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Real Number
Number System
Lets say you have some apples and if somebody asks how many apples you have, what
will you answer? One got to put a "label" on them. And here comes "numbers" to help
you out. We need numbers to define the quantity and to perform mathematical
operations like addition and subtraction. Numbers can classify in various depending on
what they represent and where they are used. Here they are:
Natural Number
And how will counting start if you are counting your apples? You have to start with 1 and
then go on. (One doesn't have to count, if they have no apple to begin with).
Number line is a line where we can represent the numbers and their fractional or
decimal parts. A number lines start from 0 to either sides, both positive and negative
and goes on till positive and negative infinity.
Real Numbers are those numbers that can be represented on a number line.
Natural Numbers, Whole Numbers, Integers all belongs to Real Numbers.
Decimal Number
Decimal Numbers have an integer plus a decimal part or the fractional part.
For example, the number 15.02 is a decimal number having 15 as the integral part and
the .02 as the fractional part.
Natural Numbers are those numbers that starts from 1, followed by 2,3 and so on.
Natural Numbers= {1, 2,3,4,5...}
Irrational Numbers
Irrational Numbers are the numbers that cannot be expressed on the number line.
These numbers can't be expressed as a terminating decimal.
Whole Number
Whole numbers are natural numbers with the inclusion of zero. Whole numbers starts
from Zero, followed by 1, 2 and so on.
Negative Numbers
Negative numbers have the same absolute value as a positive numbers, but with a
different sign. For Example the absolute value of 5 and 5 is 5 but their sign is opposite.
Integers
One can't see negative numbers in nature. One can observe that there are 5 cows in the
field but one cannot say that there are 5 cows in the field. Negative numbers are used to
represent opposing quantities. For example credit and debit, positive charge and
negative charge.
Integers are whole numbers plus the inclusion of negatives numbers from 1, 2, 3, and
so on. Integers = Whole Numbers + { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,...}
For example, a credit $5 and debit of $5 adds to 0 because their absolute value is same
but of opposite nature.
5 unit positive charge and 5 units of negative charge add to zero.
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Example: Predecessor of number 45 is (45  1)= 44 and the successor of 45 is (45 +1)
=46.
Prime Numbers
Prime number are those numbers that have only two divisors  the number 1 and the
number itself. Example: 1,2,3,5,7,11... are some prime numbers. Try to divide these
numbers using various divisors and you will know that they are only divided by the
number 1 and the dividend itself.
Special case of number 1: The number 1 is not a prime number. The
smallest prime number is the number 2 not the number 1.
The second number will be read as five crore three lakh twenty one thousand six
hundred fifty four.
Addition (+)
Commutative Property
We take a number 2 and added it to another number 8, the result is 10. Now, We take a
number 8 and added it to another number 2, the result is again 10.
Composite Numbers
Any number that is not a prime number is a composite number.Example of composite
numbers are 1,4,6,8,9,10,12,14,15,16,18,20,...These numbers have more than two
divisors.
This property of addition, where addition of two numbers is always equal, irrespective of
the order of addition is known as commutative property of addition.
a + b = b + c, where a and b are any two numbers.
Associative Property
Place Value
Place value is calculated by multiplying the digit whose place value is to be calculated
and the place (hundredth, thousandth etc...). For example: if we have to calculate the
place value of 5 in the number 858412. Then first we have to decide the place at which 5
is located. Here we can see that 5 have 4 digits on the right side. Therefore we have to
multiply 5 by 10000 to get the place value. ( 5 x 10000 = 50000).
We take a number 5 and added it to another number 9, the result is 14 and add the
result of previous addition to 8 to arrive at 22. Now, We take a number 9 and add it to
number 8 and the result of this addition is added to 5, the result is again 22.
This property of addition, where addition of a group of number is always the same
irrespective of order of the addition is known as associative property of Addition.
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) , where a,b and c are numbers.
An easier method is to discard all the digits before the digit whose place value we are
calculating. For the above number we will discard 8 and we will left with 58412. Now
replace all digits after the digit 5 to get the place value for the required digit. i.e. 58412
=> 50000.
Subtraction ()
We have,
83=5
Predecessor of a number X is a number that comes 1 count before the number X. To get
predecessor of number X we have to subtract the number X by1. In the same way
successor of a number X is number that immediately follows the number X
and
38=5
Therefore, Subtraction is not a commutative.
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Multiplication ( x )
We have,
8 X 3 = 24
and
(1). (4)
3 X 8 = 24
(2). (222)
And
(4). (2 + 2 + 2)
(8 X 3) X 5 = 120
and
3 X (8 X 5) = 120
Explanation:
1. (4)
4x4=
2. (222) = (8) = 8 X 8
16
=
64
Division ()
3. [(2 + 2)] = [(4)] = [16]=16 x16 = 256 ( and hence this the answer)
We have,
4. (2 + 2 + 2) = (6) =
36
84=2
and
4 8 = 0.5
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Explanation:
43=4+5+6
Don't get scared by "HinduArabic Numeration" argon. Now to get at the answer just
subtracted the lowest 4 digit number from the highest 4 digit number ( and add + 1
since both the ranges are included ) to arrive at the answer.
54=5+6+7+8
64=6+7+8+9
What will n 8 be equal to ?
(1) n + 28
(1) 49000
(2) 8n + 28
(2) 49500
(3) 8n + 36
(3) 41000
(4) n + 36
(4) 50000
Answer :(2) 8n + 28
Explanation: From the examples given in the question, the first number is the starting
number of the series and the second number represents the number of numbers in the
series inclusive the starting number of the series.
Using the above rule, we can expand n 8 to n
+(n+1)+(n+2)+(n+3)+(n+4)+(n+5)+(n+6)+(n+7)
= 8n + (1 + 2 + 3 +4 +5 +6 +7)
= 8n +28
Q6. When faced with word problems, Rajan usually asks should I add or subtract?
Should I multiply or divide?. Such questions suggest
Q4. How many 4digit numbers are there in the HinduArabic Numeration System ?
(1) 99
(2) 8999
(3) 9999
(4) 9000
Answer :( 4) 9000
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Explanation: From his words it is clear that he is confused about using the
mathematical operators.
Answer :( 4) 123454321
Q8. The difference of 5671 and the number obtained on reversing its digits is
2. The resulting number have digits starting from 1 to digit having value equal to the
number of digits in either number and then decreases from there to 1.
(1) 3916
(2) 7436
i.e. 111 X 111 = 12321. The Digits in the answer start from 1 and goes to 3 ( Number of
digits in 111) and decreases from there till digit 1 .
(3) 3906
Applying the same rules to 11111 X 11111, we know the right answer is 123454321.
(4) 4906
Q10 which of the following is correct?
Answer :( 3) 3906
Explanation: The number is 5671 and the number obtained by reversing the digits is
1765.
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Let put a plus sign on the incoming toys and negative sign on all outgoing toys
(negative signs because outgoing decreases the inventory). Then, we have 239 + 70 =
152
Q12.In the product 3759 x 9573, the sum of tens' digit and units' digit is
Explanation:
(1) 9
(2) 16
(3) 0
2. Successor of predecessor of 1000 => successor of (1000  1) => 1000  1 + 1 => 1000
1001 Rejected!
3. Successor of predecessor of 1000 => successor of (1000  1 ) => 1000  1 + 1 => 1000
1002 Rejected!
4. Predecessor of successor of 1000 => predecessor of (1000 + 1) => 1000 + 1 1 =>
1000 = 1000 Success!
(4) 7
Answer: (4) 7
Explanation: Just multiply the last two digits from each number and you will get the
tens' digit and the ones digit of the resultant. Add the digit to get the answer.
(2) 19919
(3) 191919
(4) 21090
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(1) 10101
(2) 1001001
Answer: (1)55
(3) 3
Solution:
(4) 111
Answer: 1001001
Explanation: The first impulse is to tick 111. nope. Just do it in your head or on piece of
paper. your will get 1 quotient for first 567 and then you have to add 0 and 0 to
quotient then 1 to clear 567 and then again 0 and 0 and then 1.
Since he gave 100 rupee note to the shop keeper, he will get ( 100  45 ) = 55 rupees from the
him.
Q17. When 90707 is divided by 9, the remainder is
(1)3
(2)5
(1) 16
(3)6
(2)8
(4)7
(3)4
Answer: (2) 5
(4)2
Solution:
Answer: (3) 4
Divide the 90707 by 9 and you will get 5 as remainder and 10078 as quotient.
16. A pencil costs two and half rupees. Amit buys one and half dozen pencils and gives
hundred rupee note to the shop keeper.The money he will get back is
(1)55
(2)45
(3)65
(4)30
Quicker Method: Try Rule of divisibility for 9. According to this rule if the sum of
the all the digits of the dividend is divisible by 9 then the number itself is divisible by 9.
Here,
Sum of digits of 90707 = 9 + 7 + 7 = 23
and if subtract 5 from this number we will get 23  5 = 18 therefore it should be the
remainder of the division.
