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# dV

## Mathematics and Surveying and Transportation

Engineering
PROBLEM 1:
A 1 km x 1 km square lot is divided into 5 equal parts, one
square at the middle, while the other four are right
triangles.
a.) Find the dimensions of the square at the middle.
b.) If this square is further divided, find the dimensions of
the small square at the middle.
c.) Find the percentage ratio of the smallest area to the
biggest area.

SOLUTION :
a.) Dimensions of the square
at the middle.

1
(1000) 2
2
200,000

A1

A1
x12
x1

200,000

## b.) Square is further divided, find the dimensions of the

small square at the middle.

1
(200,000)
5
40,000
40,000

A2
x22
x2

PROBLEM 3:
A rectangular prism with dimensions
of 3 x 4 x 6 cm. is inscribed in a
sphere, find the radius of the
sphere.?

SOLUTION :
(2R)2 = (5)2 + (6)2
R = 3.91 m.

PROBLEM 4:
Find the distance from point (5, 6, 7) to the origin.
SOLUTION :

## d2 = (5-0)2 + (6-0)2 + (7-0)2

d = 10.49

PROBLEM 5:

4 4 7 . 2 1m

A2

Find the slope of the line that passes through (1,2) if the area is
bounded by this line and the coordinates axes in the 1 st quadrant
is a minimum.
SOLUTION :

## c.) Percentage ratio of the smallest area to the biggest

40,000
(100)
(1000) 2
4%

PROBLEM 2:
A conical water tank with its vertex down has a height of
20 cm., and a radius of 10 cm. at the top. Water leaks such
that the water surface falls at a rate of 0.5 cm/sec.
Compute the rate of change of volume when h = 8 cm.

y
y

V
r
h
r

2 y

dA

1 y

2 2y

dy

2y
2
y
y

12

3
3

3h

4y

y
2

4y
4
4
4

y1

x1

PROBLEM 6:
Two trains are running in the same direction on two
parallel tracks. The trains are 85 m. and 65 m. respectively
and running at 120 kph and 240 kph. If the trail end of the
first train is 210 m. ahead of the front end of the second
train.
a.) Determine the times required for the front end of the
second train to reach the tail end of the first train.

12

dV
dt

2
y y

SOLUTION :

r 2h
3
10
20
h
2

2
1

area.

Ratio

xy

200 m

Ratio

3
2 5 . 1 3 cm / s ec.

dt

2 dh
dt

## b.) Determine the total distance traveled by the second

train from the initial position when it has complete
overtaken the first train.

dV
dt

12

3 8

0.5

## c.) Determine the distance traveled by the first train from

the initial position until both ends of the two trains abreast
each other.

4x 24x + 4y 8y + 15 = 0

SOLUTION :

a.) Time required for the front end of the second train to
reach the tail end of the first train.

## a.) Classify the equations above.

b.) Determine the points of intersection of the two curve
c.) Determine the distance between the two points of
intersection.
SOLUTION :

## a.) Classify the equations above.

2

x 6x + 3y + 11 = 0 PARABOLA
2
2
4x 24x + 4y 8y + 15 = 0
CIRCLE

## 66.67t = 210 + 85 + 33.33t 85

33.33t = 360
t = 6.3 sec.

b.)
b.) total distance traveled by the second train from the
initial position when it has complete overtaken the first
train.

curve.

## Points of intersection of the two

2

x 6x + 3y + 11 = 0
2

4x 24x
2
4x 24x +

multiply by 4

+ 12y + 44 = 0
2
4y 8y + 15 = 0

4y 20y 29 = 0

4y2 20y
210 + 85 + 33.33t = 66.67t 65
33.33t =
t = 10.80 sec.

By completing squares
2
4y 20y + 25 = 29 + 25
2
(2y 5)
= 54

first train.
= 66.67 (10.8)
= 720 m.

2y 5 = 7.35
y = 6.17
y = 1.174

## c.) Distance traveled by the first train from the initial

position until both ends of the two trains abreast each
other.

