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Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr.

1/2010

EFECTELE VICTIMIZRII
Dr. Mihai Adrian Hotca,
mihaihotca@gmail.com

Rezumat: Victimele infraciunii sufer anumite


consecine, care pot fi de ordin material, fizico-biologic, social i moral (psihologic). Prin svrirea
anumitor infraciuni se cauzeaz victimelor
pierderea unor organe sau simuri ori ncetarea
funcionrii lor, infirmiti fizice sau psihice ori
alte astfel de consecine. Un loc deloc de neglijat
n sfera consecinelor produse de infraciuni l
ocup prejudiciile de ordin moral.
Cuvinte cheie: victimele infraciunilor; efectele
victimizrii; victimizarea femeii; victimizarea
minoritilor; victimizarea minorilor
Abstract: The infraction victims suffer certain
consequences that can be of material, physicalbiological, social and moral (psychological) nature. Through committing certain infractions, the
victims are caused the loss of some organs or
senses or the ceasing of their functioning, physical or psychical infirmities or other such consequences. A very important place in the field of the
consequences caused by infractions is occupied by
the prejudices of moral nature.
Keywords: infraction victims; consequences
victimization; woman victimization; minority victimization; minors victimization
JEL Classification: K10; K33; K39

I. Consideraii introductive
ntrebarea legitim care poate fi pus este: are
victima infraciunii o via normal dup traumatismul produs prin fapta ilicit? n unele cazuri,
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fericite, dar puine, victimele i revin total, alteori


acestea i revin parial, ns sunt i multe situaii
n care victimele suport consecine grave i
iremediabile. Cele mai ntlnite tulburri pot fi
desemnate prin expresia stres posttraumatic i
sunt tulburri de comportament, crize nervoase,
agitaie nejustificat, tulburri anxioase (alternan
ntre agitaie i letargie) dereglri alimentare etc.
Victimele infraciunii sufer anumite consecine,
care pot fi de ordin material, fizico-biologic, social i moral (psihologic).
Sigur, sunt infraciuni care pot produce toate
tipurile de efecte menionate mai sus, dar sunt i
infraciuni care nu pot determina dect una sau
unele dintre aceste consecine nedorite. De pild,
vtmarea corporal grav poate produce urmri
morale (de pild, imposibilitatea participrii la viaa
social), fizico-biologice (spre exemplu, o infirmitate fizic permanent), materiale (de exemplu,
pierderea unor venituri periodice), sociale (de pild,
tulburri de comportament), psihologice (de
exemplu, tulburri de gndire). Infraciunile contra patrimoniului, n schimb, rareori determin
consecine nemateriale. De pild, n cazul infraciunii de distrugere, dac bunul ce formeaz obiectul
infraciunii avea o valoare moral pentru victim,
alturi de daunele materiale se produc i daune
morale. n cazul infraciunilor contra patrimoniului,
se pot produce i anumite consecine sociale, psihologice i morale, deoarece obiectul material al infraciunii este uneori foarte important pentru persoana vtmat sau pentru alte persoane aflate n
anturajul acesteia. Sunt oameni care sufer foarte
mult n cazul pierderii unui animal sau a unui bun.
Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

THE EFFECT OF VICTIMIZATION


PhD. Mihai Adrian Hotca,
mihaihotca@gmail.com

Abstract: The infraction victims suffer certain


consequences that can be of material, physicalbiological, social and moral (psychological) nature. Through committing certain infractions, the
victims are caused the loss of some organs or
senses or the ceasing of their functioning, physical or psychical infirmities or other such consequences. A very important place in the field of the
consequences caused by infractions is occupied by
the prejudices of moral nature.
Keywords: infraction victims; consequences
victimization; woman victimization; minority victimization; minors victimization
Rsum: Les victimes de linfraction subissent
de certaines consquences dordre matriel, physicobiologique, social et moral (psychologique). En
commettant de certaines infractions, on provoque
aux victimes la perte de certains organes ou sens ou
la cesse de leur fonctionnement, des infirmits physiques ou psychiques ou dautres pareilles consquences. Les prjudices dordre moral occupent
une place pas du tout ngligeable dans le cadre des
consquences produites par les infractions.
Mots-cl: les victimes des infractions; les effets
de prendre pour victime; prendre pour victime la
femme; prendre pour victime les minorits; prendre pour victime les mineurs
Zusammenfassung: Die Opfer von Verbrechen
erleiden materielle, krperliche, soziale und
seelische Schden. Es gibt Gewalttaten, wodurch
die Opfer eine permanente krperliche
Beeintrchtigung (Verlust eines Krperglieds oder
Sinnesorgans) oder dauerhafte psychologische
Traumata erleiden. Unter den Schden, die
Verbrechen verursachen knnen, kommt den
seelischen Schden eine besondere Rolle zu.
Schlusselwort: Opfer von Verbrechen,
Auswirkungen von Verbrechen, die Frau als Opfer
von Gewalttaten, die Minderheiten als Opfer,
Gewalt gegen Minderjhrige
JEL Classification: K10; K33; K39
Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

I. Preliminary consideration
The question that can be asked is: does the infraction victim have a normal life after the trauma
caused through the illicit deed? In some fortunate
cases, but just a few, the victims fully recover,
sometimes these recover only partially, but there
are also many situations when the victims suffer
severe and irremediable consequences. The most
encountered disorders can be expressed through
the expression posttraumatic stress and are conduct disorders, nervous breakdowns, unjustified
edginess, anxious disorders (alternation between
edginess and lethargy) eating disorders etc. The
infraction victims suffer certain consequences that
can be of material, physical- biological, social and
moral (psychological) nature.
Of course, these are infractions that can cause
all the types of effects mentioned above, but there
are also infractions that can not determine just one
or some of these unwanted consequences. For instance, the wounding with intent can cause deadly
consequences (for example, the impossibility to
take part to the social life), physical- biological
ones (for example, a permanent physical infirmity),
material ones (for example, loss of some periodical incomes), social ones (for instance, conduct
disorders), psychological ones (for example, thinking problems). On the contrary, the infractions
against patrimony rarely determine unmaterial consequences. For instance, in the case of the infraction of destruction, if the asset that is the object of
the infraction had a moral value for the victim,
besides the material damages, there are also moral
damages. In the case of the infractions against patrimony, it is caused also certain social, psychological and moral consequences, because the material object of the infraction is sometimes very
important for the injured party or for other persons in its entourage. There are people that suffer
a great deal in case of losing a pet or an asset.
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II. Efectele fizico-biologice produse


