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The " lVlarlgotd ll Serfes of fatrss. ,,

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t .ttr. narsara;s

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tr4trltrr"n La.(:y,

.llhe

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Cobblcrs oI Brorcitr.

ffIiscellaneoga.

By Vl:ry

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Our Personal anat Social Responsilrilitics'

f,emperanee and the Working.Man. lJy ltov.

ll'rT IJ. A' Slt()chrlrl, I).J)., I.I'.

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JtyV.ll'uv, lllllocorltl'Lytro'

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Latest Prrbticatlonr.

, Popular

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and Patliotic Poetry; i]'arts,L;iIL, III., IV., V,, onri Yt. conrpltod by n. J.

Ily ltighl, Il€v' MonEl8nor

The Martyre of Rome. Parls I. ,t II.

Si, l'rancis Xavier, By Mugt tlev, Dr. Chtroy, nishon ot Tlll'hhl.

KelJy, B.-1.

Fernlanrsh snd. its Princes, lty Rev. ,I. l). Mcl(elttrr, M,It.t,A,

Ilre Hou-se of God and the Ilcvereut'c Dllc lo It.

Blcssed Yincent P*llotli. By A. C, Clsrke.

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Water: fis (,rigin.

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of Dernocracy. letter oI HIs flollltoHs.notD

By

Rev. P.

MeKcnua, M.L(,

,. ]'he,qillon."

and Usc,

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E,

V(Kenna. M.n.I.A,

The Grorlh ot tlc Cattmlic Chuicb in China. By William Motan.

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Eallinan. D,D., P.P., V.G.

Chlistmas Trce; and the Legend of the Ilaunted Castlo oI Verdun. Uy Barr"

of^

Prirnary Schools in freland" 3y Right Rov. Monrlgnor

of War, Thc I'isko Ti,ousands antl Birdeen. By M. Sullivan"

"

oNE pENNy EAOH ','

,,,/

THE

Itc relation to Church and State

Dutier of; both in regard 'to it

,

1,,

tsY :

,

.,.:

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:

RIfiHT REV" MCR: FIALLINAN,T

0.D., P.F.'; V.6,, :' I'

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l

bart e ita

Cl"tat:

DttDttn:

ila firtlnne cdcolllce 1 n611unn,

TRUTII SOCTETY OF' IRELAND,

a4 sliro udt; iri ConarLt, r

flpper O'ConneII Street.

F6SnftaI

[^C cedlc a1 coPrarfi,'

Att RiXlis Rcsetvtd.

l

,

flrfislnn'd Lu^4.

PRICE ONE PENNY.

Catholic Truth Society of lreland.

Episcopal Approhation.

TN

the Pastolrl l-cttcr of IIis Eminence Cardinai Logue

I io. 1-.,,1, rr7oz, we tincl tiie

+

tu

,lrilrc

I,y tlrc

fptrlowing :

" A great work

of lrelan,l

is bcing

f<,r {urrri:'l,iri;1 tlrt'.1x',,1rlc with such reading as will

(-utholic

Truth Society

rJeprivr: them ol ail cxcuso ftir resorting to the poisoned

sourccs {rorn ,,vliiclr so lnany r,vorc lvont to imbibe an irreligious,

sensual, ancl o1t.en corn.r111 iirg dr:urrgirt. T'heir efforls noetit

arr,d, skould rcct:i,t;c caery su.t'/ttstl. Wlrclrevcrr I see in a church

the rveil-knor,vn l-,ox clestinet[

pui:lications, I

thc best in:ierests of his peoplc."

fur thc tlistlibution of their

take it as i,r clcar 1:rr:of ol'thcr pastor's zea.l for

In the l.,enten llegukLtions lirr

[Iretra.ncl],

thcr l)ir.rccsc of Dul.rlin, r9o3,

ilh<l work oI thcr Catholic

happily

euery

His Grace the Archbishop writes :*-"

Truth Society

so successfui

now so firmly csta.lrlisltccl antl

througllout the cliocesc, is d,asuruing af

/t'otw

bolh

clcrgy

anrl hil,!."

e!:&aoil,vtzgaw'ient

(irar:c tlrc Archbishop of

Tuam, " that various pr:irrting pftissc$ in Gt"cat l3ritain daily

pour,out a liciocl o{ iniiclel rrnrl irnmoxrl publiciltions, some of

li,hich or,rerftrovrs 1.c, this countr:y. We hirve a. confiJent hope

pnblications will remove the

temptation of havirrg rccourse to such {ilthy garbage, wiil

"

