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Technical Documentation

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
S88-2.1 MW

Project:

Standard WTG

Document Number:

WD00122

Document Class:

2 [3, 4 = Confidential]

Issue:

08

[2008-09-05]

SUZLON Windkraft GmbH


Doberaner Str. 115
18057 Rostock | Germany

+49 381 203578-0


+49 381 203578-10
germany-documentation@suzlon.com
www.suzlon.de

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION | S88-2.1 MW

Overview Technical Documentation


The grey marked image indicates the description which follows on the next pages.

Technical Data

Technical
Description

Safety

Transportation /
Package /
Storage

Installation

Commissioning

Operation /
Logbook

Maintenance

SCADA

Appendix

SC-Plant Netw ork


SC-PPC
SC-MetStation

Gen eral Safety


Safety in a WTG

M ech anical
Electrical

Troubleshooting
Procedures

Checklists
Charts
Spare Parts
Drawings

Electrical
Documentation
Sing le Line Diag .
Electr. Data an d
Settings

The information contained in this documentation is the property of Suzlon R&D Germany. This documentation and extracts thereof may
only be duplicated or forwarded to third parties following explicit written approval by Suzlon R&D Germany. We reserve the right to
make changes and improvements to this documentation as well as the hardware and software features at any time and without prior
notification.
All product names used in this documentation are trademarks or otherwise protected by law, even if not specifically indicated.
2007-2008 by Suzlon R&D Germany | All rights reserved.

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TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION | S88-2.1 MW

Table of Contents Technical Description


1

Notes on manual .............................................................................. 5

1.1

Scope...................................................................................................................... 5

1.2

Warranty ................................................................................................................. 6

1.3

Copyright................................................................................................................. 6

Technical overview .......................................................................... 7

Foundation and tower ...................................................................... 9

3.1

Lift (optional) ..........................................................................................................10

Nacelle ........................................................................................... 11

4.1
4.1.1

Drive train ..............................................................................................................13


Gear box ................................................................................................................13

4.2

Generator system ....................................................................................................15

4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2

SUZLON FLEXISLIP SYSTEM ......................................................................................16


System description...................................................................................................16
System behaviour ....................................................................................................17

4.4

On-board hoist ........................................................................................................20

4.5

Yaw system.............................................................................................................21

Rotor.............................................................................................. 22

5.1

Pitch system ...........................................................................................................22

Cooling systems ............................................................................. 24

6.1

Gear box cooling......................................................................................................24

6.2

Generator cooling ....................................................................................................24

6.3

Cabinet cooling ........................................................................................................24

Brake system and rotor lock .......................................................... 25

7.1

Aerodynamic brake ..................................................................................................25

7.2

Mechanical brake .....................................................................................................25

7.3

Rotor lock ...............................................................................................................26

Hydraulic and lubrication system ................................................... 27

8.1

Hydraulic system .....................................................................................................27

8.2

Lubrication system ...................................................................................................28

Wind measurement and aviation light............................................ 29

10

Grid connection.............................................................................. 31

10.1

Compensation .........................................................................................................31

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10.2
10.2.1

Medium voltage cabinet and transformer .....................................................................31


Power in tower (optional) ..........................................................................................32

11

Lightning and surge protection system .......................................... 33

11.1
11.1.1

Lightning protection zones.........................................................................................33


Rolling sphere simulation ..........................................................................................35

11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2
11.2.3
11.2.4
11.2.5

Lightning protection outside WTG ...............................................................................35


Lightning rods and receptors .....................................................................................36
Spark gaps .............................................................................................................36
Lightning arrester cables ...........................................................................................37
Nacelle ...................................................................................................................37
Hub construction......................................................................................................37

11.3

Lightning protection inside the WTG............................................................................38

11.4

Equipotential bonding system ....................................................................................38

11.5

Subterranean earthing system (optional).....................................................................38

12

Condition Monitoring System (optional) ........................................ 39

13

SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM ............................................................ 40

13.1

SC-Turbine .............................................................................................................41

13.2

SC-Commander .......................................................................................................41

13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2

SC-Service Terminal (optional) ..................................................................................41


SC-Terminal-fixed ....................................................................................................41
SC-Terminal-portable ...............................................................................................41

13.4

SC-Power Plant Controller (optional) ...........................................................................41

13.5

SC-MetStation (optional)...........................................................................................42

14

Annotations ................................................................................... 43

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Notes on manual

Notes on manual
This manual is part of the Technical Documentation of a SUZLON wind turbine
generator (WTG). It describes the Technical Description of a WTG and/or wind farm.
The document is meant for authorised and qualified staff only. It has to be carefully read and
understood before performing the tasks.
The text contains abbreviations. When used for the first time the term is written in full
notation. The abbreviation stands in brackets behind the full notation term, e.g.: wind
turbine generator (WTG).
Pages, tables and figures are cross references and numbered consecutively. The document
contains further cross references and bookmarks intended to guide the reader to more
detailed information.
Figures may come with positioning numbers explaining determined components. The
positioning number appears again behind the explained component in the text as follows:
Figure 31/5
Positioning number
Serial number
Chapter

Dimensions and weights are given according to the "International System of Units" (SI).
Photos in this manual illustrate examples. Equipment and procedures may differ regarding
the specific projects. Therefore, the content of the photos is not to be considered as
generally applicable. Contact the responsible logistic manager for project specific
information.
If any suggestions or improvements are required please forward your comments to
germany-documentation@suzlon.com.
As the SUZLON WTGs are continually improved and further developed, we reserve the right
of modifications.

