline enables you to work faster and smarter, letting you have more time to study and understand how design changes affect vehicle performance.

Using Adams/Driveline you can:

Explore the performance of your design and refine your design before building and testing a physical prototype.

Analyze design changes much faster and at a lower cost than physical prototype testing would require. For example, you can change springs with a few mouse clicks instead of waiting for a mechanic to install new ones in your physical prototype before re-evaluating your design.

Vary the kinds of analyses faster and more easily than if you had to modify instrumentation, test fixtures, and test procedures.

Work in a more secure environment without the fear of losing data from instrument failure or losing testing time because of poor weather conditions.

Run analyses and what-if scenarios without the dangers associated with physical testing.

Backlash Components

Backlash Components This component represents a backlash gap between two parts. In Adams/Driveline you can work

This component represents a backlash gap between two parts. In Adams/Driveline you can work with two types of backlash components: rotational and translational backlash.

Learn about backlash:

• Creating or Modifying Backlash

• About Rotational Backlash

• About Translational Backlash

Creating or Modifying Backlash

To create or modify backlash:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Translational/Rotational Backlash, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Backlash.

3. Select OK.

About Rotational Backlash

A rotational backlash describes a rotational connection between two parts that are connected using a

revolute joint and a rotational single-component force that describes the backlash. In addition,

Adams/Driveline creates a fixed joint to allow the possibility of deactivating the backlash.

Note:

Adams/Driveline automatically creates some kinematic joints in this component.

2

Adams/Driveline

Backlash Components

The backlash law is defined with a combination of ATAN functions to guarantee smoothness and derivative continuity

lash    atan sharp   – -----------    2 
lash 
atan
sharp
 – -----------
2
lash 
T
=
–1
 – -----------
damp  ------ 
 
--------------------------------------------------------------- + 0.5
pi
stiff
+
2
t
lash 
atan
sharp
 + -----------
2
lash 
--------------------------------------------------------------- – 0.5
pi
 + -----------
stiff
+
damp  ------ 
2
t
.
where:
• T = Resulting torque

+

sharp = Sharpness factor of the backlash

= Relative angles of the two markers defining the backlash force

lash = Backlash (in radians)

stiff = Stiffness of the gear-to-gear contact

damp = Damping of the gear-to-gear contact

The sharpness factor lets you control how sharp the transition is between the lash region with zero forces and the stiff region.

In this model, the expression of the sharpness factor is as follows:

model, the expression of the sharpness factor is as follows: This means that the backlash needs

This means that the backlash needs some time to be fully developed with the steady-state value of N x . This device makes integration easier. N x is the value you define in the Rotational Backlash Create/Modify dialog box.

Sharpness Factor Development Time

Backlash Components

3

Sharpness Factor Development Time Backlash Components 3

4

Adams/Driveline

Backlash Components

Backlash Force as Function of Sharpness Factor (N=10, 500, 1000)

Force as Function of Sharpness Factor (N=10, 500, 1000) In the Standard Interface, you can vary

In the Standard Interface, you can vary values for the following:

Backlash

Stiffness

Damping

Sharpness factor

Request Definition

Result name: backlash_states

Backlash Components

5

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

displacement

angle

The angle between the two parts connected with the backlash element.

F3

angular_velocity

angular velocity

The relative rotational velocity between the two parts connected by the backlash element.

F4

force

force

Force exerted by the backlash element.

Subsystem Parameters

Backlash flag

Backlash

Stiffness

Damping

Sharpness factor

About Translational Backlash

A translational backlash describes a translational connection between two parts that are connected using

a translational joint and a translational single-component force that describes the backlash. In addition, Adams/Driveline creates a fixed joint to allow the possibility of deactivating the backlash.

Note:

Adams/Driveline automatically creates some kinematic joints in this component.

In the Standard Interface (see Interface Modes), you can manage the activity of each backlash element

using the Activity Wizard.

The backlash law is defined with a combination of ATAN functions to guarantee smoothness and derivatives continuity.

6 Adams/Driveline Backlash Components lash    atan sharp  x – ----------- 
6
Adams/Driveline
Backlash Components
lash 
atan
sharp
x – -----------
2
lash 
F
=
–1
 
-------------------------------------------------------------- + 0.5
pi
stiff
x – -----------
+ damp  ----- x t
2
lash 
atan
sharp
x + -----------
2
lash 
-------------------------------------------------------------- – 0.5
pi
stiff
x + -----------
+ damp  ----- x t
2
where:
• F = Resulting force

+

sharp = Sharpness factor of the backlash

x = Relative displacement of the two markers defining the backlash force

lash = Backlash in mm

stiff = Stiffness of gear-to-gear contact

damp = Damping of the gear-to-gear contact

The sharpness factor lets you control how sharp the transition is between the lash region with zero forces and the stiff region.

In this model, the expression of the sharpness factor has been defined as follows:

of the sharpness factor has been defined as follows: This means that the backlash needs some

This means that the backlash needs some time to be fully developed with the steady-state value of N x . This device makes integration easier. N x is the value you select in the appropriate dialog box.

Sharpness Factor Development Time

Backlash Components

7

Sharpness Factor Development Time Backlash Components 7

8

Adams/Driveline

Backlash Components

Backlash Force as Function of Sharpness Factor (N=10, 500, 1000)

Force as Function of Sharpness Factor (N=10, 500, 1000) In the Standard Interface, you can vary

In the Standard Interface, you can vary values for the following:

Backlash

Stiffness

Damping

Sharpness factor

Request Definition

Result name: backlash_states

Backlash Components

9

 

Componen

Component

 

Component:

t name:

units:

Definition:

F2

displacement

length

The angle between the two parts connected with the backlash element.

F3

velocity

velocity

The relative rotational velocity between the two parts connected by the backlash element.

F4

force

force

Force exerted by the backlash element.

Subsystem Parameters

Backlash flag

Backlash

Stiffness

Damping

Sharpness factor

10

Adams/Driveline

Bearings

Bearings

10 Adams/Driveline Bearings Bearings A bearing component describes a force-based connecti on between two parts.

A bearing component describes a force-based connection between two parts. Adams/Driveline models a

bearing with a six-component force and allows the two parts to rotate around the z-axis. Adams/Driveline also models all contact forces and drag. You can specify both radial and axial backlash for the bearing.

Learn about bearings:

• Creating or Modifying Bearings

• About Bearings

• Modeling Bearings

• Example Bearing Property File

Creating or Modifying Bearings

To create or modify a bearing:

From the Driveline Components menu, point to Bearing, and then select New/Modify.

Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Bearing.

Select OK.