It is well known," writes His

that the Society's

lC.[.S.I.]

create a ta"ste for pur:e a.ircl rvhoiesome

also serr.e as a,n antidote agair:st the poison of dangerous or

immolai il"ritings."

literature, and will

'I Alloi,v

me, deariy

belorred," writbs

Dr. Fennelly,

rgo3,

Arch-

b,ishop

conchrding, to say sc,meihing

of Cashel, in his Lenten Pastoral,

.grorving

taste amr-rnqst our

" before

in lavour oI the Catholic Truth

Socicty, u liich has becn got up for the purpose of counter-

acting'a

peoflg {or an overflorv

of fiith1, literature {rom Engiantl and other countrie.s. Its

pubiications are raqy of the soil

subject;

and,

as far

as I

can

of high

;

are very varied in point of

are,

in

many

instances,

judge,

literary merit. I ask ,priests and pectlltl,e lrt supl:ort tka

\

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Cathal,tc Trwth Soc'iety, by taking and reading its publ'icatians,"

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13

Tur DnrxN QursrtoN.n

Its Relation to Church and State. Daties o/

Both iru Regard to it.

Histsrieal Aspeet of the Question.

IwrBupBnaNcB is not a modern

of the Old Law denounced it.

vice. The Prophets

It existed in the time of

our Blessed Lord and the Apostles. The homilies of

Saints Augustine, Chrysostom,

witness to its

Christianity.

It has

and other Fathers bear

early centuries of

prevalence in the

been observed that Northern nations have been

at all times more

prone to this vice than others. It was

in past or recent times.

little known in Italy

'

Englanrl anil Irclantl.

I have seen it stated that

England, as a nation, was

the time of pueen

remarkable for its sobriety until

Elizabeth, when, it is

habits of intemperance returning to their native

said, the English soldiery contracted

in Ireland and Holland, and

land, corrupted the whole nation

became as notorious dor.in-

that it

been for sobriety. The truth

is,

to such an extent

temperance as it had

England had been at all times, and under all races,

notorious for its drinking propensities. The Britons, according to St. Gildas, the Teutons and

*A Paper read at the Meeting of the Maynooth Uniop, June,

1902.

fHE DRINK QUESTIoI{.

??r.".,

drinkers

habits of

John

accordi!.g

;

to

mighty

Malmesbury attributes the"easv

Boniface, were all

and William of

conquest of Iingland by

Qt-.-

the Normans to the prevailin"g

intemperance.

of

Salisbury, towards the end of the twelfth

" that

habits

of drinking

foreign

have made

the

Xations.,, This

weil

known to Innocent

exemption of the

oi

Worcester

lgntury, !ays,

English

na ional

{{I,

Abbey. of

bgitg

"

Holy

famous among all

failirrg

must

have

been

him.

in rzo6, when the case of the

Evesham, from

,.

before

-argged-

Father, we

the Bishop

The

*?q

i3id

thrs ls the opinion of our

Bishop,s advocate

the'schools, and

have learnt in

masters, that there is no

of Bishops.,, The Fope

you

and

vour maste.-rs

when voir ]earnt this.,,

d.rink",

rvere welcome

prescription.against

repJied :

had

the rights

birth

" Certainly,

drunk too much English beer

Not

,qnly.

beer, but_

aI

kinds of

to the Enghsh, according to an old poet :_

.

'Ihe Russ

drinks quass. Dutch Lubeck beer,

strong and mighty;

Metheglin quafis,

And that is

ilhe

Breton, he

'I'he

Irish aqua vita.

The Frcnch affect the

Orleans grapc,

-

sherry,

'l'he Spaniard tastes his

The Engtish, none of these can ,scape,

But he with all makes merry.

A-s regards

lreland, on the other hand, there is no

-up

to- a comparatively recent

time,

irrt"mp"r.rri".

a ivrjtei oi

evidence to show that

as aaatio4, it was

q

thorough

.ri

ather

1nd,

addiited to the vice of

On this point I will read

dee,p research, clear m'nd,

for you the verd.ict of

calm and impartial iudcmeni.

m rreover-1"^m.ly,

thc

brieht

liehis

iire-i"te

of the

,,The

Fnglishman

one

of

t3fldgett,

Order.

l^tedemptorist

Discipline of Drink,"

rs drunkenness a vice

In his admiralble trEatise,

speaking of pngland,

of modern

hesays : ., Noi

England merelv.

l;;i--i#;

Though it has enormously increasel in'the

centuries with the

increale of population, and from

there has been a tendency, at leaii

to th6'abuse oi

other caus,es,

amongst the inhabitants of Britain,

5zet

THE DRINK QUESTION.

intoxicating drinks in

each successive age,

with rvhich

we are acqualnt(

inted, and which each successive race

has strengthened."

all the available

evidence before him, he uses these words : " On the

that drunken-

has strenethened.