1.1

Scope
This Manual is valid for the S88-2.1 MW WTG in following variants:

V1/V2
V3
50 Hz
60 Hz
Standard Temperature Version (STV)
SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS)
Tubular Tower

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Notes on manual

1.2

Warranty
This document is based on the technical and product-specific parameters of the supplied
WTG. Nevertheless, the manufacturer reserves the right to add complementary information
to this document.
The manufacturer only accepts warranty and liability as they are defined in the "General
Terms of Sale and Delivery".
The manufacturer does not accept any warranties or liabilities for personal injuries or
damage to property, if they refer to one or several of the following causes:
The described product was

1.3

damaged by "force majeure"


used non-intendedly
not operated according to the instructions given in the documentation
operated after technical safeguards have been put out of service
operated with inadmissible materials or equipment
subject to modifications of its design, controlling and/or functionality without prior
consultation of the manufacturer
equipped with replacement parts not supplied or approved by the manufacturer
repaired improperly.

Copyright
The manufacturer has the copyright for this document.
Reproduction, copying, propagation or any other use by or information of a third party of this
documentation whether in parts or as a whole for competition purposes requires prior
written consent by the manufacturer.
All rights reserved.
Address of the manufacturer:
SUZLON Energy Ltd
5TH Floor
Godrej Millenium
9 Koregaon Park Rd.
Pune 411 001

www.suzlon.com

INDIA
|

info@suzlon.com

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Technical overview

Technical overview
In particular, the WTG is designed for climatic conditions described in Manual "Technical
Data". Its robust design and uniform weight distribution ensures high levels of safety,
reliability and enhanced energy yields throughout its lifespan.
The power output is controlled by three different systems working together:

SUZLON FLEXISLIP SYSTEM (SFS, see Chapter 4.3 on page 16)


Pitch system (see Chapter 5.1 on page 22)
SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS, see Chapter 13 on page 40)

The main parts of the WTG have been designed in line with approved industry standards to
guarantee operational safety and efficient operation.
The minimum outside temperature describes the limit to which temperature the durability of
the WTG is guaranteed during non-operating condition. The working temperature range
describes at which temperatures the WTG can operate by producing electrical power.
To keep the WTG in constant operation status all significant temperatures are measured, e.g.
the temperature outside and inside the WTG as well as temperatures of pitch accumulators
and oil sump of gear box.
All highly stressed parts, which are made of steel, were investigated in terms of strength and
suitability.

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Technical overview

Figure 2-1:

Main parts of the WTG

Rotor (with rotor blades)

Nacelle

Tubular tower

Foundation

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Foundation and tower

Foundation and tower


The WTG comes with a tubular steel tower.
The tower can be climbed from the inside
and consists of 4 several steel tube
sections connected with each other by
means of bolted flanges. The tower is
connected to the foundation by anchor
bolts, which are set into concrete at the
foundation.
There are various working platforms inside
the tower as well as a ladder with climbing
protection and hinged rest stay plates. As
an optional attachment, an electric
passenger lift can be installed inside the
tower in addition to the ladder.
The bottom cabinets are arranged on the
lowest tower platform. They are connected
to the generator and the top cabinet inside
the nacelle via power and control cables.
The cables are guided through the tower
by special cable clamps that relieve the
cable tension. At the top, the cables are
routed through a cable loop to allow the
nacelle to turn several times in each
direction without cable damage. The yaw
sensor prevents over twisting and initiates
automatically unwinding when necessary.
The power cables between WTG and grid
are routed through conduits set into the
foundation. The WTGs electrical
connections are in the power section of the
bottom cabinet.

Figure 3-1:

Tubular tower with 4 tower segments and foundation

Tubular tower section (shown transparent)

Foundation above ground

Example of a tower entry with ladder

Platform

The tower is protected against corrosion by sandblasting and applying an epoxy resin coating
to the tower surface in accordance with ISO 12944.
The foundation construction for the tower is site-specific, depending on the ground conditions
and the local codes and regulations. In the majority of cases, the foundation is prepared by
the customer on its own. Therefore, the foundation loads need to receive attention.

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Foundation and tower

3.1

Lift (optional)
The lift is installed inside the tower of the WTG and is meant to transport people and their
equipment up and down easily. The lift is constructed for permanent installation in one
specific WTG.
The transportation takes place by means of a pressure system with an automatic safety
control device. The automatic safety control device is placed on a panel inside the cabin.
The cabin is made of aluminium and is closed with a double door. Thus, the cabin allows a
maximum space for transport of people and tools; additionally a fast driving tempo is
guaranteed
Upward and downward travel can be controlled by an electrical control box from inside the
cabin or from outside the cabin trough an open window. A lifting force limiter prevents
upward travel in case of an overload of the cabin. Two guide wires on both sides of the cabin
prevent the lift from swinging.

[1]

[2]

[3]

Figure 3-2:

Cabin overwiev (Example of Avanti)

Electrical control box

Cabin door

Cabin

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Nacelle

Nacelle
The nacelle consists of a cast main frame with a bolted-on girder system and a nacelle cover.
The main frame is connected to the tower via the yaw bearing. It carries the main
components of the WTG, shown in Figure 4-2 on page 12.
The nacelle cover is made of glass-fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) and designed in such way
that the internal components are fully protected against various ambient conditions. The
nacelle is also equipped with an on-board hoist for lifting or unloading material into or from
the nacelle (see Chapter 4.4 on page 20). There are two access hatches on top of the nacelle
to provide access to the measuring instruments, the resistors of the SUZLON FLEXISLIP
SYSTEM (SFS) on the roof and to the hub.
The nacelle cover is made in sandwich construction to avoid a quick cool down.
The temperature inside the cabinets is controlled by temperature sensors. The heaters are
connected directly to the grid and will be activated via thermostats.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[2]

[4]

Figure 4-1:

Nacelle exterior view with transparent displayed nacelle cover

Access hatch on top to wind measurement equipment and SFS resistor boxes

Vent

Access hatch on top for the hub

Access hatch for the on board hoist

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Nacelle

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[7]
Figure 4-2:

[6]

[5]

Nacelle interior view without nacelle cover

Top cabinets

Rotor lock disc

Drive train (see Chapter 4.1 on page 12)

Main frame (for mounting the drive train)

Yaw bearing (see Chapter 4.5 on page 21)

Generator (see Chapter 4.2 on page 15)

Girder system (for mounting the generator)

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4.1

Drive train
The main components of the drive train are shown in Figure 4-3.
The main shaft is made of high grade heat-treated steel. On the rotor side, it is supported by
the main bearing, which is a robust spherical roller bearing. A shrink disk connects the main
shaft to the gear box (see Chapter 4.1.1 on page 13). Inside the gear box, the main shaft is
supported by a cylindrical roller bearing. To reduce weight without losing strength and for
guiding the hub cables, the main shaft is hollow.

[1]

[2]

[7]
Figure 4-3:

4.1.1

[6]

[5]

[4]

[3]

Main components of drive train

Rotor lock disc

Main bearing

Main shaft

Gear box (see Chapter 4.1.1 on page 13)

Mechanical rotor brake (see Chapter 7.2 on page 25)

Coupling

Generator

Gear box
The gear box (Figure 4-4 on page 14) is a compact design, single stage planetary/ multi
stage helical spur gear gear box that ensures the highest possible mechanical efficiency and
power. The first planetary gear stage takes up the slow rotor rotation and distributes the
high torque input into subsequent planetary gears. High precision manufacturing and Finite
Element Methodology (FEM) calculations of the planet carrier ensures optimal load
distribution to the helical gears. Reduced torque values and increased rotational speeds are
optimally converted to the high-speed operation of the generator.
The helical stage is responsible for a low sound power level, which is further reduced by
impact sound isolation via rubber bushings between gear box and main frame.

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The gear box is equipped with two independent oil circulations. The internal mechanical oil
pump supplies the gear box with oil during idling mode.
The external electrical lubrication system is for operation mode. With this system the oil is
filtered by a micro-filter and comprises an oil-cooling device rendering temperature
optimization.
The internal oil heating is equipped with heating rods. It operates when the oil sump
temperature is below freezing point.

[1]

[2]

[4]

[5]
Figure 4-4:

[3]

Gear box (Example of Hansen Transmissions)

Gear box oil cooling

Inspection cover

Slip ring adapter

Valve for oil sample and oil change

Oil filter pump

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4.2

Generator system
The WTG is equipped with a single-fed asynchronous three-phase generator. During
operation, the stator side of the generator is permanently connected to the grid. On the rotor
side, a slip ring connects the generator to the SFS (see Chapter 4.3 on page 16). The
generator is kept at optimum operational temperature by a robust air cooling system (see
Chapter 6.2 on page 24).
An anti-condensation heating element is integrated into the generator, it is operated via the
SCS.

[3]

stator side /
nacelle front
rotor side /
nacelle back
[2]
[1]

[4]

Figure 4-5:

Drawing of the generator system transparent

Generator

Adapter to coupling

Generator cooler

Rotor terminal box (slip ring inside)

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4.3

SUZLON FLEXISLIP SYSTEM


The SUZLON FLEXISLIP SYSTEM (SFS) is a robust generator system for WTG. It has been
developed to be cost efficient, to reduce mechanical WTG loads and to be suitable to feed
electrical energy under different grid conditions into electricity networks.

4.3.1

System description
The WTG optimises the power output from the available wind by a combination of the
pitch system and the SFS, which is a generator control. The pitch system can operate
over a wide wind speed range to maximise aerodynamic efficiency.
The SFS works with a single fed induction generator with slip rings. The slip of the generator
is flexible because its rotor current is being controlled by power electronic components. Slip
means the difference between synchronous speed and actual speed of the machine divided
by the synchronous speed. This gives positive values for motor operation and negative
values for generator operation.

[1]

Figure 4-6:

[2]

[3]

Scheme of the SFS

Rectifier

Surge protection

IGBT-switch

In an asynchronous machine with slip rings, the slip can be adjusted. As it is not possible to
change the natural rotor resistance, external resistors can be used additionally. That can be
used to get a constant torque and respectively constant power over a wide range of
generator speed. In the SFS the rotor resistance can be adjusted. This is achieved by
switching on and off external resistors in the rotor circuit. The switching is controlled by
opening and closing an Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) in the DC link, which is
parallel to the external resistors. That leads to the same behaviour as continuous adjustment

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of the rotor resistance and so regulates the rotor current. The range which can be realised
only depends on the capability of the rotor resistors.
The surge protection is connected in parallel to the IGBT unit. The surge protection consists
of a thyristor unit which short circuits the DC link in special faults like overvoltage and
overcurrent in the rotor circuit. In this cases the current flows through the surge protection
and protects the IGBT.

4.3.2

System behaviour
The WTG is controlled via two separate systems working together:
1.

The pitch regulation (see Chapter 5.1 on page 22) controls the maximum speed to given
setpoints. Below and above this setpoints the pitch angle will be adjusted. This
regulation is comparable to the SFS control "slow". It also controls the generator speed
without load.

2.

The SFS regulates among others the power output to a defined stepoint. The regulation
is "fast" in comparison to the pitch system.

