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Introduction :

There are four types of stresses that are studied for determining the strength
of materials:
Tension ,compression, shear and torsion . in the last
laboratory activity we studied tension . it is often stated that materials
behave the same in tension and compression.
A compression test is most commonly performed on a universal testing
machine. The compression space is the lower portion of the machine . prior
to the yield point tension and compression results are similar . the major
difference with the compression test compared to the tensile test is that the
specimen compresses or the area increases after the yield point is reached
.typically the compression test is more difficult to perform than the tensile
test. the compressive specimen must have a larger cross sectional area to
prevent the effects of column buckling . for some ductile materials the
specimen will compress until a flat slug is reached .a compression test is
performed to determine the following mechanical properties :
Ultimate compressive strength (brittle materials)Modulus of
elasticityProportional limitYield strength
A compression test determines behavior of materials under crushing loads.
The specimen is compressed and deformation at various loads is recorded .
compressive stress and strain are calculated and plotted as a stress-strain
diagram which is used to determine elastic limit, proportional limit, yield
point , yield strength and, for some materials , compressive strength .

Compressive strength
Maximum stress a material can sustain under crush loading. The
compressive strength of a material that fails by shattering fracture can be
defined within fairly narrow limits as an independent property .

However , the compressive strength of materials that do not shatter in


compression must be defined as the amount of stress required to distort
the material an arbitrary amount . compressive strength is calculated by
dividing the maximum load by the original cross-sectional area of a
specimen in a compression test.

Theoretical back ground:


Mechanical testing and evaluation states: axial compression testing is a
useful procedure for measuring the plastic flow behavior and ductile fracture
limits of a material .measuring the plastic flow behavior requires frictionless
(homogenous compression ) test conditions ,while measuring ductile fracture
limits takes advantage of the barrel formation and controlled stress and
strain conditions at the equator of the barreled surface when compression is
carried out with friction.Axial compression testing is also useful for
measurement of elastic and compressive fracture properties of brittle
materials or low-ductility materials . in any case, the use of specimens
having large L/D ratios should be avoided to prevent buckling and shearing
modes of deformation .The figure(2) below shows variation of the strains
during a compression test without friction (homogenous compression) and
with progressively higher levels of frictions and decreasing aspect ratio L/D
(shown as h/d).Modes of deformation in compression testing .(a)buckling
,when L/D>5.(b) shearing, when L/D>2.5 .(c) double barreling , when
L/D>2.0 and friction is present at the contact surfaces .(d) barreling, when
L/D <2.0 and friction is present at the contact surfaces (e) homogenous
compression, when L/D <2.0 and no friction are present at the contact
surfaces. (f) compressive instability due to work-softening material

Calculation:

steel
0.6
0.5
0.4
steel

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

strain(E)

Figure(1) : plot the stress verus strain for steel

copper
0.4

1.yeild strength : 0.48

0.35
0.3
0.25

copper

2.proprotional limit:(0.05, 0.47)

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
3.modulus
of elasticity=0.511

0.25

Figure(1) : plot the stress verus strain for copper

1.yield strenght: 0.318

2.proptional limit=(0.05,0.3081)

3. modulus of elasticity=0.35112

aluminium
0.35
0.3
0.25
aluminium

0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

Figure(1) : plot the stress verus strain for (AL)

1.moduls of elasticity = 0.304

2. proptional limit = ( 0.05,0.282)

3.yield strength = 0.292

brass
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3

brass

0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18

Figure(1) : plot the stress verus strain for brass


1.yield strenght : 0.408

2. proptional limit : (0.05,0.402)

3. modulus of elasticity: 0.413