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Q18. The sum of the place value and the face value of the number 3 in 12345 is
Answer :(2)123456
(1) 0
Solution:
(2) 295
(3) 297
(a) 6 digits because there are six digit in the number beginning with 98.. and digit 6 is
subtract from it
(4) 305
(b) Starting from 1 and ending on 6
Answer: (3) 297
Therefore the number is 123456
Solution:
Place value of 3 in the number 12345 is 3 X 100 = 300
(1) 2
(2) 3
(3) 4
(4) 6
Answer: (3) 4
Solution:
Numbers of integers greater than 8 and less than 3 are 7,6,5,4. And hence 4 in
numbers.
..
(987654  6) / 8 =
(1) 12345
(2)123456
(3)123465
(4) 123467
(2) 1.101
(3) 1.013
(4) 1.121
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Aligning the decimal point of all the number given in the problem , we have
0.001
=> a = 2
1.010
0.110
27 = 8 + b
1.121
19 = b
Taking third equation, 4^3 =1 + 7 + c
Q22. In 1999, the population of a country was 30.3 million. The number which is the
same as 30.3 million is
64 = 8 + c
56 = c
(1) 303000000
(2) 30300000
(3) 3030000
(4) 3030000000
Answer:
(2) 30300000
Solution:
1 Million = 1000000
And a + b +c = 56 + 2 + 19 = 77
Q 24: We call a number perfect if it is the sum of all its positive divisors , except itself.
For example 28 is a perfect number because 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 +14. Which of the
following is a perfect number?
(1) 13
(2) 10
(3) 9
(4) 6
Answer: (4) 6
(1) 58
(2) 68
(3) 77
(4) 79
Answer:
Solution:
Solution:
(1) Factors of 13 other than itself are 1. Not this number.
(2) Factors of 10 other than itself are 1, 2, 5 and their sum = 1 + 2 + 5 = 8. Not this
number.
(3) Factors of 9 other than itself are 1, 3. Not this number.
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(4) Factors of 6 other than itself are 1,2,3 and their sum = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6.This is number.
Both 16^/3^500 and 2/3^500 are negligible values and therefore can
____________________________________________________________
be ignored.
Q25. The product of two whole numbers is 24. The smallest possible sum of these
numbers is
(1) 8
(2) 9
(3) 10
(4)12
Q27. If 800880 = 8 x 10^x + 8x10^y + 8x10^z where x, y and z are whole numbers,
then the value of x + y + z is
Answer: (3) 10
Solution:
First let find all pairs of number that can give 24 upon multiplication. They are ( 8, 3)
,(12,2),(6,4) and upon addition they give out 11, 14 and 10 respectively. 10 is the
smallest.
(1) 11
(2)8
(3) 6
(4) 15
Answer:
Solution:
____________________________________________________________
800880 can be broken down into
Q26. The value of
(1) 2
(2) 4
(3) 8
(4) 16
x+y+z=5+2+1=8
___________________________________________________________
Answer: (3) 8
Solution:
Dividing both numerator and denominator by 3^500, we get
{ ( 3^2  1) + 16/3^500} / (1 + 2/3^500)
Q28. The number n is doubled and then y is added to it.The result is then divided by 2
and the original number n is subtracted from it. The final result is
(1) y
(2) y/2
(3) n + y
(4) (n + y )/2
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Solution:
And since we got b after subtracting a from 14 , this means a + b =14
Going step by step
____________________________________________________________
1. Taking a number
=> n
=> 2n
Q30. Which of the following is not a perfect square:
3. Add y
=> 2n + y
4. Result is divided by 2
5. Subtract n
=> n + y/2
=> y/2
____________________________________________________________
(1)548543213
(2)548543251
(3)548543215
(4)548543241
Q 29: If
1957

a9
18b8
Answer: (4)548543241
Solution:
None of the perfect square will have 3 at the one's digit. This rules out option (1).
Again only a perfect square of a number that has digit 5 at ones place will have 5 at the
unit digit but never alone. It will have 2 in the tenth place. This rules out option (3).
(2)14
(3)13
(4)12
Try the division method for any one of the option (2) and (4) and you will get that only
option (4) is a perfect square.
____________________________________________________________
Answer: (2)14
Solution:
Starting from the right hand side of the subtraction. Since 7 is less than 9, 1 has to be
borrowed from 5. Again 9 is reduced to 8 in the answer, therefore 1 has to borrowed
from 9.This means 5 becomes 14 after borrowing from 9 and giving 1 to 7.
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Using Divisibility Rules, We know that any number that is divided by 5 has to have
either 0 or 5 in the unit place. Therefore, (K+1) has 5 in the unit place and K should have
either 4 or 9 in the unit place. While checking for options only option (c) has a number 4
in the unit place and hence the CORRECT answer.
=>
(a) 1
(b) 3
(c) 2
(d) 0
x + y = 1 (iv)
(a) 1/2
(b) 1/4
(c) 1/8
(d) 1
Answer: (c) 2
Solution:
Answer:
2 is the lowest prime number and also 2 is the only even number.
Solution:
Taking LHS
Q33. If 999x + 888y =1332 and 888x +999y =555, then x  y is equal to
(a) 7
(b) 8
(c) 9
(d) 5
{1/2(ab)} + ab = 1/4(ab) + ab
= 1/4(a + b 2ab) + ab
= 1/4((a + b) ab/2 + ab
Answer :( a) 7
= 1/4(a + b) + ab/2
Solution:
=1/4(a + b + 2ab)
= 1/4(a+b)
Thus the equation in the question becomes 1/4(a+b) = p(a + b)
Therefore. p = 1/4
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HCF and LCM
Factors and multiple : If a number a divides number b exactly, we say
that a is a factor of b in this case , b in called a multiple of a .
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Dividing 54 by 24 we will get 2 as quotient and 6 as remainder.
Now divide the divisor 24 by the remainder 6. We will get 0 remainder. Since
the number 6 was the last divisor, we have 6 as the H.C.F.
Finding the HCF of more than two number: Suppose we have to find the
HCF of three numbers. Then, HCF, of { HCF of any two and the third
number} gives the HCF of three given numbers.
Similarly, the HCF of more than three number is obtained.
There are two methods of finding the HCF of a given set of numbers :
1. Factorizing method : Express each one of the given number as the
product of prime factors. The product of least of common prime factors gives
HCF.
Example: Lets say we have to find the HCF of 24 and 54.
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2. The ratio of the two numbers is 3:4 and their LCM is 180. The second number is
(a) 45
(b) 90
(c) 30
(d) 60
Answer: (d) 60
8,Comparison of Fractions : Find the LCM of the denominators of the
given fractions. Convert each of the fractions into an equivalent fraction with
LCM as the denominator , by multiplying both the numerator and
denominator by the same number the resultant fraction with the greatest
numerator is the greatest
Solved Questions:
Solution:
The point to understand here is that,
When we find ratio of two numbers then the HCF of the numbers is eliminated while
reducing the ratio to the lowest term. Thus, the two numbers are 3 x HCF and 4 x HCF
Now, Let the HCF be x. Then using the formula
LCM x HCF = First Number and Second Number
Q1. Find the Least Number which when divided by 12,18,36 and 45 leaves
the remainder 8,14,32 and 41 respectively.
(a) 180
(b) 178
(c) 186
(d) 176
=>
15 = HCF
Solution:
First we have to find the relationship between the Divisors and the
remainder.
We see that 128=4 , 1814 = 4, 3632=4 and 4541 = 4
3. A farmer has 945 cows and 2475 sheep. He farms then into flocks,
keeping cows and sheep separate and having the same number of animals in
each flock. If these flocks are as large as possible, then the maximum
number of animals in each flock and total number of flocks required for the
purpose are respectively
The rule here is to find the LCM of 12,18,36 and 45. That is 180.
Now, the required number is obtained by subtracting the common difference
(4) obtained earlier from the LCM of the number.
i.e. 180  4 = 176
Answer:(c) 45 and 76
Solution:
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Here we just have to find the Highest Common Factor of these two numbers
(945,2475). It will come out to be 45. Therefore, looking at the options the
CORRECT answer is option (c).
4. If x:y be the ratio of two whole numbers and z be their h.c.f. then the
l.c.m. of those two numbers is
(a) yz
(b) xz/y
(c)
(d) xyz
xy/z
Cost price: Cost price is the price at which the seller has acquired the
article in question.
Selling Price: Selling price is the price at which the seller is willing to sell
the product.
Profit: Profit is the amount the seller earns by selling an article at a price
greater than the cost price.
Answer:(d) xyz
Solution:
The main point to note here is that when we find ratio of two numbers then
the what is reduced from them is the h.c.f. of both the numbers.
Thus the two numbers are (x.z ) and (y.z)
Again, using the formula,
Loss: Loss is the amount the seller loses by selling an article at a price less
than the cost price.
Loss = Cost price  Selling Price
(x.z)(y.z) = (z)(l.c.m.)
l.c.m.
= xyz
Profit Percentage: Profit percentage is the profit percent that the seller
earns on the sell the article. It is calculated on the cost Price.
Overheads: overheads are the expenses that the seller has to incur to sell
the products/articles. Overhead includes the rent of the shop, salaries of the
employees, utilities bills, advertisement bill or any kind of expenses the
seller has to pay to keep his business running.
Fixed Costs: Fixed cost is the cost that the seller has to bear in spite of
quantity he is selling. Fixed cost include the rent , utility bills, employee
salary and so
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Variable Costs: Variable cost or direct cost is the cost the seller has to bear
to sell the article. The cost price of the articles, cost price of the raw material
and others.