Table 4-1: Overview of the different operational states of the SFS


Operation state

IGBT switch
condition

Rotor resistance

Region Figure 4-7


on page 19

Cut in

Permanently off

Rotor resistance plus


full external resistors

0 to 100% power

Switching on-off

Little increase of the


rotor resistor, drive
train damping

I+II

Constant nominal
power

Switching on-off

Varying resistance.
Rotor resistance plus
switched external
resistors

III

With an interaction of this two regulation systems the SFS has the following system
behavior:
During the cut in of the WTG the pitch regulation tries to keep the generator speed close to
synchronous speed. The IGBT is switched off. This leads to an operation characteristic with a
very high slip (Figure 4-7/A on page 19). The WTG is connected to the grid by a soft starter
module. Because of the high rotor resistance during cut in the inrush current is small.
After a successful "cut in" the pitch system gets a new setpoint, which is higher than the
synchronous speed. The SFS begins to control the rotor current and thus controls the power
output. Up to a rated power the SFS gives a small additional slip to the WTG to reduce loads
and power fluctuation.
When the reference current, respectively the power is reached, the SFS limits the
current/power output. The pitch system control ensures that the rotation speed of the WTG
is within the given setpoints.

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The operation area of the system is limited by the following boundaries:

Characteristic A is given by the external resistors on the roof


Characteristic B is given by the natural slip of the generator
There is a limitation to the maximum power output of the system (see Figure 4-7/Pmax
on page 19)

There are given two additional areas between the boundaries (see Figure 4-7 on page 19,
shaded areas). These areas are defined due to the losses of the external resistors and thus
given by the power which can be overtaken permanently (see Figure 4-7/D on page 19). In
the left shaded area the system works continuously. The right diagonal shaded area is for
dynamic operation at higher rotation speeds due to gusts. The nominal working point of the
WTG is given in Figure 4-7 on page 19.
Between nominal current and maximum current is a 11.1% range left. The WTG is able to
produce 100% power also when the grid voltage is 10% lower then normal voltage because
of a available reserve in the power electronic components. The power output of the WTG is
limited to nominal power due to the mechanical loads.

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Figure 4-7:

Working areas of SFS

Characteristic with max. resistors, IGBT switched off, full external resistors are added

Characteristic with natural slip of generator, IGBT switched on continuously, external


resistors short circuited

Power curve

Border between region of continuous and short-time operation. In the area left of this
line, the system can work continuously, in the area right of the line, it can work for a
short time only (e.g. for gusts).
Nominal working point of
Possible working region continuously
Possible working region for dynamic use (e.g. strong gusts)

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4.4

On-board hoist
The on-board hoist is situated inside the nacelle to lift small items into and out of the nacelle
through a bottom hatch at the rear of the nacelle. The on-board hoist is an electrical chain
type and is mounted on a frame. The rail is secured to the main frame of the nacelle cover
underneath the roof.

[1]

[2]

[3]
[4]

[5]

[6]
Figure 4-8:

Position and parts of the on-bord hoist

Frame

Motor

Chain bag

Hook

Pendant control

Bottom hatch (open)

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4.5

Yaw system
The nacelle is mounted to the tower with a torque adjustable friction-type yaw bearing
consisting of polyamide slide bearings, which transmit the loads from the nacelle to the
tower.
The bearing is of a strong, solid construction to avoid damage. All parts of the yaw bearing
are manufactured with high grade steel. The yaw system is equipped with a lubrication
system for greasing the rotating/moving yaw components. Additionally it avoids noise and
vibration during yaw tracking.
The WTG uses a reliable and proven yaw system to ensure optimal alignment of the rotor to
the wind. The wind direction is sensed by two anemometers on the nacelle roof (see Chapter
9 on page 28), which send the information to the controller. The yaw tracking is performed
and controlled by three electrical gear motors, which are activated as soon as the system
recognises a certain predefined difference between the rotor axis and the current wind
direction. The yaw drives turn the nacelle into the wind by rotating it via a friction type
bearing against a fixed gear rim sitting on the top section of the tower. A sensor located on
the gear rim registers the number of turns the nacelle performs in the given direction to
avoid over twisting the cables. If the nacelle turns more than a predefined number of times
in the same direction, the WTG is temporarily shut down and automatic unwinding starts.
Afterwards the WTG restarts automatically.
The system ensures with a precise yaw a high energy yield and reduces mechanical load on
the WTG caused by changes in wind direction.
[1]

[2]

[3]

Figure 4-9:

Yaw system

Main frame

Yaw drives with integrated brakes

Gear rim

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Rotor

Rotor
The rotor consists of a high strength cast iron hub supporting three pitch able rotor blades.
The blades are connected to the hub via ball bearings. They can be turned with the pitch
system (see Chapter 5.1 on page 22). The hub is directly connected to the main shaft and
transmits the rotation of the rotor via the drive train to the generator. The hub is housed in a
nose cone that is made of GRP and covers the hub cabinet.
The rotor blades are aerodynamically optimised to provide high lifting forces and low airresistance values to produce high performance. The rotor blades are made of high grade GRP
and manufactured by using Resin Infusing Moulding (RIM) technology. The blades are
lightweight but at the same time possess a high degree of stiffness and mechanical strength.
Their low weight to diameter ratio results in low stresses on the drive train, thus enhancing
the life and efficiency of the WTG.
At their roots, the rotor blades have a flange that is bolted to the hub via double-row ball
bearings. Each blade is equipped with a lightning receptor. The lightning is guided from the
receptors to the hub and thus to the rotor shaft (see Chapter 11 on page 33). From the rotor
shaft, the lightning is conducted to the grounded main frame with the help of spark gaps
(see Chapter 11.2.2 on page 36).

