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1. Why a protocol is essential for communication between computers?

A protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers on

a network. In order for two computers to talk to each other, they must be speaking
the same language. Many different types of network protocols and standards are
required to ensure that a computer (no matter which operating system, network
card, or application it is using) can communicate with another computer located on
the next desk or half-way around the world.
2. How protocol implementation can be viewed as a stack, where each layer has its own
A protocol stack is a combination of protocols. Each layer of the stack specifies a
different protocol for handling a function or subsystem of the communication
process. Each layer has its own set of rules. The protocol steps must be carried out
in a consistent order that is the same on every computer in the network. In the
sending computer, these steps must be executed from the top down. In the
receiving computer, these steps must be carried out from the bottom up.
3. What are the functions of each layer of the TCP/IP protocol?




Defines TCP/IP application protocols and

how host programs interface with
transport layer services to use the

HTTP, Telnet,
X Windows, other


Provides communication session

management between host computers.
Defines the level of service and status of
the connection used when transporting



Packages data into IP datagrams, which

contain source and destination address
information that is used to forward the
datagrams between hosts and across
networks. Performs routing of IP




Specifies details of how data is physically

Ethernet, Token


sent through the network, including how

bits are electrically signaled by hardware
devices that interface directly with a
network medium, such as coaxial cable,
optical fiber, or twisted-pair copper wire.

Ring, FDDI, X.25,

Frame Relay, RS232, v.35

4. Describe the application of the TCP/IP protocol when a message is sent from one host to
another on the internet.

1. The application program at the originating host passes its data, the
destination address, and other parameters required to the transport
2. The transport layer encapsulates the data by attaching it to a header
that it has created and then passes it to the Internet layer.
3. The Internet layer encapsulates the data inside an IP header and passes
it to the link layer.

4. The link layer (in this example, Ethernet) encapsulates the data as a
frame inside an Ethernet header and trailer for transmission by the
physical media.
5. Data is encoded as bits on the physical medium. This is called electrical
6. The Ethernet frame is encoded in electrical bits, transmitted over the
physical medium, and delivered to the interface of the destination host.
7. The Internet layer extracts the IP packet from the Ethernet frame and
passes it to the transport layer.
8. The transport layer ensures that all segments are in order and delivers
the data to the host application program.

5. Explain how the BitTorrent protocol provides peer-to-peer file sharing.

BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer protocol, which means that the computers in a
BitTorrent swarm (a group of computers downloading and uploading the same
torrent) transfer data between each other without the need for a central server.
6. Describe the following protocols

DNS - Domain Name System - translates network address (such as IP addresses) into terms
understood by humans (such as Domain Names) and vice-versa

DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol - can automatically assign Internet addresses to
computers and users

FTP - File Transfer Protocol - a protocol that is used to transfer and manipulate files on the

HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol - An Internet-based protocol for sending and receiving

IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol - A protocol for e-mail messages on the Internet

IRC - Internet Relay Chat - a protocol used for Internet chat and other communications

POP3 - Post Office protocol Version 3 - a protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve messages
from remote servers

SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - A protocol for e-mail messages on the Internet