About Bearings

In Adams/Driveline you can create two types of bearings:

Axial

Tapered

The driveline bearing formulation is based on values obtained from the Timken Company manual (for free online resources register at http://www.timken.com/timken_ols/bearings/). The running torque equations are for bearings whose torque has stabilized after a period of running under operating

conditions, so called a "running" bearing. The equations apply to bearings lubricated with circulating oil

or oil level systems. You can use the equations to model all single-row bearing loading conditions.

The component consists of the following objects:

Bearings

11

A general force component featuring the actions and reactions between the inner and outer ring of the bearing.

A request to output force and torque values.

Two revolution geometries to visualize the rings. The component creates these geometries on the parts to be connected by the bearing (that is, shaft and housing).

Adams/Driveline calculates the forces and torques between the rings using a user-defined general force, which acts properly depending on the bearing type.

Displacement Request (disp_request)

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

 

Definition:

F2

dx

length

The displacement between the i marker and the reference marker in the x direction.

F3

dy

length

The displacement between the i marker and the reference marker in the y direction.

F4

dz

length

The displacement between the i marker and the reference marker in the z direction.

F6

ax

angle

The angular displacement between the i marker and the reference marker around the x-axis.

F7

ay

angle

The angular displacement between the i marker and the reference marker around the y-axis.

F8

az

angle

The angular displacement between the i marker and the reference marker around the z-axis.

Velocity Request (velo_request)

 
 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

vx

velocity

The velocity between the i marker and the reference marker in the x direction.

F3

vy

velocity

The velocity between the i marker and the reference marker in the y direction.

F4

vz

velocity

The velocity between the i marker and the reference marker in the z direction.

F6

wx

angular velocity

The angular velocity between the i marker and the reference marker around the x-axis.

12

Adams/Driveline

 

Bearings

   

Component

 

Component

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F7

wy

angular velocity

The angular velocity between the i marker and the reference marker around the y-axis.

F8

wz

angular velocity

The angular velocity between the i marker and the reference marker around the z-axis.

Force Request (force_request)

 
 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

fx

force

The force between the i marker and the reference marker in the x direction.

F3

fy

force

The force between the i marker and the reference marker in the y direction.

F4

fz

force

The force between the i marker and the reference marker in the z direction.

F6

tx

torque

The torque between the i marker and the reference marker around the x-axis.

F7

ty

torque

The torque between the i marker and the reference marker around the y-axis.

F8

tz

torque

The torque between the i marker and the reference marker around the z-axis.

Adams/Driveline calculates the force and torque for the bearing using backlash expressions. The force or torque is almost zero until the relative translational or angular displacement is lower than the specified lash, then the force or torque follows an elastic law.

For tapered roller bearings, the thrust force acts only along one direction (z-positive), being zero along the other.

The reaction forces in the three translational directions are defined with a linear stiffness + backlash. The two cardanic reaction torques are calculated based on the translational forces and the geometric

properties (bearing diameter). Learn about the rotational backlash formulation.

To calculate the running torque of the bearing, depending on several factors (bearing geometry, applied loads, load zone, speed of rotation, and so on) the following expressions have been used:

Radial load or combined radial thrust load:

Radial load or combined radial thrust load: Pure thrust load: where: Bearings 13 • T =

Pure thrust load:

Radial load or combined radial thrust load: Pure thrust load: where: Bearings 13 • T =

where:

Bearings

13

T = Running torque

k 1 = Constant being 2.56e-5 for T in N*m, 3.54e-5 for T in lbf*in

G 1 = Bearing geometry factor

S = Running speed (rpm)

Mu = Lubricant viscosity (Cp)

K = Bearing K-factor. The K-factor is the ratio of basic dynamic radial load rating to basic dynamic thrust load rating of a single row bearing.

f1 = Combined load factor. The combined load factor can be read from Timken tables as a function of (K*Fa)/(Fr).

Fr = Radial load

Fa = Thrust road

Request Definition

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

angle

angle

The angle between the two parts (gear and shaft).

F3

angular_velocity

angular velocity

The relative velocity between the two parts connected with the synchronizing force component.

F4

torque

torque

Rotational force exerted by the synchronizer component.

14

Adams/Driveline

Bearings

Modeling Bearings

In Adams/Car and Adams/Driveline you can model bearings in different ways, according to the effects

you want to observe in your models.

If,

for example, you want to model a shaft with two bearings, the simplest solution is to connect the shaft

to

the case with a revolute joint. The revolute joint is an ideal constraint that removes five degrees of

freedom. With this solution, compliance and drag effects are ignored. In addition, reaction forces on the revolute joint are not comparable with the reaction forces you experience in a physical model.

A second solution is provided with a combination of kinematic joints: an inline primitive joint and a

spherical joint. The inline acts as a pure radial bearing (ideal) and the spherical joint as a combined radial and axial bearing. This solution still does not take into account compliance and drag effects but provides meaningful reaction forces.

When you want to model the connection between shaft and case, taking into account the compliance effects, you can use the standard Adams/Car bushing element. You can define the radial and axial stiffnesses using force versus displacement characteristics, and approximate the drag effects with a constant rotational damping.

The Adams/Driveline bearing component allows you to specify, in the three translational directions, a linear stiffness with backlash effects. It also allows you to specify the same for the torques in the x and y direction, while the torque along the z (spin) direction is computed based on values obtained from the Timken Company manual (for free online resources register at http://www.timken.com/timken_ols/bearings/). You can use the current implementation to model all single-row bearing loading conditions, except for the pure thrust load (that means radial or combined radial and thrust load bearing).

Example Bearing Property File

$--------------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER [MDI_HEADER] FILE_TYPE = 'bea' FILE_VERSION = 4.0 FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII' $--------------------------------------------------UNITS [UNITS] LENGTH = 'mm' ANGLE = 'degrees' FORCE = 'newton' MASS = 'kg' TIME = 'second' $----------------------------------------------BEARING_PARAMETERS [BEARING_PARAMETERS] G1 = 1000 MU = 10 K_FACTOR = 1 $--------------------------------------------------BEARING_SPLINE [BEARING_SPLINE]

{ x y} -100.0 6.0E-02 -50.0 6.0E-02 0.0 6.0E-02 50.0 6.0E-02 100.0 6.0E-02

Bearings

15

16

Adams/Driveline

Chains

Chains

16 Adams/Driveline Chains Chains This component describes a simplified chain model in its global behavior. This

This component describes a simplified chain model in its global behavior. This component does not

model chain parts. It does, however, model the global behavior of the chain, which is a torsional load and

a longitudinal force (tension).