[1]
[2]
[3]

[4]

Figure 5-1:

5.1

Rotor

Rotor blade

Handrail

Exit hatch (there are 3 hatches to enter the hub 2 are shown in figure)

Lightning protection

Pitch system
The pitch system has been designed with a triple redundancy, which means that each blade
has its own drive system consisting of a motor with gear box, a frequency converter and a
backup system. The pitch angle of each blade is accurately adjusted to the requirements of
the SCS. With this, it is possible to turn the rotor blades more than the needed 90. The SCS

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Rotor

transmits the required set point for the blade position, which is controlled for each blade
separately by the respective frequency converter.
The pitch system operates in the following way: Below nominal wind speed, the pitch angle is
constant at 0 position. Once the wind speed reaches nominal speed, the pitch regulation
starts to regulate the pitch angle to limit the rotational speed of WTG to the nominal speed.
In comparison to the SFS this regulation is "slow".
Each pitch drive has its own battery backup to ensure its functionality, even when the
electrical grid is not available. In this case the WTG stops immediately by rotating the blades
into feathering position with the energy of the battery backup. The SCS, which is equipped
with an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), checks the status of the backup systems
periodicly and will shut down the WTG in case the energy of the pitch batteries drops below a
predefined value.
The pitch motors are fastened inside the hub. Their drive pinions are interlocked with the
inner gear wheel of the blade bearings, which supports the rotor blades. The pitch motors
are equipped with an internal brake, which holds the blade position when the pitch is not
active. To guarantee high performance the blade bearings are made of high tensile doublerow ball-bearing slewing rings. The pitch control system and the emergency battery backup
systems are located in suitable control cabinets inside the hub. The supply and
communication cables to the nacelle are passed through the low speed hollow main shaft. A
slip ring behind the gear box transmits the electrical signals and supply from a static to a
rotational condition.
The pitch drive is equipped with an extra strong motor featuring with an extra high
brake down moment to deal with higher loads in case of icing. The seals for the gear and the
drive are made of special Nitrile-Butadiene-Rubber (NBR).
The pitch system is equipped with 1 heater within every battery box. It warms up the
accumulators and prevents humidity inside the boxes. The heating is operated by
thermostats, which are integrated in the battery boxes. A temperature sensor is installed in
each battery box. It will shut down the WTG safely in case of low temperature.

[1]

[2]

[3]

Figure 5-2:

Hub without blades; view into the pitch system

Pitch drive

Pitch bearing

Pitch cabinet

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Cooling systems

Cooling systems
The gear box, generator and each control cabinet are equipped with cooling systems.
All cooling systems are designed in such a way, that the optimum operation temperature will
not be exceeded. The components to be cooled are monitored by a sensors system and the
information is processed by the SCS.

6.1

Gear box cooling


The gear box (see Chapter 4.1.1 on page 13) is cooled via the oil flow that is passed through
the oil/air heat exchanger. A thermal choke shuts off the oil circulation during start-up until
the minimum operational temperature of the oil has been reached. An oil pump brings the oil
directly to the relevant gear box components.
Additionally, the SCS monitors the gear box temperature by means of temperature sensors
fitted to the gear box bearings and in the oil sump.

6.2

Generator cooling
The generator (see Chapter 4.2 on page 15) is cooled by two separate cooling air circuits
(Figure 4-5/1 on page 15).
The inner, closed cooling air circuit is fed by the rotor cooling ducts. Special air guiding
devices provide effective cooling of all moving parts. The air to air heat exchanger, a part of
the stator housing, transfers the heat to the outer cooling circuit.
The outer cooling circuit has its air intake at the drive end side. One axial-flow bladed fan,
located at the drive end side, sucks the air in, blows it through the axially placed cooling
tubes and discharges it at the non drive end side. The cooling air for the slip ring is
introduced by an air guiding device into the slip ring housing and discharged through an
opening in the bottom of the nacelle.
Additionally, the SCS monitors the generator temperature by means of temperature sensors
fitted to the generator bearings and inside the windings.

6.3

Cabinet cooling
The cabinets are cooled by a fan system.
The fans blow cool air through filters and into the cabinets. Warm air leaves the cabinets via
filtered outlets. A sensor system with programmed minimum and maximum values for the
control cabinet temperature switches the fans on and off on demand.
Humidity sensors activate fans and heaters if the humidity inside the cabinets reaches a
certain limit.
Additionally, the SCS monitors the cabinet temperature by means of temperature sensors.

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Brake system and rotor lock

Brake system and rotor lock


The brake system stops the rotation of the rotor and the main shaft. It consists of two
independent systems:

The aerodynamic brake (see Chapter 7.1 on page 25) is operated by the pitch system of
the three blades. It is used as the standard brake during automatic operation.
The mechanical brake (see Chapter 7.2 on page 25) is an active brake only for
supporting the aerodynamic brake. It works with hydraulic pressure.

7.1

Aerodynamic brake
The aerodynamic brake is operated by pitching the rotor blades. For braking, the pitch
system turns the leading edge of the rotor blades to the 90 position wind wards (also called
feathering position). The rotor blades lose their lift and increase their drag, which is utilise
for braking.
The aerodynamic brake is equipped with a safety system ensuring the blades can be pitched
even in the event of a grid failure. In this case, each pitch motor is supplied with power by
an individual battery box, which delivers the necessary energy for pitching back to the
feathering position.
Each of the three blades have an independent pitch drive to ensure safe operation. The
system is then comprised of three aerodynamic brakes.

7.2

Mechanical brake
The mechanical brake is located on the high speed shaft between gear box and coupling.
Hydraulic pressure prevents pressing the brake pads against the brake disc. It is applied by
hydraulic pressure (active brake). The brake pads are pressing against the brake disc, thus
braking the shaft.
The mechanical brake is only used to stop the WTG when it has already been decelerated by
the aerodynamic brake. That means, the mechanical brake operates at a very low rotational
speed and hence it is used only as a parking brake while applying the rotor lock pin or in
emergency case.

gear box connection


(Drive End DE)

[1]
generator connection
(None Drive End NDE)
Figure 7-1:

[2]

Mechanical brake

Brake pads

Brake disc

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Brake system and rotor lock

7.3

Rotor lock
The mechanical rotor lock prevents the rotor from moving during service and maintenance
work. It is fitted to provide additional personal safety when working inside the hub and on
the nacelle/hub roof.
The rotor lock disc is positioned on the main shaft inside the nacelle. The rotor lock pin is
located underneath the main bearing and is operated by the hydraulic system (see Chapter
8.1 on page 27) during a standstill condition of the rotor. It is only allowed to use the rotor
lock pin under certain circumstances (see Manual "Operation").