= 29

when y = 6.17
2
x 6x + 3(6.17) + 11 = 0
2
x 6x + 9 = -29.51 + 9
2
(x - 3) = -20.51
x is complex.
when y = -1.174
2
x 6x + 3(-1.174) + 11 = 0
2
x 6x + 9 = -7.478 + 9
2
(x - 3) = 1.522
x = 4.233
x = 1.767

## 210 + 85 + 33.33t = 66.67t

t = 8.85 sec.
Total distance traveled by the first train
Until the two train abreast each other.
Distance = 33.33 (8.85)
Distance = 295 m.
PROBLEM 7:
A cylinder is inscribed in a cube. Find the volume of the
solid inside the cube but outside the cylinder.

## When x = 4.233, y = -1.174

When x = 1.767, y = -1.174
Points of intersection:
(4.233, -1.174) and (1.767, -1.174)

## c.) Distance between the two points of intersection.

Distance = 4.233 1.767
Distance = 2.466

SOLUTION :
V
V

## 1.72 cu. cm.

PROBLEM 8:
A cone is inscribed in a cube such that the base is in one
of the face of the cube 1 cm x 1 cm.

PROBLEM 10:
A framer owns two square lots of unequal size, together
2
containing 6568 m . If the lots were contiguous. It would
require 356 m. of fence to enclose them in a single
enclosure of six sides. Find the dimension of the smallest
lot.

SOLUTION :
2

SOLUTION :
2
0.5 1
V
3

## V = 0.262 cu. cm.

PROBLEM 9:
Given the following equations of the curve
2
x 6x + 3y + 11 = 0

A=x +y
2
2
x + y = 6568
3x + 3y + y x = 356
2x + 4y = 356
x + 2y = 178
x = 178 2y
2
2
x + y = 6568
2
2
(178 - 2y) + y = 6568
2
2
31684 712y + 4y + y = 6568
2
5y 712y + 25116 = 0

y = 78 m.
x = 178 2(78)
x = 22m.
Dimension of smallest lot is 22 m. x 22 m.
PROBLEM 11:
A sphere has a radius of 15 and its center is at the origin.
Which of the following points is inside the sphere.
I ( 4, 6, -12)
II (-10, -9, 4)
III ( 1, -2, 7)
a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)
2

The point is at 3, 13

Since the distance is less than 15, all points are inside the
sphere.
PROBLEM 12:
Francis set out from a certain point at 6 kph. After he had
gone 2 hours, Cruz set out to overtake him and went 4 km.
rd
the first hour, 5 km. the second hour, 6 km. the 3 hour
and so on gaining 1 km. per hour. After how many hours
were they together.?

c.

a.

## (t +2) total time of travel for Francis

Distance traveled by Francis = 6(t +2)

6 t

12 t

t
2

2 4

t 8

1 1

x
y
2

d = (x - 6) + (y 0)
2
2
2
d = (x - 6) + y
2dd = 2(x 6) + 2yy = 0

x
y

21x

10x

21

4x

lim

x 1.25

16x

2x

0.229

( 3)

12
6x

lim

2
43

2x 1

25

32 1.5

lim

8 1.5

32x

b.

x
2

3
3

4x
2

4
2

1.17

21x

10x

21

10( 3)

21( 3)
21

72
0

Do not exist

PROBLEM 15:

SOLUTION :
a.) Probability that both have cellphones.
P = P1P2
P = 0.8 (0.8)
P = 0.64

y x =4
2yy 2x = 0

y'

## a. Find the probability that both have cellphones.

b. Find the probability that one has a cellphone while other
is none.
c. Find the probability that both have no cellphones.

SOLUTION :

4x

## In a certain Barangay, 80% have cellphones. If you select 2

persons from this Barangay.

t 1

PROBLEM 13:
What point in the curve y2 x2 = 4 is nearest to point (6,0).

y'

n 1d

12t 24 8t t
2
t
5t 24 0
t = 8 hours

4x

## t = time in hours Cruz could overtake Francis.

a=4
d=1
n=t

2a

8x

c.

lim

SOLUTION :

SOLUTION :

r = (4 0) + (6 - 0) + (-12 0)
r = 14 < 15
2
2
2
2
r = (-10 - 0) + (-9 - 0) + (4 0)
r = 14.04 < 15
2
2
2
2
r = (1 - 0) + (-2 - 0) + (7 0)
r = 7.35 < 15