Speaking

of

lreland,

after weighing

whole the evidence would seem to prove

ness, as a national vice in lreland, is of a very

date." So much in the interests of historical truth.

modern

Increase ol Intemperance after the Reformation.

In connection rvith this aspect of the case, it

place to observe that when the bonds of

spread with

into Engiand,

alarming

had

the vice

Up

rapidity.

grappled with

po'rver

may not

morality

be out of

were loosened by the introduction of the tenets

so-called Reformation

of the

of in-

temperance

to that

the evil,

period one power alone and that was the spiritual

That

of the CathoUc Church.

it did so not without success is evident from the

fact that when that

power

was

practically

destroyed

of drunkenness

in England and Scotland, the ravages

became so widespread and enormous, that the civil

power

the

drink question was passed in the

that one hundred

years after the time of Elizabeth, when the power of the

had to come forrvard,

The first Act

and by legislation,

try to

check it.

of Parliament dealing with

reign of Fdward VI.

We are told by a Protestant writer

Catholic Church was completely crippled,

and civil

legislation had tried to arrest the progress of the evil, the organs were in London transferred from the churches to

the taverns to accompany the bestial bacchanalias of men

and women.

State of the Question at Present.

'"

But whilst these few remarks on the historical aspect

of the question may be ol some interest,

they are intro-

duced merely as a kind of preface to the main object of

this paper, which is altogether of a more practical kind.

For, whatever inay be said abbut intemperance

in these

islands in the past, there can be no doubt.

that at the

6 tr{E DRINK ouESrIoN.'

present momcnt it is the greatest, the

not only in Great Britain, but

most crying evil,

also in Ireland. It is a

gigantic evil, stalking through the land, affecting young

and old, rich and poor, mele and female, filling our

prisons, workhouses, and asylums

perdition. - Think of it.

with its victims,

ind driving thousands into 6arly graves and eternal

Thirteen millions of pounds

ipent in drinl<-that is about one-third of the value of the

annual agricultural

produce of the country.

More than

half the taxes of the country paid for drink. 25,ooo

licensed houses for four-and-half millions of people-

that is, one for evety r?4, including women and children

now than there were

that is, ro,ooo more public

houses

when the population was over

eight millions. No

need of giving further statistics. The question is : What

to arrest the progress of this dernon, and

is to be-done

what part are we, Catholic Clergy, called on to act in this

great work of salvation ?

Two Powers have to Copo with this Evil.

First of al], we must bear in mind that drunkenness is

in this country it

not only a crime against God's law, but

is likewise a great social

deal with it-the

evil. Hence two powers have to

Civil and the Ecclesiastical. Let me

treat first of the Civil power. On the very threshold of

the inquiry I am met with the trite aphorism so glibly

used by many : " Men cannot be made sober by an Act of Parliament." The reply is : Neither can men be made

honest by an Act of Parliament."

May not the State,

robbery, or punish it ?

Qulte

,a man sober if he wishes to

therefore, pass laws to prevent

true, a law cannot make

be a drunkard, but bad laws-

or good laws badly administered-may make drunkards

of persons. Leaving

the influence of heredity out of the

question it may be safely stated that most people become

drunkards or dishonest

according to the opportunities

or temptations thrown

comes

in the.ir way.

To regulate these

within the functions of the Civil authority, and

hence its influence in dealing with the evil.

DRrNK 9UESTTON.

7

Duties of the Stato.*

But how is it to exercise this influence and discharge its

Some persons wish that the State

proper functions

?

would prevent

A person who was

altogether the sale of intoxicating drinks.

once asked whether more harm was

-

due to the public-house or grocer's License, replied :

" M"y the Lord sweep them bolh from our land."

desirable thing, but is it attainable ? I

This may be a

should say not. Many people, perhaps the majority, in

these countries-rightly

necessary article of

disguised

alcoholic

liquor, within certain restricted limits, as a useful, if not a

diet. This is a fact which cannot be

or wrongly-regard

or ignored; and in the face of it a proposal to

end the drink traffic is not within the range of fracticat

politics just now. The most we can hope for islo

it

; and even to do this, we ought to bear

mend

in mind that it

is a complex question,

which cannot be settled all at once.