victimelor infraciunilor
Cele mai grave efecte pe care le produc
infraciunile contra persoanei, n cazul victimelor
supravieuitoare, sunt cele de ordin fizico-biologic.
Prin svrirea anumitor infraciuni se cauzeaz
victimelor pierderea unor organe sau simuri ori
ncetarea funcionrii lor, infirmiti fizice sau
psihice ori alte astfel de consecine. Unele
infraciuni determin diferite tipuri de leziuni
corporale, cum sunt echimozele, excoriaiile,
arsurile sau fracturile.
Uneori, infraciunile ndreptate mpotriva
persoanei, n special cele contra vieii, libertii
sexuale, integritii corporale sau sntii,
cauzeaz disfuncionaliti organice, printre care
figureaz tulburrile de natur psihic (de pild,
pierderea pasager a discernmntului n cazul
victimelor unor infraciuni contra integritii fizice
sau libertii sexuale), vaginismul (de exemplu, n
cazul infraciunilor de viol), frigiditatea, impotena,
ticuri comportamentale sau de natur psihic (spre
exemplu, n cazul unor vtmri corporale).
Sunt cazuri, dar mai rare, cnd anumite persoane din anturajul foarte apropiat al subiectului
pasiv al infraciunii sufer tulburri de natur
psihic, reversibile sau chiar ireversibile. De pild,
pierderea unui copil, a unui printe sau a soului
genereaz vtmri ale sntii persoanelor din
apropierea victimei directe. Sunt cunoscute cazuri
n care unul dintre prinii victimei ucise a ajuns
n stare de iresponsabilitate sau a suferit un atac de
cord.
Printre cele mai frecvente consecine fizico-biologice suferite de victimele infraciunilor se numr
i cele care realizeaz rezultatul infraciunii de
vtmare corporal grav, respectiv pierderea unui
organ sau sim, ncetarea funcionrii acestora,
sluirea, avortul, punerea n primejdie a vieii
persoanei i o infirmitate fizic sau psihic.

III. Efectele materiale (patrimoniale)


suferite de victimele infraciunilor
Printre consecinele cele mai frecvente determinate de comiterea infraciunilor se numr
prejudiciile de natur material. Astfel, de pild,
n cazul infraciunii de furt, distrugere, nelciune
etc., victima pierde o valoare patrimonial
echivalent cu valoarea de circulaie a bunului n
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cauz. Prejudicii materiale pot produce i infraciunile contra persoanei. Spre exemplu, n situaia
n care vtmarea corporal const n pierderea
capacitii de munc are loc de multe ori o diminuare sau o pierdere a veniturilor victimei. De
asemenea, victima poate face cheltuieli de natur
medical (de spitalizare, pentru achiziionarea de
medicamente sau proteze etc.).

IV. Efectele morale suferite


de victimele infraciunilor
Un loc deloc de neglijat n sfera consecinelor
produse de infraciuni l ocup prejudiciile de ordin
moral.
Daunele morale sunt, n anumite cazuri, mult
mai grave pentru victim dect cele de natur
material. Un bun furat sau un bun distrus poate fi
nlocuit, de regul, cu altul de acelai fel, dar
pierderea unei persoane apropiate, pierderea unui
organ, infirmitatea etc. sunt consecine care nu pot
fi nlturate. Prejudiciul moral poate fi produs att
victimei directe, ct i altor persoane din cercul
apropiailor acesteia.
Daunele morale produse prin infraciune pot fi
reparate n practic prin acordarea unor sume de
bani (pretium dolores). Se poate constata faptul c
anumite persoane sufer foarte mult de pe urma
svririi infraciunilor, ajungnd s-i piard nu
numai sprijinul moral (n cazul n care subiectul
pasiv decedeaz sau ajunge ntr-o stare precar),
ci i armonia familial.
Repararea daunelor morale poate avea loc prin
msuri de natur nepatrimonial sau prin despgubiri bneti. Facem precizarea c n jurisprudena
din Romnia, ca regul, pentru prejudicii morale
se acord despgubiri bneti. Prejudiciul moral
poate fi cauzat fie prin traumatisme fizice, fie prin
producerea unor traume de natur psihic. Sigur,
pot exista i cazuri n care daunele morale constau
att n dureri fizice, ct i n suferine psihice.
Printre infraciunile care determin prejudicii
morale complexe se numr infraciunile contra
libertii sexuale (de viol, de pild), contra vieii,
integritii corporale sau sntii persoanei, contra normelor de convieuire social etc. Astfel, n
cazul violului, victima sufer din punct de vedere
fizic i psihic traume care vor disprea foarte greu
sau niciodat (n special cele psihice). n practic
exist cazuri de infraciuni referitoare la viaa
sexual svrite n condiii care determin grave
Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

II. The physical-biological effects


caused to the infraction victims
In the case of the surviving victims, the most
severe effects that the infractions cause against a
person are the physical- biological ones. Through
committing certain infractions, the victims are
caused the loss of some organs or senses or the
ceasing of their functioning, physical or psychical
infirmities or other such consequences. Some infractions determine different types of body injuries, such as the ecchymoses, excoriations, burns
or fractures.
Sometimes, the infractions against persons, especially life threatening, sexual liberties, body or
health integrity, cause organic disfunctionalities,
among which there are those of psychical nature
(for instance, temporary loss of discernment in the
case of the victims of some infractions against the
physical integrity or sexual liberties), vaginismus
(for example, in the case of the rape infractions),
frigidity, impotence, conduct twitches or of psychical nature (for instance, in the case of some body
injuries).
There are cases, but more rarely, when certain
persons in the very close entourage of the passive
infraction subject suffer reversible or even irreversible disorders of psychical nature. For instance, the
loss of a child, parent or spouse generates health
injuries of the persons close to the direct victims.
There are cases when one of the killed victims
parents reached a state of irresponsibility or suffered a heart attack.
Among the most frequent physical- biological
consequences suffered by the infraction victims,
there are also those referring to the result of the
infraction of wounding with intent, loss of an organ or sense respectively, ceasing of their functioning, deformation, abortion, life- endangering
and a physical and psychical infirmity.

III. The material effects (assets)


suffered by the infraction victims
Among the most frequent consequences determined by the committing of the infractions, there
are also the prejudices of material nature. So, for
instance, in the case of the infractions of theft, destruction, fraud, etc., the victim loses a patrimony
value equivalent to the turnover of that particular
asset. The material prejudices can produce also
Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

infractions in personam. For instance, when the


body injury consists in the loss of the work capacity, it seldom takes place a diminution or a loss of
the victims income. The victim may also bear
expenses of medical nature (hospitalization, for the
medicine or prosthesis acquisition etc.).