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7. If an article is sold at a profit of x% which is further sold at a profit of y%
then
the final Selling price is
8. If two successive profits x and y are made on the same article then the
net
3.To find the Cost Price when Selling Price (S.P.) and Percentage profit (x) is
given
Cost Price =
4.To find the Selling Price when the cost price (C.P.) and percentage profit
(x) is
profit is
(x + y + xy/100)
Note: above formula could also be used for loss. Just make sure to use
+ve
sign for profit and ve sign for the loss.
9. If a false weight is used instead of the true weight then, the profit
given by
Selling Price = {(100 +
x)(C.P.)/100}
percentage is
{(True Weight  false weight)/False Weight} x 100
5.To find the Cost Price when Selling Price (S.P.) and Percentage loss (x) is
given
Cost Price =
6.To find the Selling Price when the cost price (C.P.) and percentage loss
(x) is
1. An article is sold for 75 at a loss of 25%. Then find the cost price of the
article.
given by
Selling Price = {(100  x)(C.P.)/100}
Solution:
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Using the formula 5 mentioned above we have ,
Cost Price =
{75/75}x 100
(1/1)x100
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Net profit/loss = ( 15  15 225/100)
= (2.25)
First, A made a profit of 15% and again total loss of (2.25)% in the entire
deal was profit to A.
Therefore, total Profit A made = 15+2.25 = 17.25 %
100
4. I gain 0.70 paisa on Rs. 70. My gain percent is :
2. An article with a cost price of Rs. 840 is sold for a profit of 10% and then
again sold for a profit of 20%. Find the final selling price.
Solution:
(a)0.1%
(b)1%
(c)7%
(d) 10%
Solution:
(a)36
17
(b)50
24
(c)40
(d) 60
Solution:
19
29
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We have to calculate the percentage profit in each case, the table becomes
Solution:
Let the Cost price was 100 then the selling price at 40% profit will be 140.
profit %
(a)36
17
47.22
(b)50
24
48
(c)40
19
47.5
(d) 60
29
48.33
And at this price a discount of 10% is offered then the final selling price will
be
140  (0.10)(140) = 140  14 = 126
And net profit is
8. Profit after selling a commodity for 425 is the same as the loss after
selling it for 355.The cost of the commodity is
(a) 390
(b) 395
(c) 400
(d) 385
Answer:(a) 390
(a) 4(1/6) %
(b)6(1/4)
Solution:
(c)8(1/3)%
(d)20%
Since the profit after selling the commodity at 425 and loss after selling it at
355 is the same.Then the Cost Price for the commodity lies exactly in the
middle of the two numbers. It will be found by finding the averages of the
these two numbers.
Solution:
Rate per kg at which the potatoes are bought = 420/70 = Rs 6 per kg
9. A watch is purchased for 400 and sold for 460.The profit percentage is
(a) 15.5%
(b) 12%
(c) 13%
(d) 15%
(a) 14%
(b) 30%
Answer:
(c) 25%
(d) 26%
Solution:
Total profit = 60 and cost price is 400. Therefore the percentage profit is
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(60/400)x100 = 15 %
Answer:
10. By selling an article for 450 , a man loses 10%. The gain or loss percent
if he sells it for 540 is
(a) gain 9%
(b) loss 9%
(c) gain 8%
(d) loss 8%
Solution:
Let the Selling price be 100. Then the discount of 10% is 10. The selling
price
will become 90. Again a 20% discount is offered then the selling price
becomes 90  (0.2)(90) = 72.
Solution:
Here, Cost Price = 450(110/100) = 495
If he sold it for 540, the profit would have been (540 495) =
(b) 28%
45
13. A dealer marks his goods at 40% above the cost price and allows a
discount of 20% on the marked price. The dealer has a
(a) loss of 20% (b) gain of 25%
(c) loss of 12% (d) gain of 12%
Solution:
Let the Cost price be 100. Then after it was marked up 40% , the selling
price would be 100 + (0.40)(100) = 140.
Again a discount of 20% was offered on the marked price then the final
selling price become
Solution:
(b) 28%
(d) 27%
14. A person sells 400 mangoes at the cost price of 320 mangoes. His
percentage of loss is
(a) 10
(c) 20
(b) 15
(d) 25
Answer: (c) 20 %
Solution:
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Out of 400 mangoes he sold,he was able to recover the cost price of 320
mangoes. And his lost is the cost price of the 80 mangoes.
Compound Interest
Compound interest: At the end of the interest cycle, if the interest is getting added to the
sum, initially borrowed, to create a new principal, then this kind of arrangement is
called as compound interest.
15. A shoe company sold 50 pairs of shoes on a day costing Rs. 189.50
each
In compound interest for the new cycle , interest is calculated on the sum borrowed
plus on the accumulated interest.
Formula for calculating compound interest
(b) 525
(c) 573
(d) 612
Amount = P { 1 + (r/100)}t
Where,
Answer:
Solution:
10000
= 525
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the time 't' in years becomes (t/3) as there are 4 quarters in a year of 3 month each
Solution:
Amount = P [ 1 + {(r/3)/100}]t/3
=>
1.21 = (1.1)t
=> t = 2
Q2. The difference between the simple and compound interest on a certain
sum of money for 2 years at 4% per annum is Rs.1. Find the sum.
(a) Rs .630
(b) Rs. 620
(c) Rs. 625
(d) Rs. 635
Amount = P [ 1 + {(r/12)/100}]t/12
Q1. The compound Interest on Rs. 1,800 at 10% per annum for a certain
period of time is 378. Find the time in years
(a) 3 years
(c) 2 years
Again it is given that the difference between the two types of interest is Re 1
Therefore,
Answer:(c) 2 years
0.0.0816X  (2X)/25 = 1
=>
X(0.0816 0.08 )
=>
X(0.0016) =1
=1
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Simple Interest:
When a borrower takes money from a lender then the borrower has to pay some
interest to the lender for using that money. If the interest does not get added to principal
amount at the end of the payment term, then this kind of arrangement is called as
simple Interest.
Term
quarterly,
Rate of interest:
Amount
the
Problem 1:
A sum of Money will double it self in 10 years at simple rate of interest. Find the rate of
Interest?
Solution:
It is given to us that a certain sum of money will double itself in 10 years. We have to
find the rate at which it was lent.
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Amount = SI + Principal
S.I. = (P x R x T)/100
2 = R/10 + 1
=>
1 = R/10
=>
R = 10 %
T = 5 years
Thus, any kind of money lent at simple rate of interest of 10% will double itself in 10
years.
S.I. = 330
P =?
Problem 2:
Hence , a sum of Rs. 600 will earn a simple interest of 330 in 5 years at 11% rate of
interest.
The Simple interest earned on a certain sum of money in 5 years at 11 % per annum is Rs
330. Find The sum.
Solution:
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years. Now again using the new value of rate of interest ( 12 + 3 = 15) to get simple
interest:
If 600 amounts to 816 in 3 years at simple interest. If the rate of interest is increased by
3%, to how much would it amount to in the same time period?
Solution:
S.I. = (P x R x T)/100
R=?
T = 3 years
S.I. = 816  600 = 216
P = 600
R = 216/18 =12 %
Now, the question was if it is to be increased by 3% then what will be the amount in 3
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(c) 1050
(d) 370
(b) 250
Solution:
In such question, the first we add all the part. we get 4 + 5 + 6 = 15. Out these, B got 5
parts.
(a) 9:12:15:17
(b) 6:12:20:32
(c) 9:22:32:34
(d) 7:19:27:42
4. Two number are in the ratio of 9: 14 if the larger number is 55 more than the smaller
number.Find the numbers.
(a) 99,154
(b) 48:88
Solution:
(c) 17:96
(d) 59:74
Solution:
3 x 8 x 15:4 x 8 x 15: 4 x 10 x 15 : 4 x 10 x 17
= 9 : 12 : 15 : 17
The smaller number be x, then the larger number be (x+ 55) . Then according to the
question
x / (x+55) = 9/14
Thus,
14x = 9(x + 55)
(x+55)/14 }
=> 14x = 9x + 495
Solution:
The ratio compounded = (4 x 9 x 26 x 2)/(3 x 13 x 5 x 15) = 16/25
=> 5x = 495
=>
3. An amount of Rs 750 is distributed among A,B and C in the ratio of 4:5:6 what is the
share of B ?
(a) 500
(b) 250
x = 99
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=>
5x = 3(x + 20)
5.The sum of the three is 98 if the ratio between the first and the second be 2:3 and that
between the second and the third be 5:8, then find the second number .
=>
5x = 3x + 60
(a) 90
(b) 45
=>
2x = 60
(c) 77
(d)30
=>
x = 30
And ( x +20) = 30 + 20 = 50
Answer: (d)30
And therefore the sum is 50 + 30 = Rs . 80
Solution:
Let the three numbers be A , B and C.
Then the ratio of A to B is
= 2:3 or 10:15
5:8
15:24
7. The ratio between two number is 3:4 If each number be increased by 6 the ratio
becomes 4:5 find the number.
(a) 43,16
(b) 18,24
(c) 22,12
(d) 32, 22
6. A sum of money is divided between two people in the ratio of 3:5. If the share of one
person is Rs 20 less than that of other,find the sum .