Learn about chains:

• Creating or Modifying Chains

• About Chains

Creating or Modifying Chains

To create or modify a chain:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Chain, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Chain.

3. Select OK.

About Chains

A chain describes a force-based connection between two sprockets. In Adams/Driveline you create a simple chain model in which no chain links are modeled. Adams/Driveline models torsional and translational loads in the chain with a rotational spring damper and a single-component force.

If you want to take into account the backlash effect, you can connect each sprocket to the respective shaft

with a rotational backlash component.

If you want to have a transmission ratio different from 1:1, you can connect the output sprocket to another

part with a kinematic gear component.

Adams/Driveline creates the following forces between the input and the output sprocket:

Chains

17

A rotational spring damper (acting between CM marker of the input sprocket and the CM marker of the output sprocket).

Note:

The reason why a rotational spring damper is used instead of a coupler is so that chain elastic characteristics can be taken into account.

A translational single-component force (acting between driving sprocket and driven sprocket).

The translational force expression is:

-TM(Input sprocket marker, output sprocket marker) / Input Sprocket Radius

If you decide to use the gear geometry (revolution) for sprockets, the radius will be deduced from that component. Otherwise, you will have to enter the value in the create/modify dialog box.

In the Standard Interface (see Interface Modes), you can vary values for the following:

Rotational stiffness

Rotational damping

Sprocket radius (in case gear geometry has not been used)

Subsystem Parameters

Stiffness

Damping

18

Adams/Driveline

Churning-Drag Forces

Churning-Drag Forces

The churning-drag force component allows you to model the oil resistance acting on gears when they rotate in oil. A churning drag describes a force-based component that models the oil resistance that forms between gears and the gearbox case as soon as gears have a relative angular velocity with respect to the gearbox case.

Learn about churning-drag components:

• Creating or Modifying Churning-Drag Forces

• About Churning-Drag Forces

Creating or Modifying Churning-Drag Forces

To create or modify churning-drag forces:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Churning Drag, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Churning-Drag Force.

3. Select OK.

About Churning-Drag Forces

Adams/Driveline calculates the resistance force using a rotational single-component force and its expression is as follows:

SIGN(K * Viscosity * B * Diam 2 * ABS(wz)1.5, -wz)

where:

K = Constant (default 3.0E-12)

B = Gear breadth

Diam = Diameter

wz = Angular velocity

In the Standard Interface (see Interface Modes), you can vary values for the following:

Constant

Breadth

Viscosity

Diameter

Churning-Drag Forces

19

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

angular

angle

The angle between the two parts.

displacement

F3

angular_velocity

angular velocity

The relative velocity between the two parts connected with the churning drag component.

F4

torque

torque

Rotational force exerted by the churning drag component.

20

Adams/Driveline

Clutch Connectors

Clutch Connectors

20 Adams/Driveline Clutch Connectors Clutch Connectors This component allows you to use the clutch connector in

This component allows you to use the clutch connector in the driveline model. A property file stored in the database determines the clutch connector characteristics. The component consists of a torque acting between the two selected parts with the location and the orientation determined by a specified

construction frame.

Learn about clutch connectors:

• Creating or Modifying Clutch Connectors

• About Clutch Connectors

Creating or Modifying Clutch Connectors

To create or modify clutch connectors:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Clutch Connector, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Clutch Connector.

3. Select OK.

About Clutch Connectors

The component contains the following elements:

Single component force

IC motion (used to set the initial velocity)

Array storing the data read in the property file before submitting the Analysis

Request

The following defines the clutch connector force:

Torque = STEP(WZ(I_MAR, J_MAR, J_MAR), 0,0, positive_velocity_threshold, max_positive_transmitted_torque) + STEP(WZ(I_MAR, J_MAR, J_MAR), 0,0, Negative_velocity_threshold, max_negative_transmitted_torque) - WZ(I_MAR, J_MAR,

J_MAR)*30/PI*drag_coefficient)

Clutch Connectors

21

In steady-state conditions, equal rotational velocity of the two bodies produces a 0.0 torque.

In Template Builder (see Interface Modes), when you create a clutch connector, you can specify:

I part

J part

Coordinate reference (construction frame)

Property file

In Standard Interface you can vary the property file.

The request outputs the following values:

The angle between the two parts along the reference frame z-axis

The angular velocity between the two parts along the reference frame z-axis

The torque transmitted between the two parts

Request Definition

Result name: torque_cvtr_variables

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

angle

angle

The angle between the two parts along the reference frame z-axis.

F3

angular velocity

angular velocity

The angular velocity between the two parts along the reference frame z-axis.

F4

torque

torque

The torque acting between the two parts.

Subsystem Parameters

Property file (<db_name>/clutch_connectors.tbl)

22

Adams/Driveline

Clutch Forces

Clutch Forces

22 Adams/Driveline Clutch Forces Clutch Forces This component represents contact forces in a clutch component. It

This component represents contact forces in a clutch component. It models normal contact forces, as well as friction forces.

Learn about clutch forces:

• Creating or Modifying Clutch Forces

• About Clutch Forces

• Example Clutch-Force Property File

Creating or Modifying Clutch Forces

To create or modify clutch forces:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Clutch Forces, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Clutch Force.

3. Select OK.

About Clutch Forces

Contact forces are modeled using a property file which stores the cushion characteristic. The behavior is very similar to a bumpstop element: no force in one direction, and force in the other one when the distance between two parts (for example, flywheel and pressure plate) is smaller than a specified clearance. The property file is stored in a designated directory of the database named <db_name>/clutch_forces.tbl/*.clu.

Adams/Driveline models friction forces by multiplying contact forces with a friction coefficient and an effective radius that you specify.

Clutch Forces

23

The friction coefficient is defined as a function of the relative angular velocity between the two parts. You can also take into account both the static and dynamic friction coefficient.

The following figure shows a typical friction versus relative slip.

figure shows a typical friction versus relative slip. Using the create/modify dialog box, you can observe

Using the create/modify dialog box, you can observe how the friction function changes by changing parameters such as the static and dynamic friction coefficient.

In Standard Interface, you can vary values for the following:

Property file

Impact length

Static friction coefficient

Dynamic friction coefficient

Static velocity

Dynamic velocity

Effective friction radius

Example Clutch-Force Property File

$--------------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER [MDI_HEADER] FILE_TYPE = 'clu' FILE_VERSION = 4.0 FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII' $--------------------------------------------------UNITS [UNITS]

24

Adams/Driveline

Clutch Forces

LENGTH = 'mm' ANGLE = 'degrees' FORCE = 'newton' MASS = 'kg'

TIME = 'second' $--------------------------------------------------DAMPING [DAMPING] DAMPING = 10 $--------------------------------------------------CURVE [CLUTCH_FORCE] { disp force} 0.0 0.0

3.50

40000.0

5.50

90000.0

7.60

130500.0

12.10

180000.0

15.50

270000.0

17.56

297900.0

40.635 378000.0

Complex Springs

25

Complex Springs

This component represents a complex rotational spring with hysteresis. You can use it to model rotational springs in clutch friction disks, as well as any other connection in which a rotational spring damper with hysteresis is needed.