IV. The moral effects suffered


by the infraction victims
quences caused by infractions is occupied by
the prejudices of moral nature.
The moral damages are in certain cases severer
for the victim than those of material nature. A stolen asset or a destroyed asset can usually be replaced by another one of the same kind, but the
loss of a close person, the loss of an organ, the
infirmity, etc. are consequences that can not be
replaced. The moral prejudice can be caused both
to the direct victim and to other persons from its
entourage.
The moral damages caused through infraction
can be repaired in practice by granting some
amounts of money (pretium dolores). It can be
found that certain persons suffer a lot as a result of
having been committed the infractions, and end
up not only losing the moral support (in case the
passive subject dies or is in an unhealthy state),
but also the family harmony.
The repair of the moral damages can take place
through measures of non- patrimony nature or
through money compensations. We should mention that in the jurisprudence in Romania, as a rule,
for the moral prejudices, it is granted money compensations. The moral prejudice can be caused
through physical or psychical traumas. Of course,
there are also cases when the moral damages consist both in physical pains and psychical sufferings.
Among the infractions that determine complex
moral prejudices, there are also the infractions
against the sexual freedom (rape, for instance), life,
body integrity or health of the person, against of
the norms of social cohabitation etc. So, in the case
of the rape, from the physical and psychical point
of view, the victim suffers traumas that will go
away very difficultly or may never go away (especially the psychical ones). In practice, there are
cases of infractions referring to the sexual life committed on conditions that determine severe sufferings to the victims. For instance, the victim is un31

suferine victimelor. Spre exemplu, victima este


minor, s-a cauzat victimei i o vtmare corporal,
victima se afla n ngrijirea, educarea, tratamentul,
ocrotirea sau paza fptuitorului, exist legturi de
rudenie sau afinitate, n urma svririi faptei
victima s-a sinucis ori a rmas nsrcinat.
Victimele infraciunilor referitoare la viaa
sexual sufer, n multe cazuri, atingeri fizice grave
i puternice traume psihice, care nu dispar niciodat
sau sunt greu uitate. Asemenea suferine afecteaz
de cele mai multe ori evoluia viitoare fireasc a
victimei, dezvoltarea normal psihic i fizic a
acesteia, precum i relaiile cu cei din jur.
Suferine morale grave suport i victimele
infraciunilor de tentativ la omor sau ale altor
infraciuni contra persoanei (lovire, vtmare
corporal etc.). Victima direct a unor asemenea
infraciuni manifest temere puternic, ngrijorare,
frustrare i alte sentimente puternic traumatizante.
Persoana vtmat este obligat s stea internat
n spital, s se supun unor intervenii medicale,
s efectueze activiti de recuperare, s nu poat
participa la evenimente sociale sau culturale etc.
n anumite cazuri prejudiciul moral se prezint
sub forma unui defect estetic, cum este n cazul
sluirii sau alte situaii n care se aduce o atingere
sntii sau integritii corporale a victimei. n
cazul n care victima este mutilat, desfigurat sau
a rmas cu cicatrice, suferina psihic este foarte
mare. Sigur c, n cazul prejudiciului moral estetic,
suferina nu este aceeai pentru toate persoanele,
dar n majoritatea cazurilor, pe lng armonia
fizic, victima i pierde definitiv sau temporar
echilibrul psihic. n cazul n care victima desfoar
o activitate n care componenta estetic (n cazul
artitilor, profesiilor publice etc.) are un rol important, acesta ajunge n situaia de a nu-i mai
putea exercita meseria sau profesia. Acesta este
motivul pentru care instanele acord n cazul
producerii unui prejudiciu moral estetic despgubiri bneti (pretium pulcritudinis).
Anumite infraciuni cauzeaz daune morale care
constau n ajungerea victimei n situaia de a nu
putea participa la viaa cultural-social. Spre
exemplu, o victim ajuns n stare de imobilitate
pierde posibilitatea de mbogire spiritual,
destindere i alte tipuri de plcere oferite de viaa
n societate. Acest tip de prejudiciu moral este
denumit prejudiciu de agrement. Pierderea
bucuriilor vieii normale este o form extrem de
dureroas a prejudiciului moral. Imposibilitatea
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unei plimbri n parc, de a participa la un eveniment


banal sau de a ndeplini orice alt activitate care
putea fi anterior efectuat, afecteaz grav armonia
psihic a victimei.
Prejudiciul moral este i mai grav n intensitate
n cazurile n care victima pierde anumite organe
sau un anumit sim, pierznd anumite funcii
fiziologice (procreere, vedere, auz etc.). n asemenea cazuri, despgubirea bneasc, orict de
mare ar fi ea, nu poate fi dect o frm de satisfacie, care nu va putea compensa niciodat privarea de bucuriile vieii la care victima nu mai poate
participa.
O alt categorie de prejudicii morale sunt cele
numite pur afective, adic independente de orice
suferin fizic. Aici pot fi cuprinse prejudiciile
constnd n atingerile aduse demnitii, prestigiului
sau pierderii unei persoane apropiate. Svrirea
prin intermediul presei a unor fapte contra demnitii persoanei determin n majoritatea cazurilor
producerea unor daune morale importante.
Printre cele mai importante daune morale se
numr cele care apar n cazul decesului unei
persoane apropiate. Existena unor legturi afective
puternice ntre unele persoane i victima decedat
cauzeaz prejudicii morale nsemnate, deoarece
pierderea unei persoane apropiate las de cele mai
multe ori un gol care niciodat nu mai poate fi
acoperit. n cercul persoanelor care sufer moral
intr, de regul, rudele apropiate, soul i afinii.
Jurisprudena din ara noastr recunoate n
favoarea persoanelor apropiate de victimele
decedate dreptul la repararea prejudiciilor morale
prin acordarea unor despgubiri bneti, n acest
sens fiind i normele europene. Astfel, prin
Rezoluia 75-7 a Comitetului Minitrilor Consiliului Europei a fost fcut recomandarea ca repararea daunelor morale n cazul decesului victimei
s fie fcut exclusiv n favoarea prinilor, soului,
logodnicului i copiilor victimei.
O problem care s-a discutat n doctrin i a
fost soluionat diferit n practic este aceea dac
victima ajuns n stare de incontien total i
iremediabil (stare vegetativ cronic) are dreptul
la repararea daunelor morale sau dac acest drept
aparine persoanelor apropiate de victima direct.
Sub rezerva c persoana aflat n stare de incontien total i permanent i revine la un moment
dat, este impropriu s vorbim de un prejudiciu
moral, care implic i ideea de suferin psihic.
Or, un om n stare vegetativ cronic nu are
Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

