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Clive Staples Lewis


De la Wikipedia, enciclopedia liber

Clive Staples Lewis

Natere

29 noiembrie 1898
Belfast, Irlanda

Deces

22 noiembrie 1963(65 ani)


Oxford, Anglia

Naionalitate
Prini
Cstorit() cu

Albert James i Florence Augusta


Lewis
Joy Gresham(1957-1960)
Activitatea literar

Activ ca scriitor

1919-1963

Opere semnificative Seria Cronicile din Narnia


Note
220px
modific

Clive Staples Lewis (n. 29 noiembrie 1898; d. 22 noiembrie 1963), nume scris mai ales sub
forma C. S. Lewis, a fost un scriitor i cadru universitar de origine irlandez, cunoscut pentru
scrierile sale despre literatura medieval, apologiile cretine, lucrrile de critic i romanele de
ficiune, n special ciclul narativ pentru copii Cronicile din Narnia.
Lewis a fost bun prieten cu John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, autorul celebrului roman Stpnul inelelor.
Amndoi au fost profesori de literatur la Universitatea din Oxford i sufletul grupului literar the
Inklings.
Cuprins
[ascunde]

1 Biografie
o

1.1 Copilria

1.2 Convertirea la cretinism

1.3 Prietenia cu Joy Gresham

1.4 Moartea

2 Cariera
o

2.1 Profesorul universitar

2.2 Scriitorul

2.2.1 The Pilgrim's Regress

2.2.2 Trilogia spaial

2.2.3 Cronicile din Narnia

2.2.4 Alte opere

2.3 Apologetul cretin

3 Posterioritatea

4 Critici aduse

5 Bibliografie

5.1 Studii i eseuri

5.2 Ficiune

5.3 Poezie

6 Cri i articole: surse secundare

7 Vezi i articolele

8 Referine critice romneti

9 Legturi externe

Biografie[modificare | modificare surs]


Copilria[modificare | modificare surs]
Clive Staples Lewis s-a nscut n Belfast, Irlanda, la 29 noiembrie 1898. Fiul al lui Albert James
Lewis (18631929), descendentul unor fermieri galezi, i Flora Augusta Hamilton Lewis (1862
1908), fat de preot.

Convertirea la cretinism[modificare | modificare surs]


n tineree, C. S. Lewis s-a ndeprtat de credina n Dumnezeu. n timpul studeniei, a publicat o
colecie de poeme cu titlul 'Spirite nrobite' (Spirits in Bondage), din care face parte i 'Pinea
noastr cea de toate zilele', unde spunea: Nu avem nevoie de cuvinte barbare, nici de farmec
sacru/ Ca s strnim necunoscutul. - traducere de Nicoleta Samson). Va deveni credincios n urma
lungilor discuii purtate cu prietenul su J.R.R. Tolkien, prefernd ns cultul anglican celui catolic. O
mare influen asupra lui Lewis a avut i Owen Barfield (1898 - 1997), pe care l-a cunoscut n 1919.
C.S. Lewis i descrie pe larg convertirea n autobiografia sa, Surprised by Joy, publicat i n limba
romn: Suprins de Bucurie, trad. Emanuel Conac, prefa de Walter Hooper, Humanitas,
Bucureti, 2008.

Prietenia cu Joy Gresham[modificare | modificare surs]


C. S. Lewis s-a cstorit cu Joy Gresham. Aceasta avea doi fii (David i Douglas) n urma csniciei
cu scriitorul William Gresham, de care s-a desprit deoarece acesta era alcoolic. ns, dup ce s-a
plns de o durere de old, a fost diagnosticat cu cancer osos. Ea a murit n 1960, dar Lewis a
continuat s-i creasc pe bieii lui.

Moartea[modificare | modificare surs]


La nceputul lunii iunie 1961, Lewis s-a mbolnvit de nefrit. Ca urmare a suferin ei, i-a ntrerupt
activitatea la catedr. n primvara lui 1963 prea c i-a revenit n puteri, ns n 15 iulie s-a sim it
din nou ru i n ziua urmtoare a fcut un preinfarct. n august, i-a naintat demisia. Un blocaj renal
i-a pecetluit soarta. A murit n 22 noiembrie, cu o sptmn nainte de mplinirea vrstei de 65 de
ani, n ziua cnd a fost asasinat preedintele american John F. Kennedy la Dallas. n aceeai zi a
murit i Aldous Huxley, autorul celebrului roman "Minunata lume nou"". C. S. Lewis este celebrat n
calendarul Bisericii Anglicane n data de 22 noiembrie.