Learn about complex springs:

• Creating or Modifying Complex Springs

• About Complex Springs

• Calculation of Complex Spring Force

• Example Complex-Spring Property File

Creating or Modifying Complex Springs

To create or modify complex springs:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Complex (Torsional) Spring, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Complex (Torsional) Spring.

3. Select OK.

About Complex Springs

This complex spring represents a torsional spring with hysteresis. You can use it to model rotational springs in clutch friction disks, as well as any other connection in which a rotational spring damper with hysteresis is needed.

The hysteresis effect is accomplished using two different splines (loading and unloading) stored in a specific property file (<db_name>/complex_springs.tbl/*.csp). Adams/Solver switches from one spline to the other according to the value of angular velocity between the I and J marker. The value of velocity at which the transition has to occur is also stored in the property file. Using two splines allows you to take into account different values of hysteresis for different values of angular displacement. See the following figure.

26

Adams/Driveline

Complex Springs

Torque versus Angular Displacement

Complex Springs Torque versus Angular Displacement In addition, the dependency of hysteresis from engine RPM is

In addition, the dependency of hysteresis from engine RPM is taken into account, since loading and unloading splines are three-dimensional splines. The first independent variable is the angular displacement and the second independent variable is engine RPM.

Before submitting an Analysis, you can switch the hysteresis effect on or off from the modify dialog box. If you set Hysteresis Activity to no, Adams/Driveline uses only the first spline (loading) to evaluate the force exerted by this component. In the Standard Interface (see Interface Modes), you can vary values for the following:

Property file

Hysteresis activity

Calculation of Complex Spring Force

The complex spring force is calculated as follows:

FORCE = - load_step * load_scale_factor * load_spline - hysteresis_activity * step2 * unload_scale_factor * unload_spline - damping * WZ

where:

load_step = step5(WZ,- TRANSITION_VELOCITY/2, 1-activity, TRANSITION_VELOCITY,

1)

unload_step = step5(WZ,- TRANSITION_VELOCITY, 1, TRANSITION_VELOCITY/2, 0)

load_spline = akispl(AZ,load_spline, 0)

unload_spline = akispl(AZ,unload_spline, 0)

Complex Springs

27

When hysteresis_activity is set to off (0), the spring acts as a nonlinear torsion spring with viscous damping, and only the first spline is used.

Note that you can also model torsion spring with hysteresis (and it's easier to define its parameters) using the torsion spring.

Example Complex-Spring Property File

$--------------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER [MDI_HEADER] FILE_TYPE = 'csp' FILE_VERSION = 4.0 FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII' $--------------------------------------------------UNITS [UNITS] LENGTH = 'mm' ANGLE = 'degrees' FORCE = 'newton' MASS = 'kg' TIME = 'second'

$-----------------------------------------------SPRING_PARAMETERS [SPRING_PARAMETERS] TRANSITION_VELOCITY = 1e-1 DAMPING = 50 $--------------------------------------------------LOADING_SPLINE [LOADING_SPLINE] (Z_DATA) {rpm}

0.0

1000.0

4000.0

(XY_DATA) { x y} -60 -400000 -400000 -400000 -50 -300000 -300000 -300000 -40 -220000 -220000 -220000

-30 -175000 -175000 -175000 -20 -115000 -115000 -115000 -10 -50000 -50000 -50000

0

0

0

0

10

30000 30000 30000

20

50000 50000 50000

30

100000 100000 100000

40

160000 160000 160000

50

200000 200000 200000

60

400000 400000 400000

$--------------------------------------------------UNLOADING_SPLINE

[UNLOADING_SPLINE]

(Z_DATA)

{rpm}

0.0

1000.0

28

Adams/Driveline

Complex Springs

4000.0

(XY_DATA) { x y} -60 -400000 -400000 -400000

-50 -200000 -200000 -200000 -40 -150000 -150000 -150000 -30 -110000 -110000 -110000 -20 -70000 -70000 -70000 -10 -25000 -25000 -25000

0

0

0

0

10

50000 50000 50000

20

110000 110000 110000

30

180000 180000 180000

40

220000 220000 220000

50

300000 300000 300000

60

400000 400000 400000

Conceptual Wet Clutches

29

Conceptual Wet Clutches

A wet clutch is a torque that connects an I part and a J part.

Learn about wet clutches:

• Creating or Modifying Wet Clutches

• About Wet Clutches

Creating or Modifying Wet Clutches

To create or modify wet clutches:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Conceptual Wet Clutch, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Wet Clutch.

3. Select OK.

About Wet Clutches

The torque expression is based on the inputs stored in the property file, such as number of surfaces, effective radius, pressure area, turning point pressure, and MU.

The torque converter element also includes a clutch part that is connected to the J part. The two parts are connected with a torsion spring (in the property file you also specify the Clutch Compliance Stiffness and Clutch Compliance Damping parameters).

Adams/Driveline uses the following formulas to evaluate the resulting torque:

Clutch Capacity=STEP(varval(clutch_pressure),0,0,0.1,1)* number_of_surface * effective_radius * clutch_mu * pressure_area * VARVAL(clutch_pressure) Torque=clutch_capacity * clutch_switch

In the Standard Interface (see Interface Modes), you can vary the property file.

Request Definition

Result name: request1

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

angle

angle

The angle between the I and J part.

F3

Angular_velocity

angular velocity

The angular velocity of the I part with respect to the J part.

F6

Clutch_pressure

pressure

The input pressure of the clutch.

30

Adams/Driveline

 

Conceptual Wet Clutches

   

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F7

capacity

torque

The capacity that the clutch is able to develop.

F7

capacity

torque

The torque the clutch applies between the I and J parts.

Subsystem Parameters

Property file (<db_name>/clutch_forces.tbl)

Gear Forces

Gear Forces Gear Forces 31 This component represen ts a gear couple. You can use it

Gear Forces

31

This component represents a gear couple. You can use it to model Spur Gears and Bevel Gears.

Learn about gear forces:

• Creating or Modifying Gear Forces

• About Gear Forces

Creating or Modifying Gear Forces

To create or modify gear forces:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Gear Force, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Gear Force.

