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Engineering

PROBLEM 1:

A 1 km x 1 km square lot is divided into 5 equal parts, one

square at the middle, while the other four are right

triangles.

a.) Find the dimensions of the square at the middle.

b.) If this square is further divided, find the dimensions of

the small square at the middle.

c.) Find the percentage ratio of the smallest area to the

biggest area.

SOLUTION :

a.) Dimensions of the square

at the middle.

1

(1000) 2

2

200,000

A1

A1

x12

x1

200,000

small square at the middle.

1

(200,000)

5

40,000

40,000

A2

x22

x2

PROBLEM 3:

A rectangular prism with dimensions

of 3 x 4 x 6 cm. is inscribed in a

sphere, find the radius of the

sphere.?

SOLUTION :

(2R)2 = (5)2 + (6)2

R = 3.91 m.

PROBLEM 4:

Find the distance from point (5, 6, 7) to the origin.

SOLUTION :

d = 10.49

PROBLEM 5:

4 4 7 . 2 1m

A2

Find the slope of the line that passes through (1,2) if the area is

bounded by this line and the coordinates axes in the 1 st quadrant

is a minimum.

SOLUTION :

40,000

(100)

(1000) 2

4%

PROBLEM 2:

A conical water tank with its vertex down has a height of

20 cm., and a radius of 10 cm. at the top. Water leaks such

that the water surface falls at a rate of 0.5 cm/sec.

Compute the rate of change of volume when h = 8 cm.

y

y

V

r

h

r

2 y

dA

1 y

2 2y

dy

2y

2

y

y

12

3

3

3h

4y

y

2

4y

4

4

4

y1

x1

PROBLEM 6:

Two trains are running in the same direction on two

parallel tracks. The trains are 85 m. and 65 m. respectively

and running at 120 kph and 240 kph. If the trail end of the

first train is 210 m. ahead of the front end of the second

train.

a.) Determine the times required for the front end of the

second train to reach the tail end of the first train.

12

dV

dt

2

y y

SOLUTION :

r 2h

3

10

20

h

2

2

1

area.

Ratio

xy

200 m

Ratio

3

2 5 . 1 3 cm / s ec.

dt

2 dh

dt

train from the initial position when it has complete

overtaken the first train.

dV

dt

12

3 8

0.5

the initial position until both ends of the two trains abreast

each other.

4x 24x + 4y 8y + 15 = 0

SOLUTION :

a.) Time required for the front end of the second train to

reach the tail end of the first train.

b.) Determine the points of intersection of the two curve

c.) Determine the distance between the two points of

intersection.

SOLUTION :

2

x 6x + 3y + 11 = 0 PARABOLA

2

2

4x 24x + 4y 8y + 15 = 0

CIRCLE

33.33t = 360

t = 6.3 sec.

b.)

b.) total distance traveled by the second train from the

initial position when it has complete overtaken the first

train.

curve.

2

x 6x + 3y + 11 = 0

2

4x 24x

2

4x 24x +

multiply by 4

+ 12y + 44 = 0

2

4y 8y + 15 = 0

4y 20y 29 = 0

4y2 20y

210 + 85 + 33.33t = 66.67t 65

33.33t =

t = 10.80 sec.

By completing squares

2

4y 20y + 25 = 29 + 25

2

(2y 5)

= 54

first train.

= 66.67 (10.8)

= 720 m.

2y 5 = 7.35

y = 6.17

y = 1.174

position until both ends of the two trains abreast each

other.

= 29

when y = 6.17

2

x 6x + 3(6.17) + 11 = 0

2

x 6x + 9 = -29.51 + 9

2

(x - 3) = -20.51

x is complex.

when y = -1.174

2

x 6x + 3(-1.174) + 11 = 0

2

x 6x + 9 = -7.478 + 9

2

(x - 3) = 1.522

x = 4.233

x = 1.767

t = 8.85 sec.

Total distance traveled by the first train

Until the two train abreast each other.

Distance = 33.33 (8.85)

Distance = 295 m.

PROBLEM 7:

A cylinder is inscribed in a cube. Find the volume of the

solid inside the cube but outside the cylinder.

When x = 1.767, y = -1.174

Points of intersection:

(4.233, -1.174) and (1.767, -1.174)

Distance = 4.233 1.767

Distance = 2.466

SOLUTION :

V

V

PROBLEM 8:

A cone is inscribed in a cube such that the base is in one

of the face of the cube 1 cm x 1 cm.

