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Chemistry Block 2

Teacher: Puan Umi Azura binti Md. Zain

Group Members:
Nicole Tan Ze Nee
Noor Aishah Zaharah binti Mohamed Zakhir
Nur Azizan bin Wazir


Marks Distribution




Whole Presentation of the Scrapbook



Introduction to Ceramics
A ceramic is defined as an inorganic non-metallic solid which is prepared by heating a
substance or mixture of substances to a high temperature.
*A ceramic is non-metallic, but ceramics are compounds of metallic and non-metallic
The word ceramic originates from the Greek work keromikos, meaning burnt stuff.
Some examples of notable ceramics are Silica (SiO2) and Alumina (Al2O3). Silica is a major
component of many glass products. Alumina is a very versatile ceramic it is used in
abrasives (e.g. sandpaper) and artificial bones.

Properties of Ceramics
Ceramics are very hard, but brittle, materials. They can withstand extremely high
temperatures as they have low thermal conductivity. Ceramics also have high mechanical
force (ability to withstand the stress of physical forces) and are resistant to elongation under
stress. Ceramics are insulators of electricity.
Structure of Ceramics

Melting point
Electrical insulating properties


Ceramics, in general, are made by heating natural clays. Two major groups in which these
clays are grouped are red clay and kaolin clay. Red clays primary ingredient in silicon
dioxide and iron oxide; while kaolin clay is mainly aluminium oxide with very little, if not
no, iron oxide content. As red clay has a higher iron content, it is usually a shade of brown,
while kaolin clay is white as aluminium oxide is white.
Some groupings of ceramics are based on the temperature at which they are fired. Usually,
lower-fired ceramics will absorb water more easily. Conversely, higher-fired ceramics will
absorb little, if not no, water.
Classification of Ceramics
The types of ceramics include oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulphides and fluorides. As
suggested by the names, this classification is based on composition.
Another classification is by applications. Some examples are glasses, clay products,
refractories, abrasives and cements.
Ceramic Products
There are many uses and products of ceramics. Some are used in our daily lives and some we
may not even know exist throughout our lives.
Common products are bottles and lenses (as in glasses) made of glass. It is about 75%
silicon dioxide (SO2). Fibre optic communications lines (optical fibre) is made out of glass
fibre. Optical fibres carry light across very long distances with little need for signal amplifiers
because the refractive index of the material causes total internal reflection of light within the
fibre. As light transmits the information, and it undergoes total internal reflection throughout,
very little illumination, and therefore information, is lost.
Some lesser known uses include magnetic ceramics as used in computer memories. An
example of a magnetic ceramic is Fettire, which is primarily iron (II) oxide (Fe2O3). These
ceramics are ferromagnetic and can be made into permanent or electro- magnets.
Ceramics can also be utilised for purposes such as artificial teeth and bones.

Author(s) Title Edition Publisher (year of publication)


Roger Norris, Lawrie Ryan, David Acaster, Cambridge International AS and A Level
Chemistry Coursebook, 4th Edition, Cambridge University Press (2012)
M. P. Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.