3. Select OK.

About Gear Forces

The component consists of the following objects:

Two general forces, featuring the actions exchanged between the gear meshes.

A request to output force and torque values.

Adams/Driveline calculates the forces and torques between the gears using a user-defined general force, whose action depends on the gear type.

To get reaction forces in the right direction, you must identify the orientation of the construction frames used to define the gear forces. The following figure shows how construction frames must be oriented. Notice that:

32

Adams/Driveline

Gear Forces

The z-axis must be oriented along the rotation axis

The x-axis has to point to the contact point

The y-axis is located based on the x- and z-axes

Construction Frame Orientations

based on the x- and z-axes Construction Frame Orientations You can specify the parameters as shown

You can specify the parameters as shown next:

Parameter:

Description:

Gear type

Spur, bevel

Gear diameters

Pitch diameter (depending on geometries)

Backlash

Allowed angular backlash

Stiffness

Contact rotational stiffness

Damping

Contact rotational damping

Sharpness factor

See Rotational Backlash

Pressure angle a

--

Average gear radius for bevel gear

Taken from geometry

Adams/Driveline calculates the transmitted torque for the gears using a backlash expression. (Torque is almost zero until the relative angular displacement, scaled by gear ratio, is lower than the specified lash, then the torque follows an elastic law.) Learn about rotational backlash.

The other torque and force components (radial and thrust) are derived from the transmitted torque expression and from the gear type.

Gear Forces

33

Spur Gears

From the transmitted torque, Adams/Driveline calculates the radial forces as follows:

Adams/Drivelin e calculates the radial forces as follows: where: • T z = Transmitted torque •

where:

T z = Transmitted torque

R p = Gear primitive radius

= Pressure angle

Bevel Gears

From the transmitted torque, Adams/Driveline evaluates the radial and thrust forces expressions as follows:

the radial and thrust forces expressions as follows: where: • F x = Radial load •

where:

F x = Radial load

F z = Thrust load

= Gear ratio

34

Adams/Driveline

Gear Pairs

Gear Pairs

34 Adams/Driveline Gear Pairs Gear Pairs This component represents a conn ection between two gears on

This component represents a connection between two gears on two different shafts, according to a gear ratio and a specified rotational backlash. To create a gear pair, input and output shafts, and input and output gears must exist. A coupler element constrains the rotation of the output gear to the input gear.

Learn about gear pairs:

• Creating or Modifying Gear Pairs

• About Gear Pairs

Creating or Modifying Gear Pairs

To create or modify gear pairs:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Gear Pair, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Gear Pair.

3. Select OK.

About Gear Pairs

You can use gear pairs to model the connection between spur gears of a constant mesh gearbox model. In the constant mesh gearbox all gears are positively meshed to each other. They are mounted on bearings and, when selected, are coupled to proper shafts by means of various types of devices. The gear pair component consists of:

Ideal bearing between input shaft and gear (modeled as revolute joint).

Ideal bearing between output shaft and gear (modeled as revolute joint).

Two perpendicular joints that constrain, on demand, the residual rotational degree of freedom of the input and output gears.

Coupler between the two revolute joints representing the positive connection between gears.

An additional dummy part (mesh carrier).

.

Note:

Adams/Driveline automatically creates some kinematic joints in this component.

Gear Pairs

35

The dummy part is required to allow proper behavior of the mechanism. Adams/Driveline creates the part representing the mesh carrier within the UDE instance. It is used to effectively define the connection of the input gear to the output gear via coupler element. Without the mesh carrier part, a rigidly connected input gear would not produce any rotation of the output gear with respect to the output shaft.

of the output gear with respect to the output shaft. You can select the initial configuration

You can select the initial configuration of the synchronizing mechanism by choosing one of the following options:

Input gear connected to input shaft (input gear perpendicular JPRIM is active)

Output gear connected to output shaft (output gear perpendicular JPRIM is active)

In the Standard Interface (see Interface Modes), you can vary values for the following:

Reduction ratio, in case it was not parameterized on the gear revolution geometries

Gear pair configuration

Output-to-input direction

Backlash

Stiffness

Damping

Sharpness factor

Ratio

36

Adams/Driveline

Gear Pairs

Request Definition

Result name: gear_states_1 (input gear/shaft) and gear_states_2 (output gear/shaft)

Gear Parameters

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

angle

angle

The angle between the two parts (gear and shaft).

F3

angular_velocity

angular velocity

The relative velocity between the two parts (gear and shaft).

F4

torque

torque

Rotational force exerted by the synchronizer element.

Hypoid Gear Forces

Hypoid Gear Forces

37

Hypoid Gear Forces Hypoid Gear Forces 37 This component represents hypoid gear forces. It consists of

This component represents hypoid gear forces. It consists of the following objects:

A general force featuring the actions and reactions between the ring gear and pinion gear.

Two differential equations to calculate gear angular error and angular error integral.

Learn about hypoid gear forces:

• Creating or Modifying Hypoid Gear Forces

• About Hypoid Gear Forces

• Example Hypoid Gear-Forces Property File

Creating or Modifying Hypoid Gear Forces

To create or modify hypoid gear forces:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Hypoid Gear Force, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Hypoid Gear Force.

3. Select OK.

38

Adams/Driveline

Hypoid Gear Forces

About Hypoid Gear Forces

Theoretical Background

38 Adams/Driveline Hypoid Gear Forces About Hypoid Gear Forces Theoretical Background

Hypoid Gear Forces

39

The forces exchanged between ring gear and pinion gear at the mesh point can be evaluated as shown in the following tables.

Front and Rear Axles in Drive Conditions

 

Axial force:

Separating force:

PINION

PINION
PINION

GEAR

GEAR
GEAR

Front and Rear Axles in Coast Conditions

 

Axial force:

Separating force:

PINION

PINION
PINION

GEAR

GEAR
GEAR
PINION GEAR Front and Rear Axles in Coast Conditions   Axial force: Separating force: PINION GEAR

40

Adams/Driveline

Hypoid Gear Forces

The gear mesh point position can be calculated as:

Forces The gear mesh point position can be calculated as: • x, y, z   =

x, y, z

 

= Mesh point location

p,

= Pinion face, gear root angles

= Gear offset angle

p,

g

= Pinion and gear offset angles

= Pressure angle

p,

g

= Pinion and gear spiral angles

Ap, Ag

= Pinion and gear mean cone distances

E

= Offset of gear and pinion centerlines

Rp, Rg

= Pinion and gear mean radius

z'

= Gear pitch apex beyond crossing point

Adams/Driveline implements the component with general forces using, as reference, frame markers positioned at the gear mesh point. It calculates the location and orientation of these reference markers into the component using data you provide.