13

PROBLEM 14:
Evaluate the following limits
2
4x
x 5
a. lim
x 1.25 16x 2
25
2
x
x 12
b. lim
x 3 2x 2
6x

II and III only
III only
I, II and III

SOLUTION :

2x = 6
x=3
2
2
y (3) = 4
2
y = 13

x 6
y
x 6
y

## b.) Probability that one has a cellphone while the other is

none.
P = P1P2
P = 0.8 (1 - 0.8)
P = 0.16
c.) Probability that both have no cellphones.
P = P1P2
P = (1 0.8)(1 - 0.8)
P = 0.04
PROBLEM 16:

## A sphere having a center at the origin has a radius of 15.

Which of the points is outside the sphere?
A. (1, 2, -7)
B. (8, 6, 12)
C. (10, 9, 4)
D. (-4, 8, -7)
SOLUTION :
Using (1, 2, -7)
2

r = (1 0) + (2 - 0) + (7 0)
r = 7.34 < 15 (inside the sphere)

2

## Hydraulics and Geotechnical

Engineering
PROBLEM 1:
A pump draws water from reservoir A and lifts it to
reservoir B as shown. The loss of head from A to 1 is 3
times the velocity head in the 150 mm pipe and the loss of
head from 2 to B is 25 times the velocity head in the 100
mm pipe. When the discharge is 25 liters/ sec.

r = (8 0) + (6 - 0) + (12 0)
r = 15.62 > 15 (outside the sphere)

Using (10, 9, 4)
2

r = (10 0) + (9 - 0) + (4 0)
r = 14.04 < 15 (inside the sphere)

1.

## Using (-4, 8, -7)

2
2
2
2
r = (-4 0) + (8 - 0) + (-7 0)
r = 11.36 < 15 (inside the sphere)
therefore point (8, 6, 12) is outside the sphere.
PROBLEM 17 :
In an organization, there are Civil Engineers, Electrical
Engineers, and Mechanical Engineers. The sum of their
ages is 2,160; their average age is 36; the average of the
C.E. and M.E. is 39; of the M.E. and E.E. 32(8/11); of the
C.E. and E.E. 36 (2/3). If each C.E. had been one year, each
E.E. 7 years and each M.E. 6 years older, their average age
would have been greater by 5 years. Find the average age
of the Civil Engineers.
Ans. 45 yrs.

## Compute the horsepower output of the pump in

kilowatts.
Compute the pressure head at 1.
Compute the pressure head at 2.

2.
3.

SOLUTION :
1. Power output of pump :

0.02

V1
4

0.15

V1 = 1.13 m/s

0.02

V2
4

0.10

V2 = 2.55 m/s

V3

P3

Z 3 HA

2g

V4

P4

Z 4 HL

2g

0 + HA = 240 + HL
PROBLEM 18 :
A block of copper has a mass of 50 kg. and a density of
8.91 g. per cubic cm.
a.) Find the volume of the copper.
b.) If this block is converted to a cylinder with the
same volume, find the base area if the length is
1500 cm.
c.) Find the diameter of the cylinder.

SOLUTION :
a.) Volume of the copper.

V
V

W
50,000
8.91

5 6 1 1 . 6 7 cm

AL

5611.67

A 1500

3 . 7 4 cm

HL

3V1
2g

3 1.13

25V2
2g
2

25 2.55

2 9.81
HL = 8.48 m.

3.74

D2
4

2 9.81

HA = 240 + 8.48
HA = 248.48 m
Power output = Q

2. Pressure head at 1 :
2
2
VA
PA
V1
ZA
2g
2g
2
P1
1.13
0 0 0
2g

## c.) Diameter of the cylinder.

A

E = H. A.
E = 248.48 m.
Power output = 0.02 (9.81)(248.48)
Power output = 48.75 kW

## b.) Base area if the length is 1500 cm.

HL

P1

19.74m.

2 . 1 8 cm .