[1]
[2]
Figure 7-2:

[3]

[4]

Rotor lock disc with main shaft

Main shaft

Rotor lock pin

Main bearing

Rotor lock disc

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Hydraulic and lubrication system

Hydraulic and lubrication system


There are two systems to ensure a permanent and essential operation of the separate
components and of the WTG. Both systems ensure a sufficient oil or lubrication supply for all
components (where needed).

8.1

Hydraulic system
The hydraulic system provides the oil
pressure that is required for the mechanical
rotor brake and for applying the the rotor
lock pin. It can be controlled manually by
using the brake and rotor lock buttons.
Additionally it can be used to operate the
rotor lock pin by using the hydraulic hand
pump.
The pressure vessel of the electric oil pump
system is fitted with a membrane suitable
for low temperatures.

Figure 8-1:

Hydraulic aggregate

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Hydraulic and lubrication system

8.2

Lubrication system
In the WTG a couple of lubrication systems are present. There are two kinds of systems:

Closed system or
Opened system
The closed systems were lubricated only
once for the life time and closed afterwards.
It is used for some kind of roller bearings in
the WTG.
For the opened systems lubrication
reservoirs exist, to supply the components
at all times. Such a system is used for
example for the yaw system (see Chapter
4.5 on page 21).

Figure 8-2:

Lubrication reservoirs for


the yaw system (LINCOLN)

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Wind measurement and aviation light

Wind measurement and aviation light


The wind measurement equipment is mounted on top of the nacelle roof and measures the
wind direction and the wind speed. It consists of two anemometers and two wind vanes fitted
to the wind measurement pole. The sensors are surrounded by a protection cage to protect
them against electromagnetic fields. The sensors are equipped with integrated heaters.
The SCS works with one of the anemometers. It permanently tests for plausibility and
chooses the correct working sensor. The SCS uses the higher wind speed of the two wind
sensors because they act downwind and the turbulence from the blades affects them. The
wind direction is averaged between the two wind sensors.
It is possible to fit an aviation light on top of the nacelle. The light is placed at the wind
measurement mast. It operates independently. The aviation light will be according to the
national requirements.
The lights were attached on rotatable arms. To prevent light pollution at the public eye level
an aviation light covering can be fitted. So the red light is still visible for pilots from above.

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

[5]
[6]

Figure 9-1:

Wind measurement with lightning protection on the roof of the nacelle

Lightening protection

Protection case

Wind vane

Anemometer

Metal rack

Example of an aviation light

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Wind measurement and aviation light

[1]
[2]

[3]

Figure 9-2:

Aviation light with cover (optional)

Light

Cover

Metal rack

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Grid connection

10

Grid connection
The WTG is directly connected to the grid. The WTG needs to transform the voltage from
medium voltage to high voltage by means of a transformer. The transformer also minimizes
the electrical losses.
The WTG starts up by turning the rotor blades to an optimum blade angle, thus accelerating
the rotor. When the generator speed has reached synchronous speed, it is connected to the
grid via a soft starter controlling the inrush current. After this, the bypass contactor switches
on and bypasses the soft starter. The generator is directly connected to the grid.

10.1

Compensation
The usable electrical power is the active power. By its technical nature, each asynchronous
electrical generator needs a certain amount of reactive power. This form of electrical power
places additional load on the electrical supply system, e.g. the cables. To compensate this
effect and to reduce the reactive power, the WTG has a compensation mechanism.
The reactive power required by the WTG is compensated by using a 16 step capacitor bank.
The reactive power of the WTG is constantly measured during operation. Capacitors are
switched on and off according to whether or not additional capacity is needed. The individual
capacitor bank is switched according to the short-time-average-value of the measured
reactive power. If the supply system requires to much reactive power, one additional
capacitor bank is switched on. If the reactive power is too low, one bank is switched off. The
system always switches on the capacitor bank, which has the lowest individual operation
time and switches off the banks with the highest individual operation time.

10.2

Medium voltage cabinet and transformer


The medium voltage (MV) cabinet and the step up transformer are included in an area
outside the WTG. Therefore a separate building is necessary. It is part of the owner to realise
the construction.
The transformer transfers electrical energy from one voltage level to another, e.g. from the
grid to the WTG or vice versa.

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Grid connection

10.2.1

Power in tower (optional)


An optional possibility is to include the MV
cabinet and the step up transformer in the
tower. It is called "power in tower" (PIT). In
this case, the transformer is positioned at
the tower bottom in special frames. The MV
cabinet is installed on the second rack level
above the transformer. The MV cables from
the wind park are installed through the
foundation of the WTG to the MV cabinet.
From the MV cabinet the step up
transformer is connected. Protection of the
transformer is realized by relay in
combination with circuit breaker. The
bottom cabinet is installed on the third rack
level and connected to the low voltage side
of the transformer.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Figure 10-1:

Power in tower with 3 rack levels transparent tower sections

Bottom cabinet

Medium voltage (MV) cabinet

Tower door

Transformer

Foundation

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Lightning and surge protection system

