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ASSIGNMENT # 3

Q3) What are the essential part of Computer? Describe briefly?


A2) A complete Computer system consist of four essential parts:
1)Hardware
2)Software
3)Data
4)User
1) Hardware: The mechanical device that make up the Computer are
called Hardware. A
Computers hardware consist of interconnected electronic devices that
can be used to control the
Computers .

Essential Computer Hardware:


A Computers hardware devices fall into one of four categories:
a-Input devices
b-Processor
c-Output
d-Secondary storage devices
a-Input Device : Input device accept data and instruction from some source the user or
from another computer system (such as a computer on the internet).
The most common input devices are :
Keyboard-which accept letters, numbers, & commands from the user.
Mouse-which lets you select option from on screen menus. We use a mouse by moving it
across a flat surface & pressing its buttons.
A variety of other input devices work with PC too ;
The Trackball & Touchpad are variation of the mouse & enable you to draw or point on
the screen.
The Joystick is a swiveling lever mounted on a stationary base that is well suited for
playing videos games.
A Scanner can copy a printed page of text or a graphic into the computers memory,
Freeing from creating data from scratch.
A Digital Camera can record still images, which you can view & edit on the computer.
A Microphone enable you to input your voice or music as data.

b-Output : Output devices return processed data to the user or another


computer system. Output is an optional step in the information processing

cycle but may be ordered by the user or program.


For Example : the result may appear as text, number, or a graphics on the
computers screen or as sounds from its speaker.
The Function of an Output device is to present processed data to the user. The
most common output devices are the monitors and the printer. The computer
sends output to the monitor(the display screen) when the user only need to see
the output it send output to the printer when the user requests when the user
requests a paper copy- also called a hard copy of a document.

c-Processor :A processor, Its basic job is to receive input and provide the appropriate output. While this may
seem like a simple task, modern processors can handle trillions of calculations per second. The
central processor of a computer is also known as the CPU, or "central processing unit." This
processor handles all the basic system instructions, such as
processing mouse and keyboard input and runningapplications. Most desktop
computers contain a CPU developed by either Intel or AMD, both of which use
the x86 processor architecture. Mobile devices, such as laptops and tablets may use Intel and
AMD CPUs, but can also use specific mobile processors developed by companies like ARM or
Apple.
Processors that include two cores are called dual-core processors, while those with four cores
are called quad-core processors. Some high-end workstations contain multiple CPUs with
multiple cores, allowing a single machine to have eight, twelve, or even more processing
cores.
D-STORAGE
In a computer, storage is the place where data is held in an electromagnetic or optical form
for access by a computer processor.
A computer, storage is the place where data is held in an electromagnetic or optical form for
access by a computer processor. There are two general usages.
1) Storage is frequently used to mean the devices and data connected to the computer
through input/output operations - that is, hard disk and tape systems and other forms of
storage that don't include computer memory and other in-computer storage. For the
enterprise, the options for this kind of storage are of much greater variety and expense than
that related to memory. This meaning is probably more common in the IT industry than
meaning 2.

2) In a more formal usage, storage has been divided into: (1) primary storage, which holds
data in memory (sometimes called random access memory or RAM) and other "built-in"
devices such as the processor's L1 cache, and (2) secondary storage, which holds data
on hard disks, tapes, and other devices requiring input/output operations.
Primary storage is much faster to access than secondary storage because of the proximity of
the storage to the processor or because of the nature of the storage devices. On the other
hand, secondary storage can hold much more data than primary storage.

In addition to RAM, primary storage includes read-only memory (ROM) and L1 and
L2 cache memory. In addition to hard disks, secondary storage includes a range of device
types and technologies, including diskettes, Zip drives, redundant array of independent disks
(RAID) systems, and holographic storage. Devices that hold storage are collectively known
as storage media.
A somewhat antiquated term for primary storage is main storage and a somewhat antiquated
term for secondary storage is auxiliary storage. Note that, to add to the confusion, there is an
additional meaning for primary storage that distinguishes actively used storage from backup
storage.

Computer Data
To help understand computers it is best to first learn about computer data. Computer data is
ininformation required by the computer to be able to operate. It is used to:
Run programs - This is the actual executable program data that the
computer will execute to rurun in the program such as Microsoft Word.
Store program or system configuration information.
Store information that the computer user needs such as text files or other
files that are
aaassociated with the program the computer user is running. A
common example of a program the cccomputer user is running is the Microsoft
Office suite of products which include Microsoft Word, MMicrosoft Excel, and others.
These programs are also known as applications.
DData Structure

Ccomputer data is in what is called binary format. This means that it is always a 0 or a 1. It only
has these two states and must be in one of them.
TThere are several fundamental data units which include:
Bit - A data unit which must be in one of the two binary states described
above. It is the sasmallest data unit that exists.
Byte - 8 bits of data which has a possible value from 0 to 255.
Word - Two bytes or 16 bits of data with a possible unsigned value from 0 to
16535.

Data transmission
Data transmission is the act of sending data from one place to another. Data is
transmitted both inside and outside your computer. There are two fundamental
methods of data transmission.
Serial - Data is sent on a single line and one bit is sent at at a
time. This is similar to a line which one item must come one
after another.
Parallel - Data is sent on more than one line at a time. This
may be any number of bits at a time, but is usually one word at
a time (two bytes) or possibly three bytes at a time.

SOFTWARE
Software consists of computer programs, which are sequences of
instructions for the computer. The process of writing (or coding) programs
is called programming, and individuals who perform this task are called
programmers.
The computer is able to do nothing until it is instructed by software.
Although computer hardware is, by design, general purpose, software
enables the user to instruct a computer system to perform specific
functions that provide business value. There are two major types of
software: systems software and application software.

Systems software
is a set of instructions that serves primarily as an intermediary between
computer hardware and application programs, and may also be directly
manipulated by knowledgeable users. Systems software provides important
self-regulatory functions for computer systems, such as loading itself when
the computer is first turned on, managing hardware resources such as
secondary storage for all applications, and providing commonly used sets of
instructions for all applications to use. Systems programming is either the
creation or maintenance of systems software.

Application software
is a set of computer instructions that provide more specific functionality to
a user. That functionality may be broad, such as general word processing, or
narrow, such as an organizations payroll program. An application program
applies a computer to a certain need. Application programming is either the
creation or the modification and improvement of application software.
There are many different software applications in organizations today, as
this chapter will discuss. For a marketing application, for example, see the
Market Intelligence box at the Web site.
In summary, application programs primarily manipulate data or text to
produce or provide information. Systems programs primarily manipulate
computer hardware resources. The systems software available on a
computer system provides the capabilities and limitations within which the
application software can operate.

USER :- People are the Computer operators also known as users. However
no computer is totally
Autonomous. It can be argued that some Computer systems are complete
without a person a envolment .

Following are the users of computer:-

Coder The user who codes scripts or programs usually for fun or learning.
Sometimes for for malicious purposes.

Gamer Dedicated fan of computer games who plays them for fun or a sense of
accomplishment over others. They also take gaming real seriously.

Programmer Not exactly the same as the coder but still codes. Programmers
create GUI Programs that makes a particular process faster, more productive, or
even possible. They distribute their programs for rep or profit or for reference of
code.

Office-Freak User who uses the computer mainly for work on an office-suite
(Microsoft Office, Open Office).

Virus Writer A form of coder who writes viruses and other malicious code as a
form of art.

Pirate Cracks and/or distributes cracked software.


Artist Creates and uploads images, icons, or other media to enhance or
personalize the look of the interface.