PROBLEM 10:

A framer owns two square lots of unequal size, together

2

containing 6568 m . If the lots were contiguous. It would

require 356 m. of fence to enclose them in a single

enclosure of six sides. Find the dimension of the smallest

lot.

SOLUTION :

2

SOLUTION :

2

0.5 1

V

3

PROBLEM 9:

Given the following equations of the curve

2

x 6x + 3y + 11 = 0

A=x +y

2

2

x + y = 6568

3x + 3y + y x = 356

2x + 4y = 356

x + 2y = 178

x = 178 2y

2

2

x + y = 6568

2

2

(178 - 2y) + y = 6568

2

2

31684 712y + 4y + y = 6568

2

5y 712y + 25116 = 0

y = 78 m.

x = 178 2(78)

x = 22m.

Dimension of smallest lot is 22 m. x 22 m.

PROBLEM 11:

A sphere has a radius of 15 and its center is at the origin.

Which of the following points is inside the sphere.

I ( 4, 6, -12)

II (-10, -9, 4)

III ( 1, -2, 7)

a.)

b.)

c.)

d.)

2

The point is at 3, 13

Since the distance is less than 15, all points are inside the

sphere.

PROBLEM 12:

Francis set out from a certain point at 6 kph. After he had

gone 2 hours, Cruz set out to overtake him and went 4 km.

rd

the first hour, 5 km. the second hour, 6 km. the 3 hour

and so on gaining 1 km. per hour. After how many hours

were they together.?

c.

a.

Distance traveled by Francis = 6(t +2)

6 t

12 t

t

2

2 4

t 8

1 1

x

y

2

d = (x - 6) + (y 0)

2

2

2

d = (x - 6) + y

2dd = 2(x 6) + 2yy = 0

x

y

21x

10x

21

4x

lim

x 1.25

16x

2x

0.229

( 3)

12

6x

lim

2

43

2x 1

25

32 1.5

lim

8 1.5

32x

b.

x

2

3

3

4x

2

4

2

1.17

21x

10x

21

10( 3)

21( 3)

21

72

0

Do not exist

PROBLEM 15:

SOLUTION :

a.) Probability that both have cellphones.

P = P1P2

P = 0.8 (0.8)

P = 0.64

y x =4

2yy 2x = 0

y'

b. Find the probability that one has a cellphone while other

is none.

c. Find the probability that both have no cellphones.

SOLUTION :

4x

persons from this Barangay.

t 1

PROBLEM 13:

What point in the curve y2 x2 = 4 is nearest to point (6,0).

y'

n 1d

12t 24 8t t

2

t

5t 24 0

t = 8 hours

4x

a=4

d=1

n=t

2a

8x

c.

lim

SOLUTION :

SOLUTION :

r = (4 0) + (6 - 0) + (-12 0)

r = 14 < 15

2

2

2

2

r = (-10 - 0) + (-9 - 0) + (4 0)

r = 14.04 < 15

2

2

2

2

r = (1 - 0) + (-2 - 0) + (7 0)

r = 7.35 < 15

13

PROBLEM 14:

Evaluate the following limits

2

4x

x 5

a. lim

x 1.25 16x 2

25

2

x

x 12

b. lim

x 3 2x 2

6x

II and III only

III only

I, II and III

SOLUTION :

2x = 6

x=3

2

2

y (3) = 4

2

y = 13

x 6

y

x 6

y

none.

P = P1P2

P = 0.8 (1 - 0.8)

P = 0.16

c.) Probability that both have no cellphones.

P = P1P2

P = (1 0.8)(1 - 0.8)

P = 0.04

PROBLEM 16:

Which of the points is outside the sphere?

A. (1, 2, -7)

B. (8, 6, 12)

C. (10, 9, 4)

D. (-4, 8, -7)

SOLUTION :

Using (1, 2, -7)

2

r = (1 0) + (2 - 0) + (7 0)

r = 7.34 < 15 (inside the sphere)

2

Engineering

PROBLEM 1:

A pump draws water from reservoir A and lifts it to

reservoir B as shown. The loss of head from A to 1 is 3

times the velocity head in the 150 mm pipe and the loss of

head from 2 to B is 25 times the velocity head in the 100

mm pipe. When the discharge is 25 liters/ sec.

r = (8 0) + (6 - 0) + (12 0)

r = 15.62 > 15 (outside the sphere)

Using (10, 9, 4)

2

r = (10 0) + (9 - 0) + (4 0)

r = 14.04 < 15 (inside the sphere)

1.