Cariera[modificare | modificare surs]


Profesorul universitar[modificare | modificare surs]

Magdalen College

C. S. Lewis devine 'fellow' la Magdalen College, Oxford, n 1925, unde a predat vreme de aproape
trei deceni, pn n 1954, cnd este numit profesor la Universitatea din Cambridge.

Scriitorul[modificare | modificare surs]


The Pilgrim's Regress[modificare | modificare surs]
Trilogia spaial[modificare | modificare surs]
Este alctuit din trei volume: Departe de planeta tcut (Out of the Silent
Planet), Perelandra i Hidoasa fortrea (That Hideous Strength). Mihaela Morariu consider c ele
sunt mai apropiate de scrierile lui Ray Bradbury ori David Lindsay dect de scrierile unor profei
sociali, precum Aldous Huxley ori George Orwell. Eroul principal este profesorul dr. Elwin Ransom
(ransom=rscumprare, salvare, personaj ce prezint unele asemnri cu J.R.R. Tolkien.
Cronicile din Narnia[modificare | modificare surs]
Alte opere[modificare | modificare surs]
ntre scrierile sale din perioada profesoratului de la Cambridge se numr Reflections on the
Psalms (Meditaii la Psalmi, trad. Emanuel Conac, Humanitas, Bucureti, 2013).

Apologetul cretin[modificare | modificare surs]


"Ferigi si elefanti"

Posterioritatea[modificare | modificare surs]


Critici aduse[modificare | modificare surs]
n ciuda popularitii lor, lucrrile lui C.S. Lewis au fost aspru criticate. Cunoscutul ciclul al Cronicilor
din Narnia a fost acuzat c face propagand religioas, este marcat de misoginism, rasism i
sadism emoional. Dan Barker, un preot devenit ateu, critic Mere Christianity n volumul Losing
Faith in Faith: From Preacher to Atheist, considernd c istoria este plin de exemple tragice,
provocate de "moralitatea cretin". Apologiile cretine constituie subiectul volumelor C. S. Lewis
and the Search for Rational Religion deJohn Beversluis i God's Defenders: What They Believe and
Why They Are Wrong de S. T. Joshi.

Bibliografie[modificare | modificare surs]


Studii i eseuri[modificare | modificare surs]

The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition (1936)

Rehabilitations and other essays (1939) with two essays not included
in Essay Collection (2000)

The Personal Heresy: A Controversy (with E. M. W. Tillyard, 1939)

The Problem of Pain (1940)

A Preface to Paradise Lost (1942)

The Abolition of Man (1943)

Beyond Personality (1944)

Miracles: A Preliminary Study (1947, revised 1960)

Arthurian Torso (1948; on Charles Williams's poetry)

Mere Christianity (1952; based on radio talks of 19411944)

English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama (1954); 1975


reprint ISBN 0198812981;

Major British Writers, Vol I (1954), Contribution on Edmund Spenser

Surprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life (1955; autobiography)

Reflections on the Psalms (1958)

The Four Loves (1960)

Studies in Words (1960)

An Experiment in Criticism (1961)

A Grief Observed (1961; first published under the pseudonym N. W.


Clerk)

Selections from Layamon's Brut (ed. G L Brook, 1963 Oxford University


Press) introduction

Prayer: Letters to Malcolm (1964)

The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance


Literature (1964)

Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1966) not included


in Essay Collection (2000)

Spenser's Images of Life (ed. Alastair Fowler, 1967)

Letters to an American Lady (1967)

Christian Reflections (1967; essays and papers)

Selected Literary Essays (1969) not included in Essay Collection (2000)

God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics (1970),


= Undeceptions (1971) all included in Essay Collection (2000)

Of Other Worlds (1982; essays) with one essay not included in Essay
Collection

Present Concerns (1986; essays)

All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. S. Lewis 192227 (1993)

Essay Collection: Literature, Philosophy and Short Stories (2000)

Essay Collection: Faith, Christianity and the Church (2000)

Collected Letters, Vol. I: Family Letters 19051931 (2000)

Collected Letters, Vol. II: Books, Broadcasts and War 19311949 (2004)

Collected Letters, Vol. III: Narnia, Cambridge and Joy 19501963 (2007)

The Business Of Heaven:Daily Readings From C.S.Lewis ed. Walter


Hooper, 1984, Harvest Book, Harcourt, Inc.