derage, it was caused also a body injury to the victim, the victim is under the care, education, treatment, protection or guard of the doer, there are
close blood or affinity relations, after the deed was
committed, the victim committed suicide or conceived.
The victims of the infractions referring to the
sexual life suffer in many cases severe physical
injuries and strong psychical traumas, that never
go away or that are difficultly forgotten. Such sufferings affect mostly the future natural evolution,
physical and psychical development of these ones,
as well as their relations with those surrounding
them.
Severe moral sufferings are caused also to the
victims of the infractions of attempt of murder or
of other infractions in personam (assault, body injury etc.). The direct victim of such infractions
shows strong fears, concern, frustration and other
strong traumatic feelings. The injured person has
to be hospitalized, to be subjected to medical interventions, to perform recovery activities, not to
take part to social or cultural events etc.
In certain case, the moral prejudice takes the
shape of an aesthetic fault, such as the case of deformation or other situations that affect the victims
health or body integrity. In case the victim is mutilated, disfigured or remained with scars, the psychical sufferance is very intense. Of course, in the
case of the moral aesthetic prejudice, the sufferance is not the same for all the persons, but in most
cases, besides the physical harmony, the victim
definitely or temporary loses the psychical balance.
In case the victim carries on an activity where the
aesthetic component (in the case of the artists, public professions etc.) has an important part, this ends
up not being able to carry on its job or profession.
This is the reason for which the courts grant money
compensations in the case of a moral aesthetic
prejudice (pretium pulcritudinis).
Certain infractions cause moral damages that
consist in the situation when the victim can not
take part to the cultural-social life. For instance, a
victim that is in an immobility state now loses the
possibility of spiritual improvement, relaxation and
other pleasures offered by the life in society. This
type of moral prejudice is called relaxation prejudice. The loss of the normal life joys is an extremely
painful moral prejudice. The impossibility to take
a walk in the park, to take part to a common event
or to carry out any activity that previously could
Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

be carried out, affects severely the victims psychic harmony.


The moral prejudice is even more severe in intensity in the cases when the victim loses certain
organs or a certain sense, losing in this way certain physiological functions (procreation, sight,
hearing, etc.). In such cases, the money compensation, no matter how much it is, is just a shade of
satisfaction that could never compensate the deprivation of the life joys to which the victim can no
longer take part.
Another category of moral prejudices is that
called purely affective, which is independent of
any physical sufferance. These contain the prejudices consisting in the damage caused to the dignity, prestige or loss of a close person. The committing of such deeds against a persons dignity
through mass media determines the causing of
important moral damages in most cases.
Among the most important moral damages,
there are those that appear in the case of death of a
close person. The existence of some strong affective connections between some persons and the
deceased victim causes significant moral prejudices, because the loss of a close person leaves most
of the times an emptiness that can never be filled
in. The blood relatives, spouses and in- laws usually belong to the category of persons that are in
moral sufferance. The jurisprudence in our country acknowledges the right to repair of the moral
prejudices in favor of the persons close to the deceased victims by granting some money compensations, and in this sense, there are also the European norms. So, through Resolution 75-7 of the
Committee of Ministers, the European Council
made the recommendation that the repair of the
moral damages in the case of the victims death
should exclusively be made in favor of the victims
parents, spouse, fiance and children.
A problem that was debated in the doctrine and
was differently solved in practice is that of the case
of the victim in total or irremediable unconsciousness (chronic vegetative state) which has the right
to the repair of the moral damages if this right belongs to the persons close to the direct victim.
Considering that the person in total or permanent
state of unconsciousness could recover at a certain
point, it is wrong to talk about the moral prejudice
which implies also the idea of psychical sufferance. Or, a person in chronic vegetative state does
not have the representation of a moral pain and
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reprezentarea unei dureri morale i nici nu se poate


bucura de o eventual despgubire bneasc care
s fie echivalentul ajungerii n situaia precar
respectiv. Aa cum s-a spus n doctrin, incontiena victimei exclude n mod necesar realitatea
prejudiciului moral1.
n ceea ce privete dreptul la repararea daunelor
morale al persoanelor aflate n legturi strnse cu
victima aflat n stare vegetativ cronic (victimele prin ricoeu), se poate pune problema unor
despgubiri bneti, deoarece nu se poate face
abstracie de suferina trit de persoanele din
anturajul victimei.

V. Efectele de ordin social suferite


de victimele infraciunilor
Anumite infraciuni determin consecine
(urmri) care constau n pierderea poziiei sociale
a victimei, n sensul c aceasta trebuie s-i schimbe
rolul social avut anterior ajungerii n postura de
victim. De asemenea, n cazul unor infraciuni
victimele nu mai pot exercita profesia, meseria,
ocupaia sau activitatea avut nainte de svrirea
infraciunii. Spre exemplu, datorit faptului c
victima a suferit o vtmare corporal grav,
aceasta nu mai poate desfura meseria de
manechin sau prezentator TV. Sunt i cazuri n care
consecina produs prin infraciune exclude pentru
victima acesteia nu numai exercitarea profesiei pe
care a avut-o, ci o palet foarte larg de activiti
remunerate. De pild, pierderea membrelor
superioare sau inferioare, pierderea vederii etc.,
sunt urmri care mpiedic victima de deruleze un
evantai cuprinztor de activiti, care altfel puteau
fi desfurate.
Pierderea locului de munc, dincolo de aspectul
material-financiar, poate determina o dram
social, izolarea victimei i pierderea echilibrului
psihic2. Efectele sociale, pe lng consecinele
patrimoniale, genereaz uneori i daune morale
puternice.
Pe de alt parte, consecinele sociale suferite
de victima direct a infraciunii se rsfrng, n anumite cazuri sau mprejurri, i asupra altor persoane
aflate n legturi apropiate cu aceasta. Este vorba,