2

2

2

2

r = (-4 0) + (8 - 0) + (-7 0)

r = 11.36 < 15 (inside the sphere)

therefore point (8, 6, 12) is outside the sphere.

PROBLEM 17 :

In an organization, there are Civil Engineers, Electrical

Engineers, and Mechanical Engineers. The sum of their

ages is 2,160; their average age is 36; the average of the

C.E. and M.E. is 39; of the M.E. and E.E. 32(8/11); of the

C.E. and E.E. 36 (2/3). If each C.E. had been one year, each

E.E. 7 years and each M.E. 6 years older, their average age

would have been greater by 5 years. Find the average age

of the Civil Engineers.

Ans. 45 yrs.

kilowatts.

Compute the pressure head at 1.

Compute the pressure head at 2.

2.

3.

SOLUTION :

1. Power output of pump :

0.02

V1

4

0.15

V1 = 1.13 m/s

0.02

V2

4

0.10

V2 = 2.55 m/s

V3

P3

Z 3 HA

2g

V4

P4

Z 4 HL

2g

0 + HA = 240 + HL

PROBLEM 18 :

A block of copper has a mass of 50 kg. and a density of

8.91 g. per cubic cm.

a.) Find the volume of the copper.

b.) If this block is converted to a cylinder with the

same volume, find the base area if the length is

1500 cm.

c.) Find the diameter of the cylinder.

SOLUTION :

a.) Volume of the copper.

V

V

W

50,000

8.91

5 6 1 1 . 6 7 cm

AL

5611.67

A 1500

3 . 7 4 cm

HL

3V1

2g

3 1.13

25V2

2g

2

25 2.55

2 9.81

HL = 8.48 m.

3.74

D2

4

2 9.81

HA = 240 + 8.48

HA = 248.48 m

Power output = Q

2. Pressure head at 1 :

2

2

VA

PA

V1

ZA

2g

2g

2

P1

1.13

0 0 0

2g

A

E = H. A.

E = 248.48 m.

Power output = 0.02 (9.81)(248.48)

Power output = 48.75 kW

HL

P1

19.74m.

2 . 1 8 cm .

3. Pressure head at 2 :

P1

( 20)

Z1

Hf1

3 1.13

2g

2

V1

2g

P1

Z1

HA

2

V2

2g

2. Skin friction :

P2

Z2

ult

b

ult

1.13

2

19.74

2g

P2

20

248.48

2.55

2g

P2

design

20

267.95m.

C

EB

720 kN

ult

Qf

64.74

655.26 kN

3. Length of pile :

C. P L

b.) Compute the velocity of flow.

c.) If the length of the pipe is 650 m. long. Compute the

water hammer pressure at the valve if it is closed in 3 sec.

SOLUTION :

ult

ult

720

PROBLEM 2:

A valve is suddenly closed in a 200 mm pipe. The

increase in pressure is 700 kPa. Assuming that the pipe is

rigid and the bulk modulus of water is 2.07 x 109 N/m2.

FS

360 2

655.26

L 10.90 m.

PROBLEM 4:

A confined aquifer has a source of recharge as shown in the

figure. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 40m/day

and its porosity is 0.25 . The piezometric head in the two

wells 1350 m. apart is 65 m. and 60 m. respectively from a

common datum. the average thickness of the aquifer is 25 m.

and the average width is 4 km.

2.07 x 109

1000

c = 1438.75 m/s

Increase in pressure

Ph = CV

700000 = 1000 (1438.75) V

V = 0.486 m/s

c.) Water hammer pressure when it is closed in 3 sec. :

t

t

t

Ph

Ph

2L

C

SOLUTION :

2 650

1. Rate of flow :

h

i

L

65 60

i

1350

1438.75

0.904 sec.

0.904

700

3

210.83 kPa.

PROBLEM 3:

A 0.36 m. square pre stressed concrete pile is to be driven

in a clayey soil as shown in the figure. The design capacity

of the pile is 360 kN, with a factor of safety of 2.

1.

2.

3.

2. Compute the seepage velocity

3. Compute the time of travel from the head of the aquifer to a

point 3 km. downstream in days.