Ficiune[modificare | modificare surs]

The Pilgrim's Regress (1933)

Space Trilogy

Out of the Silent Planet (1938)

Perelandra (1943)

That Hideous Strength (1946)

The Screwtape Letters (1942)

The Great Divorce (1945)

The Chronicles of Narnia

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950)

Prince Caspian (1951)

The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952)

The Silver Chair (1953)

The Horse and His Boy (1954)

The Magician's Nephew (1955)

The Last Battle (1956)

Till We Have Faces (1956)

Screwtape Proposes a Toast (1961) (an addition to The Screwtape Letters)

Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer (1964)

The Dark Tower and other stories (1977)

Boxen: The Imaginary World of the Young C. S. Lewis (ed. Walter


Hooper, 1985)

Poezie[modificare | modificare surs]

Spirits in Bondage (1919; published under pseudonym Clive Hamilton)

Dymer (1926; published under pseudonym Clive Hamilton)

Narrative Poems (ed. Walter Hooper, 1969; includes Dymer)

The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis (ed. Walter Hooper, 1994;


includes Spirits in Bondage)

Cri i articole: surse secundare[modificare | modificare surs]

John Beversluis, C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion.


Eerdmans, 1985.ISBN 0-8028-0046-7

Humphrey Carpenter, The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien,


Charles Williams and their friends. George Allen & Unwin,
1978. ISBN 0-04-809011-5

Joe R. Christopher & Joan K. Ostling, C. S. Lewis: An Annotated


Checklist of Writings about him and his Works. Kent State
University Press, n.d. (1972). ISBN 0-87338-138-6

James Como, Branches to Heaven: The Geniuses of C. S. Lewis,


Spence, 1998.

James Como, Remembering C. S. Lewis (3rd ed. of C. S. Lewis at


the Breakfast Table). Ignatius, 2006

Michael Coren, The Man Who Created Narnia: The Story of C.S.
Lewis. Eerdmans Pub Co, Reprint edition 1996. ISBN 0-8028-38227

Colin Duriez and David Porter, The Inklings Handbook: The Lives,
Thought and Writings of C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles
Williams, Owen Barfield, and Their Friends. 2001, ISBN 1-90269413-9

Colin Duriez, Tolkien and C.S. Lewis: The Gift of Friendship. Paulist
Press, 2003.ISBN 1-58768-026-2

Bruce L. Edwards, Not a Tame Lion: The Spiritual World of Narnia.


Tyndale. 2005.ISBN 1414303815

Bruce L. Edwards, Further Up and Further In: Understanding C. S.


Lewiss The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Broadman and
Holman, 2005. ISBN 0805440704

Bruce L. Edwards, General Editor, C. S. Lewis: Life, Works, and


Legacy. 4 Vol. Praeger Perspectives, 2007. ISBN 0275991164

Bruce L. Edwards, Editor. The Taste of the Pineapple: Essays on C.


S. Lewis as Reader, Critic, and Imaginative Writer. The Popular
Press, 1988. ISBN 0879724072

Bruce L. Edwards, A Rhetoric of Reading: C. S. Lewis's Defense of


Western Literacy. Center for the Study of Chrfistian Values in
Literature, 1986. ISBN 0939555018

Alastair Fowler, 'C.S. Lewis: Supervisor', Yale Review, Vol. 91, No. 4
(October 2003).

Jocelyn Gibb (ed.), Light on C. S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1965 &


Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1976. ISBN 0-15-652000-1

Douglas Gilbert & Clyde Kilby, C.S. Lewis: Images of His World.
Eerdmans, 1973 & 2005. ISBN 0-8028-2800-0

Diana Pavlac Glyer The Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J.