3. Pressure head at 2 :

P1

( 20)

Z1

Hf1

3 1.13
2g

2
V1
2g

P1

Z1

HA

2
V2
2g

2. Skin friction :

P2

Z2

ult

b
ult

1.13

2
19.74

2g

P2

20

248.48

2.55
2g

P2

design

20

267.95m.

## a.) Celerity of pressure wave. :

C

EB

720 kN

ult

Qf

64.74

655.26 kN

3. Length of pile :
C. P L

## a.) Compute the celerity of the pressure wave.

b.) Compute the velocity of flow.
c.) If the length of the pipe is 650 m. long. Compute the
water hammer pressure at the valve if it is closed in 3 sec.

SOLUTION :

ult
ult

720

PROBLEM 2:
A valve is suddenly closed in a 200 mm pipe. The
increase in pressure is 700 kPa. Assuming that the pipe is
rigid and the bulk modulus of water is 2.07 x 109 N/m2.

FS
360 2

655.26

## 0.76 55.5 0.36 4 L

L 10.90 m.
PROBLEM 4:
A confined aquifer has a source of recharge as shown in the
figure. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 40m/day
and its porosity is 0.25 . The piezometric head in the two
wells 1350 m. apart is 65 m. and 60 m. respectively from a
common datum. the average thickness of the aquifer is 25 m.
and the average width is 4 km.

2.07 x 109

1000
c = 1438.75 m/s

## b.) Velocity of the flow. :

Increase in pressure
Ph = CV
700000 = 1000 (1438.75) V
V = 0.486 m/s
c.) Water hammer pressure when it is closed in 3 sec. :

t
t

t
Ph

Ph

2L
C

SOLUTION :

2 650

1. Rate of flow :
h
i
L
65 60
i
1350

1438.75
0.904 sec.

0.904

700
3
210.83 kPa.

PROBLEM 3:
A 0.36 m. square pre stressed concrete pile is to be driven
in a clayey soil as shown in the figure. The design capacity
of the pile is 360 kN, with a factor of safety of 2.
1.
2.
3.

## 1. Compute the rate of flow through the aquifer in m3/day.

2. Compute the seepage velocity
3. Compute the time of travel from the head of the aquifer to a
point 3 km. downstream in days.

## Compute the end bearing capacity of the pile.

Compute the skin friction expected to develop
along the shaft of the pile.
Compute the length of the pile if = 0.76.

i 0.0037
A 25 4000
A 100,000 m 2
Q

Ki A

Q
Q

40 0.0037 100,000
3
1 4 8 0 0 m / d ay

2. Seepage Velocity :

SOLUTION :
1. End bearing capacity of piles :

C
b

Qb

qu
2

111
2

55.5 kN/m2
c NC A tip
55.5 9 0.36 0.36
64.74 kN

V
VS
VS

VS

Q
A
14800
100,000
0.148
V
n
0.148
0.25
0.592

## 3. Time to travel 3km downstream :

a.) Compute the lateral pressure in the cell for a failure to
occur.
b.) Compute the maximum principal stress to cause
failure.
c.) Compute the normal stress at the point of maximum
shear.

Dis tan ce

SeepageVelocity

3000
0.592
5068 days

SOLUTION :
PROBLEM 5:
A tank 12 m. high filled with oil having a unit weight of 9.4
3
kN/m is to be built on a site. The existing soil profile
consists of a 3m. sand layer underlain by a 14 m. clay
layer. The water table is on the ground surface. Neglecting
the weight of the tank.
a.) Compute the compression
index of clay.
b.) Compute the settlement under
the center of the tank.
c.) Find the minimum depth in
the ground to which the tank
must be placed in order to minimize
settlement.

SOLUTION :

x
Sin 28

LL

20

LL

LL
51%

Cc

0.009 LL 10
0.009 51 10

Cc

0.369

17.31 9.81 7

79.71

9.4 12

65

13.14

65

130

70

13.14

65

78.14 kPa

18.88 9.81 3

112.8 kPa

65

## A rectangular channel 5.6 m. wide by 1.2 m. deep is lined

with a smooth stone. Well laid and has a hydraulic slope
of 0.002. Using n = 0.013.

PROBLEM 7:

Cc

65
55.93

20

x
55.93

## b.) maximum principal stress to cause failure:

PL

40

0.645

31

13.14 kPa

PL

P.I.