n general, despre membrii de familie aflai n stare


de dependen cu victima. De pild, n cazul unei
familii numeroase unde numai victima avea o activitatea aductoare de venituri, efectele sociale pot
fi devastatoare pentru membrii familiei respective.
Gradul ridicat de victimizare existent n societate determin n snul acesteia, n familie sau n
anumite grupuri sociale, caracterizate prin victimizare sporit, un sentiment de nesiguran, iar pe
planul ntregii societi o degradare a ncrederii
membrilor societii n instituiile statului, n special sub aspectul eficacitii acestora. Problemele
sociale dintr-un anumit grup pot genera la rndul
lor alte probleme grave, cum ar fi creterea infracionalitii i a victimizrii. Explicaia are la baz
instinctul de conservare, care i determin pe cei
mai slabi moral s devieze de la regulile instituite
de societate.
n anumite circumstane, victimizarea din
interiorul unor colectiviti se poate extinde i
asupra altor comuniti conexe acestora, deoarece
se produce efectul bulgrelui de zpad, iar ntr-o
asemenea situaie consecinele sunt deosebit de
grave.
n teoria de specialitate se vorbete despre
psihologia maselor sau de psihologia colectiv,
ca sentiment comun al membrilor societii fa
de victimizare3. Membrii colectivitii din care face
parte victima, n cazul lipsei de operativitate a
organelor statului, vor reaciona ntr-o manier
deplasat de la normalitate, fie n direcia creterii
spiralei victimizrii, prin rzbunare, fie n sensul
blazrii.
n anumite cazuri, efectele sociale nu constau
numai n depravarea moral a unor membrii ai
grupului social, ci n dezbinarea familiei, ruperea
legturilor afective, izolarea social a celor n cauz
i alte asemenea consecine.

VI. Efectele psihologice suferite


de victimele infraciunilor
Infraciunea este susceptibil s produc i, n
multe cazuri, s determine schimbri n plan
afectiv, volitiv sau intelectiv. n teoria de specialitate, ntre consecinele strict psihologice ale

I. Urs, Repararea daunelor morale, Ed. Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2001, p. 133. Pentru o prezentare a punctelor de vedere
exprimate n jurispruden i doctrin, a se vedea acelai autor, op. cit. 108-133.
2
T. Butoi, D. Voinea, V. Iftene, Al. Butoi, C. Zrnescu, M.C. Prodan, I.T. Butoi, L.G. Nicolae, Victimologie, Curs universitar,
Ed. Pinguin Book, Bucureti, 2004, p. 99-100.
3
T. Butoi, D. Voinea, V. Iftene, Al. Butoi, C. Zrnescu, M.C. Prodan, I.T. Butoi, L.G. Nicolae, op. cit., p. 107.

34

Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

nor can benefit from an eventual money compensation that should be the equivalent of the damage
caused in that precarious situation. As it was said
in the doctrine, the victims unconsciousness excludes the reality of the moral prejudice1.
As far as the right of the persons in close connection to the victim in chronic vegetative state
(victims through rebound) to the repair of the
moral damages is concerned, it can be mooted the
question of some money compensations, because
it can not be ignored the sufferance experienced
by the persons in the victims entourage.

V. The effects of social nature suffered


by the infraction victims
Certain infractions determine consequences
(effects) that consist in the loss of the victims social position, in the sense that this has to change
its social part had before being in the position of
victim. In the case of some infractions, the victims
can no longer carry on the profession, job, occupation or activity had before the committing of the
infraction. For instance, due to the fact that the victim suffered a severe body injury, this one can no
longer carry on the profession of cover girl or TV
host. There are also cases when the consequence
caused through infraction exclude the victim not
only from carrying out the profession it had, but
also from a large variety of paid activities. For instance, the loss of the upper or lower limps, the
sight loss, etc., is consequences that prevent the
victim from carrying on a large variety of activities that otherwise could have been carried on.
Beyond the material-financial aspect, the loss
of the work place can determine a social drama,
the victims isolation and loss of the psychic balance2. Besides the patrimony consequences, the
social effects cause sometimes also strong moral
damages.
On the other hand, the social consequences suffered by the direct infraction victim have repercussions in certain cases or circumstances also on
other persons in close connection with this one. It
is generally about the family members depending

on the victim. For instance, in the case of a numerous family where only the victim had an activity
generating incomes, the social effects can be devastating for the members of that family.
The high victimization degree existing in the
society determines a feeling of insecurity within
the society, in the family or in other social groups
characterized by increased victimization, and, on
the level of the entire society, a degradation of the
trust of the society members in the state institutions especially under the aspect of their efficiency.
The social problems within a certain group can
generate in their turn other severe problems, such
as the increasing of the crimes and victimization.
The explanation is based on the conservation instinct which makes the morally weakest ones to
deviate from the rules set by society.
In certain circumstances, the victimization
within some collectivities can be extended also to
other communities connected to these ones, because it is caused the snowball effect, and in such
a situation, the consequences are very severe.
In the specialty theory, it is talked about the
mass psychology or the collective psychology as
being a mutual feeling of the society members towards victimization3. Due to the lack of operability of the state organs, the members of the collectivity to which the victim belongs, will react in a
manner deviated from normality either in the direction of increasing the victimization, through
revenge, or in the sense of blas state.
In certain cases, the social effects do not consist only in the moral depravation of some members of the social group, but also in family disunions, breaks of the affective ties, social isolation of these ones and other such consequences.

VI. The psychological effects suffered


by the infraction victims
The infraction is susceptible to produce and also
to determine, in most cases, changes in the affective, volitional or intellective plan. In the specialty
theory, among the strictly psychological conse-

1 I. Urs, Repararea daunelor morale, Lumina Lex Printing House, Bucharest, 2001, page 133. For a presentation of the
points of view expressed in jurisprudence and doctrine, see the same author, quoted work 108-133.
2 T. Butoi, D. Voinea, V. Iftene, Al. Butoi, C. Zrnescu, M.C. Prodan, I.T. Butoi, L.G. Nicolae, Victimologie, Curs universitar,
Pinguin Book Printing House, Bucharest, 2004, page 99-100.
3 T. Butoi, D. Voinea, V. Iftene, Al. Butoi, C. Zrnescu, M.C. Prodan, I.T. Butoi, L.G. Nicolae, quoted work, page 107.

Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

35

victimizrii figureaz urmtoarele categorii de


tulburri (dereglri): de percepie, de memorie, de
gndire, de afectivitate i de voin4.