Compute the skin friction expected to develop

along the shaft of the pile.

Compute the length of the pile if = 0.76.

i 0.0037

A 25 4000

A 100,000 m 2

Q

Ki A

Q

Q

40 0.0037 100,000

3

1 4 8 0 0 m / d ay

2. Seepage Velocity :

SOLUTION :

1. End bearing capacity of piles :

C

b

Qb

qu

2

111

2

55.5 kN/m2

c NC A tip

55.5 9 0.36 0.36

64.74 kN

V

VS

VS

VS

Q

A

14800

100,000

0.148

V

n

0.148

0.25

0.592

a.) Compute the lateral pressure in the cell for a failure to

occur.

b.) Compute the maximum principal stress to cause

failure.

c.) Compute the normal stress at the point of maximum

shear.

Dis tan ce

SeepageVelocity

3000

0.592

5068 days

SOLUTION :

PROBLEM 5:

A tank 12 m. high filled with oil having a unit weight of 9.4

3

kN/m is to be built on a site. The existing soil profile

consists of a 3m. sand layer underlain by a 14 m. clay

layer. The water table is on the ground surface. Neglecting

the weight of the tank.

a.) Compute the compression

index of clay.

b.) Compute the settlement under

the center of the tank.

c.) Find the minimum depth in

the ground to which the tank

must be placed in order to minimize

settlement.

SOLUTION :

x

Sin 28

LL

20

LL

LL

51%

Cc

0.009 LL 10

0.009 51 10

Cc

0.369

17.31 9.81 7

79.71

9.4 12

65

13.14

65

130

70

13.14

65

78.14 kPa

18.88 9.81 3

112.8 kPa

65

with a smooth stone. Well laid and has a hydraulic slope

of 0.002. Using n = 0.013.

PROBLEM 7:

Cc

65

55.93

20

x

55.93

PL

40

0.645

31

13.14 kPa

PL

P.I.

Po

tan 28

1 143.14 kPa

c.) normal stress at the point of the maximum shear :

1. Compression index :

Po

b.) What savings in earth excavation could have been

offered by using more favorable proportions but adhering

to the same delivery and slope.

c.) What savings in lining per meter length by using more

favorable proportions but adhering to the same delivery

and slope. ?

SOLUTION :

a.) Capacity of channel :

S

S

CCH

1 e

log

0.369 1400

1 1.27

8 7 . 1 5 mm

Po

A = 5.6 (1.2)

A = 6.72 m2

P = 1.2(2) + 5.6

P = 8 m.

A

R

P

Po

log

112.8

79.71

79.71

placed in order to minimize settlement.

6.72

8

R = 0.84

A R 2/3 S 1/ 2

n

1/ 2

6.72(0.84) 2 / 3 0.002

Q

0.013

Q

PROBLEM 6:

A cohesive soil specimen has a shearing resistance equal

to 29 and a cohesion of 31 kPa. If the maximum shearing

stress of the soil sample is equal to 65 kPa.

3

20.58 m / s

proportions. :

Use most efficient section :

b = 2d

d

2

b=bd

b = 2 d2

AR

2/3 1/ 2

S

GS

20.58

2/3

2 d

2d

2

0.001

w

1 e

2.68 0.73 1

1 0.73

1/ 2

0.013

d 1.794

3

1.97 g r /c m

b = 2d

b = 2 (1.794)

b = 3.578 m.

2.68 1

dry

Savings in excavation :

Savings = 5.6 (1.2) 1.794 (3.587 )

Savings = 0.2849 m2

0.73

3

655 g r /c m

dr y

Lining of old channel = [1.2 (2) + 5.6](1)

2

Lining of old channel = 8 m

100%.

= [ 1.794(2) + 3.587](1)

2

= 7.175 m

Savings in lining = 8 7.175

2

Savings in lining = 0.825 m /m.

height of 65 cm. has its base at the bottom.

a.) If water is poured into the tank, find the total volume to

fill up.

b.) How much additional water is required to fill the tank if

3

0.025 m of water is poured into the conical tank.

3

c.) Find the height of free surface if 0.025 m of water is

poured into a conical tank.