Hypoid Gear Forces

41

The following figure shows how you must orient reference frames for a correct evaluation of gear forces

:

refe rence frames for a correct evaluation of gear forces : You must create the case

You must create the case reference frame on the intersection of the z-axis of the pinion reference frame and the z-axis of the ring reference frame. Adams/Driveline uses the case reference frame to locate the marker at the gear contact point.

In the Template Builder, you can specify the parameters as shown next.

Hypoid Gear Parameters

Parameter:

Description:

Pinion gear I part

Rigid part modeling the pinion

Pinion gear J part

Rigid part to which pinion part is connected

Ring gear I part

Rigid part modeling the ring gear

Ring gear J part

Rigid part to which ring gear is connected

Pinion reference frame

At pinion gear joint location, z-axis pointing towards pinion apex

Ring reference frame

At ring gear joint location, z-axis pointing towards ring apex

Case reference frame

At crossing point of ring reference frame and pinion reference frame

Stiffness

Gear forces stiffness

Damping

Gear forces damping

42

Adams/Driveline

 

Hypoid Gear Forces

 

Parameter:

Description:

Differential location

Front or rear

Property file

Stores the hypoid gear properties (see Hypoid Gear Example Property File).

PINION_N_OF_TEETH

PRESSURE_ANGLE

PINION_OFFSET

PINION_MEAN_CONE_DISTANCE

PINION_PITCH_ANGLE

PINION_MEAN_SPIRAL_ANGLE

RING_N_OF_TEETH

RING_MEAN_CONE_DISTANCE

RING_PITCH_ANGLE

RING_MEAN_SPIRAL_ANGLE

RING_OFFSET_ANGLE

RING_FACE_WIDTH

RING_PITCH_APEX

Example Hypoid Gear-Forces Property File

$--------------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER

[MDI_HEADER]

FILE_TYPE

FILE_VERSION

FILE_FORMAT

$--------------------------------------------------UNITS

= 'hyp'

= 4.0

= 'ASCII'

[UNITS]

LENGTH

= 'mm'

ANGLE

= 'degrees'

FORCE

= 'newton'

MASS

= 'kg'

TIME

= 'second'

$--------------------------------------------------GEAR_PARAMETERS

[GEAR_PARAMETERS]

PINION_N_OF_TEETH

= 133

PRESSURE_ANGLE

= 15.633

PINION_OFFSET

PINION_MEAN_CONE_DISTANCE

PINION_PITCH_ANGLE

PINION_MEAN_SPIRAL_ANGLE

RING_N_OF_TEETH

RING_MEAN_CONE_DISTANCE

RING_PITCH_ANGLE

= 38.1

= 120.0404

= 20.1

= 48.533

= 102.0572

= 43

= 68.5333

RING_MEAN_SPIRAL_ANGLE

RING_OFFSET_ANGLE

= 27.20

= 20.0667

RING_FACE_WIDTH

= 32.512

RING_PITCH_APEX

= 3.556

Hypoid Gear Forces

43

44

Adams/Driveline

Limited Slip Differentials

Limited Slip Differentials

Limited Slip Differentials Limited Slip Differentials This component is described as a force acting between

This component is described as a force acting between differential side gears and the differential casing. No additional parts are modeled.

Learn about limited slip differentials:

• Creating or Modifying Limited Slip Differentials

• About Limited Slip Differentials

Creating or Modifying Limited Slip Differentials

To create or modify a limited slip differential:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Limited Slip Differential, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Limited Slip Differential.

3. Select OK.

About Limited Slip Differentials

A limited slip differential can be:

Viscous - You must select a property file containing the characteristic describing the way the torque is transferred from one side to the other if one wheel starts to spin. During the simulation, as soon as one wheel start to spin the torque applied at that wheel decreases and is transferred to the other wheel. The sum of torques applied at both wheels is kept constant and equal to the torque exerted by the engine.

Clutch-pack - You can simulate the behavior of a clutch device which prevents one wheel from spinning. Input parameters are friction coefficient, friction arm, preload, ramp angle of the gear, side gear radius, and the revolute joints between side gears and the differential casing. This component can evaluate thrust forces due to gear contacts, and can use these forces to calculate the friction forces in the clutch.

Limited Slip Differentials

45

Torque-sensing - You must specify the bias ratio and the torque and speed thresholds at which the differential starts transferring torque. You must also specify an Adams variable which defines the input torque. (In some cases, this variable is replaced by an input communicator pointing to an Adams variable defined in another subsystem.) Select Torsen Type A/B to represent an even torque split between the differential outputs. Select Torsen Type C to represent a center differential with a user-specified Nominal Torque Split. The percentage of torque applied to the first and second gear parts must add up to 100. For example, if user enter 30 for First Ratio, Adams/Driveline will suggest 70 for the Second Ratio.

The expression of the differential torque is as follows:

Diff Torque = Input Torque * Scale / Kinematic Ratio * STEP(Dw, -Speed Threshold, -1, Speed Threshold, 1)*

STEP(Input Torque, -Torque Threshold, -1, Torque Threshold, 1)

This torque function is applied to both halves of the differential. The difference in sign is handled by the definitions of the I and J markers of the two torques.

where:

Scale = 0.5 * (bias -1) / (bias + 1)

Kinematic Ratio = First Ratio/Second Ratio

Dw = difference in angular velocity between the first and second parts

You can deactivate the limited slip differential using the Adams/Driveline Activity Wizard.

In the Standard Interface, you can vary values for the following:

Property file (for viscous-sensing limited slip differentials)

Friction (for clutch-pack limited slip differentials)

Friction arm (for clutch-pack limited slip differentials)

Preload (for clutch-pack limited slip differentials)

Ramp (for clutch-pack limited slip differentials)

Side gear radius (for clutch-pack limited slip differentials)

Bias ratio (for torque-sensing limited slip differentials)

Torsen type (for torque-sensing limited slip differentials)

Torque threshold (for torque-sensing limited slip differentials)

Speed threshold (for torque-sensing limited slip differentials)

First ratio (for Type C torque-sensing limited slip differentials)

Second ratio (for Type C torque-sensing limited slip differentials)

46

Adams/Driveline

Limited Slip Differentials

Request Definition

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

left angular velocity

RPM

The angular velocity of the left side gear.

F3

right angular velocity

RPM

The angular velocity of the right side gear.

F4

left force

torque

Torque applied between the left side gear and the differential casing.

F6

right force

torque

Torque applied between the right side gear and the differential casing.