R. R. Tolkien as Writers in Community. Kent State University Press.
Kent Ohio. 2007. ISBN 978-0-87338-890-0

David Graham (ed.), We Remember C.S. Lewis. Broadman &


Holman Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-8054-2299-4

Roger Lancelyn Green & Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Biography.


Fully revised & expanded edition. HarperCollins, 2002. ISBN 0-00628164-8

Douglas Gresham, Jack's Life: A Memory of C.S. Lewis. Broadman


& Holman Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-8054-3246-9

Douglas Gresham, Lenten Lands: My Childhood with Joy Davidman


and C.S. Lewis. HarperSanFrancisco, 1994. ISBN 0-06-063447-2

William Griffin, C.S. Lewis: The Authentic Voice. (Formerly C.S.


Lewis: A Dramatic Life) Lion, 2005. ISBN 0-7459-5208-9

Joel D. Heck, Irrigating Deserts: C. S. Lewis on Education.


Concordia Publishing House, 2006. ISBN 0-7586-0044-5

David Hein, "A Note on C. S. Lewis's The Screwtape Letters." The


Anglican Digest49.2 (Easter 2007): 55-58. Argues that Lewis's
portrayal of the activity of the Devil was influenced by contemporary
events--in particular, by the threat of a Nazi invasion of Britain in
1940.

David Hein and Edward Hugh Henderson, eds., Captured by the


Crucified: The Practical Theology of Austin Farrer. New York and
London: T & T Clark / Continuum, 2004. A study of Lewis's close
friend the theologian Austin Farrer, this book also contains material
on Farrer's circle, "the Oxford Christians," including C. S. Lewis.

Walter Hooper, C. S. Lewis: A Companion and Guide.


HarperCollins, 1996. ISBN 0-00-627800-0

Walter Hooper, Through Joy and Beyond: A Pictorial Biography of


C. S. Lewis. Macmillan, 1982. ISBN 0-02-553670-2

Alan Jacobs, The Narnian: The Life and Imagination of C.S. Lewis.
HarperSanFrancisco, 2005. ISBN 0-06-076690-5

Carolyn Keefe, C.S. Lewis: Speaker & Teacher. Zondervan,


1979. ISBN 0-310-26781-1

Clyde S. Kilby, The Christian World of C. S. Lewis. Eerdmans, 1964,


1995. ISBN 0-8028-0871-9

W.H. Lewis (ed), Letters of C.S. Lewis. Geoffrey Bles, 1966. ISBN
0-00-242457-6

Kathryn Lindskoog, Light in the Shadowlands: Protecting the Real


C. S. Lewis. Multnomah Pub., 1994. ISBN 0-88070-695-3

Susan Lowenberg, C. S. Lewis: A Reference Guide 19721988.


Hall & Co., 1993.ISBN 0-8161-1846-9

Wayne Mardindale & Jerry Root, The Quotable Lewis. Tyndale


House Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8423-5115-9

Markus Mhling, "A Theological Journey into Narnia. An Analysis of


the Message beneath the Text", Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,
Gttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-60423-8

Joseph Pearce, C. S. Lewis and the Catholic Church. Ignatius


Press, 2003. ISBN 0-89870-979-2

Thomas C. Peters, Simply C.S. Lewis. A Beginner's Guide to His


Life and Works. Kingsway Publications, 1998. ISBN 0-85476-762-2

Justin Phillips, C.S. Lewis at the BBC: Messages of Hope in the


Darkness of War. Marshall Pickering, 2003. ISBN 0-00-710437-5

Victor Reppert, C.S. Lewis's Dangerous Idea: In Defense of the


Argument from Reason. InterVarsity Press, 2003. ISBN 0-83082732-3

George Sayer, Jack: C. S. Lewis and His Times. Macmillan,


1988. ISBN 0-333-43362-9

Peter J. Schakel, Imagination and the Arts in C. S. Lewis:


Journeying to Narnia and Other Worlds. University of Missouri
Press, 2002. ISBN 0-8262-1407-X

Peter J. Schakel. Reason and Imagination in C. S. Lewis: A Study


of "Till We Have Faces." Available online. Eerdmans, 1984. ISBN 08028-1998-2

Peter J. Schakel, ed. The Longing for a Form: Essays on the Fiction
of C. S. Lewis. Kent State University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-87338204-8

Peter J. Schakel and Charles A. Huttar, ed. Word and Story in C. S.