VII. Victimizarea minorului


Persoanele care nu au mplinit nc vrsta
majoratului constituie o categorie victimal aparte,
deoarece au un specific determinat de caracteristicile vrstei. Minorii, n special cei care au vrste
fragede, au un indice de vulnerabilitate mai
ridicat fa de adulii obinuii. Vulnerabilitatea
acestei categorii de persoane este dat de imaturitatea lor fizic i psihic. Fiind lipsii de experien i, de regul, de o aprare corespunztoare,
nevrstnicii cad mai uor victime infractorilor. Ei
sunt mai creduli, mai slabi fizic, mai lipsii de
experien etc.
Minorii fac parte din categoria persoanelor cu
potenial victimal crescut, deoarece n cazul
minorilor de vrst foarte mic (sub 7 ani) lipsete
discernmntul, iar fora fizic este aproape
inexistent, n cazul minorilor de vrst mijlocie
(7-12 ani) discernmntul este n curs de formare
i fora fizic este relativ slab, iar n cazul
minorilor adolesceni reprezentarea aciunilor sau
inaciunilor lor nu este pe deplin matur.
Cu ct vrsta minorului este mai fraged, cu
att capacitatea de prefigurare a conduitei proprii
sau altor persoane este mai slab sau lipsete cu
desvrire. Minorii sunt creduli, sinceri, uor
influenabili, curioi, dependeni material i psihic,
fragili din punct de vedere psihologic etc., particulariti care i recomand drept victime predilecte a unor infraciuni.
Victimizarea minorului are att cauze intrafamiliale, ct i cauze extrafamiliale. n cadrul
familiei, minorii sunt deseori victime ale infraciunilor de rele tratamente, act sexual cu un minor,
perversiune sexual, viol, corupie sexual, incest,
vtmare corporal, lipsire de libertate i chiar ale
infraciunilor contra vieii (omor, omor calificat,
omor deosebit de grav). De asemenea, minorii pot
fi victime ale unor prini cu moravuri uoare, fiind
determinai de acetia s se prostitueze, s cereasc, s fure etc.

Din punct de vedere extrafamilial, minorii sunt


victimizai din cauze sociale, datorit apartenenei
la o anumit etnie etc. Grupul social din care face
parte minorul exercit asupra acestuia o influen
foarte mare negativ sau pozitiv, dup caz
ceea ce nseamn c apartenena la un grup social
cu potenial victimogen se va reflecta negativ
asupra minorului n cauz.
Prinii sunt cauze ale victimizrii minorului
n special dac au anumite tare (vicii grave,
agresivitate sporit, lipsii de afectivitate, frustrai5
etc.). Violena poate fi nu numai fizic, ci i de
natur psihic. Spre exemplu, certarea continu cu
sau fr motiv, injuriile frecvente, comportamentele imorale etc.
Molestarea sexual a minorilor produce de cele
mai multe ori drame iremediabile pentru cei
afectai. n plus, acesta cnd va deveni adult va
transmite, n multe din cazuri, mai departe comportamentul cruia i-a czut victim. Agresarea
sexual a minorului cuprinde mai multe tipuri de
comportament, pornind de la folosirea acestora ca
instrumente de satisfacere a instinctelor sexuale i
continund cu exploatarea sexual a miorilor de
ctre prini sau de cei crora le-au fost ncredinai.
Molestarea sexual se produce de cele mai multe
ori pe fondul unei poziii autoritare sau de putere.
Studiile realizate n ultimii ani relev o cretere
alarmant a minorilor care fumeaz, consum
alcool, consum droguri ori au comportament
depravat. Conform unui studiu al Facultii de
Sociologie a Universitii Bucureti, copiii din
Romnia fac primul pas ctre consumul de buturi
alcoolice i spre fumat cot la cot cu prinii. n ceea
ce privete proporia, studiile arat c 8% din copiii
11 i 14 ani fumeaz, 4% beau alcool, iar 1% se
drogheaz. Potrivit studiului, factorul determinant
n consumul de droguri de ctre minori l reprezint
cercul de prieteni, fenomenul putnd fi contracarat
prin educarea la nivel local a elevilor, prinilor i
profesorilor6.
Minorii prezint o virtualitate victimal sporit
nu numai n cazul infraciunilor contra persoanei,
ci i n cazul altor infraciuni, printre care se numr
cele contra patrimoniului (tlhrie, furt, abuz de
ncredere, nelciune etc.), contra familiei (de

Idem, p. 101-107.
Idem, p. 146.
6 Concluziile studiului au fost preluate din cotidianul Gndul, nr. 286 din 7 aprilie 2006, Bucureti. Printre msurile propuse,
surprinztor, apare i legalizarea anumitor tipuri de droguri.
5

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Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

quences of victimization, there are the following


categories of disorders (deregulations): of perception, memory, thinking, affectivity and volition4.

VII. Minors victimization


The persons that have not become of age yet
represent a special victim category, because they
have a specific determined by the age characteristics. The minors, especially those at the early age,
have a vulnerability index higher than the common grown- ups. The vulnerability of this category
of people is given by their physical and psychical
immaturity. Due to their lack of expedience and
usually of corresponding defense, the minors become more easily victims of the delinquents. They
are more credulous, physically weaker, lack experience etc.
The minors belong to the category of people
with an increased victim potential, because in the
case of the minors of a very early age (under 7
years) it lacks discernment and the physical
strength is almost inexistent; in the case of the
minors of a middle age (7-12 years) the discernment is in process to be formed and the physical
strength is relatively weak; in the case of the teenage minors, the representation of their actions or
inactions is not fully mature.
The earlier the age of the minor, the weaker the
prefiguration capacity of its own conduct or of
other persons is or it lacks completely. The minors
are credulous, sincere, easily susceptible to be influenced, curious, material and psychical dependant, fragile from the psychological point of view
etc., particularities which recommend them as
the favorite victims of some delinquents.
The minors victimization has both intrafamilial
causes and extrafamilial causes. Within the family, the minors are often victims of the infractions
of ill treatment, sexual act with a minor, sexual
perversity, rape, sexual corruption, incest, body
injury, privation of liberty and even of life threatening infractions (murder, first degree murder). The
minors can also be victims of some parents with
easy morals and are determined by the latter to
prostitute themselves, to bed, steal etc.