Subsystem Parameters

Type

Property file

Bias ratio

Torque threshold

Planetary Gears

Planetary Gears This component represen ts a planetary gear. Learn about planetary gears: • Creating or

This component represents a planetary gear.

Learn about planetary gears:

• Creating or Modifying Planetary Gears

• About Planetary Gears

Planetary Gears

47

Creating or Modifying Planetary Gears

To create or modify planetary gears:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Planetary Gear, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Planetary Gear.

3. Select OK.

About Planetary Gears

You define a planetary gear using the following parts:

Sun part (lp sun)

Ring part

Carrier part

These parts are attached to the powerplant by the following joints:

Sun joint (to powerplant)

Ring joint (to powerplant)

48

Adams/Driveline

Planetary Gears

Carrier joint (to powerplant)

A reference frame determines the planetary gear axis construction frame.

The planetary gear properties are stored in a property file.

The planetary gear connects the sun part to a sun_lash part (and the ring part to a ring_lash part). The sun_lash part is connected to the sun part through a revolute joint and a torque to model the gear lash and stiffness properties (defined in a property file). The same modeling technique is used for the ring. The torque expression uses the backlash formulation as explained for rotational backlash.

The planetary gear ratio is set between sun_lash part, ring part, and carrier part through a coupler, using the formula:

(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,

where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints, and for each joint, q1, q2, and q3, are rotational displacements of the joint I marker with respect to the joint J marker.

Therefore, using the Willis formula, we can determine that the coupler factors are:

sun number of teeth -> applied to the sun joint

(sun number of teeth + ring number of teeth) -> applied to the carrier joint

ring number of teeth -> applied to the ring joint

In the Standard Interface you can vary the property file.

Request Definition

Result name: request1

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

Sun_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the sun with respect to the powerplant.

F3

Ring_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the ring with respect to the powerplant.

F4

Carrier_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the carrier with respect to the powerplant.

Result name: request2

Planetary Gears

49

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

Sun_backlash

angle

Angular lash between sun and sun lash parts.

F3

Ring_backlash

angle

Angular lash between ring and ring lash parts.

F6

Sun_torque

torque

Torque acting between sun and sun lash parts.

F7

Ring_torque

torque

Torque acting between ring and ring lash parts.

Subsystem Parameters

Property file (<db_name>/torque_converters.tbl)

50

Adams/Driveline

Ravigneaux Gears

Ravigneaux Gears

50 Adams/Driveline Ravigneaux Gears Ravigneaux Gears This component represen ts a ravigneaux gear. Learn about ravigneaux

This component represents a ravigneaux gear.

Learn about ravigneaux gears:

• Creating or Modifying Ravineaux Gears

• About Ravigneaux Gears

Creating or Modifying Ravineaux Gears

To create or modify ravineaux gears:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Ravineaux Gear, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Ravigneaux Gear.

3. Select OK.

About Ravigneaux Gears

You define a ravigneaux gear using the following parts:

Long pinion sun part (lp sun)

Short pinion sun part (sp sun)

Ring part

Carrier part

These parts are attached to the powerplant by the following joints:

Long pinion sun joint (to powerplant)

Short pinion sun joint (to powerplant)

Ring joint (to powerplant)

Carrier joint (to powerplant)

Ravigneaux Gears

51

A reference frame determines the ravigneaux gear axis construction frame.

The ravigneaux gear properties are stored in a property file.

The ravigneaux gear connects the two sun parts to the two sun_lash parts (and the ring part to a ring_lash part). The sun_lash part is connected to the sun part through a revolute joint and a torque to model the gear lash and stiffness properties (defined using a property file). The same model technique is used for the ring. The torque expression uses the backlash formulation, as explained for rotational backlash.

The ravigneaux gear ratio is set between lp sun lash part, sp sun lash part, ring part, and carrier part through two couplers using the formula:

(r1 * q1) + (r2 * q2) + (r3 * q3) = 0,

where r1, r2, and r3 are the scale factors for the three joints, and for each joint, q1, q2, and q3 are rotational displacements of the joint I marker with respect to the joint J marker.

Therefore, using the Willis formula, we can determine that the coupler factors are:

COUPLER 1 (sp_planetary_gear_ratios), acting between sp sun lash joint, carrier joint and ring lash joint:

Sp sun number of teeth -> applied to the sun joint

(- sp sun number of teeth + ring number of teeth) -> applied to the carrier joint

- ring number of teeth -> applied to the ring joint

COUPLER 2 (lp_planetary_gear_ratios), acting between lp sun lash joint, carrier joint, and ring lash joint:

lp sun number of teeth -> applied to the sun joint

- (lp sun number of teeth + ring number of teeth) -> applied to the carrier joint

ring number of teeth -> applied to the ring joint

In the Standard Interface you can vary the property file.

52

Adams/Driveline

Ravigneaux Gears

Request Definition

Result name: request1

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

Sp_Sun_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the short pinion sun with respect to the powerplant.

F3

LP_sun_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the long pinion sun with respect to the powerplant.

F4

Ring_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the ring with respect to the powerplant.

F6

Carrier_rpm

angular velocity

Angular velocity of the carrier with respect to the powerplant.

Result name: request2

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

Sp_Sun_backlash

angle

Angular lash between the short pinion sun and its lash parts.

F3

Lp_Sun_backlash

angle

Angular lash between the long pinion sun and its lash parts.

F4

Ring_backlash

angle

Angular lash between the ring and ring lash parts.

F6

SP_Sun_torque

torque

Torque acting between the short pinion sun and its lash parts.

F7

LP_Sun_torque

torque

Torque acting between the long pinion sun and its lash parts.

F8

ring_torque

torque

Torque acting between the ring and ring lash parts.

Subsystem Parameters

Property file (<db_name>/torque_converters.tbl)

Ride Wheels

Ride Wheels The tire component consists of a rim and a ring. Learn about ride wheels:

The tire component consists of a rim and a ring.

Learn about ride wheels:

• Creating or Modifying Ride Wheels

• About Ride Wheels

• Example Ride-Wheel Property File

Creating or Modifying Ride Wheels

To create or modify ride wheels:

Ride Wheels

53

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Ride Wheel, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Ride Wheels.

3. Select OK.

About Ride Wheels

The tire model consists of two parts:

Rim - Is connected to the suspension hub during the assembly.

Ring - Is connected to the rim with a vertical spring damper, a longitudinal spring damper, and a torsion spring damper to describe the elasticity of the tire itself.

The rim and ring parts are also connected to each other with a planar joint, which constrains the two parts to moving in the global XZ plane.