Lewis.University of Missouri Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8262-0760-X

Stephen Schofield. In Search of C.S. Lewis. Bridge Logos Pub.


1983. ISBN 0-88270-544-X

Jeffrey D. Schultz and John G. West, Jr. (eds.), The C.S. Lewis
Readers' Encyclopedia. Zondervan Publishing House, 1998. ISBN
0-310-21538-2

G. B. Tennyson (ed.), Owen Barfield on C.S. Lewis. Wesleyan


University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8195-5233-X.

Richard J. Wagner. C.S. Lewis and Narnia for Dummies. For


Dummies, 2005. ISBN 0-7645-8381-6

Andrew Walker, Patrick James (ed.), Rumours of Heaven: Essays


in Celebration of C.S. Lewis, Guildford: Eagle, 1998, ISBN
0863472508

Chad Walsh, C. S. Lewis: Apostle to the Skeptics. Macmillan, 1949.

Chad Walsh, The Literary Legacy of C. S. Lewis. Harcourt Brace


Jovanovich, 1979.ISBN 0-15-652785-5.

George Watson (ed.), Critical Essays on C. S. Lewis. Scolar Press,


1992. ISBN 0-85967-853-9

Michael White, C.S. Lewis: The Boy Who Chronicled Narnia.


Abacus, 2005. ISBN 0-349-11625-3

A. N. Wilson, C. S. Lewis: A Biography. W. W. Norton, 1990. ISBN


0-393-32340-4

Vezi i articolele[modificare | modificare surs]

The Inklings

J.R.R. Tolkien

Cronicile din Narnia

Referine critice romneti[modificare | modificare surs]

Inklings, litera i spiritul, volum coordonat de Rodica Albu, Editura


Universitii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza", Iai, 2004

Legturi externe[modificare | modificare surs]


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Staples)'

Clive Staples Lewis - propovduitorul nelepciunii cretine, 21


ianuarie 2009, Adrian Agachi, Ziarul Lumina
[ascunde]

vdm

Lucrri de C. S. Lewis
Poezie

Spirits in Bondage (1919) Dymer (1926) Narrative Poems (1969) The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis (1994)

The Pilgrim's Regress (1933) The Screwtape Letters (1942) The Great Divorce (1945) Till We Have Faces (1956) Screwtape Prop
Ficiune

The Space TrilogyOut of the Silent Planet (1938) Perelandra (1943) That Hideous Strength (1945) The Dark Tower (fragment, po

The ChroniclesThe Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (1950) Prince Caspian (1951) The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952)
of Narnia Nephew (1955) The Last Battle (1956)

Anii 1930The Allegory of Love (1936) Rehabilitations and other essays (1939) The Personal Heresy (1939)

Anii 1940The Problem of Pain (1940) A Preface to Paradise Lost (1942) The Abolition of Man (1943) Beyond Personality (

Mere Christianity (1952) English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama (1954) Major British Write
Anii 1950
Lecture (1955) Surprised by Joy (1955) Reflections on the Psalms (1958)

Non-ficiune

The Four Loves (1960) Studies in Words (1960) An Experiment in Criticism (1961) A Grief Observed (1961) They
Anii 1960Layamon's Brut (1963) The Discarded Image (1964) Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature (1966) Of O
Lady (1967) Christian Reflections (1967) Selected Literary Essays (1969)
Anii 1970God in the Dock (2 volumes) (1970-1971)
Anii 1980The Business Of Heaven (1984) Present Concerns (1986)
Anii 1990All My Road Before Me: The Diary of C. S. Lewis 192227 (1993)

Essay Collection: Literature, Philosophy and Short Stories (2000) Essay Collection: Faith, Christianity and the C
Anii 2000
1931 (2000) Volume II: Books, Broadcasts and War 19311949 (2004) Volume III: Narnia, Cambridge and Joy 19

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