SOLUTION :

a.) Total volume to fill up :

2

r h

v

3

0.35

0.0834m

2.68

0.92

0.73

0.25

25%

0.65

100

2.68

0.73

27.24%

PROBLEM 10:

A saturated clay layer has a thickness of 30 m. with a

water content of 59% and a specific gravity of 2.76.

b.) Compute the total stress at the bottom.

c.) Compute the effective stress at the bottom.

SOLUTION :

a.) Saturated density of the clay :

At 100%,

PROBLEM 8:

Gs

100

Gs

e

59 2.76

e = 1.628

GS

V1 = 0.0834 0.025

V1 = 0.0584 m3

Sat

w

1 e

2.76 1.628

3

Sat

1 1.628

(0.65)

V1

h13

0.0834

(0.65)3

0.0584

h13

h1 = 0.577 m.

PROBLEM 9:

A soil has a specific gravity of 2.68 and a void ratio of 0.73

if the degree of saturation is 92%.

a.) Compute the total density of the soil.

b.) Compute the dry density of the soil.

c.) Compute the water content at a degree of saturation of

92% and 100%.

SOLUTION :

a.) Total density of the soil :

sa t

(1)

3

1 .6 7 g r /c m

GS e

Sat

w

1 e

2.76 1.628

Sat

1 1.628

(9.81)

3

16.38 kN /m

sa t

Total stress = 16.38 (30)

Total stress = 491.40 kN /m2

c.) effective stress at the bottom:

Effective stress = (16.38 9.81)(30)

Effective stress = 197.10 kN/m2

PROBLEM 1:

A 400 mm square column shown is supported by square

footing on 5 piles as shown. Dimensions are a = 0.75 m., b

= 2 m., effective footing depth = 0.6 m., Ultimate pile

capacity = 320 kN

Column axial loads :

D = 420 kN

L = 360 kN

E = 210 kN

and the tensile stress at the top fiber is 2 MPa.

c. If the compressive stress at the top fiber is 16 MPa and

zero at the bottom fibers.

SOLUTION :

a.) Value of P and e when the compressive stress of 21

MPa.

P

f

A

= 160 kN.m

Required strength of the footing is based on.:

U = 1.32D + 1.1L + 1.1E

a.) Compute the critical beam shear stress at ultimate

loads. b.) Compute the ultimate punching shear stress.

c.) Compute the maximum design moment.

SOLUTION :

a.) Critical beam shear stress at ultimate loads.

Pu = 1.32D + 1.1L + 1.1E

Pu = 1.32(420) + 1.1(360) + 1.1(210)

Pu = 1181.4 kN

Mu = 1.32(0) + 1.1(0) + 1.1(160)

Mu = 176 kN.m

Ultimate reaction of pile at row (1)

R

Pu

A

MuC

I

I=Ad

Assume area of one pile = 1

2

I = 2(1) (2) = 4

C = 1.0

1181.4 176(1)

R

5

4

R = 280.28kN < 320 kN (safe)

Vu = 280.28(2)

Vu = 560.56 kN

Vu

bd

560560

3500 600

0.31 MP a

P MC

R

A

I

1181.4 176(0)

R

5

4

Ru = 236.28 kN

Vu = 1181.4 236.28

Vu = 945.12 kN

Vu

bod

b

4 1000

4000 mm.

945120

4000 600

0.463 MP a

21

P

300(600)

3780 kN e

bottom is 12 MPa and tensile stress at the top is 2 MPa.

P

A

P

bd

P

bd

f

f

MC

I

6M

bd 2

6 Pe

bd 2

P

6e

1

stress at the top

d

bd

P

6e

f

1

stress at the bottom

b bd

d

P

6e

2

1

equation (1)

600

300(600)

P

6e

12

1

equation (2)

600

300(600)

f

1 600 6e

6 600 6e

600 6e 3600 36e

30e 4200

e 140 mm

P

6 140

1

600

300 600

P = 900,000 N

P = 900 kN

12

fiber is 16 MPa and zero at the bottom fibers.

P MC

A

I

At the bottom of the beam :

P

6e

f

1

b bd

d

P

6e

0

1

d

300 600

6e

At the top of the beam :

1

0

d

P

6e

f

1

6e

b bd

d

1

0

600

P

6 100

16

1

600 6e 0

600

300 600

600

P = 1440,000 N

e

6

P = 1440 kN

e 100 mm

f

Mu = 2R(0.80)

Mu = 2 (280.28)(0.8)

Mu = 448.45 kN.m

PROBLEM 2:

A beam with width b = 300 mm and depth d = 600 mm is to

be prestressed. Considering a 15% prestress loss,

compute the value of prestressing force P and eccentricity

e.