Po

tan 28

1 143.14 kPa
c.) normal stress at the point of the maximum shear :

1. Compression index :

Po

## a.) What is the capacity of the channel in m /s.

b.) What savings in earth excavation could have been
offered by using more favorable proportions but adhering
to the same delivery and slope.
c.) What savings in lining per meter length by using more
favorable proportions but adhering to the same delivery
and slope. ?

SOLUTION :
a.) Capacity of channel :

S
S

CCH
1 e

log

0.369 1400
1 1.27
8 7 . 1 5 mm

Po

A = 5.6 (1.2)
A = 6.72 m2
P = 1.2(2) + 5.6
P = 8 m.
A
R
P

Po
log

112.8

79.71

79.71

## c. Minimum depth in the ground to which the tank must be

placed in order to minimize settlement.

6.72
8

R = 0.84

A R 2/3 S 1/ 2
n
1/ 2
6.72(0.84) 2 / 3 0.002
Q
0.013

Q
PROBLEM 6:
A cohesive soil specimen has a shearing resistance equal
to 29 and a cohesion of 31 kPa. If the maximum shearing
stress of the soil sample is equal to 65 kPa.

3
20.58 m / s

## 2. Savings in earth excavation by using more favorable

proportions. :
Use most efficient section :
b = 2d

d
2

b=bd
b = 2 d2

AR

2/3 1/ 2
S

GS

20.58

2/3

2 d
2d
2

0.001

w
1 e
2.68 0.73 1

1 0.73

1/ 2

0.013

d 1.794

3
1.97 g r /c m

b = 2d
b = 2 (1.794)
b = 3.578 m.

## b. Dry density of the soil :

2.68 1
dry

Savings in excavation :
Savings = 5.6 (1.2) 1.794 (3.587 )
Savings = 0.2849 m2

0.73

3
655 g r /c m

dr y

## 3. Savings in lining per meter length :

Lining of old channel = [1.2 (2) + 5.6](1)
2
Lining of old channel = 8 m

100%.

## Lining of new channel

= [ 1.794(2) + 3.587](1)
2
= 7.175 m
Savings in lining = 8 7.175
2
Savings in lining = 0.825 m /m.

## A conical having a radius of base equal to 35 cm. and a

height of 65 cm. has its base at the bottom.
a.) If water is poured into the tank, find the total volume to
fill up.
b.) How much additional water is required to fill the tank if
3
0.025 m of water is poured into the conical tank.
3
c.) Find the height of free surface if 0.025 m of water is
poured into a conical tank.

SOLUTION :
a.) Total volume to fill up :
2
r h
v
3

0.35

0.0834m

2.68

0.92

0.73

0.25
25%

0.65

100

## b.) Additional water required to fill the tank.

2.68
0.73

27.24%

PROBLEM 10:
A saturated clay layer has a thickness of 30 m. with a
water content of 59% and a specific gravity of 2.76.

## a.) Determine the saturated density of the clay.

b.) Compute the total stress at the bottom.
c.) Compute the effective stress at the bottom.

SOLUTION :
a.) Saturated density of the clay :

At 100%,

PROBLEM 8:

Gs

100

Gs
e
59 2.76

e = 1.628
GS

V1 = 0.0834 0.025
V1 = 0.0584 m3

Sat

w
1 e
2.76 1.628

## 3. Height of free surface :

3

Sat

1 1.628

(0.65)

V1

h13

0.0834

(0.65)3

0.0584

h13

h1 = 0.577 m.

PROBLEM 9:
A soil has a specific gravity of 2.68 and a void ratio of 0.73
if the degree of saturation is 92%.
a.) Compute the total density of the soil.
b.) Compute the dry density of the soil.
c.) Compute the water content at a degree of saturation of
92% and 100%.