It is Iike the proverbial bundle of sticks, which have to

be dealt with one

abstainers, without and even excessive

by one. And in this work all, total

renouncing their principles, moderate

drinkers, can take a hand, and be

frorn the State, not visionary, but

reforms. If the drink question has

ago, it is not for want

and complexity of Parliamentary

and difficulty of ad-

united in demanding possible and usefui not been solved long

there are no less than two hundred and fiftv Acts in the

Statute Book to regulate it.

of laws, as

This verymultiplicity

Acts necessarily begets confusion

ministration, and has doubtless conduced much

failure

half centuries. One of the first

to the

of the licensing laws during the past three and a

and mosf necessarv steos.

therefore, to be taken by the State seems to be to srmplifyj

codi{y, and largely reform these Acts.

Dufles ol tho Churoh.

The mission of the Church is to save the souls of

men. It

is her's to safeguard virtue, to combat crime.

* For the legal aspect of the question see Appendix.

I

rl

l

8 THE DRINK QUESTIoN.

Intemperance is not only a social

degrading crime,

Hence the Church

and

excluding

of

God

it.

places, fought against

single-handed,

evil, it is also a most

kingdom

of God.

and in all

years,

from the

has at all. times,

For over a thousand

with

it

she grappled

in these islands,

with success, as we have seen.

During the past three centureies her

have led

power

has been,

other

of intem-

to a great

eauses

extent, paralyzed. Besides this, many

to the

enormous increase

perance,

such as the brrstle of modern life, the con-

in

large cities, and consequent

supervision

and the influence oI

increase both of lvealth housing of the poor, the

amusements, bad

poisonous

least,

not

centration of people

difficulties of pastoral

public opinion, the enormous

and

poverty, the unsanitar5z

of

absence

laws-or

innocent and health{ul

Iaws badly administered-and the

liquor;

and

last, though

of a new agency, and a

adulteration of

the introduction

one, namely,

in

the

most powerful

which,

alcohol in its-undiluted

Manning,

strength,

words of Cardinal

" has added a new

madness to tfu evils of intemper#ce."

Direot anil Inalirect.

Now, in considering the duties of the Church towards

this vice,

the Church has, at least, no direct control. Hence, of

we must

bear in mind that over these causes

miracle, she cannot gain a

intemperance. Hence,

too, she not

welcomes the co-operation of the secular arm in her

conflict with

of a two-fold kind, direct anC indirect. Direct, which

herself, short of an abi&ing

complete victory over the vice of

consists

jn

only does noc

it.

refuse, but she invokes and

are,

therefore

The duties of the Church

the. use of her own

spiritual weapons , and

and social influence,

are combining

We, priests, are. the

of

the Church,

indirect, in the exercise of her civil

such as

it may

to create. and

principal

in

be, on the causes which

spread the

evil.

standaid-bearers, ttre warriors

this struggle of tremendous import for time and

country.

Let us ask ourselYes rvhat ar6

we to discharge them r

eternity in this

the duties, and how are

THE DRINK QUEStTON.

.

g

Two Pitfalls to be Guarilerl Against.

Before considering

them in detail, we must guard our-

selves against

to morals.

were heresies

The

two pitfalls-one a snare to faith, the other

From the earliest ages of Christianity there

regarding the use of fermented

liquors.

that the use of

Gnostics and Manicheans taught

them was sinful, because they regarded them as the

creation of an evil principle.

The heresy was condemned and refuted

of the

than

in

vigorously

"

These men

contemptible, yet

words spread like a

that God made to be received

and are heretics not because they abstain,

they abstain hereticall5z. "

by the Fathers

Church of that time, and by none more powerfully

by Origen.

the

The Albigensians

repeated the error

and were

St. Bernard.

utterly

neglected, for their

from food

;

beginning of the twelfth century,

opposed

"

said

and denounced

by

he, " are mere rustics, and

they must not be

canker. They abstain

with thanksgiving

but because

And lest anybody may think he was opposed to the

Christian practice of self.denial, he added

guided

:

" ff

thdg&e

by spiritual physicians

were not.