PROBLEM 3:

A 9 m. high retaining wall is laterally supported at the top

and fixed at the base. The wall resists active earth pressure

increasing from 0 at the top to 52 kN/m at the base per

meter length along the longitudinal axis.

a.) Determine the design moment at the base. Apply the

2

2

fixed end moment equation WL at the top and WL at

30

20

the base. EI is constant.

b.) The lateral support at the top of the wall was removed,

determine the design moment at the base.

the top.

P = 273696 N

P = 273.70 kN

SOLUTION :

a.Design moment at the base when the top is laterally

supported.

M

M

WL2

20

2

59 9

20

22

6 120

P = AbFp

P = 16(22)(6)(1.2)(400)

P = 1013760 N

P = 1013.76 kN

c.) Based on block shear strength.

M = 210.6kN.m

b. Design moment at the base when the support at the top

was removed.

52

9 1

2

P = 234

M = 3P

M = 3(234)

M = 702 kN.m

c. Base shearing if the wall if the lateral support is

removed at the top :

Av = 2200 mm2

At = (100 12.5 12.5)(16)

At = 1200 mm2

P = 0.30 Fv Av + 0.50 Fu At

P = 0.30(400)(2200) + 0.50 (400)(1200)

P = 504000 N

P = 504 kN

Second possible failure in block shear :

V

52 9

V

2

V 234 kN.

PROBLEM 4:

Two plates each with thickness t = 16 mm are bolted

together with 6 22 mm bolts forming a lap connection.

Bolt spacing are as follows :

S1 = 40 mm, S2 = 80 mm, S3 = 100 mm

Bolt hole diameter = 25 mm

Allowable stress :

Tensile stress on gross area of the plate = 0.60 Fy

Tensile stress on net area of the plate = 0.50 Fu

Shear stress of the bolt : Fv = 120 MPa

Bearing stress of the bolt : Fp = 1.2 Fu

Calculate the permissible tensile load P under the

following conditions.

b.) Based on bearing capacity of bolts.

c.) Based on block shear strength.

SOLUTION :

Av = 2200 mm2

At = (140 12.5 25)(16)

At = 1640 mm2

P = 0.30 Fu Av + 0.50 Fy At

P = 0.30(400)(2200) + 0.5 (400)(1640)

P = 592000 N

P = 592 kN

Use P = 504 kN5.

PROBLEM 5:

A column section shown is reinforced with 8 32 mm

bars, with a clear concrete cover of 40 mm for the 12 mm

ties. Due to reversal of lateral forces. The design axial

load due to the reversal effect of DL, LL and WL changes

as follows

Along the positive x direction :

Mu = -420 kN.m

Vu = 370 kN

Nu = 1320 kN

Along the negative x direction :

Mu = +420 kN.m

Vu = 370 kN

Nu = 450 kN

Use fc = 28 MPa and fy = 415 MPa

1.) For members subject to shear and flexure only.

Vc

1

f C 'b w d

6

1

Nu

Vc

1

f C 'b w d

6

14 Ag

B. ) Allowable shear strength for detailed calculation

1.) For members subject to shear and flexure.

Vd

1

Vc

f C ' 120 w u b w d 0.3 f C 'b w d

7

Mu

Vu d

Mu

Vd

1

Vc

f C ' 120 w u b w d

7

Mu

Where :

Mm Mu Nu

Vu d

Mu

4h d

8

0.3N u

Vc 0.3 1

fc ' bw d

Ag

When Mm is negative :

0.3N u

Use Vc 0.3 1

fc ' bw d

Ag

0.3N u

1

Vc

1

fc ' bw d

6

Ag

Min. area of shear reinforcement :

b wS

AV

3 fy

When factored shear force Vu exceeds the shear strength

Vc, shear reinforcement shall be provided and the shear

strength Vs shall be computed where shear reinforcement

perpendicular to the axis member :

Av f d

y

S

a.) Determine the concrete shear strength for the positive x

direction using simplified calculation.

b.) Determine the concrete shear strength for the negative

x direction using simplified calculation.

c.) Determine the required spacing of shear reinforcement.

Apply provisions on spacing limits of reinforcement when

applicable.

AS