From the extrafamilial point of view, the minors are victimized due to social causes, to the affiliation to a certain ethnic group etc. The social
group to which the minor belongs exercises a high
negative or positive influence on this one, depending on the case which means that the affiliation to the social group with a victim potential will
negatively reflect on the minor.
The parents are the causes of the minors victimization especially if they have certain conducts
(severe vices, increased aggressiveness, lack of
affection, frustrations5 etc.). The violence can be
not only of physical nature, but also of psychical
nature. For instance, the continuous apostrophizing, with or without a reason, the frequent injuries, the immoral conducts etc.
The sexual molestation of the minors mostly
causes irremediable dramas for those affected.
Besides, when this one grows old, in most cases, it
will pass forward the conduct to which it has been
subjected. The sexual aggression of the minor contains many conduct types starting with using them
as instruments for satisfying the sexual instincts
and continuing with the sexual exploitation of the
minors by their parents or by those to whom they
are entrusted. The sexual molestation is mostly
caused from an authoritarian or power position.
The studies carried out in the last few years
point out an alarming increase of the minors that
smoke, consume alcohol, drugs or have a depraved
conduct. According to a study of the Faculty of
Sociology within the University of Bucharest, the
children in Romania make the first attempt to consume alcoholic drinks and smoking besides their
parents. As far as the proportion is concerned, the
studies show that 8% of 11 and 14 year old children smoke, 4% drink alcohol and 1% are taking
drugs. According to the study, a determining factor in taking drugs by the minors is the circle of
friends, and the phenomenon could be fought back
through education of the pupils, parents and teachers on the local level6.
The minors represent an increased victim reality not only in the case of the infractions in personam, but also in the case of other infractions
among which there are those against patrimony

Idem, page 101-107.


Idem, page 146.
6
The conclusions of the study were taken from Gndul newspaper, no. 286 on April 7th 2006, Bucharest. Among the
suggested measures, there is, surprisingly, also the legalization of certain drug types.
5

Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

37

pild, abandonul de familie), contra sntii (de


exemplu, traficul de droguri), contra bunelor moravuri etc.
Infraciunile contra persoanei, n special cele
contra vieii sexuale, contra vieii sau sntii ori
integritii corporale, produc efecte negative asupra
minorilor, dintre care unele sunt ireversibile. De
pild, unele dintre infraciunile contra vieii sexuale
determin frigiditatea, incapacitatea natural de
procreare, anorgasmie, contaminarea veneric sau
viral, ori alte probleme de natur sexual sau
psihic. Dintre efectele de natur psihologic,
menionm depresiile, instalarea unor complexe,
tulburri comportamentale.

VIII. Victimizarea altor categorii


de persoane
1. Victimizarea femeii. Alturi de minori,
femeile figureaz printre persoanele cu risc
victimal ridicat. Victimizarea femeii este diferit
de la o ar la alta, de la un grup social sau profesional la altul, precum i de la o zon teritorial la
alta.
Printre cele mai ntlnite fapte prin care este
victimizat femeia sunt cele de violen casnic,
tlhria i violul. Prevenirea i combaterea violenei
n familie fac parte din politica integrat de ocrotire
i sprijinire a familiei i reprezint o important
problem de sntate public.
Efectele victimizrii femeii se pot concretiza
n consecine de ordin psihologic, fizico-biologic,
social etc. Printre cele mai grave efecte fizico-biologice se numr decesul victimei, graviditatea
nedorit, provocarea avortului, consecine specifice
infraciunilor de violen (fracturi, infirmiti,
pierderea unor organe etc.). n unele cazuri, victima
sufer consecine de natur psihologic. Violena
asupra femeilor-mame are efecte indirecte i n ceea
ce privete copiii acesteia sau alte persoane aflate
n anturajul su.
Prin urmare, consecinele victimizrii femeii
sunt mult mai ample, ele se extind dincolo de
persoana femeii n cauz, fiindc afecteaz, n
multe cazuri, i alte persoane din apropierea ei. Se
ajunge astfel la dezorganizarea familiei, divor,
abandonarea copiilor, afectarea educaiei copiilor,
degradarea moral a acestora etc.
O consecin dintre cele mai grave exist n
situaia n care n urma infraciunii femeia decedeaz, caz n care dispariia ei las un gol de neaco38

perit, iar ceilali membrii ai grupului familial din


care fcea parte vor resimi, la nceput mai pregnant, iar mai trziu mai slab, dar pentru totdeauna
pierderea mamei (uneori a fiicei sau a surorii). Prin
urmare, importana victimizrii femeii este
incomensurabil, ceea ce trebuie s constituie un
motiv foarte serios pentru factorii cu atribuii n
domeniul prevenirii i combaterii victimizrii
persoanelor de sex feminin.
2. Victimizarea minoritilor. n cazul zonelor
teritoriale amestecate din punct de vedere etnic,
cultural, religios etc. se constat o victimizare a
minoritilor, din partea celorlali membri ai
colectivitilor umane n cauz. Este vorba despre
victimizarea minoritilor, nu n cazul n care la
nivel naional acestea ocup (ca numr de membrii)
o poziie ncepnd cu locul doi, ci despre situaiile
existente la nivel local (al comunei, oraului,
judeului etc.). ntr-adevr, la nivel local, o minoritate naional poate fi majoritar n raport cu
majoritatea naional sau cu alte minoriti
naionale.
Populaiile majoritare la nivel local (indiferent
dac aparin minoritilor sau majoritii) se
comport uneori n mod discriminatoriu fa de
minoritile locale, mprejurare de natur s
genereze conflicte etnice, religioase sau culturale,
ajungndu-se chiar la conflicte naionale armate.
Conflictele de acest fel pot fi evitate prin msuri
economice, politice, juridice i social-culturale,
astfel nct s se fie armonizate interesele principale
ale tuturor minoritilor care pot intra n conflict.
3. Victimizarea persoanelor cu vicii. Persoanele aflate n stare de dependen fa de alcool,
droguri sau alte asemenea substane, prezint un
grad sporit de potenialitate victimal. Pentru
doza zilnic, persoanele cu vicii accentuate sunt
dispuse s dea tot ce au, s cereasc, s se prostitueze, s suporte abuzuri fizice sau sexuale etc.
4. Victimizarea vrstnicilor. Persoanele cu
vrst naintat au un indice de vulnerabilitate mai
ridicat comparativ cu celelalte persoane adulte.
Vrstnici au fora fizic mai redus, au o mobilitate
mai sczut i uneori locuiesc singuri. Victimizarea
persoanelor cu vrsta naintat are cauze intrafamiliale sau extrafamiliale. De multe ori btrnii
cad victime propriilor urmai sau rudelor apropiate,
faptele cele mai ntlnite fiind nelciunea, lovirea
sau alte violene, abandonul etc.
Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

(robbery, theft, trust abuse, forgery etc.), against


family (for instance, family abandon), against
health (for example, drug traffic), against common
sense etc.
The infractions in personam, especially those
against the sexual life, against life or health or body
integrity cause negative effects on the minors, out
of which some are irreversible. For instance, some
of the infractions against the sexual life determine
frigidity, natural incapacity of procreation,
anorgasmy, venereal or viral contamination, or
other problems of sexual and psychical nature. Out
of the effects of the psychological nature, we should
point out the depressions, the setting of some complexes, the conduct disorders.