11

Lightning and surge protection system


The lightning protection in WTGs has to be designed in accordance with the active standard
IEC TR 61400-24 "wind turbine generator systems part 24: lightning protection". The
standard requires a full protection against direct lightning strikes and the effects of lightning
strikes. The lightning protection is designed according to lightning protection level I (LPL I),
the highest existing level.
The lightning protection system of the WTG is divided into four main parts:

11.1

Exterior lightning protection


Interior lightning protection
Equipotential bonding system
Earthing system

Lightning protection zones


The creation of lightning protection zones (LPZ) of the WTG was realised by national and
international standards. An overview of the LPZ is shown in Figure 11-1 on page 34.
Furthermore, the efficiency of the LPZ was tested by applying the rolling sphere simulation
(Chapter 11.1.1 on page 35).
The LPZ 1 in the nacelle is realised by a meshstructure for damping the electromagnetic
influences. For the tower is used a metal tube construction. All cabinets inside the tower,
nacelle and hub are classified as LPZ 2.

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Lightning and surge protection system

Figure 11-1:

Overview lightning protection zones (LPZ)

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Lightning and surge protection system

11.1.1

Rolling sphere simulation


The lightning protection system is designed
in accordance with the rolling sphere
simulation on the geometry of the WTG.
The rolling sphere simulation is used to
place and dimension the lightning rods to
afford the highest level of lightning
protection against the nacelle.

[1]

[2]

Figure 11-2:

11.2

During simulation the rolling sphere with a


radius of 20 m is runnig across the
geometry of the WTG. To guarantee the
LPZ 1 (inside WTG) and LPZ 0B (outside
WTG) the rolling sphere is not allowed to
contact a part of the nacelle or the hub but
the lightning rods. The LPZ 0B is not
endangered by direct lightning strikes.
As shown in Figure 11-2 the rolling sphere
does not contact the nacelle cover but the
lightning rod. Hence, the LPZ 0B is
guaranteed. In case the lightning rod is not
dimensioned correctly the rolling sphere
would contact the nacelle cover. Hence, the
LPZ 0B is not guaranteed.

Rolling sphere modell

Rolling sphere

Lightning rod

Lightning protection outside WTG


The lightning protection outside the WTG includes the following parts:

Lightning rods at nose cone and nacelle


Receptors at rotor blades
Copper cables, spark gaps and carbon brushes
Wire mesh inside the nacelle cover and metal hub construction
Copper busbars for connection of cables and arresting devices

One task of the lightning protection outside the WTG is to avoid direct lightning strikes into
the mechanical and electrical operation systems of the WTG. A second task is to avoid the
endangerment of free leading down of lightning currents. The electromagnetic field must be
reduced to a LPL according to the LPZ 1 by the nacelle cover.
The blade of the WTG includes two lightning receptors, one in the tip and one in the middle
of the blade. The receptors are connected to the spark gap at the blade root, where the
lightning current will be lead onto the hub construction. From there, the lightning current will
be lead over spark gaps at the rotor lock disc on an isolated arresting path to the top section
of the tower and then into the ground.

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Lightning and surge protection system

11.2.1

Lightning rods and receptors


The rotor blades are equipped with receptors. The receptors avoid damages of the rotor
blade by a direct lightning strike.
The lightning rod on the nacelle protect the wind measurement equipment and the nacelle
against direct lightning strikes.

11.2.2

Spark gaps
To conduct the lightning current riskless into the ground it is necessary to protect the
bearings at the rotor blade and drive train by parallel current paths, which conduct and direct
the lightning current. This is realised by using spark gaps at the blade bearing, in the section
of the rotor lock disc in front of the main bearing and at the yaw bearing.
[1]
[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Figure 11-3:

Spark gap at the yaw bearing

Spark gap bolt

Lock nut

Yaw base/main frame

Gear rim

Adjustable spark gap between bolt and gear rim

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Lightning and surge protection system

11.2.3

Lightning arrester cables


[1]
[2]

[3]

Figure 11-4:

11.2.4

The lightning current will be conducted into


the ground by using copper cables. The
cables connect the spark gaps and the
lightning rods directly with the upper tower
shell. The connection between the tower
shells is bridged by three copper cable
bridges at the flange. The cross section of
the three cable bridges is identical to the
cross section of the tower shells. Hence, the
tower is used for conducting lightning
current without influences to inside installed
cables and wires.

Copper cable bridge at tower section connection interior view of the tower

Tower section

Earthing strap

Flange between tower sections

Nacelle
The glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) cover of the nacelle is divided into three parts. Each
part is provided with a mesh of galvanised steel. The meshes are interconnected to each
other in order to build a Faraday cage. Furthermore, the meshes are attached to the tower
by a copper cable to bleed off the lightning current.

11.2.5

Hub construction
The hub construction is made of cast iron.
All electric components have the required distance to the nose cone. So the hub complies
with the requirements for a faraday cage.

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Lightning and surge protection system

11.3

Lightning protection inside the WTG


The lightning protection inside the WTG includes surge current arresters and surge voltage
arresters. This components are also called surge protective devices (SPDs). The SPDs
protects the electrical and electronic systems against indirect effect of the lightning, which
strikes the WTG or the upstreamed net system.
The main advantage of the lightning protection inside the WTG is the subsequent design of
an all side protection of control systems (incoming and outgoing wires protected by SPDs).
Hence, the influences to the systems can be reduced enormously.
The bottom cabinet of the WTG includes three main surge arresters, which reduce the
influence of lightning current and surge voltage arrester by the upstreamed net system
(Figure 11-5 and Figure 11-6).