SOLUTION :
a.) Total density of the soil :

sa t

(1)

3
1 .6 7 g r /c m

## b.) Total stress at the bottom :

GS e

Sat

w
1 e
2.76 1.628

Sat

1 1.628

(9.81)

3
16.38 kN /m
sa t
Total stress = 16.38 (30)
Total stress = 491.40 kN /m2
c.) effective stress at the bottom:
Effective stress = (16.38 9.81)(30)
Effective stress = 197.10 kN/m2

## Structural Design and Construction

PROBLEM 1:
A 400 mm square column shown is supported by square
footing on 5 piles as shown. Dimensions are a = 0.75 m., b
= 2 m., effective footing depth = 0.6 m., Ultimate pile
capacity = 320 kN
D = 420 kN
L = 360 kN
E = 210 kN

## b.) If the compressive stress at the bottom fiber is 12 MPa

and the tensile stress at the top fiber is 2 MPa.
c. If the compressive stress at the top fiber is 16 MPa and
zero at the bottom fibers.

SOLUTION :
a.) Value of P and e when the compressive stress of 21
MPa.
P
f
A

## Column moment, ME due to earthquake

= 160 kN.m
Required strength of the footing is based on.:
U = 1.32D + 1.1L + 1.1E
a.) Compute the critical beam shear stress at ultimate
loads. b.) Compute the ultimate punching shear stress.
c.) Compute the maximum design moment.

SOLUTION :
a.) Critical beam shear stress at ultimate loads.
Pu = 1.32D + 1.1L + 1.1E
Pu = 1.32(420) + 1.1(360) + 1.1(210)
Pu = 1181.4 kN
Mu = 1.32(0) + 1.1(0) + 1.1(160)
Mu = 176 kN.m
Ultimate reaction of pile at row (1)
R

Pu
A

MuC
I

Assume area of one pile = 1
2
I = 2(1) (2) = 4
C = 1.0

1181.4 176(1)
R
5
4
R = 280.28kN < 320 kN (safe)
Vu = 280.28(2)
Vu = 560.56 kN
Vu
bd
560560
3500 600
0.31 MP a

## b.) Ultimate punching shear stress.

P MC
R
A
I
1181.4 176(0)
R
5
4
Ru = 236.28 kN
Vu = 1181.4 236.28
Vu = 945.12 kN
Vu
bod
b

4 1000

4000 mm.

945120
4000 600
0.463 MP a

21

P
300(600)

3780 kN e

## b.) Value of P and e when compressive stress at the

bottom is 12 MPa and tensile stress at the top is 2 MPa.
P
A

P
bd
P
bd

f
f

MC
I

6M
bd 2
6 Pe
bd 2

P
6e
1
stress at the top
d
bd
P
6e
f
1
stress at the bottom
b bd
d
P
6e
2
1
equation (1)
600
300(600)
P
6e
12
1
equation (2)
600
300(600)
f

1 600 6e
6 600 6e
600 6e 3600 36e
30e 4200

e 140 mm
P
6 140
1
600
300 600
P = 900,000 N
P = 900 kN

12

## c.) Value of P and e when compressive stress at the top

fiber is 16 MPa and zero at the bottom fibers.

P MC
A
I
At the bottom of the beam :
P
6e
f
1
b bd
d
P
6e
0
1
d
300 600
6e
At the top of the beam :
1
0
d
P
6e
f
1
6e
b bd
d
1
0
600
P
6 100
16
1
600 6e 0
600
300 600
600
P = 1440,000 N
e
6
P = 1440 kN
e 100 mm
f

## c.) Maximum design moment.

Mu = 2R(0.80)
Mu = 2 (280.28)(0.8)
Mu = 448.45 kN.m

PROBLEM 2:
A beam with width b = 300 mm and depth d = 600 mm is to
be prestressed. Considering a 15% prestress loss,
compute the value of prestressing force P and eccentricity
e.

## a.) If the compressive stress of 21 MPa.

PROBLEM 3:
A 9 m. high retaining wall is laterally supported at the top
and fixed at the base. The wall resists active earth pressure
increasing from 0 at the top to 52 kN/m at the base per
meter length along the longitudinal axis.
a.) Determine the design moment at the base. Apply the
2
2
fixed end moment equation WL at the top and WL at
30
20
the base. EI is constant.

b.) The lateral support at the top of the wall was removed,
determine the design moment at the base.

## c.) Determine the resulting base shear if the wall is free at

the top.