disciplidE, I

taming the flesh and bridling

and ascetic

approve their virtue in

its lusts." But

they

St. Bernard

They made distinctions

of food, and said the use of some of them, and amongst

these fermented

liquors, was unlawful

;

hence the great

Some

'especially

said they abstained heretically.

of temperance,

modern ardent advoiates

amongst

the separated sects,

akin

to

.these

in

propound doctrines

Cardinal Manning

4angerously

them

heresies.

had

address to the Holy

before his mind when he delivered a memorable

Commercial

Family at St. Mary's,

"

Road, London,

1875

Now, mv friends," he said,

intoxicating

distinctly, that any man who should

" listen I will go to liquors, but I repeat

say that the use of wine, or any other like

my grave without tasting

thing

is sinful,

man is a

when

it

does not lead to drunkenness, that

heretic,

condemned by

the Catholic Church. With that

man I will never work."

The second snare is one to morals. In our zeal in the

IO

THE DRrNK gUtsSTroN.

cause of temperance we

to stand on a common platform with all advocates of that

are invited, and naturally led,

cause. In doing so lve must

and

guard

ours.elves against error

non-Catholics regard

and raise the promotion

exaggeration. Many

temperance as a kind of a God,

and practice of it to the dignity of a natural religion.

In doing

this they may be acting in conformity with

but for us to imitate them would be a

their own tenets,

fatal error,

To them temperance

stands alone and by

; but to us Catholics it is a part

itself as a natural virtue

and parcel of our Catholic system, requiring God's

grace, the help of the Sacraments, and other aid"s

for its

practice, and ought not, moreover, be separated frorn the

penance and

expiation.

Catholic view of its being an exercise of

Weapons of the Churoh.

What weapons, then, does Holy Church place in our

hands

them

Church herself. Some are new, and accommodated to the

to

?

combat this

dread

monster,

and how do

we

use

Some of these weapons are as ancient as the

altered circumstances of the fight

of the Church is ever the same, she

her discipline in accordance with the requirements of

varies her forrns and

;

for, whilst the soul

time and place.

Anelent Weapons.

puts in our hands the same weapons that our

when he

sent them " praeilicare reg'nxtrn, Dei," " to preach the

of the

Blessed Lord placed in those of the Apostles

She

Kingdom of God "-sfus

gives us the sword

" Word of God, which is living and effectual."

At our ordination she warns

praedicare "-"

Do we

us, " Sacerd,otem oportet,

11 is the duty of a priest to preach."

wield this sword in season and out of season ?

I)o we preach from the housetops against

this vice ?

It is a noon-day evil staring us in the face. Are we for

ever raising the cry of

alarm against it, or do we not

either because it is so

frequently pass it by unheeded,

.orimo.r,"oi because

we are too faint-hearted to attack

t

il.

#

,,|

i,

{

TIIE DRTNK 9UESTION.

IT

it ? " Ve rnihi si non

woe is unto me if I preach not the Gospel."

praedicauero," says St. Paul. " For

The

second weapon is the Sacrament of Penance. The

priest sows the seed in the pulpit, and reaps the harvest

in the confessional. Do we use to the fullest extent the

promote

total abstinence or temperance, accordrng to the re-

quirements of each individual penitent ?

opportunities offered in this sacred tribunal to

license-holders of the

dangers

Do we warn

of their trade and the

De we ever try to

obligations by which they are bound?

dissuade our people from rushing recklessly into a

business fraught rvith such terrible

consequences ?

abstinence,

penance ?

temptations and

Do we, as often as 1ve may, impose

either total or partial, as a sacramental

These and

such questions should form the

subject of our examination of conscience from tjme td

tine.

New l[eapons. The Pledge in General.

in

Amongst

our

the

new weapons

which

Holy

Church

places

the

hands, the pledge takes the first place. In

sense in which it is now generally

by

individuals in a society, to

accepted, as the binding

a solemn prcmise of an individual, or a number o{

promote

sobriety, the pledge

is new, and little knoivn to^history. Froni the diys 6f

Father Mathew to the

present

time the temperance

from the evils

of intemperance. But, like most good things, it is liable

to

pledge has been the means of saving many

be abused, and hence it devolves on us to

point out to

the people the motives for taking it-which

as an act of mortification. or for the DurDose of edifvins

oror forIor tnethe purposepurpose ofoI edifyieollylng

asas anan ac1act ofoI mortification,mortlflcatlon,

are, either

through necessity, and for

self-nreservation:self-preservation

itself doe.s not work

and encouraging others-or

a sudden moral or