Figure 11-5:

11.4

Surge arrester in bottom


cabinet

Figure 11-6:

Surge volge arrester in


bottom cabinet

Equipotential bonding system


The task of the equipotential bonding system is the potential equalisation of all metal system
components like housings, handrails, ladders and cabinets.
The equipotential bonding system is based on the potential tree concept, which is especially
designed for the application in WTGs. The potential equalisation avoids the generation of
dangerous voltages, which can hazard people and technical systems.
The equipotential bonding system connects all metal components of the WTG. As a result,
the electric potential of all components is the same. Thus, in case of contacting two
components there is no danger of current flow for humans.

11.5

Subterranean earthing system (optional)


The subterranean earthing system connects the WTG with the transformer star point and all
outside installations. The earthing system has to avoid potential differences between the
WTG and the transformer station in case of lightning strike and the safeguarding of low loop
impedance, which is necessary for a fast and safe disconnection in case of electrical failures.
The subterranean earthing system is connected to the PAS busbar in the bottom of the WTG.
From this point, the earthing system is designed like a grid in the sub terrain.

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Condition Monitoring System (optional)

12

Condition Monitoring System (optional)


The intention of the Condition Monitoring System (CMS) is to prevent damages and loss of
components. It can predict damages and allow a minimum time for maintenances.
Additionally, it is possible to analyse damages, increase the reliability and mean time
between failures (MTBF).
The scope of the CMS is basic diagnostic by measuring vibration at drive train components
and automatic detection of relevant changes. Furthermore, it is possible for CMS experts in
CMS surveillance centre to diagnose damages and thus prepare instructions for operating
staff. The analysis of damage causes may help to develop possibilities of prevention.
The CMS components are as follows:

Measurement of vibration on drive train (main bearing, gear box, generator)


Communication to programmable logic controller (PLC)
Communication to CMS surveillance centre (remote control)

The CMS device is only able to recognize but not to react! On this account it is necessary to
have a CMS surveillance centre. Here the measurements of all joined WTGs are centralised
and CMS experts react accordingly.
It is possible to retrofit the CMS.

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SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM

13

SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM


The SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM (SCS) is a new generation of an innovative WTG and park
controlling and monitoring system. It consists of four parts to ensure an optimum level of
safety, stability and flexibility. Each part is designed for its specific task:

SUZLON Control-Turbine (SC-Turbine)


This is the pure WTG control. SC-Turbine can run the WTG independently.
SUZLON ControlCommander (SC-C)
For visualisation of WTG data and WTG remote control. SC-C is the gate to SC-Turbine
and SC-PPC.
SUZLON Control-Service Terminal (SC-Service Terminal)
This is a portable box for controlling and data request of a single WTG.
SUZLON Control-Power Plant Controller (SC-PPC)
Optional part for wind park management in close interaction with SC-Turbine.
SUZLON Control-MetStation
Optional part for wind park management to provide detailed weather conditions of the
wind park

Figure 13-1:

Interaction of the components of the SCS

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SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM

13.1

SC-Turbine
The SC-Turbine is the control system of a single WTG. Via different sensors and
measurements (e.g. electrical grid data, wind speed and direction, rotational speed, yaw and
blade angle and component temperatures) SC-Turbine ensures safe and stable operation and
power production of the WTG. Also statistical and operational data are stored on a flash
memory.
The innovative software solution runs on a robust industrial programmable logical controller
(PLC) and ensures safe and high performance of the WTG.
SC-Turbine can be monitored and controlled with the robust SC-Service Terminal or a normal
laptop directly at the WTG. Also in close interaction with SC-C it is possible to communicate
with the WTG and additionally to create reports and logs of the stored data of WTGs or the
whole wind park.

13.2

SC-Commander
The SC-Commander (SC-C) is designed as a user interface to WTGs. It manages access for
customers, service staff and other persons, according to defined access levels, to all wind
park devices, such as WTGs, meteorological masts and also to SC-PPC. At the same time it
collects, stores and distributes all required data. To see the WTG status, to carry out simple
operations like start, stop, reset and to create reports it is necessary to use SC-C. So SC-C is
the "gate" to SC-Turbine and SC-PPC.
The SC-C can be installed on any kind of operating system. The laptop/PC has to comply with
the requirements in "Hardware Specification SC-Commander".

13.3

SC-Service Terminal (optional)


With the SC-Service Terminal operation of a single WTG is possible.

13.3.1

SC-Terminal-fixed
The fixed SC-Terminal is placed in a cabinet door of the bottom cabinet. It consists of
processor, monitor and key pad.

13.3.2

SC-Terminal-portable
It is possible to connect a portable and compatible SC-Service Terminal to a WTG. The SCTerminal consists of processor, monitor and key pad in a single box and can be plugged to
every WTG.

13.4

SC-Power Plant Controller (optional)


The SC-Power Plant Controller (SC-PPC) is designed to control a complete wind park
according to specific requirements. The wind park will be controlled as a power plant. For
example it is possible to reduce the power output of the wind park which is in certain cases
necessary to meet the requirements of the utilities. It is also possible to stop individual WTGs
to avoid shadow flicker effects at particular areas.
The software runs on a robust industrial PLC in close interaction with SC-Turbine.
Visualisation and remote control of SC-PPC is possible via SC-C.

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SUZLON CONTROL SYSTEM

13.5

SC-MetStation (optional)
The SC-MetStation is introduced to provide
a detailed and correct representation of
actual weather conditions of a wind park.
Additional forecasts and calculations are
possible.
The measured data are used for:

Production forecast
Free wind speed
Wind direction
Production loss calculation
Air density calculation
Turbulence intensity

The SC-MetStation is placed inside the wind


park it belongs to.
The SC-MetStation is equipped with a
standard scope of sensors, that means: one
anemometer and one wind vane. It is
possible to increase the scope of sensors up
to four anemometers and four wind vanes.
The sensors are installed at hub height.

Figure 13-2:

Example of a SC-MetStation

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Annotations

14

Annotations

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