P = 273696 N
P = 273.70 kN

SOLUTION :
a.Design moment at the base when the top is laterally
supported.

M
M

WL2
20
2
59 9
20

22

6 120

## b.) Based on bearing capacity of bolts.

P = AbFp
P = 16(22)(6)(1.2)(400)
P = 1013760 N
P = 1013.76 kN
c.) Based on block shear strength.

M = 210.6kN.m
b. Design moment at the base when the support at the top
was removed.

52
9 1
2

P = 234
M = 3P
M = 3(234)
M = 702 kN.m
c. Base shearing if the wall if the lateral support is
removed at the top :

## Av = (200 25- 25- 12.5)(16)

Av = 2200 mm2
At = (100 12.5 12.5)(16)
At = 1200 mm2
P = 0.30 Fv Av + 0.50 Fu At
P = 0.30(400)(2200) + 0.50 (400)(1200)
P = 504000 N
P = 504 kN
Second possible failure in block shear :

V
52 9
V
2
V 234 kN.

PROBLEM 4:
Two plates each with thickness t = 16 mm are bolted
together with 6 22 mm bolts forming a lap connection.
Bolt spacing are as follows :
S1 = 40 mm, S2 = 80 mm, S3 = 100 mm
Bolt hole diameter = 25 mm
Allowable stress :
Tensile stress on gross area of the plate = 0.60 Fy
Tensile stress on net area of the plate = 0.50 Fu
Shear stress of the bolt : Fv = 120 MPa
Bearing stress of the bolt : Fp = 1.2 Fu
Calculate the permissible tensile load P under the
following conditions.

## a.) Based on shear capacity of bolts.

b.) Based on bearing capacity of bolts.
c.) Based on block shear strength.

SOLUTION :

## Av = (200 25- 25- 12.5)16

Av = 2200 mm2
At = (140 12.5 25)(16)
At = 1640 mm2
P = 0.30 Fu Av + 0.50 Fy At
P = 0.30(400)(2200) + 0.5 (400)(1640)
P = 592000 N
P = 592 kN
Use P = 504 kN5.

PROBLEM 5:
A column section shown is reinforced with 8 32 mm
bars, with a clear concrete cover of 40 mm for the 12 mm
ties. Due to reversal of lateral forces. The design axial
load due to the reversal effect of DL, LL and WL changes
as follows
Along the positive x direction :
Mu = -420 kN.m
Vu = 370 kN
Nu = 1320 kN
Along the negative x direction :
Mu = +420 kN.m
Vu = 370 kN
Nu = 450 kN
Use fc = 28 MPa and fy = 415 MPa

## A. ) Allowable shear strength for simplified calculation.

1.) For members subject to shear and flexure only.

Vc

1
f C 'b w d
6

## 2.) For members subject to an axial compression.

1
Nu
Vc
1
f C 'b w d
6
14 Ag
B. ) Allowable shear strength for detailed calculation
1.) For members subject to shear and flexure.
Vd
1
Vc
f C ' 120 w u b w d 0.3 f C 'b w d
7
Mu

Vu d
Mu

## 2.) For members subject to an axial compression.

Vd
1
Vc
f C ' 120 w u b w d
7
Mu
Where :

Mm Mu Nu
Vu d
Mu

4h d
8

## Vc = shall not be greater than :

0.3N u
Vc 0.3 1
fc ' bw d
Ag
When Mm is negative :
0.3N u
Use Vc 0.3 1
fc ' bw d
Ag

## 3.) For members subject to significant axial tension.

0.3N u
1
Vc
1
fc ' bw d
6
Ag
Min. area of shear reinforcement :
b wS
AV
3 fy
When factored shear force Vu exceeds the shear strength
Vc, shear reinforcement shall be provided and the shear
strength Vs shall be computed where shear reinforcement
perpendicular to the axis member :

Av f d
y
S
a.) Determine the concrete shear strength for the positive x
direction using simplified calculation.
b.) Determine the concrete shear strength for the negative
x direction using simplified calculation.
c.) Determine the required spacing of shear reinforcement.
Apply provisions on spacing limits of reinforcement when
applicable.
AS