VIII. Victimization of other categories


of people
1. Woman victimization. Along with the minors, the women are among the people with high
victim risk. The woman victimization is different
from one country to the other, from one social or
professional group to the other, as well as from a
territory to the other.
Among the most encountered deeds through
which the woman is victimized, there are those of
domestic violence, robbery and rape. The prevention and fight of the family violence are part of the
integrated family protection and support policy and
represent an important problem of public health.
The effects of woman victimization take the
form of the consequences of psychological,
physical-biological, social nature etc. Among the
most severe physical-biological effects, there are
the victims death, undesired pregnancy, miscarriage, consequences specific to the violence infractions (fractures, infirmities, loss of some organs
etc.). In some cases, the victim suffers consequences of psychological nature. The violence
against mother- women has indirect effects also
on its children and other persons in its entourage.
So, the consequences of woman victimization
are more complex and extend beyond that particular woman, because, in many cases, it affects also
other persons in its entourage. So, it leads to family disorganization, divorce, child abandon, damage of the child education, moral degradation of
these ones, etc.
A consequence of the most severe ones is when
the woman deceases as a result of the infraction,
Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

case when its death lease an emptiness that can


not be filled in and the other members of the family group to which it belonged will feel the effects
most striking at first, and weaker later on, but forever the loss of the mother (sometimes of the
daughter or sister). Consequently, the importance
of woman victimization is incommensurable,
which should represent a very serious reason for
the factors with attributions in the domain of
women victimization prevention and fight.
2. Minority victimization. In the case of the
territorial areas mixed from the ethnic, cultural,
religious point of view etc., it is found minority
victimization coming from the other members of
the human collectivities. It is about the minority
victimization, not when this occupies (as number
of members) a position starting from the second
position on the national level, but about the situations existing at the local level (commune, town,
county etc.). Indeed, on the local level, a national
minority can have majority reported to the national
minority or to other national minorities.
The majority populations at the local level (no
matter if they belong to the minorities or majorities) sometimes behave discriminatory to the local
minorities, circumstance to generate ethnic, religious or cultural conflicts, that lead even to armed
national conflicts. Such conflicts can be avoided
through economic, political, legal and social- cultural measures, so that it should harmonize the main
interests of all the minorities that could enter the
conflict.
3. Victimization of the persons with vices. The
persons addicted to alcohol, drugs or other such
substances present an increased degree of victim
potentiality. For the daily shoot, the persons with
advanced vices are willing to give everything they
have, to beg, to prostitute themselves, to suffer
physical or sexual abuses etc.
4. The victimization of the old people. The
old people have a higher vulnerability index compared to the other adult persons. The old people
have a weaker physical strength, a more reduced
mobility and sometimes live by themselves. The
victimization of the old people has intrafamily or
extrafamily causes. Many times the old people are
the victims of their own heirs or blood relatives;
the most encountered deeds are fraud, assault or
other violence, abandon etc.
39

Vrstnicii sunt, de asemenea, victime predilecte


ale infractorilor care svresc fapte contra
patrimoniului (furturi, tlhrii, nelciuni etc.),
contra unor norme de convieuire social, contra
vieii sexuale, contra libertii etc.
5. Alte categorii de persoane cu risc victimal
crescut. Printre alte categorii de victime cu potenial victimal crescut se numr persoanele care
sufer de pe urma conflictelor armate, regimurilor
politice despotice, catastrofelor naturale, accidentelor grave etc. Dintre faptele prevzute de legea
penal menionm, cu titlu de exemplu, genocidul,
tratamentele neomenoase n timp de rzboi, tortura.
n rndul persoanelor cu risc victimal sau criminogen ridicat intr i bolnavii psihici periculoi.
O alt categorie de persoane aflat n zona
vulnerabilitii victimale o reprezint persoanele
cu handicap.

40

BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. B. Taylor, Changes in criminal victimization,
1994-1995, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of
Justice Statistics
2. B. Mendelshon, La victimologie et les
bsoins de la socit actuelle, n Revue Sociologica
abstracts, supliment 38
3. R. Merle, A. Vitu, Traite de droit criminel,
Cujas, Paris, 1967
4. M.R. Rand, J.P. Lyunch & D. Cantor, Criminal Victimization 1973-1995, U.S. Department of
Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics
5. I. Urs, Repararea daunelor morale, Ed. Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2001;
6. T. Butoi, D. Voinea, V. Iftene, Al. Butoi, C.
Zrnescu, M.C. Prodan, I.T. Butoi, L.G. Nicolae,
Victimologie, Curs universitar, Ed. Pinguin Book,
Bucureti, 2004

Orizonturi ale cunoaterii Volumul 2, nr. 1/2010

The old people are also the favorite victims of


the delinquents that commit deeds against patrimony (thefts, robberies, frauds etc.), against some
norms of social cohabitation, against the sexual life,
against freedom etc.
5. Other category of persons with high victim risk. Among other victim categories with increased victim potential, there are also the persons
that suffer as a result of the armed conflicts, despotic political regimes, natural catastrophes, severe
accidents etc. Out of the deeds stipulated by the
penal law, we mention, for example, the genocide,
unhuman treatments during wars, torture. Among
the high victim and crime risk persons, there are
also the dangerous mental ill persons.
Another category of persons in the area of the
victim vulnerability is the persons with disabilities.

Knowledge horizons Volume 2, no. 1/2010

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. B. Taylor, Changes in criminal victimization,
1994-1995, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of
Justice Statistics
2. B. Mendelshon, La victimologie et les
bsoins de la socit actuelle, n Revue Sociologica
abstracts, supliment 38
3. R. Merle, A. Vitu, Traite de droit criminel,
Cujas, Paris, 1967
4. M.R. Rand, J.P. Lyunch & D. Cantor, Criminal Victimization 1973-1995, U.S. Department of
Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics
5. I. Urs, Repararea daunelor morale, Ed. Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 2001;
6. T. Butoi, D. Voinea, V. Iftene, Al. Butoi, C.
Zrnescu, M.C. Prodan, I.T. Butoi, L.G. Nicolae,
Victimologie, Curs universitar, Ed. Pinguin Book,
Bucureti, 2004

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