(a) 88 Rs
(b) 76 Rs
(c) 85 Rs
(d) 80 Rs
Again, (3x+6/4x+6) = 4/5 ( given that when both numbers are increased by 6 the ratio
becomes 4/5)
=> 5(3x + 6 ) = 4(4x + 6)
=> 15x + 30 = 16x + 24
=> 15x  16x = 24  30
Answer: (d) 80 Rs
=>
x = 6
=>
x =6
Solution:
Let the share of one person be x then the share of other person is x + 20.
Thus, the first number is 6 x 3 = 18
It is given that
and the seconder number is 4 x 6 = 24
(x / x +20) = 3:5
(3x/4x) = 3/4
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Solution:
8. The ratio between two number is 3: 4. If each number be increased by 2, the ratio
becomes 7:9. Find the number.
(a) 43, 16
(b) 22,10
(c) 12, 16
(d) 18,9
=>
=>
=>
(3x/4x) = 3/4
Again, (3x + 2/4x+2)=7/9 (given that when both numbers are increased by 2 the ratio
becomes 7/9)
=> 9(3x + 2 ) = 7(4x + 2)
=>
2x = 20
=>
x =10
Therefore, the student in each class before the increase are 2x10, 3x10, 5x10 = 20,30,50
=>
=>
 x
= 4
x =4
10. The ratio between two number is 3:4 ,if each number be increased by 9, the ratio
becomes 18:23 find the sum of the number
(b) 85
(c) 72
(d) 100
(a) 135
(b) 105
(c) 155
(d) 165
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X=5
23(3x + 9)
= 18(4x + 9)
69x + 207
= 72x + 162
12. Find the number which, when subtracted from the terms of ratio 11:23 makes it
equal to the ratio 3:7
(a) 2
(b) 8
3x = 45
(c) 16
(d) 6
X = 15
Thus two numbers are 3x15 = 45 and 4 x 15 = 60
And the sum is 60+45 = 105
Answer: (a) 2
Solution:
11. Find the number which, when added to the terms of the ratio 11:23 makes it equal to
the ratio 4:7
(a) 15
(b) 5
(c) 25
(d) 20
Let the number be x which when subtracted from each terms of the ratio 11:23 makes it
equal to 3:7.
Thus, (11  x)/(23  x ) = 3/7
Answer: (b) 5
7(11  x ) = 3(23  x)
Solution:
77  7x = 69  3x
7x+3x = 69 77
Let the number be x which when added to each terms of the ratio 11:23 makes it equal to
4:7.
4x = 8
X=2
13. In 40 liters mixture of milk and water the ratio of milk and water is 3: 1 how much
water should be added in the mixture so that the ratio of milk to water becomes 2:1 ?
7x4x = 92 77
(a) 500ml
(b) 20 liters
(c) 5 liters
(d) 10 liters
3x = 15
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x=4
Answer:
Therefore, the milk in the mixture is 4x3 = 12 litres and quantity of water = 4x2 = 8
liters
Solution:
15. A bag contain equal number of one rupee, 50 paisa and 25 paisa coins respectively if
the total value of rs 35, how many coins of each type are three?
Let x liters of water be added to the mixture to make the ratio of milk to water to become
2:1.
(a) 40
(b)80
(c) 160
(d) 20
Thus,
30/(10 + x) = 2/1
Answer: (d) 20
30(1) = 2(10+x )
Solution:
30 = 20 + 2x
10 = 2x
50 paisa = .5 rupee. .25 paisa = .25 rupees.
X = 5 liters
Now, given that
14. A mixture contains milk and water in the ratio of 3:2 liter of water is added to the
mixture, milk, milk and water in the mixture become equal find the quantities of milk
and water in the mixture .
(a) 12, 8 liter
X (1 + 0.50 + 0.25) = 35
=> x = 35/(1.75) = 20
16. The speed of these cars is in the ratio of 2:3:4. what is the ratio among the time taken
by these cars to travel the same distance ?
(b) 3:6:9
(c) 9:3:6
(d) 6:4:3
Solution:
Let quantities of milk and water in the mixture be 3x and 2x. Then if 4 liters of water is
added to the mixture the ratio of milk and water become 1:1.
It can be written as (3x): (2x + 4) = 1/1
Thus, 3x = 2x +4
Solution:
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(a) 11:22
(b) 71:58
(c) 31:74
(d) 91:49
12:8:6
or 6:4:3
Answer:(c) 31:74
Solution:
17. The incomes of A of B are in the ratio 3:2 and their expenditure are in the ratio 5:3 if
each saves rs 2000, what is their income ?
In vessel 1
The fraction of water = 1/3
(a) 32000
(b) 20000
The fraction of milk = 2/3
(c) 1190
(d) 8000
In vessel 2
The fraction of water = 2/7
The fraction of milk = 5/7
Now, From vessel 1, 1/5 of the mixture is taken out. Thus water taken out = (1/5)(1/3)
= 1/15 and milk taken out = (1/5)(2/3) = 2/15
And from vessel 2, 4/5 of the mixture is taken out. Thus water taken out = (4/5)(2/7) =
8/35 and milk taken out = (4/5)(5/7) = 20/35
Thus Ratio of water and milk in resulting solution is (1/15 + 8/35) : (2/15+20/35) =
31/105 : 74/105
= 31:74
= 10000+ 6000
=>
x = 4000
=>
x = 4000
(b) 144
(c) 25
(d) 4/3
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Answer:(a)12
22. The ratio of three number is 3:4:5 and the sum of their squares is 1250. The sum of
their number is :
Solution:
Mean proportion of 9 and 16 = (9 x 16) = 3 x 4 = 12
20. Find the third proportional to 15 and 20
(a)80/3
(b) 55/6
(c) 37/2
(d) 71/2
(a) 30
(b) 50
(c) 60
(d) 90
Answer: (c) 60
Solution:Let the numbers be 3x, 4x and 5x.
Answer:(a)80/3
Then,
Solution:
=> x = 25
=> x = 5
(b) 48
(c) 41
(d) 20
23. The ratio of three number is 3:4:7 and product 18144 the number are :
Solution:
(a) 9,12,21
(b) 15,20,25
(c) 18,24,42
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25. What should be subtracted from 15,28,20 and 38 so that the remaining number may
by proportional?
(a) 2
(b) 4
=> x = 216
(c) 6
=>
x=6
7 x 6 = 42
Answer: (a) 2
solution:
Let k be subtracted from 15,28,20,38 such that yhey may be proportional. then
(15  k)/(28k) = (20  k)/(38  k)
24. The value of K that must be added to 7,16,43,79 so that they are in proportion is.
=> (15  k)( 38k) = (20k)(28k)
(a) 7
(b) 5
(c) 9
26. Two number are respectively 20% and 50% more than a third number. The ratio of
two numbers is :
(b) 3:5
(c) 4:5
(d) 6:7
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Solution:
(b) Rs.484
(c) Rs.550
(d) Rs.664
(a)8:1
(b) 1:8
(c)4:1
(d) 1:4
Answer:(a)8:1
Solution:
Answer: (b) Rs.484
(x+y) :(xy) = {(x/y) + 1 } /{(x/y) 1} = {9/7 +1}/{9/7  1} = 16/2 = 8/1 or 8:1
Solution:
Let A's amount to be a.
30. The ratio of the present ages of Sunita and Vinita is 4:5. Six years hence, the ratio of
their ages will be 14:17. What will be their ages 12 years hence.
(a) 13:19
(b)16:19
(c) 17:19
(d) 15:19
Answers: (b)16:19
Solution:
The word to understand here is 'hence'. 'Hence' in such questions means 'after' the years
mentioned.
28. Rs. 900 is to be distributed among A,B,C and in the proportion 2:3:4 how much C
get?
(a) Rs.400
(b) Rs.450
(c) Rs.540
Let the present ages of Sunita and Vinita be 4x and 5x. Now, according to the question,
(4x + 6)/(5x + 6 ) = 14/17
=> 68x + 102 = 70x + 84
=> 10284 = 70x  68x
Answer:(a) Rs.400
=> 18 = 2x
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=> x = 9
Therefore, Sunita's age = 4x9 = 36 years
Vinita's age = 5x9 = 45
After, 12 years Sunita's age = 36+ 12 = 48 years
12 years Vinita's age = 45+ 12 = 57 years
32. From each of the two given unequal numbers, half the smaller number is subtracted.
Then, of the resulting numbers, the larger one is five times than the smaller one. Then
the ratio of the larger to smaller one is
(a) 2 : 1
(b) 3 : 2
(c) 3 : 1
(d) 1 : 4
(b) 90
(c) 30
(d) 60
Answer: (d) 60
Solution:
=>
2XY = 5Y
when we find ratio of two numbers then the HCF of the numbers is eliminated while
reducing the ratio to the lowest term. Thus, the two numbers are 3 x HCF and 4 x HCF
=>
2X = 6Y
=>
15 = HCF
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UNITARY METHOD
Unitary method is about calculating for a one item and then using it to get the solution
for the given number of quantity.
2. If 4 men or 7 women do a work in 60 days then in how many days will 8 men and 7
women finish the same work
For example:
(a) 18
(b) 20
(c) 48
(d) 36
If the cost of 30 m of cloth is 345, then find the cost of 16 m of such cloth?
Solution:
Answer:(b)
Solution :
In this problem, we to calculate the work done by a single men or a single women in one
day and then we can easily find the answer to the above problem. We assume that the
total work done is 1 unit.
SOLVED PROBLEMS
1. If the cost of 30 meters of cloth is Rs 345 . Find the cost of 16 meters of this cloth.
(a) 184
(b) 162
(c) 875
(d) 321
= 1/(60 x 4) = 1/240
Answer:(a)
Work done by 8 men and 7 women in a single day is 8 x (1/240) + 7 x(1/420) = 1/30 +
1/60 = 3/60=1/20
Solution:
Cost of 30 m of cloth = Rs 345
Cost of 1 m of cloth = Rs 11.5
Cost of 16 meter of cloth = 16 x 11.5 = 184
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Solution:
(a) 81
(b) 50
(c) 20
(d) 26
Now to find how many month it will take to 4 person to spent 1800.
Since spent of 1 person is 100 and 4 person spent is 100 x 4 = 400
Answer: (b)
And the month it will take to spent 1800 is = 1600/400 = 4 months
Solution:
The hey here is only half the work is done in 40 days by 50 workers.
Now we will find the work done by a 50 workers in 40 days = (1/2)
5. If 20 men can complete a work in 3 days while 12 ladies can complete the same work
in 12 days .in how many days will 20 men and ladies complete the same work ?
And lets say x workers can do the remaining half of the work in 20 days.
(a) 2/17
(c) 36/17
(b) 2/5
(d) 17/3
X x 20 = 50 x 40
X = 100
Answer:(c)
Solution:
And since 50 workers are already employed, The contractor has to rope in 100  50 = 50
more workers to do the job.
4. If 6 people spend rs 2400 in 4 months then 2 less people will spend Rs 1600 in how
many month?
Now,
Work done by 1 men in 1 day = 1/(20 x 3) = 1/60
(a) 4
(b) 6
(c) 63
(d) 24
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Solution:
Rate of exchange for 1 dollar = 7.5/100
And for 550 we will get = (7.5/100) x 550 = 41.25 dollars
6. If each boy takes two chocolates a day it will suffice to 7 boys for 12 days if each boy
takes three chocolates a day then for how many days will suffice to 8 boys ?
8. If the weight of 13 meters long rod is 23.4 kg what is the weight of 6 meter long rod ?
(a) 10
(b) 15
(c) 16
(d) 7
(a) 7.1 kg
(b) 10.8 kg
(c) 12.4 kg
(d)18.0 kg
Answer: (d)
Answer: (b)
Solution:
Solution:
First calculate the total chocolate availabe.
First Calculate the weight of 1 m rod = 23.4/13 = 1.8 kg/m
There are 7 boys and they take 2 chocolate each day for 12 days = 7 x 12 x 2 = 168
And the weight of 6 m rod is = 1.8 x 6 = 10.8 Kg
Now there are 8 boys now and they each take 3 chocolate each day there total chocolate
eaten in day = 24
10. If a scale of map represents 0.8 cm for 8.8 km if two points in a map are 80.5 cm
apart what the actual distance between these points ?
(a) 885.5 km
(b) 905 km
(c) 700 km
(d) 990 km
(b) 42.75
(c) 41.25
(d) 42.25
Solution::
First calculate how much 1 cm represents = 8.8/0.8 Km
Therefore 80.5 cm represents = (8.8/0.8) x 80.5 = 885.5 Km
Answer: (c)
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11. If 45 men can complete work in 30 days working 12 hours a day in how many day
work 60 men complete the work working 10 hours days ?
There fore the provision will last 42 days more after 25 men left.
(a) 31
(b) 27
(c) 25
(d) 33
Answer: (b)
13. If 6 men weave 168 shawls in 7 days how many shawls will be woven by 8 men is 5
days ?
(a) 126
(b) 90
(c) 160
(d) 104
Solution:
Work done by 1 men per day per hour = 1(/ 30 x 12 x 45)
Lets say it takes X days to complete the work if they work 10 hours a day and there are
60 men
Answer: (c)
Solution:
(a) 45
(b) 54
(c) 29 /15
(d) 42
14. If 51 people can eat some food in 50 days how many days will the same food be eaten
50 people ?
Answer: (d)
(a) 52
(b) 51
Solution:
(c) 50
(d) 55
Answer: (b)
Now, there are 125 men left and it will last = 5250/125 = 42 days
Solution:
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And lets says he employs a total of M men to complete the rest of the half work in
30days
M = 50 men
(a) 40
(b) 60
(c) 100
(d) 160
Answer:
Solution:
grass eaten by 1 oxen in 1 day = 1/(15 x 80)
18. A family has provision for 15 people for 1 week for if after 2 days 5 people are
increased and the ration is reduced by 25 % per person how long will the provision last ?
(b) 6
(c) 7
(d) 4
Lets ration per day is R then accodring to the conditions given in the above problem, we
have
(a) 30
(b) 50
15 x 7 x R = 15 x R x 2 + 20 x 0.75R x D
(c) 20
(d) 10
105 = 30 + 15 D
D=5
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Half work was done in 50 days employing 30 men
Therefore Ration will last 5 more days after intial 2 days are over. Therefore total days =
7 days
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19. A regular working day is 8 hours and regular week is 5 working days .A man is paid
rs 2.40 per regular hour and rs 3.20 per hour overtime if he earns rs 432 in 4 week what
is the total number of hours he works ?
(a) 180
(b) 195
(c) 160
(d) 175
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21. If 3/5 of a work is done by 12 men in 10 days how many men will complete the whole
work in 20 days?
(a) 9
(b) 8
(c) 10
(d) 7
Answer: (d)
Answer:
Solution:
Solution:
Total hours in 4 weeks for a regular week = 8 x 5 x 4 = 160 hours
Total work done would have been done in (5/3) x 12 x 10 days
Amount he should get without overtime = 160 x 2.4 = 384
Let M men could complete the work in 20 days
He got 432, an extra 48 have come due to overtime. Rate of overtime is 3.20
Then,
Therefore overtime is done for 48/3.2 = 15 hours
Equating both the terms
Therefore total hours = 160 + 15 = 175
We have,
(5/3) x 12 x 10 = M x 20
20. If one fourth kg of a substance costs rs 0.80 what will be the cost of 200 gram of the
same substance?
(a) 40 paisa
(c) 64 paisa
(d) 60 paisa
Answer: (c)
=> M= 10 men
22. 400 persons working 9 hours a day complete 1/4 the of a piece of work in 10 days
the number of additional persons working 8 hours a day required to complete the
remaining work in 20 days is ....(a) 675
(b) 275
(c) 250
(d) 225
Solution:
Cost of 1/4 kg of substance = 0.80
Answer: (b)
Solution:
Work done by 400 people working 9 hours a day for 10 days = 400 x 9 x 10 = 1/4 of total
work
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Arithmetic Average
Then T= 4 x 400 x 9 x 10
And work remaining = 3/4 T= (3/4) x 4 x 400 x 9x 10
The formula for calculating average is :
Again Let M is the number of total men after the addition of men to complete the work
in 20 days, then
(3/4) x 4 x 400 x 9 x 10 = M X 20 x 8
108000 = M x 160
M = 675
Therefore Men increased by = 675  400 = 275
where,
n is the number of quantities
x1 is the value of first quantity, x2 is the value of second
quantity and so on.
Weighted Average
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= 66.67
Where,
w1,w2,w3....wn are the weights of x1,x2,x3,...xn quantities.
The weighted average calculated in this case is less than the arithmetic
average because of the weight attached to the various subjects. Since
Maximum weight is attached to physics, and the student has scored less
mark in physics, this will pull down the average.
Example:
Take another scenario where admission is sought in chemistry course and
the weight attached are as:
A student scored 60, 80 and 70 in Physics, chemistry and math. If the
college assigns a weight of 3 to physics, 1 to chemistry and 2 to math for
admission to the physics course, then calculate the weighted average of the
student.
Solution:
Math
= 1
Physics
= 2
chemistry
=3
Now weighted average has come out to be greater than arithmetic average
because of the weight assigned to chemistry and the higher marks in
chemistry has pull UP the weighted average.
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Solution:
Solution:
Here simply use the average formula :
Question 3: The average contribution of an office towards the health fund is 120 month.
If the officer level employees are contributing Rs. 460 and nonofficers staff is paying Rs
110. Then, if there are 15 officers then find the number of nonofficer staff.
Method 2 :
Using the formula for the average calculation
Adding the teachers age to the group increases the age of the students by 1 full year.
120 (15 + X ) = 6900 + 110 X
Since there are 20 students the total years added by the inclusion of the teacher = 20
years
And since the teacher is new addition to the group having an average of 13, 13 years
more years are added.
Solving for X
1800 + 120X = 6900 + 110X
120X  110X = 6900  1800 = 5100
Therefore total years added to the group due to the inclusion of the teacher = 13 + 20 =
33 years.
10X= 5100
X = 510
There fore nonOfficer staff is 510
Question 2: Rakesh bought 10 shirts for 250 each, 15 pants for 350 each and 20
handkerchiefs for 50 each. Find the average cost of each item.
Question 4: A certain college while taking admission in the math course is assigning
following weight age to the subjects.
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Math  4
Question 5: Onethird of the journey is covered at the rate of 25 km/hr , onefourth at
the rate of 30 km/hr and the rest at 50 km/hr. Find the average speed for the whole
journey.
Science  3
English  2
Hindi  1
Solution:
If a student has secured following marks in these subjects then find out arithmetic
average and the weighted average of the marks.
For calculating speed we have to first find the total distance covered and total time
taken.
Math  70
Science  60
English  70
Hindi  80
Solution:
3. Rest of the journey ( X  ( X/3 + X/4)) = 5X/12 at the rate 50 Km/hr and time taken =
X/120
= 1/(3/100) = 100/3
= 33(1/3) Km/Hr
Question 6: The average weight of 8 persons is increased by 2 Kg when one of them who
weighs 56 kg is replaced by another person. The weight of the new person is :
Solution:
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Total marks in five subjects = 335
The new person added 2 kg to the average weight of 8 people. Then total new weight
added to the group is 8 X 2 = 16 kg. In addition to this weight , The new person also
replaced a member with 56 kg of weight. Then, then total weight of the new person = 56
+ 16 = 72 Kg.
Question 9: The average of 13 results is 50. If the average of the first 6 results is 49 and
that of the last 6 is 53, then find the 7th results.
Question 7: In an examination, one section of class X, having 60 students scored an
average marks of 55 and the second section, having 40 students scored an average of 45
marks.What is the overall average.
Solution:
Solution:
Given that the averages of the first 6 results and the last six result are 49 and 53
respectively.
Average = Total Marks scored by all the students / Total numbers of students
Then the total value of all the 12 result ( except the 7 th one) is = 49x6 + 53x6 = 612
And the total value of all the 13 result = 650
Question 10: A driver drives to the office at 50 km/her and returns at 30km/hr. Find the
average speed.
we have ,
Solution:
average marks = 5100/100 = 51
The key here is that the driver drives the same distance to and fro. Let the distance be D
in one direction.
Question 8: The average marks of a student in four subjects is 65. If the student scored
75 marks in the fifth subject then the average of the total marks is ?
Solution:
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Average Speed = Total Distance Traveled/ Total Time Taken = 2D/(D/ 50 + D/30)
Answer: (b) 80 years
= 2/8/150 = 150/4 = 37.50 km/hr
Solution:
Since Addition of D to the group reduces the average age of the group to 80 years. This
means addition of D, reduces 4 x 4 = 16 years from the total age. Thus, the age of D is 84
 16 = 68 years.
Q 11. Out of 30 teachers of a school, a teacher of age 60 years retired. In his place
another teacher of 30 years was appointed. As a result , the mean age of the teachers will
(a) decrease by 1 year
Again, given that the age of E is 4 years less than D then the age of E is 68 + 4 = 72
years.
Answer:
Solution:
First Method:
Net result of the retirement and appointment of the teachers result in a net decrease of
30 years. These 30 years are distributed across 30 teachers. Thus, the mean decreases
by 1 years.
Q13. The average of six numbers is 32. If each of the first three numbers is increased by
2 and each of the remaining three numbers is decreased by 4, then the new average is
(a) 35
(b) 34
(c) 31
(d) 30
Answer:(c) 31
Second method:
Solution:
Let the mean of the 29 teachers that remain the same be x years, then
Each of the first three numbers is increased by 2 then the increases in total
Final Mean  Initial mean = (29x +30 )/30  (29x + 60)/30 = (29x + 30 29x  60)/30
=  30/30 =  1
= 3 x 2 = +6
And each of the 3 remaining three numbers are decreased by 4, then total decreased is 4
x 3 =  12
Thus, the final mean is less than the initial mean by 1 year.
Therefore, net increase/decrease = + 6  12 = 6
Q12. Average age of A, B and C is 84 years.When D joins them the average age becomes
80 years. A new person E, whose age is 4 years more than D replaces A and the average
of B, C , D and E becomes 78 years. What is the age of A?
(a) 70 years
And the decrease in the mean = 6/6 = 1. And new mean = 32 1 = 31
(b) 80 years
14. Five years ago, the average age of P and Q was 25. The average age of P, Q and R
today is 25. Age of R after 5 years will be
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(a) 15
(c) 40
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(b) 20
(d) 35
Faster Method:
Due to the error in reading, the total reduced by 6446= 18. And the loss of 18 was
distributed among 36 members. That is average reduced by 19/36 = 0.5. Therefore
correct average is 52+ 0.5 = 52.5
Answer: (b) 20
Solution:
Sum of ages of P and Q, five years ago, is {(P  5) + (Q  5 ) = 50 years}
present ages =P + Q = 60 years
And their
15. The average marks scored by 36 students was 52. But it was discovered that an item
64 misread as 46.What is the correct mean of marks?
(a) 54
(b) 53.5
(c) 53
(d) 52.5
Answer:(d) 52.5
Solution:
First method:
Total marks of the student with the misread item = 36 x 52 = 1872
Total marks of the student with the correct item = 1872  46 + 64 = 1890
Therefore, average = 1840/36 = 52.5
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(a) 2 min
(b)9 min
(c) 1 min
(d) 7 min
1. A train is running with the speed of 45 km per hour? what is its speed in
meter per second ?
(a) 12.5 m/s
(b) 13 m/s
(c) 16 m/s
(d) 81 m/s
(e)None of the
Solution:
( because 1 km = 1000 m)
Therefore, the time taken is = (250m )/(15 km/hr) = (250 m)/ (15 x 5/18
m/s)
= 60 seconds
Short Cut:
= 1 minutes.
3. A plat form is 131 meter long if the speed of the train, 67 meter long,
is 45 km per hour, how long will it take to pass the platform ?
(a) 15.84 sec
(b) 59 sec
2. A train 100 m long is running at the speed of 21 km /hr and another train
150 m long is running at the speed of 36 km /hr in the same direction.How
long will the faster train take to pass the first train ?
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Thus the time taken by the train to pass the platform = 198m/12.5m/s =
15.84 seconds
And the time taken for the second half is = (X/2)/(24) = X/48 hrs (ii)
But given that total time taken is 10 hrs. Equating (i) and (ii) to get
4. Find the distance covered by a man walking for 10 minutes at a speed of
6 km/hr.
X/42 + X/48 = 10
(a) 3 km
(b) 4 km
(c) 8 km
(d) 1 km
X = (3360)/15
Answer: (d) 1 km
=>
X = 224 km/hr
Solution:
Total distance covered = speed x time = (6 km/hr)x(10minutes) =
(6km/hr)(10/60)hr
(b) 30 min
= 1 Km
(c) 38 min
5. A motor car does a journey in 10 hrs for the first half at 21 km/hr and the
second half at 24 km/ hr. Find the distance?
(a) 244 km
(b) 238 km
(c) 268 km
(d)224 km
Answer: (d)224 km
Answer:
(d) 25 min
(b) 30 min
Solution:
Let the distance between his house and office is X km and his usual speed
be S.
Then, his usual time to reach office = X/S
Solution:
Total distance covered = speed x time
And if he is walking at (3/4)th of his usual speed then the time taken is=
(X)/ (3S/4) = 4X/3S
Therefore the time taken for the first half = (X/2)/(21 Km/hr) = X/42 hrs  (i)
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=>
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Thus they will be 10.5  9 = 1.5 km apart walking in the same direction.
(8X/3)  2X = 1/6
(a) 18 km
(b) 34 km
(c) 20 km
(d) 22 km
Short cut:
Answer: (a) 18 km
Given that he is walking at 3/4 of his usual speed.
And Since time taken is inversely proportional to the speed then his time
taken would be (4/3) of his usual time.
Solution:
(4T/3)  T = 1/6
(1/3)T = 1/6
(a) 6.5 km
(b) 1.5 km
(c) 7.7 km
(d) 3.2 km
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Given that total time taken was 1 hour 24 minutes = 1 + 24/60 = 1 + 2/5 =
7/5 hours
X=
Solution:
(7/5)(30/7)
For such questions, where the distance covered is same but at different
speeds the formula for the average speed is
X = 6 km
11. An hero plane flies along the four sides of a square at the speed of 200,
400, 600 and 800 km/hr . Find the average speed of the plane around the
field .
(a) 384 km
(b) 333 km
(c) 324 km
(d) 312 km
= 61.5 km/hr
Answer:(a) 384 km
10. Peter can cover a certain distance in 1 hour 24 minutes by covering two
third of the distance at 4 km/hr and rest at 5 km/hr. Find the total distance.
(a) 6 km
(b) 19 km
(c) 22 km
(d) 32 km
Solution:
For such questions , where the distance covered is the same for all the
speeds, the formula for 4 different speeds is
4abcd/(abc + bcd + cda + dab)
Answer: (a) 6 km
where,
Solution:
same distance
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(a) 22 min
(c) 26 min
Solution:
Given that
(c) 25 hours
(d) 40 hours
(a) 30 hours
(b) 28 min
(d) 19 min
(b) 10 hours
Solution:
Therefore, total time taken to ride back = 2 x 9.5 = 19 minutes
Total time taken to cover the distance of 36 km (without the rest time) =
36/12 = 3 hours
Now, number of rest he will take to complete the journey = 36  1 = 35. 35
because he would have covered the entire distance by the time he takes
36th rest break.
(b) 10 km/hr
(c) 15 km/hr
(d) 18 km/hr
Solution:
Since the distance traveled is the same for both the journey, therefore using
the formula mentioned in the Short Cut formula for time speed and distance
. we have
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= (30) x {(12)/60}
12 km/hr
15. A gun is fired at a distance of 1.34 km from Geeta. She hears the sound
after 4 secs. The speed at which the sound travels is
(a) 330 m/s
17. Two trains starts from the stations A and B and travel towards each
other at speeds of 50 kmph and 60 kmph respectively. At the time of their
meeting, the second train has traveled 120 km more than the first.
The distance between A and B is
(b) 1440 km
1320 km
(f)
990 km
Solution:
Answer:(c)
1320 km
The trains were traveling towards each other then the relative speed is
(50+60)=110 kmph
Again it is given that the second train traveled 120 km more than first.
the station 5 minutes before the departure of the train. The distance
between my house and the station is
(a)
7 km
(b)
6 km
(c)
5 km
(d)
6.5 km
Thus, it took 12 hours for the trains to cover as distance of 110x12 = 1320
km
5. Tom is chasing Jerry. In the same interval of time Tom jumps 8 times
while Jerry jumps 6 times. But the distance covered by Tom in 7 jumps is
equal to the distance covered by Jerry in 5 jumps. The ratio of speed of Tom
and Jerry is
Answer:
Solution:
Using the formula mentioned in the Short Cut formula for time speed and
distance, the required distance is
= {(5x6)/(65)} x {(7+5)/60}
(a) 48:35
(b) 28:15
(c) 24:20
(d) 20:21
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TRIANGLES
Solution:
Distance covered by Tom in 7 jump = Distance covered by Jerry in 5 jumps.
Properties of Triangles:
= 56/30 = 28/15
2. Sum of any two sides of a triangle is always greater than the third side.
AB + BC > AC
AB + AC > BC
AC + BC > AB
A + B + C = 180.
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(i) The angles opposite to equal sides are also equal.
3. Equilateral: Equilateral triangle has all its sides equal to each other
Types of triangle
1. Scalene : Scalene triangle is a triangle that has length of its three sides
different from one other.
(i). All angles are different. None of angles are equal.
(i). The side opposite to the right angle is greatest side in the
triangle.
2. Isosceles: Isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two of it's sides equal to
each other.
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the opposite side and perpendicular to it , is called as a height
or altitude. The point where all the altitudes meet is called as
circumcentre.
2. Height and orthocentre: A straight line from any vertex of the triangle to
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_______________
Area of triangle = s(sa)(sb)(sc)
where,
s = (a +b + c)/2
4
where, a is the side of the equilateral triangle
Area of triangle =
xbxh
where, b is the length of base or the side of the triangle where the
altitude from the opposite vertex was drawn
h is the height of the altitude from the vertex to the base.
Area = b 4a  b
4
where, a is the length of the equal sides
and b is the length of the third side.
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Solved Questions:
2. In the triangle below angle PQR and angle QRP have the measure of 4m , QSP
have the measure of m and RPS has a measure of 45, then what is the measure
(1) 63 m
(2) 24 m
of QPS?
(3) 18 m
(4) 36 m
(1) 45
Solution: Let Perimeter of equilateral triangle = 3 a = 72 3
=> a = 723/ 3 => a = 243
(2) 60
(3) 90
we also know,
Height of equilateral triangle = a (3 / 2)
= 24 3(3/2)
= (24 x 3) /2
= 12 x 3
= 36
(4) 105
(5) 120
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and PQS = 4 x 15 = 60
=>QRP = 45
+m
Therefore,
=> 3m = 45
=> m = 15
Thus,
RSP = 15
(2) 3/8
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(3) 3 3/8
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(4) 3/4
(5) 3 3/4
= {(32)/2} + y
=>
= (3/2) + y
=>
= 9/2 + y
=>
y = 6  4.5
= (3/2)
Solution:
Area of triangle =
xbxh
Given,
x = 6
(3 3/2)
_
= 3 3/4
Since the triangle is a right angled triangle, then using the Pythagoras theorem, we have
i.e. (x) = (x 3/2)
+ y
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Volume
Cuboid
Volume is the total space that is enclosed by the 3D figures like cuboid, cube, cone and
so on. It is an indication of the space it will occupy or liquid or gases it can store.
A Cuboid has 6 faces just like cube but they are not all equal. For a cuboid at least one of
the length, breadth or height is different .
cube
Cube
A Cube has 6 equal square faces. A good example is a box with equal height, length and
breadth.
Volume of cube = l x l x l ,
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h is the height of cone,
Where,
xrxl
x r x l + x r
Cone
Cone
A cone has circular base and then it tapers with increasing height to a point.
A good example is ice cream cone, party hats.
x r x h
Cylinder: A cylinder has circular base and then it extends to a certain
height "h". Good example is soda can, cookie jars, sanitation pipes.
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Volume of cylinder:
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x r x h
Where,
= 3.14 or 22/7
r is the radius of the
circular base
Sphere
Lateral Surface area is the surface area of the side( in figure it is the area in yellow
color). It does not include the area of the base and the top
(area in the blue color).
xrxh
x r
Where,
is approximately equal to
(22/7) or 3.14
Total surface area = 2 x
x r x h + 2 x x r
r is radius of sphere
= 2 x x r ( h + r)
Total surface area =
where,
Sphere
A sphere has round 3D figure.
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Hemisphere
(2) It has a hexagonal base with six triangular faces meeting at a point
(3) It has two hexagonal faces and six rectangular faces
(4) It has six hexagonal faces joined by six rectangular faces
Answer: (2) It has a hexagonal base with six triangular faces meeting at a point
Explanation : The keyword here is "pyramid". A pyramid has a polygon base at one
end and an apex at another ( ex cone). An hexagonal pyramid has hexagonal base and
then tapers to a point or an apex.
Q2
Hemisphere
Volume of hemisphere = (2/3)
x r
Where,
is approximately equal to
(22/7) or 3.14
r is radius of sphere
Total surface area = 3 x
x r
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Explanation: Let consider the front face. It has 5 cubes in one rows and there are three
such rows. Therefore in front face there are ( 5 x 3) 15 cubes. And there are 4 such rows
of (5 x 3) cubes, That's makes a total of 4 x 15 = 60 cubes.
Q4. The internal length, breadth and height of a rectangular box A is 20cm, 18 cm and
15 cm respectively and that of the box B are 18cm, 12cm and 5 cm respectively. The
volume of Box A is how many times that of B?
Q3
(1) 4
(2) 5
(2) 6
(5) 3
Answer:
(1) 5
Solution:
Answer: (3) 36
Solution: Volume of a cylinder = (
x r x h)
equation, we have,
(
x r x h) = ( x (1.25 r) x h2)
=> h = (25/16)h2
=> (h2/h)= 16/25
Q5. The Whole surface of a cube is 150 sq. cm. Then the volume of the cube is
(a) 125 cm
(b) 216 cm
(c) 343 cm
(d) 512 cm
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(a) 2cm (b) 3cm
(c) 4cm (d) 6 cm
Answer:(a) 125 cm
Solution:
Answer:3 cm
A cube has 6 equal square faces that makes the whole surface area. Let the area of the
square be X sq. cm.
Solution:
Then,
6 x X = 150
=> X
= (4/3)(22/7)(6/2) = (4/3)(22/7)(3)
l = 5 cm
Since same metal is used in recast the cone from the metal ball
then, the
(4/3)(22/7)(3) = (1/3)(22/7)(6)(h)
=>
h = (4)(3)/(6)
= (4)(27)/(36)
Q6. If each edge of a square be doubled, then the increase percentage of its area
= 3 cm
is
(a) 200%
(b) 250%
(c) 280%
(d) 300%
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lxb
Where,
where,
b = the length of the side where perpendicular is drawn from opposite
l = length of rectangle
b = breadth of rectangle
point
p = the length of the perpendicular
Perimeter of rectangle = 2 ( l + b )
Perimeter of triangle :
where,
l = length of rectangle
where,
b = breadth of rectangle
Diagonal of a rectangle is a line segment joining two opposites vertices of the rectangle.
2. Rectangle : A rectangle is a parallelogram, whose opposite sides are equal and the
angle at which the lines intersect is 90. The diagonals of the rectangle are equal in
length.
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diagonal =l
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+ b
diagonal =l
+ l = l2
3. Square : A square is a rectangle, whose all sides are equal. Diagonal of a square are
perpendicular bisector of each other.
4. Rhombus: A rhombus is a parallelogram, whose all sides are equal.
Area of square =
lxl
Area of rhombus =
(1/2) x d1 x d2
Perimeter of square =
2(l+l)=4l
Diagonal of a square is a line segment joining two opposites vertices of the square.
______
__
Perimeter of rhombus =
2(a+a )=4a
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Solved Problems
(2) calculating area of a rectangle by finding length and breadth of a
rectangle and using the formula for area of a rectangle (i.e. length x breadth)
(3) calculating area of figures with the help of counting unit square
(4) explaining of formulae for finding area of figures of different shapes
Answer:(1) comparing area of any figure with the help of different objects like palm,
leaf, pencil, notebook, etc.
Q3. A rhombus has diagonals of length 8 cm and 6 cm. Find its perimeter.
Answer: (2) 5l
Solution: Here,for first rectangle length = l and the width = (l/2). A
(1) 18 cm
(2) 20 cm
(3) 24 cm
(4) 28 cm
Answer:(3) 24 cm
Explanation: Area of rhombus = (1/2 )x d1 x d2 ,
where d1 and d2 are the two the diagonal of a rhombus.
here, d1 = 8, d2=6, Therefor, area = (1/2) X 8 X 6 =48/2 = 24
(1) comparing area of any figure with the help of different objects like palm, leaf, pencil,
notebook, etc.
Q4 .The concept of areas of plane figures can be introduced to the students of Class V
by
(1). calculating the area of a rectangle by finding length and breadth of a rectangle and
using the formula for area of a rectangle
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(2) stating the formula for area of rectangle of rectangle and square
(3). calculating the area of figures with the help of counting unit squares.
(4). measuring the area of any figure with the help of different objects like palm, leaf,
pencil etc.
Answer:(3). calculating the area of figures with the help of counting unit squares.
Q5: The figure consists of five squares of the same size. The area of the figure is 180
square centimeters. The perimeter (in cm) of the figure will be
Explanation: The area of the total figure = 180 sq. cm. Since it is made up of 5 identical
square, the area of one square will come out be = 180/5 = 36 sq.cm. And the length of
the square will work out to be = 36 = 6 cm.
Now, going around the figure we will see, that there are 12 sides in total of al the square
that makes the perimeter of this figure.Hence, the perimeter would come out to be 12 x
6 = 72
Q6
Answer: (4) 4
Q7:
(1) 48
(2) 72
(3) 36
(4) 45
Answer: (2) 72
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3D = 90
=>
=>
D = 90 x (3)
=>
D = 30
Solution: Since it is given that <d = (1/2) <E. And both angle D and angle E are two
angle of right angled triangle CED. We have,
D + E
+ 90 = 180
=>
=>
D + 2D
= 180 90
are angle)
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And therefore,
BCA
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= 60
Solution: In each option, compare the triangles on the left and the right of the
similarity symbol, for similar angles and sides. For example taking option (1),
the angle QRP and similarly taking angle from the other triangle it will be
angle RQT and they are equal. Similarly comparing each sides and angles, we
will confirm that option (1) is correct.
Q8.
(1) 16
(2) 24
(3) 32
(4) 64
Answer: (3) 32
Solution:
Since perimeter of the square and rectangle are equal, then
4S = 2( L + B)
where, 4S = 24, L = 8cm.
Put the values to get
24 = 2(8 + B)
Answer: (1)
PQR TRQ
=>12 = 8 + B
=>4 = B
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Let say we have to compare two fractions 7/10 and 6/9. To do this comparison either
we take LCM and then make the denominator of each equal to LCM. Or we can simply
convert them to denominator 100 by use of percentage and then we can compare them.
Q10 : The perimeter of the square is 20 cm. A rectangle has the same width as the
square. The length of the rectangle is twice the width. The area in ,square cm, of the
rectangle is :
(1) 30
(2) 50
(3) 100
It is clear now that 7/10 > (6/9) .It is easier than use of LCM to compare them.
(4) 25
Answer: (2) 50
Percentage have a wide area of use from schools to managements decisions, scientific
applications, data interpretation and so on.
Solution:
Perimeter of the square = 20 cm
Percentage Formula
the fraction could be any ratio, marked scored against total marks, run scored against
ball faced, energy used against total energy and so on.
Percentage
Percentage literally means per Cent or Per 100. In percentage, we convert the fraction,
such that the denominator becomes 100. It is used to compare fraction as we have to
convert all the fractions to a single denominator i.e. 100.
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Applying the formula for percentage,
If x is the absolute increase or decrease in the value of a quantity say 'y' then the
percentage increase or decrease is expressed as
(b) 0.05
(c) 0.02
(d) 0.2
Fraction = x/100 i.e. just divide the x by 100 to get the corresponding fraction.
(a) 12.5%
(b) 40%
(c) 80%
(d) 125%
Answer:(d)
Solution:
Answer: (d)
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Solution:
Solution :
Here, x = 15 %, N= 34.
Now, put the values to get (15/100) x 34 = 0.15 x 34 = 5.1
5. 63% of 3 x (4/7) is :
(a) 2.25
(b) 2.40
(c) 2.50
(d) 2.75
(b) 516
(c) 860
(d) 960
Answer: (a)
Solution:
First convert the mixed fraction 3 (4/7) to fraction which is = (21 + 4)/7 =
25/7.
Answer: (c)
put the values in the above equation to get 430 + 430 = 860
(b) 258
8. 45% of 750  25% of 480 = ?
(c) 268
Answer:(b)
(d) 358
(a) 216
(b) 217.50
(c) 236.50
(d) 245
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(c) 6
Answer: (b)
Solution: 45 % of 750 = 337.5
Answer:(d)
25 % of 480 = 120
Solution:
Put the values in the above equations to get 337.5  120 = 217.5
(b) 842
(c) 962
(d) 1052
Answer: (c)
Solution:
Answer:(d)
40% of 1640 = 656
Solution:
35% of 980 = 343
150% of 850 = 1275
Put these values and x as the unknown value in the equation to get
656 + x = 343 + 1275
or
x = 1618  656
x = 962
(b) 4
12. 270 candidates appeared for an examination, of which 252 passed . the
pass percentage
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(a) 80%
(b) 83(1/3) %
(c) 90(1/3) %
(d) 93(1/3)
(c) 18(2/3)%
(d) 22(1/2)%
Answer:(a)
Answer:(d)
Solution:
Solution:
(b) (1/10)
(a)Rs. 3920
(c) 10
(d) 100
(c)Rs. 4900
Answer:(c)
Answer: (d)
Solution:
Solution:
(b) 75%
(c) 80 %
(d) 90%
Answer: (b)
17. A housewife saved Rs. 2.50 in buying an item on sale.If she spents Rs.
25 for the item, approximately how much percent she saved in the
transaction?
Solution:
(a) 8%
(b) 9%
(1987.50/2650) x 100 = 75 %
(c)10%
(d) 11%
Answer: (b)
(a) 12(1/2)%
Solution:
(b) 16(2/3)%
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0.15 x 40  0.25 x X = 2
6  0.25X = 2
4 = 0.25 X
X = 16
(b)52
(c) 58
(d)60
Answer: (d)
Solution:
(a)989,1501
(c)1401, 1089
(b)1011,1479
(d)1411,1079
21. The difference of two numbers is 20% of the larger number . if the
smaller number is 20, then the larger number is :
(b)16
(a)25
(b)45
(c)50
(d)80
(d)32
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(a)
Rs. 1200
(c)
Rs. 3000
Answer: (a)
Solution:
Writing the above condition into equations,
Answer: (b)
( x  y ) = 0.2 x x
Solution:
( x  20 ) = 0.2 x x
0.8 x = 20
x = 25
x / 3 = 1200
x = 3600
22. If one number is 80% of the other and 4 times the sum of their squares
is 656, then the numbers are :
(a)4,5
(b)8,10
(c)16,20
Answer:(b)
24. 10% of of the voters did not cast their in an election between two
candidates. 10% of the votes polled were found invalid;id.The successful
candidate got 54% of the valid votes and won by a majority of 1620 votes.
The number of voters enrolled on the voters' list was:
Solution:
(a) 25000
Here we can check for options or form two equations in two variable to get
the answer.
(c) 35000
Answer:(a)
We can observe that the first condition is satisfied by the first three options.
Solution:
(b) 33000
(d) 40000
Not satisfied
First we calculate the valid votes, They are divided into two candidates and
the winning candidate got 54 % and losing got 46 %. the difference is 8 %
and it is equal to 1620.
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(a)58%
(b) 62(2/3) %
(c)64%
(d) 78%
= 638
(a)
Rs. 200
(c)
Rs. 300
(a) 40%o of a
(b)5% of a
(c)20% of a
(d)None of these
Answer: (b)
Solution:
Answer: (a)
Solution:
Given ,
0.2 x a = b
Then ,
2.2P = 550
P= 250
29 If p% of p is 36, then p is equal to :
26 . 1100 boys and 700 girls are examined in a test , 42 % of the boys and
30 % of the girls pass . the percentage of the total who failed is :
(a) 15
(b)60
(c) 600
(d)3600
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Answer: (b)
31. A man loses 20(1/2) % of his money and after spending 80% of the
Solution:
remainder, he is left with 159. How much money did he have first?
Given
(a) 800
(b) 1000
(p/100) x p = 36
(c) 1,200 (d)
500
P X p = 3600
p = 60
Answer: (b) 1000
30. If x % of y is 100 and y% of z is 200 then find a relation between x and
z
Solution:
Let the money was Rs x .Then after losing 20.5 % he is left with (0.795)x
(a)z= (x/ 2)
(b) z = 2 x
(c) z= (x/4)
(d)z=4 x
=>
(0.795x)(0.20) = 159
Solution:
=>
0.159x = 159
First
=>
x = 159/0.159 = 1000
(x/100) y = 100
(xy) = 10000  (i)
Solution:
Given that 120% of a = 80% of b,
=> 1.20 x a = (0.80)b
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=> a = (8/12)b
=> a = (2/3)b
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