The ring is then connected to another part, named road, with a vertical force. This force is used to evaluate traction forces exerted between the ring and the road in case a driving/braking torque is applied to the

54

Adams/Driveline

Ride Wheels

driveline model. The traction force is applied at the wheel center. Therefore, a torque is needed equal to the traction torque times the loaded tire radius.

If we call the vertical force between the ring and the road Fz, then we can say that the traction force, Fx, is equal to:

Fx = m * Fz

where:

m = road friction coefficient

Fz = vertical load

The friction coefficient is calculated using the tire slip and the spline defining the dependency of the friction on the tire slip (see figure Friction-Slip Function). The calculation follows:m = AKISPL(slip,0, friction_spline) * friction_var

where:

slip = tire slip

friction_var = friction scaling function. This value is used to scale to the original friction spline, defined for a maximum friction coefficient of 1.

Friction_var is defined using an adams_variable and can be defined to change either as a function of time or traveled distance.

For example, if you want to have the friction on the front left tire go down to 0.5 at time = 1 sec and then back to 1 at time = 2.5 with a transition time of 0.5 seconds, the expression for front left friction_var is as follows:

STEP(TIME,1,1,1,5,0.5) + STEP(TIME, 2, 2.5, 0, 0.5)

You can set this dependency using a specific dialog box from the Adams/Driveline Standard Interface, prior to submitting the Analysis. This dialog box allows you to set any kind of expression for the friction coefficient, for an expression similar to the one explained above. You also have the graphical support that gives you feedback on the shape of function you are using.

To access the dialog box, from the Simulate menu, point to Full-Vehicle Analysis, point to Environmental Conditions, and then select Road Friction.

An Adams variable named traveled_distance automatically evaluates the distance traveled by the full- vehicle model. If friction has to be defined as a function of the traveled distance, the expression could be something like:

STEP(VARVAL(traveled_distance),1,1,1,5,0.5) + STEP(VARVAL(traveled_distance), 2, 2.5, 0,

0.5)

Friction-Slip Function

Ride Wheels

55

Friction-Slip Function Ride Wheels 55 Adams/Driveline evaluates the tire slip according to the following formula (note

Adams/Driveline evaluates the tire slip according to the following formula (note that slip will be always between -1 and 1):

slip = MAX(MIN((V - wr)/ABS(v), 1), -1)

where:

V = longitudinal speed of the car

w = rotational velocity of the wheel

r = loaded radius of the wheel (DZ(rim_cm, road))

Note that the reason why the ring part is connected to the road instead of the ground is because this modeling technique allows you to put vertical and longitudinal actuators between the road and the ground. This makes it possible to apply imposed motions to the full-vehicle model, such as known road profiles or frequency sweep profiles.

The interposition of a rotational spring damper between the rim and the ring part is very important for those analyses in which it is important to capture natural frequencies of the tire, such obstacle-passing maneuver or tip in - tip out analyses.

Request Definition

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F2

Longitudinal slip

none

The longitudinal slip of the tire.

F3

Omega

RPM

The angular velocity of the tire.

56

Adams/Driveline

Ride Wheels

 

Component

Component

 

Component:

name:

units:

Definition:

F4

Traction

force

Traction force exerted by the tire.

F6

Vertical force

force

Vertical load on the tire.

Subsystem Parameters

Property file

Example Ride-Wheel Property File

$--------------------------------------------------MDI_HEADER

[MDI_HEADER]

FILE_TYPE = 'rti'

FILE_VERSION = 2.0 FILE_FORMAT = 'ASCII'

(COMMENTS) {comment_string} 'Tire - Ride Tire' $--------------------------------------------------UNITS

[UNITS]

LENGTH = 'mm'

ANGLE = 'degrees'

FORCE = 'newton'

MASS = 'kg'

$--------------------------------------------------MODEL [MODEL] PROPERTY_FILE_FORMAT = 'RIDE' $--------------------------------------------------DIMENSION [DIMENSION] RADIUS = 300 WIDTH = 300 ASPECT_RATIO = 0.55

RIM_RADIUS = 190 RIM_WIDTH = 139 $--------------------------------------------------TIRE_PARAMETERS [TIRE_PARAMETERS]

STIFFNESS = 9e5

TIME = 'second'

DAMPING = 1e4

TORSION_STIFFNESS = 6e4 TORSION_DAMPING = 1e1 $---------------------------------------------------RING_PARAMETERS [RING_PARAMETERS] MASS = 4.5 Ixx = 1 IYY = 1 IZZ = 1 $------------------------------------------------FRICTION_vs_SLIP [FRICTION_vs_SLIP] { slip_speed friction } -1.0 -0.6508 -0.95 -0.6624 -0.91 -0.6799

-0.87 -0.6945 -0.83 -0.7061 -0.79 -0.7265 -0.75 -0.7497 -0.7 -0.7673 -0.666 -0.7847 -0.62 -0.8021 -0.58 -0.8168 -0.54 -0.8312 -0.5 -0.8487 -0.45 -0.8662 -0.41 -0.8837 -0.375 -0.9012 -0.33 -0.9274 -0.29 -0.9477 -0.25 -0.9639

-0.2 -0.9869 -0.166 -0.9927 -0.125 -1.0007 -8.0E-02 -0.9777 8.0E-02 0.9777

0.125

1.0007

0.166

0.9927

0.2

0.9869

0.25

0.9639

0.29

0.9477

0.33

0.9274

0.375

0.9012

0.41

0.8837

0.45

0.8662

0.5

0.8487

0.54

0.8312

0.58

0.8168

0.62

0.8021

0.666

0.7847

0.7

0.7673

0.75

0.7497

0.79

0.7265

0.83

0.7061

0.87

0.6945

0.91

0.6799

0.95

0.6624

1.0

0.6508

-4.0E-02 -0.8092

0.0 0.0

Ride Wheels

57

4.0E-02 0.8092

58

Adams/Driveline

Torque Converters

Torque Converters

58 Adams/Driveline Torque Converters Torque Converters This component allows you to define a to rque converter

This component allows you to define a torque converter in the driveline model.

Learn about torque converters:

• Creating or Modifying Torque Converters

• About Torque Converters

• Example Torque-Converter Property File

Creating or Modifying Torque Converters

To create or modify torque converters:

1. From the Driveline Components menu, point to Torque Converter, and then select New/Modify.

2. Press F1 and then follow the instructions in the dialog box help for Torque Converter.

3. Select OK.

About Torque Converters

You define torque converters using three parts:

Impeller (input shaft)

Turbine (output shaft)

Case

On these three parts, you apply (at least) three different forces: